PhD Thesis - საქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტი

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PhD Thesis - საქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტი

lali CaxvaSvilimikro da nano komponentebis safuZvelze Tanamedroveeleqtronuli mowyobilobebis agebis principebiწარმოდგენილია დოქტორის აკადემიური ხარისხისმოსაპოვებლადსაქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტითბილისი, 0175, საქართველოთვე, წელისაავტორო უფლება © 2008 წელი, CaxvaSvili lalii


საქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტიinformatikis da marTvis sistemebis fakultetiჩვენ, ქვემორე ხელისმომწერნი ვადასტურებთ, რომ გავეცანითCaxvaSvili lalis მიერ შესრულებულ სადისერტაციო ნაშრომსდასახელებით: დასახელება და ვაძლევთ რეკომენდაციას საქარველოსტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტის informatikis da marTvis sistemebisfakultetis სადისერტაციო საბჭოში მის განხილვას დოქტორისაკადემიური ხარისხის მოსაპოვებლად.თარიღიხელმძღვანელი:რეცენზენტი:რეცენზენტი:paata kervaliSvilioleg namiCeiSviliamiran bibilaSviliრეცენზენტი:ii


საქართველოს ტექნიკური უნივერსიტეტი2008 weliავტორი:CaxvaSvili laliდასახელება:mikro da nano komponentebis safuZvelzeTanamedrove eleqtronuli mowyobilobebis agebis principebiფაკულტეტი :ხარისხი:informatikis da marTvis sistemebis fakultetiდოქტორისხდომა ჩატარდა: თარიღიინდივიდუალური პიროვნებების ან ინსტიტუტების მიერზემომოყვანილი დასახელების დისერტაციის გაცნობის მიზნით მოთხოვნისშემთხვევაში მისი არაკომერციული მიზნებით კოპირებისა და გავრცელებისუფლება მინიჭებული აქვს საქართველოს ტექნიკურ უნივერსიტეტს.ავტორის ხელმოწერაავტორი ინარჩუნებს დანარჩენ საგამომცემლო უფლებებს და არცმთლიანი ნაშრომის და არც მისი ცალკეული კომპონენტების გადაბეჭდვა ანსხვა რაიმე მეთოდით რეპროდუქცია დაუშვებელია ავტორის წერილობითინებართვის გარეშე.ავტორი ირწმუნება, რომ ნაშრომში გამოყენებული საავტოროუფლებებით დაცული მასალებზე მიღებულია შესაბამისი ნებართვა (გარდაის მცირე ზომის ციტატებისა, რომლებიც მოითხოვენ მხოლოდ სპეციფიურმიმართებას ლიტერატურის ციტირებაში, როგორც ეს მიღებულიასამეცნიერო ნაშრომების შესრულებისას) და ყველა მათგანზე იღებსპასუხისმგებლობას.iii


რეზიუმეsadisertacio naSromi `mikro da nano komponentebissafuZvelze Tanamedrove eleqtronuli mowyobilobebis agebisprincipebi~ exeba eleqtronikis mTavari samecniero-teqnikuriperspeqtiuli mimarTulebis _ mikro da nanosistemuli teqnikisganviTarebis ZiriTad sakiTxebs, Taviseburebebs da Tanamedroveavtomatizirebuli sistemebis gamoyenebiT maTi Seqmnis meTodebs.dReisaTvis mikrosistemuli teqnika warmoadgens erT-erTyvelaze dinamiurad ganviTarebad disciplinaTSoris samecnieroteqnikurmimarTulebas, romelic gansazRvravs mikrodonezeSesrulebuli sistemebis sferos axal revolucias.mikrosistemuri teqnologia (mst-MST) miekuTvneba `kritikuli~teqnologiebis ricxvs, e.i. im teqnologiebs, romlebicmimarTulia qveynis samxedro da ekonomikuri damoukideblobisuzrunvelsayofad da msoflio bazarze konkurentunariani produqciisSesaqmnelad.mikroeleqtronikis da mikrosistemuri teqnikis nakeTobebismiReba nakarnaxebi iyo ara marto patara zomebiT, aramedteqnikur sistemebSi gamoyenebuli integraluri sqemebisa damikrosistemebis axali xarisxiT. gamoTvliTi teqnikis nakeTobebisprocesorebSi da damaxsovrebis mowyobilobebSi axali integralurisqemebis danergvam Seamcira maTi zomebi (amitomacgaxda SesaZlebeli personaluri kompiuterebis Seqmna) da gazardamaTi funqcionaluri SesaZleblobebi. erTeulovani funqciisfasis mudmivad Semcirebam (magaliTad, erTi biti informaciisSenaxva) gamoTvliTi teqnika gaxada xelmisawvdomi momxmarebelTafarTo wrisaTvis.Tanamedrove mikroeleqtronikis teqnologiebisagan gansxvavebiT,mikrosistemuri teqnikis sferoSi mowyobilobebis fasigacilebiT dabalia. es ki ganapirobebs 2-3 TanrigiT mcire fasadmikrosistemuri teqnikis teqnologiuri xazis Seqmnas. igi xelmisawvdomiapatara firmebisa da iseTi qveynebisaTvis, romlebiciv


arasodes ar ekuTvnodnen mikroleqtronikis liderTa ricxvs (magaliTadSveicaria, dania, norvegia da sxva).mikrosistemuri teqnikis kidev erTi upitaresobaa mis xelmisawvdomoba.topologiuri normebis Semcirebis saerTo tendencia exebamikrosistemur teqnikasac. aqac mosalodnelia topologiurinormebis nanometrul zomebSi gadasvlis tendencia.mikrosistemuri teqnika _ Zalian dinamiuri dargia. `axalgazrdobis~miuxedavad, mas Tavisi mokle istoriis farglebSieniWeba didi roli da mniSvneloba sabazro seqtorisa da sxvamimarTulebebis Zireuli cvlilebis saqmeSi.mikrosistemuri teqnikis efeqturobis amaRlebis erT-erTiSesaZlo forma nakarnaxevi iyo mikroeleqtronikis mier. saqmeexeba teqnologiis teritoriuli dayofis princips, romelic SemdegSimdgomareobs. TiToeuli etapi (an etapis nawili) SesaZlebeliagaxdes maRalefeqturi warmoeba. dReisaTvis msoflioSiarsebobs firmebis didi raodenoba, romlebic uSveben mikroeleqtronulproduqcias, magram maT ar gaaCniaT sakuTariteqnologiuri aRWurviloba (fables). aseTi tipis warmoebis SeqmnaSesaZlebeli gaxada axlad gamoCenilma universalurma dayvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomma avtomatizirebuli proeqtirebis sistemebma,romelTa daxmarebiTac SesaZlebelia daproeqtdesoriginaluri sakuTari integraluri sqema, bloki an aparatura,xolo warmoeba ganxorcieldes firmis specializirebuli masiuriproduqciis warmoebis teqnologiur xazze.samecniero kvlevebi aqtiurad mimdinareobs saerTaSorisomasStabiT am teqnologiis ganviTarebisa da danergis mizniT. esteqnologia moaxdens kompiuteruli sistemebis rekonstruqcias _dabal fasad mravalricxovani mowyobilobebis gaerTianebissafuZvelze. es tendencia uzrunvelyofs axal kompiuterulSesaZleblobebs, rac aisaxeba gamomTvleli sistemebis arqiteqturazeda Sesabamisad moiTxovs axal midgomebs avtomatizirebuliproeqtirebis sakiTxSi.v


AbstractThe microsystem technics is now one of the most dynamically developinginterdisciplinary scientific and technical directions, defining new revolution in thefield of the systems realised at microlevel. Strictly speaking, the microsystem technics(МSТ) is the scientific and technical direction which purpose is creation in the limitedvolume of a firm body or on its surface of the microsystems representing orderedcompositions of areas with set structure, structure and geometry, static or whichdynamic set provides realisation of processes of generation, transformation, atransmission of energy and movement in integration with processes of perception,processing, translation and information storage at performance of the programmedoperations and actions in demanded service conditions with set functional, power,time and indicators.The microsystem technology (MST) is among "critical" technologies, i.e. thetechnologies directed on maintenance of military and economic independence of thecountry and competitiveness of production in the world market.There are some definitions of a microsystem (МS). In the European periodical press itwas long enough accepted to define МS so: “the Microsystem is intellectual nano thesystem possessing touch, processor and-or актюаторными functions. In it thecombination of two or more devices operating on the basis of use of electric,mechanical, optical, chemical, biological, magnetic or other properties and integratedon one chip or to a payment” is usually used.In the USA the term “microelectromechanical systems” is more often used: “MS arethe integrated microdevices or the systems combining electric and mechanicalcomponents, made on the technologies compatible to technology and having sizesfrom micrometers to millimetres. Connection in such systems of computer processingwith sensitive and components allow us to feel and supervise world around”.Unlike technology of modern microelectronics, in the field of МSТ equipment costwhile more low. It allows to create technological line МSТ in cost on 2-3 order belowcost of submicronic manufacture. It is accessible to small firms and the countries,which never were among leaders of microelectronics (Switzerland, Denmark, Norwayetc.) Availability МSТ is its one more advantage. Certainly, the general tendency ofdecrease in topological norms concerns and МSТ. Here too it is necessary to expectfurther transition and in нано a range of topological norms. Attempts to create gaugeson нано technology, gauges on a basis and from efficient molecules are alreadyknown. The microsystem technics – very dynamical branch. Despite "youth", it hasthe history of change of a role of its various directions and market sectors.One of possible forms of increase of production efficiency МSТ has prompted againmicroelectronics. The essence consists in territorial division of technologies. Each ofstages (or at least their part) can be highly effective manufacture. It is known that nowin the world there is a great number of the firms making microelectronic production,without having own process equipment (fables). It became possible after occurrence inthe market accessible and universal computer project systems with which help it ispossible to design original own integrated scheme, the block or equipment, and theirviii


manufacture to carry out on technological rulers of the firms specialising onmanufacture of mass production (for example, memory or microprocessor schemes).In technology МSТ the following step of division of technologies has been taken.Designed МS partially it is produced at the serial microelectronic enterprise(superficial processing), and partially – on specialised manufacture (volumeprocessing). Similar manufacture can be organised in laboratory or on a small firm asthe process equipment can be inexpensive, and its placing does not demand cleanrooms of microelectronic level. The further increase of production efficiency МS canbe reached at the expense of increase in seriality of specialised manufacture, forexample, if one technological process is used at processing of a great number of thesame products. The idea of such deep division of manufacture МS on stages, each ofwhich can be made on industrial sites territorially removed from each other, is realisedin the USA by creation of "virtual manufacture” (Virtual fab) firm MEMS Exchange.The developer by means of this firm can design and make on a necessarytechnological route separate components or finished МS. Thus the firm is only themanager-dispatcher, providing passage of the order on technological rulers of variousproduct companies.Ability in due time to see in the first sprouts prospect for development of economy orgrowth of safety of the country serves as powerful stimulus of expansion of researchesin a new direction. For example, interest of the government of the USA to works inthe field of micron mechanisms promoted formation of subjects of developmentМЭМС. Presence in state structures of the organisations capable of certain risk for"catching" of effective ideas is important. The Agency of perspective researches of theMinistry of Defence of the USA concerns number of such organisations (DARPA),for example, one of which points of strategy are investments in highly effective(High-focus) projects.Depending on traditions of development of national economy, its financial power andthe purposes the program maintenance, methods of its financing and the realisationform is formed. To a measure it was showed in “National нано” (NNI) the USA.Considering нано technology as a basis of new industrial revolution, the governmentof the USA in 2 times has increased financing of nano-researches and наноtechnology on purpose to occupy and fix an in the lead (first) place in the world thenext five years .The complex decision from company Altium – Altium Designer – is constructed onuniform model of the data that allows developers to synchronise the data at all designstages of a product and to reflect the changes made in one module, in all process ofdesigning – from data input of the electric basic scheme, working out of topology of apayment and FPGA before creation of the software built in ROM. Besides, it gives thechance convenient access to the design data of any type, management of changes inthe project from the version to the version of the documentation, configuration andsupport of the final version of the project.Based on the basic results obtained in the work the appropriate conclusions aremade and the recommendations are given.ix


ცხრილების ნუსხაcxrili 1 mikrositemuli teqnikis `tradiciuli~ nakeTobebisstruqtura da bazris dinamika [7] ....................................................... 29cxrili 2 mikrositemuli teqnikis `perspeqtiuli~ nakeTobebisstruqtura da bazris dinamika ............................................................. 30cxrili 3 mikrosistemuli teqnikis mimarTulebis struqtura..... 33cxrili 4 mikrosistemebi axali Taobis teqnikisaTvis..................... 34cxrili 5. kompaniebis sawarmoo kapitali............................................... 52cxrili 6. biznes statistika ......................................................................... 57cxrili 7. brizekis mier catarebuli kvlevis monacemebi .............. 57cxrili 8. mikrosistemuli teqnikis produqciis evolucia ........... 64xi


ნახაზების ნუსხაnaxazi 1. mikrositemuri teqnikis obieqtebis bazris dinamikisanalizi NEXUS [7]......................................................................................... 32naxazi 2. mikrosistemuli teqnikis obieqtebis praqtikulirealizacia...................................................................................................... 44naxazi 3. teqnologiebis sinergetika.......................................................... 46naxazi 4. konstruqciuli da teqnologiuri orientirebulimodulireba teqnikaSi................................................................................ 48naxazi 5. sawarmoos marTvis sqema ............................................................... 60naxazi 6. nacionaluri marTvis sistemebebisa da programisSerulebis uzrunvelyofis elementebi............................................. 65naxazi 7. evropaSi programebis Caketili sistema mikrosistemebissferoSi ............................................................................................................ 66naxazi 8. mikrosistemuli teqnikis sferoSi investiciebis zrda 66naxazi 9. komponentis modelebis failSi warmodgenis sxvadasxvavarianti ............................................................................................................ 71naxazi 10. kavSirebi TiToeul modelSi da misi nebismierigadanawileba moiTxovs modeli gansazRvras Sesabamisdialogis fanjaraSi .................................................................................. 73naxazi 11. komponentebis redaqtoris interfeisi ................................. 74naxazi 12. simboloebis redaqtoris samuSao sivrcis gawyoba ...... 75naxazi 13. komponentis magaliTi _ K1554LA3 mikrosqema.................. 77naxazi 14. komponentis gamomyvanebis Tvisebebi...................................... 78naxazi 15. gamomyvanebis Seqmna ....................................................................... 79naxazi 16. uxilavi gamomyvanebis Seqmna..................................................... 80naxazi 17. komponenis Tvisebebi...................................................................... 81naxazi 18. damagrebis adgilebis redaqtoris interfeisi. ............... 83naxazi 19. damagrebis adgilebis redaqtoris samuSao sivrcisgawyoba. ............................................................................................................. 84naxazi 20. kontaqturi velis parametrebi. ............................................... 85naxazi 21. xazis daxatvis reJimebi .............................................................. 87naxazi 22. damagrebis adgilis saboloo saxe........................................ 87naxazi 23. damagrebis adgilebis Seqmnis ostati.................................. 88naxazi 24. integrirebuli biblioTekis Seqmna....................................... 90xii


naxazi 25. damagrebis adgilebis SeerTeba............................................... 90xiii


დისერტაციაში გამოყენებული აბრევიატურებიms _ mikrosistemamems _ mikroeleqtromeqanikuri sistemebimst - mikrosistemuri teqnikamoems - mikrooptoeleqtromeqanikuri sistemebixiv


მადლიერებაpirvel rigSi didi madloba minda vuTxra am gverdisSemqmnelebs, raTa momeca saSualeba Cemi madliereba gamomexataam qveynad yvelaze gulisxmieri da erTguli adamianis mimarT.es adamiani gaxlavT batoni rafiel Ciqovani.me RmerTma marguna bedniereba saqarTvelos teqnikuruniversitetSi muSaobis 15 weli gametarebina am Rirseuliadamianis gverdiT. adamianis, romelsac uangarod SeuZlia akeTossikeTe, dauRalavad iRvawos da Tavisi usazRvro energia ardaiSuros yoveli mis gverSi myofi adamianisaTvis.gulwrfelad vusurveb baton rafiels xangrZliv dajanmrTels sicocxles, did bednierebas Tavis mravalricxovandidebul ojaxTan erTad.xv


შესავალიTanamedrove mikroeleqtronikis udidesma warmatebebmazedidi integraluri sqemebis SeqmnaSi da bolo wlebSinanostruqturebis teqnologiis warmoSobam dasabami miscadReisaTvis msoflioSi iseT erT-erT yvelaze dinamiuradganviTarebad disciplinaTSoriso samecniero-teqnikur mimarTulebas,rogorsac warmoadgens mikrosistemuri teqnika.mikrosistema warmoadgens mikrodoneze Sesrulebuleleqtronul mowyobilobas, romelsac, masSi gamoyenebulielementebisagan damokidebulebiT, SeuZlia Seasrulossxvadasxva funqcia rogorc samoqalaqo, aseve samxedrodaniSnulebis aparaturaSi.mikrosistemebis farTo gamoyenebam ganapiroba misiganviTarebis maRali tempi. dRes mikrosistemuri teqnikawarmoadgens XXI saukunis teqnikis erT-erT wamyvan mimarTulebas.sxvadasxva daniSnulebis mikrosistemis (rogorcmikroeleqtronuli mowyobilobis) Seqmnis erT-erT ZiriTadproblemas warmoadgens Sesabamis konstruqciis arCeva, romlisgadawyvetis saSualebaa eleqtronuli sqemebis daproeqtebissxvadasxva meTodebis (gansakuTrebiT avtomatizirebuli)gamoyeneba. eleqtronuli sqemebis proeqtirebis ZiriTadi mizaniagarkveuli parametrebis mqone sqemebis Seqmna.aqedan gamomdinare, rogorc eleqtronuli sqemebis, asevemikrosistemis ganviTarebas ganapirobebs daproeqtebis meTodebisgaumjobeseba da srulyofa.erT-erT aseT sistemas warmoadgens Altium Designer Summer 08avtomatizirebuli sistema.sadisertacio naSromSi `mikro da nano komponentebissafuZvelze Tanamedrove eleqtronuli mowyobilobebis agebisprincipebi~ ganxilulia integraluri sqemebisa da Tanamedrovemikro da nano komponentebis, agreTve maT safuZvelzeeleqtronuli mowyobilobebis daproeqtebis avtomatizirebuli16


sistemis Altium Designer Summer 08 muSaobis principebi. gamotaniliadaskvnebi am sruliad Tanamedrove da unikaluri programulipaketis upiratesobis Sesaxeb aqamde arsebuli proeqtirebissistemebTan SedarebiT.am programuli paketis gamoyeneba mniSvnelovnad amartivebsTanamedrove mravalfunqciuri da urTulesi sistemebis SeqmnasZalian mcire danaxarjebiT. sistema agebulia ise, rommomxmarebels SeuZlia nakeTobis daproeqtebis yvela etapzemoaxdinos monacemTa sinqronizacia da erT nebismier modulSiSetanili cvlileba aisaxos mTeli daproeqtebis procesze,dawyebuli eleqtruli principialuri sqemis monacemebisSetanidan saboloo produqciis miRebamde.disertaciaSi ganxilulia mikrosistemebis TanamedroveganviTarebis analizi, misi elementuri bazis (rogorsacwarmoadgens ZiriTadad mikroeleqtronika) CaTvliT, gaanalizebuliaAltium Designer Summer 08 sistema da misi funqcionirebisda gamoyenebis sakiTxebi.mocemulia daskvnebi am sistemis danergvis (maT Sorissaswavlo procesSi) Sesaxeb. agreTve rekomendaciebisaqarTveloSi fables firmebis aRniSnuli sistemis gamoyenebiTSeqmnisaTvis.17


1. ლიტერატურის მიმოხილვა1.1. mikrosistemebi _ problemebi da gadawyvetamikroeleqtronika, miuxedavad misi mokle, mxolodramodenime aTeul wliani istoriisa, mtkiced damkvidrdasazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela umniSvnelovanes sferoSi:mecnierebaSi, teqnikasa da ekonomikaSi, sazogadoebrivi daindividualuri moxmarebis sferoebSi, samedicino teqnikasa dasamxedro saqmeSi. igi did rols TamaSobs Cveni epoqisinteleqtualur diskusiebSi.mikroeleqtronikis gamoyenebis ekonomikuri da socialuriSedegebi aris bunebismetyvelebis da sazogadoebrivi mecnierebissferoSi momuSave specialistebis mier organizebuli,nacionaluri da saerTaSoriso samecniero teqnikuri kongresebisda konferenciebis yuradRebis centrSi.mikroeleqtronika warmoadgens ZiriTad siaxles dasakvanZo teqnologias meoce aswleulis bolo periodisa, masSiaisaxeba Tanamedrove sawarmoo Zalebis ganviTarebis procesi. igiwarmoadgens mecnierul-teqnikuri revoluciis ZiriTadmimarTulebas da axorcielebs mniSvnelovan zemoqmedebassamecniero-teqnikur, ekonomikur da socialur ganviTarebaze.mikroeleqtonikis ganviTareba da gamoyeneba uSualodmimarTulia imaze, raTa dasaqmebis mudmivi uzrunvelyofispirobebSi gaumjobesdes Sromis pirobebi; gaixsnas maTi SemoqmedebiTiSinaarsi, gaizardos moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba damSromelTa Tavisufali dro. igi xdeba ZiriTadi piroba uwyvetida yovelmxrivi ekonomikuri da socialuri progresisa.rodesac vlaparakobT mikroeleqtronikis rolzesazogadoebriv progresSi, maSin ganmsazRvrels warmoadgenenSemdegi urTierTmWidrod dakavSirebuli aspeqtebi: mikroeleqtronikisadgili mecnierul-teqnikur revoluciaSi, misi roli18


erToblivi sawarmoo Zalebis srulyofaSi, warmoebis gafar-Toebul kvlavwarmoebaSi da socialur-ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi.metad mniSvnelovania mikroeleqtronikis ganviTarebis dagamoyenebis ekonomikuri problemebis Seswavla, misi gamoyenebisefeqturobis kvleva.mikroelqtronika _ esaa ganuyofeli da ganmsazRvreliSemadgeneli elementi mecnierul-teqnikuri revoluciisa,romelic imavdroulad udides gavlenas axdens mis sxva ZiriTadmimarTulebebze. kvleva ar izRudeba mikroeleqtronikis viwrogagebiT. e.i. mikroeleqtronuli mowyobilobaTa ganviTarebiT,Tumca swored ukanaskneli warmoadgens amosavals. isini moicavenagreTve integraluri sqemebis gamoyenebas Tanamedroveinformaciuli teqnikis Sesaqmnelad da gamosayeneblad. mxolodinformaciuli teqnikis wyalobiT aixsneba mikroeleqtronikisroli mecnierul-teqnikur revoluciaSi, misi funqcia sawarmooZalTa Semdgom ganviTarebaSi da warmoebis Tanamedrovematerialur-teqnikuri bazis Semdgom ganviTarebaSi.konkretuli teqnikuri amocanis gadawyvetas Cveulebrivaxerxebs saWiro donis sistemebis Seqmnas, romlebsac undagaaCndes sakmarisi moculoba da xarisxi, efeqturi marTva dasistemis amocanis rezulataturi Sesrulebis done. am amocanebisSesrulebisaTvis mTavaria Semdegi: sistemis mTlianobisSeuzRudavad mis informaciul da mmarTvelobiT nawilebs undahqondeT minimaluri zomebi. teqnikur sistemebSi es miiRwevamikroeleqtronikis da mikrosistemuri teqnikis gamoyenebiT.mikroeleqtronikis da mikrosistemuri teqnikis nakeTobebismiReba nakarnaxebi iyo ara marto patara zomebiT, aramedteqnikur sistemebSi gamoyenebuli integraluri sqemebisa damikrosistemebis axali xarisxiT. gamoTvliTi teqnikisnakeTobebis procesorebSi da damaxsovrebis mowyobilobebSiaxali integraluri sqemebis danergvam Seamcira maTi zomebi(amitomac gaxda SesaZlebeli personaluri kompiuterebis Seqmna)da gazarda maTi funqcionaluri SesaZleblobebi. erTeulovani19


funqciis fasis mudmivad Semcirebam (magaliTad, erTi bitiinformaciis Senaxva) gamoTvliTi teqnika gaxada xelmisawvdomimomxmarebelTa farTo wrisaTvis. analogiurad mirkosistemebisteqnologiiT damzadebuli myari diskis damTvleli Tavakebis daWavluri printerebis Tavakebis Seqmnam ganapiroba gamoTvliTiteqnikis periferiuli mowyobilobebis fasis Semcireba dasaimedoobis gazrda.mikrosistemuri teqnologia (mst-MST) miekuTvneba`kritikuli~ teqnologiebis ricxvs, e.i. im teqnologiebs,romlebic mimarTulia qveynis samxedro da ekonomikuridamoukideblobis uzrunvelsayofad da msoflio bazarzekonkurentunariani produqciis Sesaqmnelad. mst miekuTvnebaormagi daniSnulebis teqnologiaTa ricxvs, masSi CarTulia sxvaormagi daniSnulebis bazuri teqnologiis mTeli rigielementebi (mikroeleqtronikis teqnologia, opto– daakustoeleqtronika, lazeruli teqnologiebi, preciziuli dameqanotronuli teqnologia, genuri diagnostika da sxv.) [1].mst mikrosistemaSi erT firze an erT kristalSiaerTianebs daaxloebiT 20 saxis _ ramodenime milimetridanramodenime santimetramde zomis _ detalebisa da elementebisdamzadebisa da awyobis teqnologias.mst-s jer ar gaaCnia kanonzomieri terminologia. msstandartizacia jer axla iwyebs formirebas, amitomac saWiroaganvsazRvroT mst nakeTobebis klasifikacia.arsebobs mikrosistemebis (ms) gansazRvrebis ramodenimevarianti. evropuli gansazRvrebaa [2]: `mikrosistema _ es arisinreleqtualuri miniaturuli sistema, romelsac gaaCniasensoruli, procesoruli da/an aqtuatoruli funqciebi. maTSiCveulebriv gamoiyeneba ori an ramodenime eleqtruli, meqanikuri,optikuri, qimiuri, biologiuri, magnituri an sxva Tvisebebismqone da erT Cipze integrirebuli an multiCipur platebzeawyobili mowyobilobebi.~20


amerikelebi ufro metad xmaroben termins `mikroeleqtromeqanikurisistemebi~ (mems): `mems – warmoadgens integrirebulmikrosistemas an sistemebs. maTSi kombinirebulia eleqtruli dameqanikuri komponentebi, romlebic damzadebulia teqnologiurad,integraluri sqemebis teqnologiasTan SeTavsebiT da aqvTmikrometridan milimetramde zomebi. aseT sistemebSikompiuteruli damuSavebiT mgrZobiare da aqtuatorulikomponentebis erTianoba saSualebas gvaZlevs SevigrZnoT davakontroloT gare samyaro.~iaponiaSi xSirad xmaroben termins `mexatronika~ da`mikromanqanebi~. `mikromanqana warmoadgens ramodenime milimetrizomis funqcionaluri elmentebisagan Sedgenili kompleqsurimikroskopuli mowyobilobebis erTobliobas.~firma NEXUS-is moRvaweobis Sedegad mecnierebaSidamkvidrda ori ZiriTadi termini `mikroteqnologia~ da`mikrostruqturireba~. orive maTgani aRniSnavs masalebzezemoqmedebas, romlis Sedegadac miiReba ramodenime mikrometriszomis mikrokomponentebi. aqedan gamomdinare `mikrosistema _aris ramodenime mikrokomponentis kombinacia, optimizirebulirogorc erTi mTliani sistema erTi an ramodenime funqciisSesrulebisaTvis. igi xSir SemTxvevaSi Seicavs mikroeleqtronulmowyobilobas~ [2].mikrosistemebis warmoebaSi gamoikveTa `momxmarebelidamamzadebeli~mimarTuleba. mikrosistemebi farTodgamoiyenebian gamoTvliTi teqnikis, samedicino teqnikis, aerokosmiuriteqnikis, saavtomobilo mrewvelobis, telekomunikaciis,saojaxo teqnikis da sxva mimarTulebebSi.mikrosistemebis Seqmnis dayofa mimarTulebebad SesaZlebeliaSemdegnairad:1. sainformacio teqnologiebi: mikrosistemis konstruireba,proeqtireba da modelireba;2. mikrosistemebis, masalaTmcodneobisa da teqnologiissafuZvlebi (mikroeleqtronikis masalebi, mikroeleqtro-21


nikis teqnologia da axali specifikuri mikrosistemuliteqnika);3. mikrosistemebis elementaruli baza (sensorebi daaqtuatorebi, mikromeqanizmebi, mikroinstrumentebi damikroZravebi, kvebis wyaroebi da informaciis damuSavebis,Senaxvisa da gadacemis sistemebi, mikrooptika da a.S);4. mikrosistemebis tipebi (mikroeleqtromeqanikuri sistemebi,mikrobioteqnikuri, mikroanalitikuri, mikrobioteqnikurida sxva);5. mikrosistemebis gamoyeneba (gamoTvliTi teqnika dainformatika, medicina da farmakologia, transporti danavigacia, individualuri da sayofacxovrebo teqnika).mikrosistemebsa da mikrosistemuri teqnikis sferoSi jerkidev ar arsebobs sayovelTao gansazRvrebebi da standartizacia.is warmoadgens erT-erT arsebiTad mniSvnelovanproblemas am sistemebis samecniero-teqnikuri mimarTulebebisganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT.mikrosistemebi mTlianad an nawilobriv Seicaven samZiriTad komponents:• urTierTqmedebis (informaciis mimRebi _ mgrZnobiareelementi, romelic gare zemoqmedebas gardaqmniseleqtrul an optikur signalad);• analoguri an cifruli formis signalebisdamuSavebisa da gadacemis mowyobiloba;• mikroaqtuatoris gare obieqtebze moqmedi signalebisgardaqmnis mowyobiloba (gardamqmnelebi).am samive komponentis gamoyenebiT Seqmnilimikrosistemebis magaliTs warmoadgens mikroroboti da mikrolaboratoriaCipze (kristalze an safenze). erTi an orikomponentis gamoyenebiT Seqmnili mikrosistemis magaliTswarmoadgens mikromTvleli, mikrorele, mikroZravi da sxva.mikroeleqtronikaSi mikrosqemis sirTule xasiaTdebaintegraciis xarisxiT. mikromeqanikuri sistemebis sirTulis22


Sesafaseblad Semotanilia xarisxis koeficienti, romelictolia warmoebuli tranzistorebis T da meqanikurikomponentebis M ricxvis namravlisaT ⋅ M .mikroeleqtonikis warmoebaSi mikrosistemis detalebi dakomponentebi mzaddeba jgufuri teqnologiis meTodiT, racseriuli warmoebis pirobebSi uzrunvelyofs maRalmwarmoeblurobas da mcire fass. vargisiani monokristaluri dasxva monoliTuri masalebis gamoyeneba uzrunvelyofs mikrosistemebissaimedoobas da maT gamoyenebas eqspluataciiseqstremalur pirobebSi.yovelive es ki ganapirobebs mikrosistemebis gamoyenebassamoqalaqo da samxedro daniSnulebisaTvis.ufro konkretulad ganvixiloT sxvadasxva tipismikrosistemebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi XXI saukunisaqtualuri problemebis gadawyvetisaTvis.erT-erTi tendenciaa _ mikrosistemebis calkeuli an samiveZiriTadi komponentis Semdgomi mikromianiaturizacia. magaliTadamerikuli `nacionaluri nanoiniciativa~ (NNI), miznad isaxavsmikroeleqtromeqanikuri sistemebis zomebis 10-jer Semcirebas [3].swored es warmoadgens mikrosistemebis ganviTarebis etapismTavar problemas.sazRvargareTis qveynebSi sxvadasxva farTo gamoyenebismikrosistemebis Seqmna uzrunvelyo mTeli rigi nacionaluri dakorporaciuli programebis finansirebam, maT Soris mikrosistemebisfinansirebam samxedro biujetidan. intensiuradizrdeba im firmebis ricxvi, romlebic mikrosistemebs an maTbazaze Seqmnil nakeTobebs uSveben da Sesabamisad izrdebamikrosistemebis moculobac msoflio bazarze (18-20%weliwadSi). 2002 wlisTvis es maCvenebeli iyo 35-40 miliardiamerikuli dolaris daaxloebiT 7 miliardi cali nakeToba.mikrosistemebis bazris dinamiuroba cxadyofs mikrosistemuliteqnikis tipiuri nakeTobebis fasebis Semcirebas 2,6-23


jer, 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi nakeTobaTa ricxvis 4,3-jer zrdispirobebSi [4].mikrosistemebis gamoCena istoriulad dakavSirebuliamirkoeleqtronikis teqnologiebTan. mikrosistemuri teqnikiswarmoebis xazis gansakuTrebul formas warmoadgens samganzomilebianistruqturebis SeqmnisaTvis mikroeleqtronikistipiuri teqnologiuri xazis SeerTeba mikrosistemuri teqnikisdamatebiT specifikur modelebTan. metad perspeqtiuliamimarTuleba, romelic uzrunvelyofs siliciumis teqnologiurixazis kavSirs mikrosistemis funqcionaluri nawilebis dasignalebis eleqtruli damuSavebis komponentebis erTkristalze ganlagebis SesaZleblobas, e.i. mTeli sistemaSeiZleba Seiqmnas SiC-s kristalze.Tanamedrove mikroeleqtronikis teqnologiebisagangansxvavebiT, mikrosistemuri teqnikis sferoSi mowyobilobebisfasi gacilebiT dabalia. es ki ganapirobebs 2-3 TanrigiT mcirefasad mikrosistemuri teqnikis teqnologiuri xazis Seqmnas. igixelmisawvdomia patara firmebisa da iseTi qveynebisaTvis,romlebic arasodes ar ekuTvnodnen mikroleqtronikis liderTaricxvs (magaliTad Sveicaria, dania, norvegia da sxva).mikrosistemuri teqnikis kidev erTi upitaresobaa misxelmisawvdomoba.topologiuri normebis Semcirebis saerTo tendencia exebamikrosistemur teqnikasac. aqac mosalodnelia topologiurinormebis nanometrul zomebSi gadasvlis tendencia.ukve Seqmnilia nanoteqnologiuri mTvlelebi da sxvananoteqnologiuri mowyobilobebi.mikrosistemuri teqnika _ Zalian dinamiuri dargia.`axalgazrdobis~ miuxedavad, mas Tavisi mokle istoriisfarglebSi eniWeba didi roli da mniSvneloba sabazroseqtorisa da sxva mimarTulebebis Zireuli cvlilebis saqmeSi.Tanamedrove avtomatizirebuli sistemebis gamoyenebiTmartivad aris SesaZlebeli Cipze damontaJdes inteleqtualur-24


irTvuli, sensoruli, aqtuatoruli da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSikomunikaciuri blokebic.mikrosistemebis gamoyenebiT Seqmnili sistemebismagaliTebia globaluri poziciuri sistemebi (GPS – GlobalPositioning System), internet-telefoni (VIOP – Voice over InternetProtocol), axali audiosistemebi, marTvisa da kontrolis(savtomobilo da sxva) sistemebi.mikrosistemuri teqnika gansakuTrebiT did mniSvnelobasiZens telekomunikaciebSi. aq progresi dakavSirebulia mikrooptoeleqtromeqanikursistemebTan (moems). linzebis, sarkis,sinaTlis wyaroebis da mimRebis gardamqnelis sistemebi, optikistradiciuli mowyobilobebi da damzadebis mirkoteqnologiurimeTodebi, saSualebas iZleva daproeqtdes da Seiqmnas axalikonkurentunariani mowyobilobebi. aseTi sistemebis naTelmagaliTs warmoadgens proeqciuli satelevizio ekrani 1000-obiTmikrosarkiT. gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad viTardeba radiosixSirisblokebisaTvis mikrokomponentebis Seqmnis mimarTuleba, CqaritempiT mimdinareobs personaluri sainformacio mowyobilobebisseqtoris ganviTarebac (Information applionces). samrewvelo dasayofacxovrebo dargSi ukabelo sakomunikacio sistemebisganviTareba SesaZlebels xdis momxmareblis kompiuterulsainformacio qselSi CarTvas nebismier dros, nebismier adgilas.damkvidrebuli termini `yvelgan SeRwevadi kompiuteringi~(Ubigutious computing), cifrul da ralur samyaros Soris axaliurTierTqmedebis gamovlinebis gamomxatvelia.mikrominiaturizaciis saerTo tendenciaa: `iafad, mcirezomis da energiis mcire moxmarebis~ pirobiT mikroeleqtronikisda mikrosistemebis axali Taobis Seqmna da maTi SemdgomiganviTarebis stimulireba. Sedegad adamianebs yoveldRiuraduwevT kontaqti da urTierToba yvelganSeRwevad inteleqtualurgaremosTan samsaxurSi, transportSi, saxlSi da sxva.mikrosistemis elementebis warmoebis pirvel teqnologiadiTvleba mikroeleqtronikis teqnologia, xolo nomer pirvel25


masalad _ siliciumi. mikrosistemur teqnikaSi dResacZveleburad gamoiyeneba siliciumi imdenad, ramdenadacSesaZlebelia mikrosistemis detalebis damzadeba da asevemTliani sqemis ganTavseba siliciumis masalaze. erTis mxrivmikrosistemis masalebis speqtri gacilebiT farToa: metalebi,narevi masalebi, plastmasebi da sxva polimerebi, SuSa da sxva,magram dReisaTvis siliciumis teqnologia jer kidev rCebasabazo teqnologiad.mikroeleqtronikaSi siliciumis teqnologiidan mikrosistemurteqnikaze gadasvla martivia. martivia agreTveCveulebrivi mikrosistemis damzadeba, romlis drosac saWiroamxolod im axali procesebis Semotana, romlebic dakav-Sirebulia moculobiTi struqturebis formacvalebasTan. amprocesebis ricxvs miekuTvneba mowamvlis procesi, ormxrivifotolitografia, korpusireba da sxva.ufro did sirTules warmoadgens mikroeleqtromeqanikurida mikrooptoeleqtromeqanikuri elementebis da detalebisdamzadeba, romelTac samganzomilebiani TvalsazrisiT gaaCniaTrTuli formebi.mikrosistemuri teqnikis warmoeba efeqturi xdeba mxolodmisi jgufuri damuSavebis SemTxvevaSi, rac zrdis seriuliwarmoebis rentabelobas. bazarze ukve gamoCnda specializirebuliaRWurvilobebi mikrosistemuli teqnikisaTvis. Tavdapirveladmikrosistemur teqnikis aRWurvilobebs awarmoebdnen mxolodlitografiisa da mowamvlis procesebisaTvis. sadReisod ki, ukvebevri firma amzadebs siliciumis mikrosistemuri teqnikisaTviskompleqsur mowyobilobebs.mikrosistemuri teqnikis efeqturobis amaRlebis erT-erTiSesaZlo forma nakarnaxevi iyo mikroeleqtronikis mier. saqmeexeba teqnologiis teritoriuli dayofis princips, romelicSemdegSi mdgomareobs. TiToeuli etapi (an etapis nawili)SesaZlebelia gaxdes maRalefeqturi warmoeba. dReisaTvismsoflioSi arsebobs firmebis didi raodenoba, romlebic26


uSveben mikroeleqtronul produqcias, magram maT ar gaaCniaTsakuTari teqnologiuri aRWurviloba (fables). aseTi tipiswarmoebis Seqmna SesaZlebeli gaxada axlad gamoCenilmauniversalurma da yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomma avtomatizirebuliproeqtirebis sistemebma, romelTa daxmarebiTac SesaZlebeliadaproeqtdes originaluri sakuTari integraluri sqema, bloki anaparatura, xolo warmoeba ganxorcieldes firmis specializirebulimasiuri produqciis warmoebis teqnologiur xazze(magaliTad maxsovrobis sqema an mikroprocesori).mikrosistemuri teqnikis Seqmnis teqnologiaSiteqnologiis dayofis Sedegad gadaidga winsvlis Semdeginabijebi. mikrosistemis Semqmneli mas awarmoebs nawilobrivseriul mikroeleqtronul warmoebaSi (zedapiruli damuSaveba)da nawilobriv specializirebul warmoebaSi (moculobiTidamuSaveba). amgvari warmoeba SesaZloa organizebul iqneslaboratoriaSi an patara firmaSi imdenad, ramdenadac SesabamisisaWiro teqnologiuri mowyobiloba ar aris Zviri da maTiganTavseba ar saWiroebs did da zesufTa mikroeleqtronuliteqnologiis pirobebSi gamoyenebuli donis oTaxebs.mikrosistemebis warmoebis efeqturobis amaRlebis Semdegizrda miiRweva seriuli specializirebuli warmoebis gazrdiT.magaliTad didi raodenobis erTi tipis nakeTobebis damuSavebaerTi teqnologiuri procesis gamoyenebiT. mikrosistemebiswarmoebis etapebis aseTi Rrma dayofa, rodesac TiToeulimaTgani teritoriulad mocilebul sxvadasxva sawarmoo ubnebzemzaddeba, realizebulia mikroeleqtromeqanikuri firmisExchange-s mier amerikaSi `virtualuri sawamoebis~ (Virtual Fab)SeqmniT. am firmis daxmarebiT damproeqtebeli aproeqtebs daamzadebs Sesabamisi teqnologiuri marSrutiT calkeulkomponents an dasrulebul mikrosistemas.am SemTxvevaSi firma warmoadgens mxolod menejerdispeCers,romelic uzrunvelyofs SekveTis Sesrulebassxvadasxva sawarmoo firmis teqnologiur xazebze [5].27


zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare vaskvniT rom:• mikrosistemuli teqnika Camoyalibda, rogorc XXIsaukunis teqnikis erT-erTi wamyvani mimarTuleba;• ukve warmoebuli produqciis moculoba metyvelebsmikrosistemuri teqnikis maRali tempiT zrdis globalurbazarze;• mikrosistemuri teqnikis nomenklaturis gafarToebissiZnele mxolod nawilobriv aris dakavSirebuliwarmoebis teqnologiur procesebTan, imdenad ramdenadacisini SeiZleba aRmoCenilni iyvnen ama Tu im gziT.• ufro arsebiT problemas warmoadgens warmoebisaTvisgansazRvruli tipis mikrosistemis da mikrosistemuriteqnikis tipis amorCeva, ramdenadac dammzadeblisa damomxmareblis urTierTobis sfero teqnikis am dargSinel-nela ixveweba.1.2. mikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTarebisperspeqtivebi XXI saukuneSidReisaTvis mikrosistemuri teqnika warmoadgens erT-erTyvelaze dinamiurad ganviTarebad disciplinaTSoriso samecniero-teqnikurmimarTulebas, romelic gansazRvravs mikrodonezeSesrulebuli sistemebis sferos axal revolucias.mikrosistemuri teqnika _ es aris samecniero-teqnikurimimarTuleba, romlis mizansac warmoadgens myari tanis SemosazRvrulmoculobaSi an mis zedapirze iseTi mikrosistemisSeqmna, romelic uzrunvelyofs generaciis, gardaqmnebis, energiisgadacemis, daprogramebuli operaciebis Sesrulebisasinformaciis damuSavebis, transliaciis da Senaxvis daeqspluataciis moTxovnil pirobebSi davalebuli funqcionaluri,energetikuli, droiTi da saimedobis maCveneblebis28


moqmedebis principebs. mikrosistemebs SeuZliaT Seasrulonyvela zemoT CamoTvlili funqcia an funqciaTa nawili.mikrosistemuri teqnikis nakeTobebis magaliTebi, rogorctradiciuli, aseve perspeqtiuli moyvanilia cxrilebSi 1 da 2.cxrili 1 mikrositemuri teqnikis `tradiciuli~ nakeTobebisstruqtura da bazris dinamika [7]nakeTobabazris moculoba 1996welsmilioni milionicali dolaribazris moculoba 2002wels.milioni milionicali dolarimyar diskze damgroveblisTavakebi530 4500 1500 12000Wavluri printerebis Tavakebi 100 4400 500 10000kardio-peismeikerebi 0,2 1000 0,8 3700“in-vitro”diagnostikurixelsawyoebi700 450 4000 2800sasmeni aparatebi 4 1150 7 2000wnevis maCveneblebi 115 600 309 1300qimiuri sensorebi 100 300 400 800infrawiTeli videosignalisformirebis mowyobilobebi0,01 220 0,4 800aqselerometrebi 24 240 90 430hiroskopebi 6 150 30 360magnitorezistuli sensorebi 15 20 60 60mikrospeqtrometrebi 0,006 3 0,150 40sul 13033 3429029


cxrili 2. mikrositemuli teqnikis `perspeqtiuli~ nakeTobebisstruqtura da bazris dinamikanakeTobabazris moculoba 1996welsmilioni milionicali dolaribazris moculoba 2002wels.milioni milionicali dolariwamlebis miwodebis sistemebi 1 10 100 1000optikuri gadamrTvelebi 1 50 40 1000laboratoria Cipze: dnm, maRaliSesaZleblobebi Txevadiqromatografia0 0 100 1000magnitoooptikuri Tavakebi 0,01 1 100 500proeqciuli qseluri Camketebi 01 10 1 ЭСОinduqciurobis koWa Cipze 20 10 600 100mikrorele - 0,1 50 100mikroeleqtroZravebi 0,1 5 2 80inklinometrebi (kuTxmzomi) 1 10 20 70dajaxebis gamafrTxilebelisensorebi0,01 05 2 20eleqtronuli nasosebi 0,001 0,1 0,05 5sul: 107 4200mikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTarebis iniciatori gaxda e.w.mikroeleqtromeqnikuri sistemebi (MEMS – mikroelectromechanicalsystems), romlebSic galvanuri kavSirebi mWidro urTierTqmedebaSiameqanikurTan.SeiZleba gamovyoT Semdegi faqtorebi, romlebmac Seuwyoxeli mikrosistemuri teqnikis, rogorc samecniero-teqnikurimimarTulebis, ganviTarebas:• 1982 wels IBM-is firmis TanamSromlis k.petersonis [6] statiisgamoqveynebam, romelSic siliciumi ganxiluli iyoara marto rogorc naxevargamtari, aramed rogorckonstruqciuli meqanikuri masala;30


• mTeli rigi firmebis mier 70-iani wlebis bolos damuSavebulisamrewvelo teqnologia - siliciumis moculobiTiTxevadi mowamvla - membranebis, simebis, wnevis maCveneblebisdetalebis da sxvaTa formirebisaTvis;• 70-iani wlebis dasarulsa da 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi q.karlsrueSi (germania) birTvul kvlevebis centrSi sinqronuligamosxivebis, galvanuri daleqvis da preciziuli polimerebisdawnexvis gamoyenebiT moculobiTi struqturebisformirebis teqnologiis damuSavebam, romelmac miiRosaxelwodeba LIGA – teqnologia (LIGA _ germanuli sityvebisabreviaturaa da ase iSifreba: litographia – litografia,galvanoforming – galvanodamuSaveba, abformung – dawnexva);axali Taobis mikrosistemuri teqnikis yvelaze naTelkonstruqciul-teqnologiur gansakuTrebulobas warmoadgens:• mesame ganzomilebis aqtiuri gamoyeneba (3 Dsistemebi);• eleqtruli da optikuri kavSirebis meqanikurTan integracia;• mikro da biotenologiis da fiziko-qimiuri teqnologiuribazisebis integracia;• mikromoculobaSi da myari tanis zedapirze Semsrulebelteqnologiurida kontrol-diagnostikuri procedurebisintegracia;mikrosistemuri teqnikis msoflio dinamikis ganviTarebisanalizi mocemulia naxazze 1. igi Sesrulebulia organizaciaNEXUS mier da naCvenebia, rom 1996-2002 wlebSi mikrosistemuriteqnikis nakeTobebis bazari saSualod 18%-iT gaizarda da 2002wels 38 miliard dolars miaRwia. xolo 2002 wlidan dRemde esmaCveneblebi ormagdeba yovelwliurad.crilSi 3 mocemulia mikrosistemuri teqnikis mimarTulebissaerTo struqtura, xolo cxrilSi 4 _ axali Taobis mikrosistemuriteqnikis damuSavebis mimarTulebebi da gamoyenebissferoebi.31


naxazi 1. mikrositemuri teqnikis obieqtebis bazris dinamikis analiziNEXUS [7].32


cxrili 3. mikrosistemuri teqnikis mimarTulebis struqturamikrosistemuli teqnikisobieqtebis klasimikroeleqtromeqanikurisistemebi da manqanebioptomeqanikurimikrosistemebibioteqnikurimikrosistemebienergomomaragebismikrosistemebisensoruli mikrosistemebimikroanalitikurisistemebiteqnologiurimikrosistemebimini da mikrorobototeqnikuri sistemebidamuSavebis mimarTulebamikromeqanizmebi, mikroZravebimikrooptika,optomeqanikuri integralurisqemebiorganizmis diagnostikisa da organoebSiCarevis miniaturi avtonomiuri sistemebiavtonomiuri minaturuli energiiswyaroebi, mikroturbinebimultisensorebi, inteleqtualurisensorebi, ukukavSiris sensorebiminiaturuli analitikuri xelsawyoebimikroreqtori, mikroinstrumenti,mikroreguliatori, mikrotumbo.avtonomiuri mravalfunqciuridiagnostikuri da teqnologiuri minisistemebispecialur pirobebSieqspluataciisaTvis.33


cxrili 4. mikrosistemebi axali Taobis teqnikisaTvisdamuSavebisdaniSnulebamimarTuleba sayovelTao specialuriorientaciis, navigaciis da marTvis miniaturulisistemebisensorebi datransduserebiminiaturulimarTvadi radiodaoptoeleqtronulikomponentebi,mikromanqanebisaavtomobilo daaerokosmiuri da raketsaartileriosistemebisarkinigzo transportiaqselerometrebi, miniaturuli avtonomiurinavigaciis sistemebi, GPS kosmiur sistemebTanSereuli sistemebi, katapultirebis sistemebi.miniaturuli marTvadi elementaruli bazasamoqalaqospecialurixelsawyoTmSenebloba xelsawyoTmSeneblobaminiaturuli mmarTvadi kondensatorebi,rezistorebi, sarke, moduliatorebi, miniturbinebi,mikroZravebi, mikrogeneratorebiminiaturuli analitiko-diagnostikuri Cipebi damikroqimiuri reaqtorebianalitikoteqnologiurimikrosistemebibioteqnologia, medicina,navTobqimia, kvebismrewelobaqimiuri dacva,SeiaraReba,gansakuTrebuladsaSiSi nivTierebebisaRmoCena dautilizaciamikro- dananoinstrumentebiminiaturulirobototeqnikurimikro-da nanomanipulatorebi, mikroteqnologiurimowyobilobebimedicina, specialurimedicina, mikrobiologia, daniSnulebis nanoeleqtronulinanoeleqtronikasistemebiminiaturuli avtonomiuri marTvadi TviTmoZravisistemebi34


sistemebimedicinaSidiagnostikisaTvisminirobotebi, birTvulenergetikaSi, qimiurimrewvelobaSisaomar moqmedebaSiminirobotebidazvervisaTvismikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobfaqtorebs da am sferoSi Tanamedrove mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiTaseTi didi miRwevebis fonze SeiZleba gamovyoT:• samecniero da teqnikuri kulturis erToblioba, formirebulimikro- da optoeleqtronikis aRorZinebisa daganviTarebisa periodSi;• bazuri aRWurvilobis erToblioba, sawarmoo simZlavre damikroeleqtronuli warmoebis organizebuli infrastruqtura,romelis gamodgeba mikrosistemuli teqnikisrealizaciisTvisac;• sxvadasxva funqcionaluri daniSnulebisa konstruqciuligamoyenebis sensoruli sistemebis aqtiuri bazari;• arqiteqturis sferoSi mikro- da bioteqnologiuriprocesebis integraciis tendenciebi, funqcionirebisprincipebi;• bazarze informaciis damuSavebis iseTi sistemebis gamoCenada perspeqtiuli Taobis integraluri sqemebis marTva,romlebic uzrunvelyofen `inteleqtualuri~ SesaZleblobebisaxal dones da mikrosistemebis swrafqmedebas misiwonagabarituli da energetikuli maCveneblebis SenarCuebisan gaumjobesebis pirobebSi;• axali aqtiuri bazris perspeqtivebi miniaturuli arc Tuise Zviri diagnostikuri sistemebis sferoSi, adamianisjanmrTelobis kontrolisaTvis da masiuri profilaqtikisaTvis;35


• aRWurvilobebis bazris formireba mikrodoneze mkacrsamuSao pirobebSi, radiaciul, toqsikur da feTqebadsaSiSnivTierebebTan muSaobis teqnologiisaTvis.qveynebSi, romlebic Tanamedrove pirobebSi faqtiuradgansazRvraven samecniero-teqnikur progress, `mikrosistemuriteqnikis~ mimarTulebaSi iyeneben termins `kritikuli teqnologiebi~,amiT kvlevisa da damuSavebis programebs aniWeben `nacionalur~da `prioritetul~ statuss.dReisaTvis sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom mikrosistemurteqnikas aqvs prioritetuli mniSvneloba Tavdacvis mrewvelobisaTvis,uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifos birTvul da ekologiurusafrTxoebas, bioteqnologiis ganviTarebas da mosaxleobissamedicino momsaxurebas.Seqmnili `mikrosistemuri teqnikis~ mimarTulebissazRvrebSi produqcia xasiaTdeba:• siaxliT;• mecnierebadtevadobiT;• konkurentunarianobiT;• damuSavebis etapze investiciebis potencialiT;• tiraJirebiT, masiuri warmoebiT;• dabali masalaTmoculobiT;• dabali energomoculobiT;• moTxovnis farTo bazriT.efeqti mikrosistemuri teqnikis sferoSi samuSaosrealizaciidan ganisazRvreba:• axali Taobis manqanebisa da xelsawyoebis SeqmniT, mciremasaliTa da energomoculobiT, romlebic uzrunvelyofentradiciul da adre miuRwevadi amocanebis gadawyvetasgaremo pirobebze ekologiuri datvirTvis SemcirebiT daadamianis samuSaos usafrTxoebis gazrdiT;• warmoebaSi integralur-jgufuri principebis gamoyenebiT,romelic gamoiwvevs produqciis TviTRirebulebis36


Semcirebas, es ki xelmisawvdoms gaxdis mas momxmarebelTafarTo spqetrisaTvis, maT Soris samecniero sferosTvis,ganaTlebis, medicinis, mcire da saSualo biznesisaTvis;• teqnologiuri mikrosistemebis Seqmnis dros mikroeleqtronulimrewvelobis standartuli aRWurvilobebisgamoyenebiT;• mikroobieqtebis da zemcire raodenobis nivTierebebisgamoyenebis pirobebSi (adre miuRwevadi) ralizaciisSesaZleblobiT, rac amcirebs danaxarjebs kvlevebiswarmoebis stadiaze da amcirebs moTxovnebs ZviradRirebulmasalebze;• analitiko-diagnostikuri mikrosistemebis maRaliefeqturobiT, daavadebebis profilaqtikis amocanisgadawyvetis pirobebSi, e.i. `adamianuri kapitalis~SenarCunebisaTvis.mikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTareba iseT Sedegs moaxdenssamecniero-teqnikur progresze, rogoric moaxdina mikroleqtronikammecnierebisa da teqnikis wamyvani sferoebis aRorZinebasada Tanamedrove mdgomareobaze.37


2. შედეგები და მათი განსჯა2.1. mikrosistemuri teqnikis elementuri bazaaRsaniSnavia, rom didi moTxovna sensoruli elementebzeda maTi Semdgomi ganviTarebis naTeli koncepcia mikrosistemuriteqnikis obieqtebis kvlevis gafarToebisa da warmoebisganviTarebis ZirTadi mastimulirebeli faqtori gaxda.sensorebi da transduserebimocemuli koncepciis ZiriTadi etapebi `sensoridantransdiuseramde~ SeiZleba CamovayaliboT Semdegi saxiT:• multisensorebis Seqmna da damuSaveba, mgrZnobiareelementebis _ pirveladi gardamqmnelebis _ gaerTianebiT.• integrirebuli sensorebis Seqmna da damuSaveba, mgrZnobiareelementebis da meoradi gardamqmnelebis gamoyenebiT,erTiani teqnologiuri sistemis farglebSi gamoyenebispirobebSi.• mgroZnobiare elementebze aqtiuri ukukavSiris SesrulebisfunqciiT integrirebuli sensorebis Seqmna da damuSaveba.• analitikuri SesaZleblobebis integraluri sensorebisSeqmna da damuSaveba. e.i. gazrdili mgrZnobiarobiT da (an)aratradiciuli sensoruli saSualebebis kvlevis xarjzemaTi seleqciurobiT, sinjis, registraciis meTodebis dainformaciis damuSavebis Seyovnebis da dayofis meTodebiT.am ukanaskneli mimarTulebis formulirebam faqtiuradgansazRvra iseTi mikrosistemuri teqnikis Seqmna, rogoricaamikroanalitikuri sistemebi. aseTi sistemis pirveli naTeliwarmomadgenelia gazis mikroqromatografi, romelic Seiqmnasiliciumis teqnikis elementebis gamoyenebiT samocdaaTianiwlebis bolos (planaruli konstruqcia).38


analitiko-teqnologiuri mikrosistemebimikrosistemebis Seqmnis da gamoyenebis erT-erTperspeqtiul mimarTulebas warmoadgens analitiko-teqnologiurimikrosistemebis damuSaveba, orientirebuli zemcire moculobebiTnivTierebebis raodenobiT, rac saSualebas iZleva energetikulida drois parametrebis gaTvaliswinebiT gazardosrealizaciis procesebis efeqturoba, uzrunvelyofs mavne datoqsikur nivTierebebTan muSaobis SesaZleblobas, amartivebsnarCenebis utilizacias. es yvelaferi erTad ki ganapirobebsaseTi sistemebis maRal ekonomikur efeqturobas.axali Taobis analitiko-teqnologiuri mikrosistemebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebelia:• teqnologiuri da kontrol-diagnostikuri qvesistemisblok-moduluri unifikacia;• moqniloba, romelic ganisazRvreba produqciis mravalnomenklaturobiTda sxvadasxva momxmareblis pirobebSimravalferovani amocanaTa klasis gadawyvetis SesaZleblobiT(qimia, bioteqnologia, medicina, xelsawyoTmSenebloba,manaqanaTmSenebloba);• analitikuri da teqnologiuri modulebis integrirebaerTi samuSao adgilis farglebSi., romelic iZlevasamuSao zonaSi rogorc dayofis, aseve sxvadasxva tipisurTierTqmedebis koncentraciis SesaZleblobas.• mikroaRWurvilobis inteleqtualuroba, romelic ganisazRvrebakontrol-diagnostikuri modulebis ganviTarebissistemiT da moqnili kavSiriT analitikur da teqnologiurmodelebs, agreTve informaciuli da energetikuliuzrunvelyofis qvesistemebs Soris.• lokaluroba, romelic iZleva zemcire moculobebTan danivTirebebebis raodenobebTan muSaobis saSualebas,amcirebs energetikul danaxarjebs, amaRlebs efeqturobasda procesis mimdinareobis siCqares.39


• ekologiuroba, romelic iZleva zemcire raodenobis mavneda toqsikuri nivTirebebis pirbebSi muSaobis saSualebas,agreTve uzrunvelyofs narCenebis utilizaciis simartives.• ekonomiuroba, romelic ganisazRvreba teqnologiurisistemebis Seqmnisas gamoyenebuli jgufuri warmoebisprincipebiT, mcire energomoculobebi, aseve mikroteqnologiurisistemebis miRebisas zemcire nivTierebaTaraodebobeze muSaobis maRali efeqturobiT.analitiko-teqnologiuri mikrosistemebi warmoadgenenaxali saxis mowyobilobebs, romlebic uzrunvelyofen araorganulida organuli bunebis zemcire nivTierebaTa raodenobebisurTierTqmedebis lokalizaciis maRali xarisxs, mikromoculobispirobebSi myari tanis mikroteqnologiuri meTodebiTSeqmnili fiziko-qimiuri procesebis integracias da diferenciacias.integrirebul klasterul teqnologiur mikrosistemebsmiekuTvnebian:• teqnologiuri modulebi;• kontrol-diagnostikuri modulebi;• utilizaciisa da Senaxvis modulebi;• satransporto magistralebi;• energouzruvnelyofis qvesistemebi;• sainformacio-mmarTveli qvesistemebi.klasteruli mikrosistemebis ZiriTad niSanTvisebaswarmoadgens:teqnologiuri modelebis daxasiaTeba da nomenlkatura;kontrol-diagnostikuri modelebis daxasiaTeba danomenklatura;satransporto magistralebis daxasiaTeba da nomenklatura;muSa poziciis raodenoba da maTi gazrdis SesaZlebloba;struqturl-komponirebuli sqemebi da agregatirebisprincipebi;40


modulebis urTierT-sivrculi ganlageba (xazobrivi,radialuri, Sereuli) da modulTSorisi kavSirebis meTodisuzrunvelyofa;funqcionirebis principi (mimdevrobiTi, paraleluri,paralelur-mimdevrobiTi).klasteruli kompleqsis agebis magistralur-modulurisistema, teqnologiuri, kontrol-diagnostikuri modulebis dasatransporto magistralebis konstruqciis unifikacia, aseve ma-Ti dublireba da proeqtirebis etapze modulebs Soris topologiurikavSirebSi cvlilebebis Setanis SesaZlebloba, ise romteqnologiaSi ar iyos raime radikaluri cvlilebis Setana sa-Wiro, gansazRvravs klasteruli analitiko-teqnologiuri sistemebismoqnilobas, es ki uzrunvelyofs maT srul funqcionirebas.mikroinstrumentebimikroinstrumenti warmoadgens teqnologiuri mikromodulebiskompleqss maRali lokaluri moqmedebis sxvadasxvaoperaciis SesrulebisaTvis. kompleqsi Sedgeba mikromowyobilobebisagan,romlebic uzrunvelyofen mikrodoneze CaWeras,miwodebas da gawovas, gaxurebas, daorTqvlas, stimulacias dazelokalur (nanodonemde) diagnostikas. es ki iZleva dozirebis,SeerTebis, mocilebis, modificirebis, gazomvis da sxvaoperaciebis Sesrulebis saSualebas.faqtiurad preciziul mikromanipulatorSi Cayenebulminimaluri raodenobis mikroteqnologiur kompleqts SeuZliasami ZiriTadi tipis mikrooperaciis lokalurad warmarTva. esoperaciebia: dafena, mocileba da nivTierebis modifikacia. calkeulioperaciebisa da specifikuri procesebis warmarTvisaTviski saWiroa bazuri teqnologiuri mikromodulebis Secvla.mikroteqnologiuri instrumentis bazuri kompleqtiuzrunvelyofs individualuri mikrooperaciebs da SezRuduli41


da SeuzRudavi bunebis obieqtebis mikromanipulirebas, aseveteqnologiuri mikrosistemebis muSaobis moqnilobas.teqnologiuri daniSnulebis mikrosistemebi warmoadgenenerTerT yvelaze perspeqtiul da `masStabur~ teqnologiurmimarTulebas, orientirebuls `Txel~ da `zust~ mecnierebadtevadprocesebze, gansazRvraven ra saxelmwifos samecnieroteqnikurda Tavdacvisunarianobis potencials [8].axali Taobis, mikrodoneze SezRuduli da SeuzRudavibunebis obieqtebTan muSaobisaTvis gankuTvnili, analitikoteqnologiurimikrosistemebis da mikroinstrumentebis SeqmnaiTavliswinebs:• analitiko-teqnologiuri mikrosistemebis funqcionirebisda organizaciis axali prinicpebis damuSavebas, konstruqciismodifikaciis da moqnilobis uzrunvelyofis mizniTgadasawyveti amocanis nomenklaturis gaTvaliswinebiT. e.i.erTgvarovani konstruqtorul-teqnologiuri da mravalfunqcionalurisistemebis harmonizacias;• teqnologiuri mikrosistemebis da mikroinstrumentebiskonstruirebis axali principebis Ziebas masStabirebisefeqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT. igi gansazRvravs teqnologiurida diagnostikuri modulebis miniaturizacias, rac warmoadgensaucileblobas mikroobietebis manipulirebisaTvis dazemcire obieqtebSi SezRuduli raodenobis nivTirebebisprocesebis realizaciisaTvis;• teqnologiuri mikrosistemebis da mikroinstrumentebisSeqmnisas mirkoeleqtromeqanikisa da mirkooptikis elementarulibazisa da principebis farTod gamoyenebas, SemosazRvrulmoculobaSi Semsrulebeli da mgrZnobiare elementebiseleqtruli, optikuri, meqanikuri da magnirulikavSirebis integraciis gansakuTrebulobis gaTvaliswinebiT;• tradiciuli mikroradioeleqtronuli komponentebis,teqnologiuri, kontrol-diagnostikuri modulebis da42


informaciuli da energetikuli uzrunvelyofis qvesisteniskonstruirebisas da Seqmnisas gamoyenebuli klasikurikonstruqciuli gadawyvetilebebis farTod gamoyenebas;• teqnologiuri mikrosistemebis da mikroinstrumentebisSeqmnisas iseTi axali masalebis nomenklaturis Seqmnas,romelTac uwevT qimiurad aqtiur, maRali energiis daxangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi rTul samuSao garemoSiyofna. es moiTxovs gare zemoqmedebisagan gazrdilimedegobis mqone masalebis gamoyenebas.• mowyobilobebis adaptacias, modernizacias da mikroeleqtronikisnakeTobis klasikuri teqnologiis ZiriTadiprocesebis amocanis gadawvetas teqnologiuri mikrosistemebisda mikroinstrumentebis SeqmnisaTvis.mikromanqanebi da mini-robotebimikroZravebis Seqmnis sferoSi ukve aTwleulze metia racmimdinareobs samuSaoebi. ukanasknel wlebSi Sesruldamikrosistemebis sferoSi unikaluri samuSaoebi avtonomiuriminiaturuli sistemebis energouzrunvelyofisa da aratradiciuliZravebis problemeTan dakavSirebiT. gansakuTrebuladsainteresoa am sferoSi mikroturbina _ klasikuriturbinis miniaturuli analogi, romlis brunva xorcieldebamaRal temperaturaze gazis wviT,magaliTa wyalbadi, racuzrunvelyofs aTeulobiT vati simZlavris generacias ramodenimemilimetri zomis mikromanqanis pirobebSi. naxazze 1.warmoadgenilia mSrali Rrma mowamvlis meTodiT mikroturbinisrotoris realizacia [9].43


naxazi 2. mikrosistemuri teqnikis obieqtebis praqtikuli realizacia.did interess iCens robototeqnikis mimarTulebiTwarmoebuli samuSaoebi. miniroboti, rogorc wesi, gankuTvniliaim pirobebSi eqspluataciisaTvis, sadac adamians ar ZaluZsmuSaoba (cocxali organizmebi, gazrdili radiaciisa damomwamlavi nivTirebebiT dabinZurebuli garemo, feTqebadsaSiSizonebi). miniaturuli robototeqnikis ganviTarebis mastimulirebelifaqtorebia maTi gamoyeneba saxelmwifos usafrToebisada TavdacvisunarianobisTvis.2.2. teqnologiuri modulebi mikrosistemurteqnikaSi300 eqspertis wianaswarma gamokiTxvebma gviCvena, rom specialistebis57% Tvlis mikrosistemur teqnikas da nanoteqnikasCveni drois inovaciuri ganviTarebis mamoZravebel Zalad.informaciuli teqnika, qselebisa da mobiluri kavSirebisCaTvliT 50%-ikavebs, bioteqnologia da mecniereba - 47%-s. am44


mimarTulebebis gavlena mrewvelobaze `didia an yvelaze didia~_ arniSnavs gamokiTxulTa 90%. `teqnikisa~ da `teqnologiebis~ganviTarebam Camoayaliba ori axali mimarTulebis ganviTarebisaucilebloba: `mikrosistemuri teqnika da nanoteqnologiebi~.teqnologia _ es aris axali teqnikis Seqmnis aqtiurielementi.nanoteqnologiis principuli gansxvaveba yvela sxvawinamorbedi teqnologiebisagan mdgomareobs mis samuSaomimarTulebebSi fundamentur obieqtebTan _ atomebTan. es kiiZleva imis sababs, rom nanoteqnologia ganvixiloT rogorcaxali revoluciuri mimarTuleba teqnologiaSi, romelic didgavlenas moaxdens adamianis moRvaweobis yvela sferoze da TviTadamianze.amis gaTvaliswinebiT aSS iswrafvis daikavos liderispozicia nanoteqnologiis sferoSi [10]. mikrosistemuri teqnika,darCeba rogorc axaldabadebuli bavSvi, samecniero-teqnikuriprogresisi CrdilSi. molekulur da ujredul donezenanoteqnologia did gavlenas moaxdens adamianze, oRond impirobiT, rom es zemoqmedeba unda ganxorcieldes konkretuladgilas, amis SesaZlebloba ki gaaCnia mikrosistemebisgamoyenebaze dafuZnebul meTodebs. swored am mizezebis gamo,nanosistemebi mTlianad ver Caanacvleben mikrosistemebs. amdenadmikrosistemebi warmoadgenen erTaderT xids mikro da nanosamyaros Soris. es orive mimarTuleba unda ganviTardes maTSoris sinergetikuli kavSiris bazaze. rogorc eqspertebivaraudoben maT Soris winaaRmdegoba gamowveulia ufropolitikuri motivebiT (kerZod brZola finansirebisaTvis), vidream or mimarTulebas Soris realuri antagonizmiT.am brZolis Sedegad yalibdeba saerTo programebi `nanomikro~an `mikro-nano~ sistemebisaTvis.45


naxazi 3. teqnologiebis sinergetika.rogorc ki mikrosqema daproeqtdeba, Semdegi etapia,moiZebnos saukeTeso teqnologia, raTa damzaddes konstruqciisdetalebis saWiro raodenoba. konstruirebis yvelaze martivimeTodia misi awyoba modulebiT.moduli _ unificirebuli kvanZia, gaformebuli rogorcdamoukidebebli nakeToba [11]. moduluri principi farTodgamoiyeneba eleqtronikaSi. modulebi _ mikroprocesorebi,mexsierebis integraluri sqemebi, gamaZliereblebi da sxva _saSualebas iZlevian SevqmnaT saWiro eleqtronuli mowyobiloba.amitomac modulireba konstruirebis etapze damaxasiaTebeliamikroeleqtronikisaTvis.konstruqciebSi klasikuri mikrosistemebis triadaa:• mogrZnobiare elementi (gare informaciis mimRebi sensori,mTvleki);• mgrZnobiare elementis signalis damusavebis sistemebi(gamaZlierebeli, gardamqmneli, procesori);• ukukavSiris mowyobiloba (aqtuatori, kavSiris arxi dasxva).modulirebis ideologia orientirebulia komponentebis dasubsistemebis procedurebisa da teqnologiebis standartizaciaze.realurad es aris modulirebis principebis realizacia46


axali mikrosistemebis Seqmnis yvela etapze: proeqtirebis,konstruirebis da warmoebis.mikrosistemuri teqnikis nairsaxeobam mikrosistemebiswarmoebis sxva mimarTulebebi warmomadgenlebi gamoafxizla dabevri maTgani aqtiurad CaerTo moduluri sistemebisprogramebis Seqmnisa da ganviTarebis procesSi.mikrosistemebis teqnologiebSi modulirebis realizaciamoiTxovs procesebis Sesaferis dokumentirebas, nakeTobebisa daproduqciis Sesasvleli da gamosasvleli parametrebis specifikacirebas.am bazaze dayrdnobiT sxvadasxva teqnologiurimodelebisaTvis fasdeba ekonomika da igegmeba sabazroproduqtis warmoebis strategia. `konstruqciul-teqnologiuribazisi~ kargad unda iyos morgebuli efeqtur `konstruqciulteqnologiurmodulze~. mst saboloo produqtis SeqmnaSeiZleba moiTxovdes ramodenime teqnologiuri modelisgamoyenebas.mikrosistemebis teqnikaSi modulirebis ideologiislogikuri dasasruli unda iyos misi gavrceleba damamuSavebelida amwyobi mowyobilobebis warmoebaze. am mimarTulebiTsamuSaoebi mimdinareobs mTel rig qveynebSi (germabia, avstria,aSS). amgvarad modulireba mikrosistemebis konstruirebaSi dateqnologiaSi warmoadgens mst-s ganviTarebis aucilebelfaqtors. es ki aerTianebs mas mikroteqnikis sxvamimarTulebasTan –mikroeleqtonikasTan.principialuri gansxvaveba mikrosistemur teqnikasa damikroeleqtronikas Soris aris is, rom mikrosistema (aracalkeuli mTvleli an aqtuatori) iqmneba momxmarebliscalkeuli jgufebis dakveTiT, e.i. warmoadgens SekveTas.mikroeleqtonikis ganviTarebis generaluri xazi kiorientirebulia masiur warmoebaze. mikroeleqtronikis isnakeTobebi, romlebic damzadebulni arian rogorc modulebi,warmoadgenen universalurs.47


im faqtma rom universaluri teqnologiis bazazeSeuZlebeli iyo mikrosistemebis modulebis Seqmna, mecnierebisda inJinrebi miiyvana im daskvnamde, rom mirkosistemuri teqnikismodulireba saWiroa ara marto konstruqciis, aramedteqnologiis doneze. naxazze naCvenebia axali teqnikis SeqmnisaTvismodulebis konstruqciuli da teqnologiuri variantebi.naxazi 4. konstruqciuli da teqnologiuri orientirebulimodulireba teqnikaSi.pirvel SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia Seqimnas sxvadasxvakonstruqciebis didi ricxvi mcirericxovani konstruqciulimodulebis bazaze. es modulebi iwarmoebian universaluriteqnologiis bazaze specifikuri teqnologiuri modelebisgamoyenebiT. am variants miekuTvneba nanoteqnika damikroeleqtronika. ralurad, progresi mikroeleqtronikaSiganpirobebulia universaluri teqnologiebis ganviTarebiT daigi xasiaTdeba erTi globaluri parametriT _ litografiulisuraTis minimaluri zomebiT (1,0; 0,8. . .0,05 mkm). am parametrismixedviT SeiZleba Seiqmnas mikroeleqtronuli universaluri48


konstruqciuli moduli (saSualod yovel 18 TveSi integraciisxarisxis gaormagebiT). meore varians ganekuTvnebamikrosistemuli teqnika. am SemTxvevaSi axali konstruqciiswarmoebisaTvis (specifikuri konstruqciuli modulebisgamoyenebis safuZvelze) misi daniSnulebis da warmoebis tiraJisgaTvaliswinebiT, irCeven yvelaze Sesaferis teqnologiurmoduls xelmisawvdomis universaluri modulebis rixcvidan.sxvadasxva teqnologiuri modulebis Seqmna Cveulebrivimovlenaa sazRvargareTuli warmoebis praqtikaSi. rogorc wesi,maT bazaze iqmnebian e.w. `warmoebis centrebi~ da maTi ricxvimudmivad izrdeba [12]. amasTan unda aRiniSnos, rommikrosistemebis ganviTarebis problemebs teqnologiurimodelebis Seqmna veranairad ver gadawyvets. mikrosistemebiskomponentebis konstruqciis biblioTeka da teqnologia (e.i.konstruqciul-teqnologiuri bazisi) arsebobis pirobebSisaWiroa modulebis SesaZleblobebis SeTavazeba potenciurimomxmareblisaTvis.mecnierebisa da teqnikis ganviTarebis tendencia gviCvenebs,rom aranairi zRvari nano-, mikro- da makroteqnikas Soris ararsebobs. realurad am sferos teqnologiebis ufro axlosaaTeTri Suqis brtyel speqtrTan, vidre maxaiaTebeli speqtriszolebTan an xazebTan. TiToeuli mimarTulebis gansakuTrebulobisda gamorCeulobis codna saSualebas iZleva mizanmimarTuladmovaxdinoT maTi ganviTareba drois gansazRvrulintervalSi. mikrosistemuri teqnikisaTvis dReisaTvis gadamwyvetrgols warmoadgens teqnologiuri modulebis qselis Seqmnisaucilebloba.amrigad,1. ar arsebobs mikrosistemuri teqnikis erTiani teqnologia,romlis drosac masalebze erTi tipis operaciebiszemoqmedebiT Seiqmneba sxvadasxva konstruqcia;49


2. mikroeleqtronikisagan gansxvavebiT mikrosistemuriteqnika xasiaTdeba, pirvel rigSi, teqnologiuri da arakonstruqciuli modulebis nakrebiT;3. mikrosistemuri teqnikis nakeTobebi orientirebuliakonkretuli gamoyenebisaTvis, e.i. warmoadgens SekveTils.calkeuli nakeTobebisaTvis SerCeuli unda iyosoptimaluri teqnologiuri modelebi;4. mikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTarebis safuZvelswarmoadgens teqnologiuri modelebis sakmaod farTospeqtris Seqmna.2.3. mikro da nano sistemebis sawarmoo kompaniebiswarmatebis principebi da analizi.investiciis arCevaSi erT-erT mniSvnelovan sakiTxia dagansakuTrebiT sariskod iTvleba investiciis kapitalisinvesticiaze dabrunebis niSani. warsulSi maRali teqnologiadid zemoqmedebas axdenda sazogadoebaze. dRes, rodesac uamravisamrewvelo dargia, maRali teqnologia agrZelebs adamianTacxovrebis gansazRvras dedamiwaze. es mTavrdeba erTiteqnologiuri revoluciis meoreTi SecvliT`biznes kvireuli~ axlaxan aqveynebs specialur ganxcadebasda cdilobs iwinaswarmetyvelos, rom mTavari siZneleebi ukanaa,cvlilebebi mosalodnelia 21-e aswleulSi. daskvna metadsainteresoa teqnologiisaTvis. sainformacio revolucia,rogorc mosalodnelia ganagrZobs mwarmoeblobis zrdasekonomikis momdevno 10 welSi. `biznes kvireuli~ elodeba, rominformaciaze damokidebuli samrewvelo dargebi, rogoricaafinansebi, matareblebi, sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba, mniSvnelovnadSeicvleba. mravali msxvili teqnologiebis miRwevebis talRamosalodnelia bioteqnologiebis da mikro eleqtro meqanikuri50


sensorebis Sedegad, axali mrewvelobis dargebi, rogorcmosalodnelia gamoCndebian Semdgom aTwleulSi.qveynebi, romlebic arian siaxlis danergvis politikismimdevrebi, aTavisufleben vaWrobas da xsnian finansur sistemebsiqnebian konkurentunariani kompaniebi. mwarmoeblebi, romlebicfloben axal teqnologiebs, SeZleben saukeTeso mogebas dayvelaze maRal sabazro wils. mTavari dislokacia dagaurkvevloba muSebisaTvis iqneba gardauvali, radgangamoyenebul iqneba axali teqnologiebi. teqnologiis aqciebigazrdian ekonomikur da finansur energo damokidebulebas,rogorc amerikaSi, aseve mTels msoflioSi.`biznes kvireulSi~ nawinaswarmetyvelebi axaliteqnologiebi uzrunvelyofs warmatebas Semdeg sferoebSi:• sainformacio teqnologia;• bioteqnologia;• mikro eleqtro meqanikuri sensorebi.aRniSnuli sakvanZo teqnologiebi moicaven Semdeg sabazrowilebs:• finansebi;• matareblebi;• sabiTumo da sacalo vaWroba;• axlad warmoqmnil dargebs safuZvlad daedebabioteqnologia da mikro eleqtro meqanikuri sensorebi.es gaxlavT yvelaze optimaluri prognozi teqnologiebzeda maT kompaniebze. es niSnavs, rom aTwleulis manZilzegamarTlebulia am biznesSi kapitaldabandeba.sawarmoo kapitalis mizanisamrewvelos sawarmoo kapitalis mTavari mizanimdgomareobs imaSi, rom investorebs daubrunos maqsimalurimogeba. saukeTeso fondebi aRweven aqciebisa dabrunebis umaRles51


normas. magaliTebi, romlebic naCvenebia cxrilSi asaxaven erTerTiprestiJuli firmis `Kleiner-Perkinsis~ siliciumis velissawarmoo kapitals.kompania investiciebiinvestiiciisdawyebis drodabruneba@Home $6.4 mil. 1995 8700%Netscape $5.0 mil. 1995 8000%Amazon.com $8.0 mil. 1996 4400%Exite $3.0 mil. 1994 7200%Rambus $2.8 mil. 1990 5100%Citrix Systems $3.3 mil. 1989 4000%cxrili 5. kompaniebis sawarmoo kapitalidid warmatebas Tan axlavs warumateblobac. Kleiner-Perkins-is 79sazogadoebrivi kompaniis sainvesticio porTveli iTvlis: 19 didwarumateblobas, 5 kompania daubrunda amerikis safondo birJasda 55 kompania gadakeTda sxva kompaniad. klainer parkinsmadaamuSava da gamosca rekomendaciebis krebuli, raTa Semcirdeswarmoebis sawarmoo kapitalis warumateblobis albaToba, xolomisma megobarma jon doerma Seajama es rekomendaciebi aseTiTanmimdevrobiT:1. teqnikuri mxare• Rebulobs saukeTeso teqnologias samuSaosTvis.investiciaze didi mogebebi wamierad ar xdeba.2. warmatebuli marTva• saukeTeso xalxi saSualo teqnologiebiT iqnebianufro warmatebulni, vidre saukeTeso teqnologiebisusti marTviT.• kargi menejerebis ukmarisobis gadalaxvis strategia.• SeiZineT saukeTeso operaciuli sistemebi metadwarmatebuli kompaniebisagan.52


• gadauxadeT maT, raTa Caifiqron idea bazrismoTxovnis Sesabamisad.• maSin SesTavazeT maT gaSvebis dafinanseba.3. strategiuli sabazro centri:• didi sabazro zoma;• swrafadmzardi bazari (weliwadSi 20%-iT zrdiT da100%-iT gazrdis SesaZleblobiT);• samomxmareblo bazari (Ria karebiT axladmomsvlelTaTvis).4. finansirebis Wkvianuri strategia• mcire finansireba ayovnebs nakeTobis gaSvebas datalantebis daqiravebas.• umaRlesi finansireba amcirebs warmatebis SimSilsda amcirebs investiciebze dabrunebas.5. gadauxdelobis arsi• bazari ar icdis: an damaarsebeli miawodebs an viRackidev sxva.samrewvelos sawarmoo kapitali, finansirebuli marTvafirmis sawarmoo kapitaliT axali kompaniis finansirebadakavSirebulia bevr mistikasa da undoblobasTan maRalteqnikurmwarmoeblebs Soris. mwarmoeblebi sruliaddarwmunebulni arian, rom maTi teqnologia damTavrda da undamoaswron bazarSi.sawarmoo kapitalis firmebma ician, rom nakeToba veRargasaRdeba, da bevris gamoSvebas ver gauZlebs bazari daramdenadac kargi teqnologia ar unda iyos igi, mainc daiketeba.maT ician, rom teqnologia es aris kompaniis warmatebis mxoloderTi standartuli bloki. maT isic ician, rom ar arsebobsSemdegi axali gamoSvebis momavali warmatebis garantia. amismixedviT, maT unda icodnen, rom Semdegma warumateblobam53


SeiZleba moutanos kompanias mTeli investiciis saSualoSemosavali.sabolood finansirebis marTvaSi SeiZleba gamovyoTSemdegi:mosalodneli saSualo Semosavali yvela investiciisaTvis.• finansirebidan 5 welSi 10-jer sainvesticio raodenoba. eswarmoadgens 30-60% mogebas weliwadSi.minimum safinanso done:• 5 milioni dolaris farglebSi, sadazRvevo kompaniebisa dasapensio fondebis mier. didi safinanso donis gamo,TiToeul sawarmoo kapitalis firmas SeuZlia mxolodSezRuduli raodenobis axal gaSvebebze mxardaWera.kompaniis momavali mniSvneloba.• gayidva droSi, anu (damokidebuleba fasi/Semosavali) *(sufTa Semosavali dabegvris Semdeg).tipiuri siliciumis velSi, finansurad SeTanxmebulia, romkompaniis damfuZvneblebi yiduloben kompaniis Cveulebrivaqciebs fasis garkveul wilSi. investorebi yidulobenprivilegirebul aqciebs SedarebiT maRal fasSi. (daaxloebiT 10-20 jer meti). samagierod ufro didi fasis sanacvlod,aqcionerebi iReben mogebas, romelic damfuZneblebs ara aqvT.axali kompania tipiurad uzrunvelyofs vrcel sasamarTloperiods damfuZneblebisaTvis, romelic eqvemdebareba mTliangadaxdas sazogadoebis sawyisi winadadebidan an aRmoCenidan [13].kompaniis procenti sawarmoo kapitalis firmidangaTvlilia ZiriTadad mosalodneli saSualo Semosavlidan,yvela investiciaze 5 wlis Semdeg kompaniis mosalodnelisabazro fasidan. magaliTad:• damfuZneblebi gegmaven moTxovnilebas 10 milion dolarsfinansirebuli aqciidan.• damfuZneblebi gegmaven 75 milion dolars 5 wlis Semdeg10% mogebiT, dabegvris Semdeg.54


• warmoeba, romelsac axali kompania ganekuTvneba, eqnebasaSualo ricxvi P/E 20.• es 5 wlis Semdeg dagegmil axal kompanias moutans 150milion dolars, mosalodneli iyo sawarmoo kapitalisdabruneba 100 milioni dolari.• damfuZneblebi da mosamsaxureebi dautoveben kompanias 33%.Tu damaarseblebs ara aqvT araviTari Zveli angariSebifulis keTebis kursis, riskis koeficientma SesaZlebelia essakuTreba Seamciros mniSvnelovnad.axali kompaniis sakuTrebis procenti – xSirad sayrdeniwertilia mwarmoeblisaTvis. kompaniis marTva gansazRvrulia,rogorc monopoliuri gamoyeneba 50%-ze meti aqciebiT, romeliciZleva xmis micemis uflebas. damfuZneblebs undodaTSeenarCunebinaT kompaniis mflobeloba. investorebs erTiT,Cveulebriv ar SeuZlaiT gaakeTon es, ramdenadac isini undaiyvnen uflebamosilni, rom moxsnan an gadaayenon damaarseblebi.sawarmoo kapitalis firmebs SeuZliaT uzrunvelyonmarketingis arsebuli mxare Semdegi tipis axali gaSvebisaTvis:• am mimarTulebis regulireba metad saimedoawarmatebisaTvis;• pirvelive niSnisTanave problemis gamosworeba;• marketingis konkurentunariani strategiis formulireba dadamuSaveba;• maRali donis marTvis Sevseba;• kompaniis gawonasworeba swori infrastruqturisformirebisas mizandasaxuli bazrisaTvis;• strategiuli Tanamegobrobis Semsubuqeba, romlebic sxniankars didi bazrisaken;• gamyidvelebisa da klientebis garantiebis uzrunvelyofa.amis sanacvlod, isini iTxoven maTi aqciebis maRalSefasebas, korporatiul partniorebTan SedarebiT, romlebicCveulebriv interesdebian mxolod axali teqnologiebiT.55


evri teqnikuri mwarmoebeli upiratesobas aniWebs, romhqondeT 100% kuTvnileba kompaniaSi umniSvnelo sabazroSefasebiT, vidre patara procenti kompaniidan didi sabazroSefasebiT. am ukanaskneli meTodiT SesaZlebelia adamianimdidari gaxdes. siliciumis velis bevrma kompaniamdamaarseblebi datova mcire wiliT. xolo mcirewilianikompaniebi dResac milionerebad xdian investorebs.mikrosistemebis maRali interesebi damokidebulia Semdegkoeficientebze:• sabazro moTxovnilebaa iafi, msxvilmasStabiani, meqanikurikomponentebi;• bevri bazrebi hpirdebian gamarjvebis oqros Tass, magramrogorc mosalodnelia, mikro eleqtro meqanikurisensorebis teqnologia iqneba 21-e saukunis ekonomikiszrdis mkvebavi;• 1C industriam Seqmna mikrosistemebisaTvis xelmisawvdomiteqnologiebis infrastruqtura;• akademikosebma dakarges unari ganaxorcielon progresi 1Cmikroeleqtronul teqnologiebSi.mikro mikrosistemebis bazarma iwinaswarmetyvela, rom igigaizrdeba momaval wlebSi SesamCnevad. SemuSavebul iqna sabazrodatvirTva. erT-erTi axali movlenaa proeqtirebis sistemebisSeswavla, romelic dafinansebulia amerikis Tavdacvissaministros mier.mikrosistemebis sruli bazari gviCvenebs, rom 2003 welSiigi unda gaizardos 20-30%-iT, da igi miawevs 10 miliard dolarzemets. yvelaze mzard wils moicavs mikro opto eleqtro meqanikurisensorebi da radio sixSiris mikro eleqtro meqanikurisensorebi.mikrosistemebis sabazro zrdis saerTo raodenobanawinaswarmetyvelebia, 5 dolariT zrdisas 8,5 miliardidolari 1996-dan 2003 wlamde. Tu es proeqtireba datvirTulia56


didi SecdomebiT, unda iyos didi SesaZlebloba sawarmookapitalis investiciebis mikrosistemebis biznesTan.xelsawyoebigayidvebizrda1996 2003wnevis maCveneblebi$390-$760 mil. $1,100- $2, 150 mil. 10-20%/w.inerciuli maCveneblebi$350 - $540 mil. $700-$1,400 mil. 10-20%/w.siTxeebis mikrogamzomebi $400 - $550 mil. $3,000 - $4,450 mil. 25 - 35 %/w.optika (mikro optoeleqtro meqanikurisensorebi)$25 - $40M mil. $440-$990 mil. 40 - 60 %/w.radio sixSiris mikroeleqtro meqanikuri- $40-$120 mil. N/Asensorebisxvebi$510-$1,050 mil. $1,230-$2,470 mil. 10 - 20 %/w.saerTo raodenoba$1,675-$2,940 mil. $6,500-$11,540 mil. 20 - 30 %/w.cxrili 6. biznes statistikaproduqciagayidvebizrda1995 2005wnevis maCveneblebi$1,OOO mil. $2,500 mil. 10%/w.siCqaris maCveneblebi$400 mil. $800 mil. 7%/ w.siTxeebis gamzomebi$10 mil. $100 mil. 26%/ w.monacemTa Senaxva- $1,OOO mil. N/Adisplei- $1,OOO mil. N/AbioCipebi- $200 mil. N/Aradio sixSiris da mikro optoeleqtro meqanikuri sensorebi $10 mil. $1,OOO mil. 58%/ w.sxvebi$30 mil. $100 mil. 1 3 %/ w.mikro eleqtro meqanikurisensorebi saerTo raodenobamikro eleqtro meqanikurisensorebis arasensoruli saerToraodenoba$1,450 mil. S6.700 mil. 17 %/ w.$50 mil. $3,400 mil. 52%/ w.cxrili 7. brizekis mier catarebuli kvlevis monacemebisxva sabazro prognozi SemuSavebuli iyo brizekisagan 1995wels. es iyo maSin yvelaze pesimisturi prognozi, ramdenadac esorientirebuli iyo nakeTobaze, romlebsac mikrosistemebiskompania gayidis. umetesi sxva informacia orientirebulia mikroeleqtro meqanikuri sensorebis teqnologiebis sistemebis da57


qvesistemebis gayidvaze. brizekis es informacia gviCvenebs, romSesamCnevi potencialis zrda arsebobda wnevis maCveneblisbazarze, monacemTa Senaxvaze, displeize, bioprincipebze damikrosistemebze.maSin ra aris mTavari? marketingis problemebis ramodenimetipi:• vin iyidis amas?• ratom iyidian klientebi amas?• bazari arsebobs;• ramdenad didia mTlianad misawvdomi bazari;• ramdenad didia momsaxurebisaTvis misawvdomi bazari (mmb);• mmb-dan mosalodneli procenti, romelic iqnebadabrunebuli;• ra warmoadgens bazris zrdas?• rogoria bazris zrdis sawvavi?• ra warmoadgens kompaniis konkurentunarianobisupiratesobas?• realuri konkurentunarianoba, upiratesoba sicocxlisunarianobaSiufro xangrZlivi droisaTvis;• konkurentunarianobis upiratesoba (patentebi, savaWrosaidumloebebi, resursebTan SeRweva da sxva);• visTan konkurirebs kompania?• ra warmoadgens konkurentebis did sazRvars?• marketingis rogori strategia iqneba gamoyenebuli(Rirebulebis lideroba, diferenciacia, centri).bevri inJineri Tvlis, rom maTi `pirmSo~ Seuqmnis axalbazars. Tu saqme asea, finansirebis warmatebis albaTobaSesamCnevad Semcirebulia, axali bazris Seqmnis moTxovnilebisgamo, axali nakeTobis Seqmnis damatebiT. amis garda bazrisSemqmneli pionerebi xSirad mimarTaven sxva gzas, itaceben axladdamuSavebul bazrebs [14].erT-erTi metad naTeli magaliTia am strategiis Apple58


kompiuteri, romelmac Seqmna bazari personalurikompiuterebisaTvis.warmatebuli kompaniebis ganviTareba.kompaniis dawyebisas yvelam unda icodes, sxvadasxvasiaxleebi iTxoven kompaniis zrdis sxvadasxva stadiebs. es exebayvela mosamsaxures, gansakuTrebiT ki damaarseblebs. kompaniisganviTarebis sawyis stadiaze yvelaze aucilebeligamocdilebebi dakavSirebulia Canafiqris realur nakeTobadgardaqmnaSi, an momsaxurebaSi. ar arsebobs xelmZRvaneli, romwinaswar Tqvas rogor da ra gakeTdes. es stadia aris stadia,sadac mwarmoeblebis gamocdileba yvelaze sasargebloa.rodesac kompania izrdeba, igive gamocdilebebi, romlebic iyvnensafuZveli kompaniis sawyisi miRwevebisaTvis, xdebian problemebisbirTvi. Cveulebrivi damfuZneblebi ver xedaven cvlilebebissaWiroebebs, magram amas investorebi mSvenivrad amCneven.investorebi xSirad axdenen cvlilebebs, marTvis axali jgufisCamoyalibebiT. SemoqmedebiTi damaarseblebi SeiZleba iyvnengadayenebulni an ganTavisuflebulni.umetes warmatebul kompaniebSi axali mTavariadministratori axorcielebs strategias, amyarebs diqtaturasoperaciis TiToeuli aspeqtis marTviT. aseTi mTavariadministratorebis moqmedebebi warmatebulia. siliciumis velisgaSvebebSi CarTulebi arian bob svansoni da jek mifordi, orivecnobilni arian piradi marTviT, gaSvebebis rekvizitebiTnakeTobis ganviTarebis xelmZRvanelobaSi.xangrZlivi droiT, rodesac erTpirovnul diqtators aRarSeuZlia ganaxorcielos kidev didi saqmeebi dgeba momenti, rocakompaniam unda daiwyos axali problemebis damuSaveba. isevmTavar administrators ar unda, an ar SeuZlia, rom Secvalosda am dros investorebi erTvebian cvlilebebSi. am stadiaSiCarTulia ramodenime adamiani, romelic pasuxismgebelia59


kompaniis biznesis wilze. mTavari administratori valdebuliayuradReba miaqcios am direqtorebs da CarTos isini saerToxelmZRvanelobis strategiaSi. aris kidev ori stadia kompaniiswarmatebuli zrdisTvis, magram isini ramdenadac Zalianglobalur masStabebs exeba, ar arian gaTvaliswinebuli gaSvebisprocesSi.naxazi 5. sawarmoos marTvis sqemaamrigad SeiZleba gamovitanoT Sedegebi:axali sawarmoo kapitali afinansebs maRal teqnikurgaSvebas avsebda amerikul bazars, moaxdina nakeTobebisadaprogramebis msoflio evolucia, revolucia da aaRorZinaamerikuli ekonomika. finansirebis done ukanasknel wlebSi60


Seadgens 15 miliard dolars weliwadSi, raTa Seqmnas axalimsoflio saqmiani liderebi [15].am sawarmoo kapitalis investiciebidan SeiZleba gamovitanoTsaintereso daskvnebi:gaSvebis kompaniebma unda misdion sawarmoo kapitalisdafinansebis mimarTulebas, rogorc:firmis sawarmoo kapitali qiraobs saukeTeso marketings.isini Tavs uflebas aZleven, raTa Seqmnan Zvirfasi sabazroadgili.isini deben kapitals seqtorSi, romlebic metad damajerebeliada moitanen did finansur dabrunebas.sawarmoo kapitalis mimarTulebis Tvalis devnebisasaucilebeli moTxovna ar aris, rom SevqmnaT sawarmoo kapitalisdafinansebuli kompaniis nakeTobis kopireba. es niSnavs, romgaSveba axlos unda iyos sk dafinansebis kompaniasTan, an iyosmisi strategiuli partniori, klienti da SesaZlebeliapirdapiri konkurentic ki. biznes_gegmis ganviTarebis stadiisperiodSi damfuZneblebma unda gadasinjon myari investiciebisawarmoo kapitalis mwvervalebis sia. Tanamedrove mikroeleqtro meqanikuri sensorebis da mikro opto eleqtromeqanikuri sensorebis teqnologiebis arsebuli wilidResdReobiT modis aSS_ze, evropuli da aziuri mTavrobebidan.momdevno 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi mosalodnelia mikro eleqtromeqanikuri sensorebis gayidvebis didi zrda. mosalodnelia, romsabazro zrda elis saavtomobilo sferos, kavSirgabmulobas,bioteqnologiebs da sxva. mikro eleqtro meqanikuri sensorebiiTvleba msoflio mrewvelobad, swored mis safuZvelze 21saukuneSi amerikuli kompaniebi gaakeTeben dominirebas, radganacmisi sabazro SesaZleblobebi realuria.61


2.4. mikrositemebisa da nanoteqnologiebisnacinaluri da regionaluri programebisrealizacia daformirebis organizaciaaxal samecniero-teqnikur mimarTulebaSi (mikrosistemuriteqnika da nanoteqnologiebi) nacionaluri da regionaluriformirebis msoflio gamocdilebis analizi cxadyofs, rom undaarsebobdes ramodenime aucilebeli organizaciuli elementi. amelementebs ganekuTvnebian:• axali samecniero-teqnikuri mimarTulebis ganviTarebaSisazogadoebis im moTxovnilebebis gamovlena da formireba,romlebic gavlenas moaxdenen ekonomikaze, teqnikaze,warmoebaze, jandacvaze, ekologiaze, ganaTlebaze,Tavdacvasa da nacionalur usafrTxoebaze;• am moTxovnebis sayovelTaoba da maTi Sefaseba nacionaluran sxva donis programebis formaSi;• programebis realizaciis saSualebebis amorCeva,masStabebisa da dafinansebis wyaroebis CaTvliT;• marTvis sistemebis, Sesrulebis meTodebisa da evoluciuriprogramebis Seqmna. sistema unda iyos moqnili da gaxsnilifarTo momxmareblisaTvis;• damxmare sainformacio qselis Seqmnis uzrunvelyofa.yvelaze sapasuxismgeblo pirveli etapi iwyebafundamenturi da demonstraciul-gamoyenebiTi kvlevebisakademiur (sauniverstiteto) samecniero centrebSi rezultatebisSegroveba.ekonomikisa da qveynis usafrTxoebis gazrdis daganviTarebisaTvis pirveli Canasaxebis droulad danaxvamikrosistemuri teqnikis mimarTulebaSi, emsaxureba am axalimimarTulebis dargis kvlevebis gaZlierebas da Semdgomstimulirebas. magaliTad, aSS-s mTavrobis didma dainteresebammikronuli meqanizmebis sferoSi uzrunvelyo mikrosistemebis62


ganviTareba [16]. saWiroa saxelmwifo struqturaSi arsebobdesorganizaciebi, romlebic efeqturi ideebis `daWeras~uzrunvelyofen. aseTi organizaciis ricxvs miekuTvneba amerikisTavdacvis saministros perspeqtiuli kvlevebis saagento (DARPA),romlis erTerT startegiul punqts warmoadgens maRali riskisada maRalefeqturi proeqtebis investireba (High-focus).da mainc ratomaa pirvel etapze saWiro da aucilebelisaxelmwifos finansuri daxmareba? nakeTobebis damuSavebasa dabazarze maT gamotanas sWirdeba 5-10 weli (cxrili 1). Tusaxelmwifo dainteresebulia am mimarTulebis swrafgaviTarebaSi, maSin man Tavis Tavze unda aiRos sawyisi xarjebi,romlebic am inovaciis kvlevaze da formirebaze daixarja. racfarToa samuSao fronti, miT ufro saimedoa danaxarjebisanazRaureba sagadasaxado sistemidan da/an axali produqciisgayidvidan.nacionaluri ekonomikis ganviTarebis tradiciebisgaTvaliswinebiT, misi finansuri simZlavreebi da mizani,dafinansebis meTodebi da realizaciis formebi yalibdebaprogramebis SemadgenlobaSi. aq did rols TamaSobssaxelmwifos ambiciebi. magaliTad samxreT korea, dainaxa ramikrosistemuri teqnologiis SesaZleblobebi, Sevida maRaliteqnologiebis qveynebis SvideulSi (G7-proeqti) 17]. aseTive dididaintereseba gamoavlina amerikis Seertebulma Statebma, roca`nacionaluri nanoiniciativa~ (NNI) miiRo, CaTvala rananoteqnologiebi axali industriuli revoluciis fuZemdeblad.aSS-m orjer gazarda finansireba nano-kvlevebisaTvisa dananoteqnologiebisaTvis, im mizniT, rom uaxloes xuT weliwadSidaikavos da daimkvidros pirveli adgili msoflioSi [18].63


cxrili 8. mikrosistemuri teqnikis produqciis evolucia№ produqti kvlevebiproduqtisganviTArebafasisvardnasrulikomercializacia1. wnevismaCveneblebi1954-1960 ww.1960-1975 ww.1975-1990 ww.1990 w.2. aqselerometrebi 1974-1985 ww .1985-1990 ww.1990-1998 ww.1998 w.3. gazis sensorebi 1986-1994 ww.1994-1998 ww.1998-2005 ww.2005 w.4. sarqvelebi 1980-1988 ww.1988-1996 ww.1996-2002 ww.2002 w.5. mfrqvevelebi 1972-1984 ww.1984-1990 ww.1990-2002 ww.2002 w.6. fotonika/displei 1980-1986ww .1986-1998 ww.1998–2004 ww.2004 w.7. bioqimiurisensorebi1980-1994 ww.1994-2000 ww.2000-2004 ww.2004 w.8. radiosixSirulikomponentebi1994-1998 ww.1998-2001 ww.2001-2005 ww.2005 w.9. donismaCveneblebi1982-1990 ww.1990-1996 ww.1996-2002 ww.2002 w.10. mikrolere 1977-1982 ww.1993-1998 ww.1998-2002 ww.2002 w.64


Tumca veranairi ambicia Sedegebamde ver migviyvans Tu ararsebobs organizaciuli safuZvlebi da ar xorcieldeba maTirealizacia nacionaluri marTvis sistemebis SeqmniT daprogramebis Sesrulebis mxardaWeriT. am sistemis calkeulielementebi mimarTulia programis sxvadasxva etapisrealizaciaze. sqematurad sistemis elementebi asaxulia naxazze1. aRsaniSnavia, rom nacionaluri programis ganviTarebis donezedamokidebulebiT icvleba mocemuli elementebis wili da ricxvi.ilustrirebis mizniT naxazze 2 mocemulia mxardaWerisevropuli qseli Minanet. kidev erTxel aRsaniSnavia, romnacionaluri programis organizaciis da marTvis sistemismkacrad da mowesrigebulad warmarTvis da mxardaWeris gareSeSeuZlebelia iqneboda axali samecniero-teqnologiurimimarTulebis aTviseba da ganviTareba. NNI-Si xazgasmiT arisaRniSnuli infrasturqturis ganviTarebis mxardaWera. izrdebaara marto siliciumis teqnologiis bazaze SekveTebze momuSavewarmoebebis centrebis ricxvi, aramed axdeba da inergeba maTiteqnologiuri baza naxazi 3) [19].naxazi 6. nacionaluri marTvis sistemebebisa da programisSerulebis uzrunvelyofis elementebi65


naxazi 7. evropaSi programebis Caketili sistema mikrosistemebissferoSinaxazi 8. mikrosistemuri teqnikis sferoSi investiciebis zrda66


mikrosistemuri teqnikis am axali samecniero-teqnikurimimarTulebis ganviTareba moiTxovs yvela monawile mxarisgansistemur midgomas misi ganviTarebis procesSi. am monawileebswarmoadgenen saxelmwifo marTvis organoebi, organizaciebi(samecniero-kvleviTi institutebi, universitetebi, didi da mciresawarmoebi, asociaciebi da sxv.), kvleviTi jgufebi,damproeqteblebis da specialistTa sxva jgufebi.mikrosistemuri teqnikis sferoSi monawileTa SorisurTierToba realizdeba Sesabamisi organizaciuli struqturiT(doniT).nacionaluri programis pirveli done. programis amocana _gansazRvros mikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTarebis veqtoriqveyanaSi. programa xdeba qveynis samecniero-teqnikuri daekonomikuri politikis nawili. amasTan dakavSirebiT igi TavisamocanebSi asaxavs am politikis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblebs. Tavis-Tavad es amocanebi balansirebuli unda iyvnen mTavrobisa dasxva finansirebis wyaroebis finanuri mxardaWeris SesaZleblobebidoneze.NEXUS-is kvlevis masalebze dayrdnobiT SesaZlebeliadaskvnebis gamotana [20]. sam regionaluri lideri (samxreTamerika _ aSS da kanada, iaponia da dasavleT evropa)yovelwliurad mikrosistemebis teqnikis ganviTarebisaTvisxarjavs ramodenime aseul milion dolars. CineTma, taivanma dasamxreT koream, miuxedavad imisa, rom ar gaaCniaT detaluraddamuSavebuli nacionaluri programebi, didi adgili dauTmesmikrosistemur teqnikas nacionaluri ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi.centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi jer mxolod exlaiwyeba mikrosistemuri teqnikis Canasaxebis ganviTarebisdemonstracia, magram isini miekuTvnebian axali asociaciurisaxelmwifoebis ricxvs (NAS – newly associated States) da avtomaturadxdebian 1ST (User-friendly information Society) programis monawileni.dsT-s qveynebi ki jer Zalian Sors arian aseTi nacionaluriprogramebis dafinansebisgan.67


mikrosistemuri teqnikis ganviTarebis konsolidaciisgaZlierebis meore donea _ asociaciis Seqmna, romeliczemoqmedebas moaxdens qveyanaSi mikrosistemuli teqnikisganviTarebaze. rac maRalia nacionaluri programis done, miTmetia asociacia da monawileTa didi wrea CarTuli masSi.mesame done _ firmebs Soris SeTanxmeba qveyanaSimikrosistemuri teqnikis nakeTobebis jgufis ganviTarebaze. amprocess aqvs rogorc nacionaluri, aseve saerTaSoriso xasiaTi.meoTxe done _ saorganizacio struqturebis amocanebisrealizaciis efeqturoba. es done ZiriTadad gansazRvravsqseliT uzrunvelyofas da internetis bazaze informaciisgavrcelebas.68


3. ექსპერიმენტული ნაწილი3.1. Altium Designer Summer 08 – sistemaSikomponentebis modelebisada biblioTekis damuSavebamikroeleqtronul mrewvelobaSi ukanasknel aTwleulSiganxorcielebulma revoluciam gamoiwvia eleqtronulixelsawyoebisa da mowyobilobebisa iseTi nairsaxeobis gamoCenabazarze, rom TiToeuli maTgani yovel eqvs TveSi moraluradcvdeba da adgils uTmobs ufro Tanamedrove, komfortul dabazris moTxovnilebaze zustad orientirebul saqonels. ammovlenis fexdafex mimdinareobs aseTive swrafi cvla dakonkurencia im programuli paketebs Soris, romlisgamoyenebiTac iqmneba ufro Tanamedrove da ufro kompfortulimowyobilobebi. aseTi gamudmebuli da uwyveti konkurenciispirobebSi saxeze gvaqvs avtomatizirebuli daproeqtebis sistemispaketebis farTo asortimenti. mcireodeni damatebebis Setana daaxali operaciuli ciklis damateba did komforts uqmnisdamproeqteblebs da Sesabamisad gadadian ufro daxvewili damartivad marTvadi sistemebis gamoyenebaze.Altium Designer Summer 08 es aris yvelaze ufroukanaskneli da daxvewili versia avtomatizirebulidaproeqtebis im mravalricxovan sistemebs Soris, romlebsacesoden didi warmatebiT iyeneben damproeqteblebi. eleqtrulisqemebis daproeqtebisas daproeqtebis avtomatizirebuli sistemasmonacemTa bazaSi unda arsebobdes srulyofili biblioTeka imkomponentebisa, romlebis safuZvelzec ganxorcieldebanebismieri sirTulis eleqtuli sqemis daproeqteba. AltiumDesigner Summer 08-iT warmodgenili biblioTeka Seicavs 86000komponents69


(www.altium.com/Community/support/Libraries/Designer6libraries - yvelabiblioTekis aRwera).Altium Designer Summer 08 -is biblioTekis koncepciakomponentebi warmoadgenen eleqtronuli nakeTobebisZiriTad blokebs. proeqtis momzadebisa da damuSavebis drossaWiroa maTi warmodgena sxvadasxvagvarad: logikuri simbolosqemaze (lss), paltaze dasmis adgili (Footprint), modelirebisaTvisSpace formatSi aRwera, IBIS-modelSi aRwera, samganzomilebiansivrceSi mza platis moculobiTi warmodgenisaTvis dasignalebis srulyofilebis analizisaTvis. Altium Designer –Silogikuri simbolo aris sawyisi wertili. TiToeuli komponentigansazRvrulia minimum dasaxelebiT mainc sqemebis biblioTekaSi.is SeiZleba Seicavdes gamomyvanebs da grafikul simboloserTeulovani an mravalseqciuri warmodgeniT da gaaCndesalternatiuli asaxva. aRsaniSnavia rom iqamde sanam komponentSiar aris damatebuli modeli, maTi praqtikaSi gamoyeneba arSeiZleba.Altium Designer–is farglebSi erTmniSvnelovnigagebisTvis ganvmartoT xSirad gamoyenebuli terminebi.komponenti: proeqtSi gamoyenebuli obieqtis saerTodasaxeleba.simbolo: sqemaze ganlagebisaTvis komponentis grafikuladwarmodgenis saerTo dasaxeleba. simbolo SeiZleba Seicavdesgrafikul obieqtebs, romlebic gansazRvraven mis garegnul saxesda gamomyvanebs eleqtruli SeerTebebisaTvis.fizikuri komponenti SesaZlebelia damontaJebuli iyosplataze.logikuri simbolo: fizikuri komponentis sqemuriwarmodgena.nawili (seqcia): zogierTi komponenti, rogorebicaarezistorebis jaWvi an rele, SeiZleba agebuli iyos seriuladcalke seqciebis (nawilebis) saxiT, romlebic Tavis mxriv70


SesaZlebelia ganlagebulni iyvnen sqemaze damoukideblad(ganixileba, rogorc mravalseqciuri komponenti).modeli: warmoadgens komponents, romelic gamoiyenebapraqtikuli moqmedebis sxvadasxva sferoSi.naxazi 9. komponentis modelebis failSi warmodgenis sxvadasxvavariantidasmis adgili: es dasaxleba gamoiyeneba modelebisaTvis,romelic warmoadgens komponents damzadebul beWdur plataze.dasmis adgili erTad ajgufebs sqemaze kontaqturi velebs dakomponentis korpusis gamosaxulebebs. is gansazRvravs platisnawils, romelic saWiroa montaJisa da plataze komponentisfizikuri SeerTebebisaTvis.71


iblioTeka: es aris faili, romelic Seicavskomponentebisa da modelebis krebuls.modelebis biblioTeka: faili, romelic Seicavskomponentebis modelebis krebuls.komponentebis biblioTeka: faili, romelic Seicavs sqemurikomponentebis krebuls.integrirebuli biblioTeka: faili, romelic Seicavssqemuri komponentebis da maTi asocirebuli modelebis krebuls.monacemTa bazebis biblioTeka: komponentebis biblioTeka,sadac yvela simbolos aqvs miniSneba, kavSirebis modeli daparametruli informacia, romelic inaxeba ODBC (Open databaseconnectivity – Ria monacemTa bazebTan dasakavSirebeli interfeisi)safuZvelze arsebul monacemTa bazaSi, ADO (ActiveX Data Objects –ActiveX –is komponentebis krebuli, romelic gamoiyenebamonacemTa bazebSi SesaRwevad) an Exel-is cxrilis warmodgenilbazaSi.sqemaze ganlagebis stadiaSi proeqti warmoadgens imkomponentebis krebuls, romlebic erTmaneTan dakavSirebulniarian logikuri kavSirebiT (nax.1). proeqtis testirebisa darealizaciisaTvis saWiroa funqcionirebis Semowmebis sxvasferoSi gadasvla. es aris modelireba, platis formireba,signalebis srulfasovani analizi da sxva.praqtikuli realizaciis TiToeuli sfero moiTxovsinformacias komponentebis Sesaxeb, aseve am informaciis gamyvanisimboloebis gadanawilebis gzebze. am informaciis zogierTinawili realizaciisaTvis ganTavsebulia modelebis failSi,romlis formati Cveulebriv winaswar gansazRvrulia.aRsaniSnavia, rom signalebis srulyofis modeli IBIS daVRML (Virtual reality modeling language _ vituauri realobissaerTaSoriso ena) an IGES 3D (grafikuli informaciis gacvlissaerTaSoriso ena) windawin unda iyos importirebuli AltiumDesigner-is modelis formatSi. IBIS modeli importirdeba72


uSualod Signal Integrity Model dialogis fanjridan, romelicixsneba SI modelis damatebisas komponentSi. VRML da IGESmodeli ki Semotanili unda iyos PCB3Dlib-Si manamde sanam isinidaematebian sqemis komponentebSi.domenis yvela saWiro informacia inaxeba sqemiskomponentis SigniT, romelic calkeuli damatebulimodelisaTvis Seinaxeba calkeuli interfeisis saSualebiT (sur.2). dakompleqtebuli modeli warmoadgens komponentSi Senaxulimodelebis gavrcelebuli informaciis kombinacias, xolomodelebis domenis Sesaxeb informacia inaxeba modelebisbiblioTekaSi.naxazi 10. kavSirebi TiToeul modelSi da misi nebismieri gadanawilebamoiTxovs modeli gansazRvras Sesabamis dialogis fanjaraSiAltium Designer-is saSualebiT xelmisawvdomia oTxi tipisbiblioTekis gamoyeneba.modelebis biblioTeka _ calkeuli olqebisaTvis modelebiinaxebian `sacavebSi~, e.w. modelebis biblioTekaSi. SPICE –is73


sistemaSi erTi modeli inaxeba erT failSi da asevev ganixilebarogorc erTi damoukidebeli faili (*.MDL, *.CKT). sxvasistemebSi modelebi jgufdebian Cveulebrivad failebisbiblioTekaSi, momxmareblis davalebis mixedviT (*.PcbLib).simboloebis biblioTeka _ Seicavs sqemis komponentebs damaTi modelebis ganmsazRvrel interfeiss (*.SchLib). yovelimodelis ganmsazRvreli interfeisi mierTebulia Tavis Sesabamismodelebis biblioTekasTan.integrirebuli biblioTeka _ es aris simboloebisbiblioTekis krebuli, romelic masTan mierTebuli modelebisbiblioTekebTan erTad `kompilirebulia~ integrirebulbiblioTekaSi (*.IntLib). integrirebuli biblioTekebis Seqmnisupiratesoba isaa, rom komponentebis sruli informaciaxelmisawvdomia erT failSi. integrirebuli biblioTekebisredaqtireba SeuZlebelia wyaroebis gaxnisa da xelaxalikompilirebiT.naxazi 11. komponentebis redaqtoris interfeisi74


naxazi 12. simboloebis redaqtoris samuSao sivrcis gawyobamonacemTa bazebis biblioTeka _ es aris biblioTeka, sadacyvela simbolo, dakavSirebuli modelebi da parametruliinformacia inaxeba ODBC, ADO an Exel-is cxrilis formatismonacemTa bazebSi. bazaSi monacemis yoveli Canaweri, aseve yvelaSenaxuli parametri warmoadgens calkeul komponents. CanaweriSeiZleba Seicavdes miniSnebas inventaris uwyisze ankomponentebis sxva korporaciul monacemebze.aseTi midgomiT sqemuri komponentebi gamoiyenebian mxolodsimboloebis saxiT (maT ar gaaCniaT modelze miniSneba,aRwerilia sqemur biblioTekaSi) stantartul biblioTekebSiSenaxuli dasmis adgilebis, 3D komponentebis da sxv. modelebisgamoyenebiT (dasmis adgilebi an 3D-modelebi).monacemTa bazebis biblioTekis interfeiss warmoadgens*.DBLib dokumenti, romelic aRwers, Tu monacemTa bazebisromeli velebi saWiroa da komponentis romel paramatrs asaxavs75


aza. DBLib monacemTa baza, iseve rogorc sistemis sxvabibilioTekebi, programaSi CairTveba Libraries punqtidan.ganTavsebis moqmedebis Sesrulebisas, monacemTa bazisbiblioTekaSi mowmdeba komponenti da simbolo CaitvirTebamocemuli sqemuri biblioTekidan da modeli daemateba nebismiermiTiTebul models, iseve rogorc xdeba parametrebisSemTxvevaSi.komponenetebis pirobiTi grafikuliaRniSvnis damuSavebavTqvaT, programa Altium Designer ukve gaSvebuliakompiuterSi. axali biblioTekis SeqmnisaTvis saWiroaSevasruloT Semdegi operaciebi: File>new>Library>Schematic Library.simboloebis biblioTekasTan muSaobisaTvis saWiora gavxsnaTfanjara da ganvaTavsoT igi samuSao sivrcis marcxniv, risSemdegac saWiroa gavawyoT samuSao sivrce, e.i. avirCioT sazomierTeulebi da bade. aseTi gawyoba SesaZlebelia movaxdinoTfanjridan Library Editor Workspace, romelic gamoiZaxeba brZanebiTTools>Document Options. gamosul fanjaraSi Units velSi airCevazomis erTeulebi, romlebic SeiZleba iyos metruli an diumuri(Cvens SemTxvevaSi saWiroa davayenoT milimetri). Library EditorOptions velSi saWiroa davayenoT badis biji 2,5 milimetri badisori saxeobisaTvis (Snap – kursoris gadaadgilebis badegrafikuli brZanebis reJimSi, Visible _ ekranze gamosaxuli bade).am velSi badis garda SesaZlebelia kidev sxva parametrebisdayenebac.ganvixiloT komponentis Seqmnis magaliTi mikrosqemismagaliTze, romelic gamosaxulia naxazze 5. komponentisSeqmnisaTvis mocemuli biblioTekis komponentebis siisfanjaraSi SCH Library saWiroa davaWiroT Rilaks Add da gamosulaxal fanjaraSi CavweroT axali komponentis dasaxeleba. Sedegad76


axali komponenti daemateba biblioTekis siis CamonaTvalSi.komponentis Seqmnis Semdegi procesi SesaZloa gavyoT sam etapad:• komponentebis gamomyvanebis dayeneba;• simbolos grafikis daxatva;• parametrebis (atributebis) dayeneba.naxazi 13. komponentis magaliTi _ K1554LA3 mikrosqema1. komponentebis gamomyvanebi iqmneba brZanebiT Place>Pin, ambrZanebis SesrulebisTanave gamomyvani miebmeba kursors daam momentSi saWiroa davaWroT klaviSs Tab, raTa movaxdinoTgamomyvani Tavisebeurebebis dadgena. gaxsnil fanajaraSi(naxazi 6), saWiroa mivuTiToT dasaxeleba da im gamomyvanispoziciuri aRniSvna, romelic Seesabameba mikrosqemiskorpusis gamomyvanis nomers. aucilebeli agreTve gamomyvanissigrZis miTiTebac, sul mcire 2,5 mm; danarCeni parametrebi,rogorebicaa gamomyvanis eleqtruli tipi da specialurisimboloebi, mieTiTeba mogvianebiT. gamomyvanis dayenebisdros igi mimagrebulia kursorTan didi vertikaluri jvriT,meore mxares patara diagonaluri jvari ki gviCvenebsgamomyvanis eleqtrul daboloebas (naxazi 7). komponentispirveli gamomyvanis sqemaze dasmisaTvis saWiroa igiSemovabrunoT 180 gradusiT, romelic xorcieldeba Space77


(probeli) klaviSiT. gamomyvanis dasma xorcieldeba Tagvismarjvena Rilakze daWeriT, ris Sedegadac gamomyvaniseleqtul daboloebaze Cndeba oTxi TeTri wertili.amgvarad gakeTdeba samive gamomyvani ise, rogorc esnaCvenebia me-5 suraTze, mxolod me-3 gamomyvans undamivuTiToT inversia, romelic komponentebis parametrebisTvisebebidan Outside Edge (konuris sazRvarze simbologaredan) velSi Dol (inversiis niSani) niSnis amorCeviT xdeba.naxazi 14. komponentis gamomyvanebis Tvisebebi78


naxazi 15. gamomyvanebis Seqmna2. meore etapze iqmneba pirobiTi grafikuli aRniSvnis Seqmna,risTvisac gamoiyeneba brZanebebi (line, Eliipses, Arc da sxva)Cvens SemTxvevaSi avirCioT brZaneba Place>Line da davxatoTmarTkuTxedi, ise, rogorc es naCvenebia me-5 naxazze. dasaxazixazis sisqe da Tvisebebi SesaZlebelia vcvaloT xatvisprocesSi Tab klaviSze daWeriT. xazis sisqe mieTiTebapirobiTad Smallest, Small, Medium da Large (Small Seesabameba 2,54mm sisqes). xatvis dros SesaZlebelia gamoviyeneoT xuTirejimi, romelzedac gadarTva xorcieldeba Space klaviSiT.grafikuli simbolos xatvis dros SesaZlebelia saWirogaxdes badis bijis Secvla, romelic xdeba G klaviSiT (amdros bade ciklurad gadaerTveba 1, 2,5 da 5 mm-ismniSvnelobebze). saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi CavrToT badis biji,davaWiroT klaviSebs V da G mimdevrobiT, ris SedegadacCamoiSleba meniu, sadac avirCevT brZanebas Set Snap Grid.mikrosqemis pirveli kvanZis Seqmnis msgavsad saWiroagavimeoroT yvela zemoT aRwerili operacia da SevqmnaTdanarCeni samic, amasTan erTad simboloebze gamomyvanebisaRmniSvnelebs unda mivceT saTanado realuri numeracia.komponentis SigniT yoveli axali kvanZis Sesaqmneladsruldeba brZanebaTa Semdegi cikli Tools>New Part. Cvenisqemis pirobebSi 7 da 14 gamomyvanebi miekuTvneba damiwebasda kvebas da maT Cveneba sqemaze ar warmoadgensaucileblobas. uxilavi gamomyvanebis daproeqtebisaTvissaWiroa (brZanebiT Place>Pin) Tab klaviSiT komponentebisTvisebebis punqtidan Sesabamisi aRniSvnis da dasaxelebis79


amorCevis Semdeg CavrToT opcia Hide da velSi Connect TomivaniSnoT im kvanZis dasaxeleba, romelsac unda miuerTdesmocemuli gamomyvani. aseTi gamomyvanebisaTvis iyenebenaRniSvnas 0 Part Number velidan, rac niSnavs rom mocemuligamomyvani ar ekuTvnis mikrosqemis erT-romelime kvanZs.simbolos Seqmnis rezultati naCvenebia naxazze 8.naxazi 16. uxilavi gamomyvanebis Seqmna80


naxazi 17. komponenis Tvisebebi3. PCad PprogramiT sqemis daproeqtebisas zemoTaRwerilimoqmedebebis Sesrulebis Semdeg saWiroa iyo SeerTebiswertilis miTiTeba da aucilebeli atributis RefDes dayeneba.Altium designer programaSi SeerTebis adgili ganisazRvrebasamuSao aris koordinatis sawyisiT, poziciuri aRniSnva(RefDes) ki avtomaturad daemateba mikrosqemis korpuss.simbolos Seqmnis mesame etaps ki warmoadgens atributisdamateba, romlebic SemdgomSi SeiZleba gamoyenebulni iqnenteqsturi dokumentaciis gaformebisaTvis. PCAD-Si es etapimikrosqemis komponentis Seqmnis bolos sruldeboda LibraryExecutive danarTSi. Altium designer programaSi ki iqidangamomdinare, rom biblioTekis strutura Seicvala komponentiiqmneba ukve am etapze. komponentis atributebis SesaqmneladsaWiroa SevasruloT SCH Library velSi mis dasaxelebazeTagvis Rilakze orjer dawkapuneba. gamosul komponentebis81


Tvisebebis fanjaraSi (naxazi 9) saWiroa mieTiTos komponentispoziciuri aRniSnvis prefiqsi da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSidavamatoT parametrebi, romlebic SemdgomSi SesaZloagamoyenebul iqnes specifikaciis Sesaqmnelad an elementebisCamonaTvalisaTvis. OK Rilakze daWeris Semdeg saWiroamovaxdinoT biblioTekis monacemebis Senaxva disketis formispiktogramaze dawkapunebiT.komponentebis damagrebis adgilebis (Footprint)damuSavebaSpCad programaSi komponentebis bazebis realizaciisaTvisgamoiyeneboda erTi tipis biblioTeka (.lib gafarToebiT). esbibilioTekebi warmoadgenda integrirebul biblioTekebs, radganmasSi inaxebeoda simboloebi, komponentis damagrebis adgilebida TviTon komponentebi) Altium Designer programaSi rogorcukve aRvniSneT, calkeuli tipis obietebisaTvis arsebobs calkebiblioTeka, amasTan erTad simboloebis biblioTEka warmoadgenskomponentebis biblioTekas, mxolod damagrebis adgilebisbiblioTekas gaaCnia gansxvavebuli gafarToveba. yvela sxva tipismodelebs (3D; Spice, IBIS) ar gaaCniaT Tavisi tipis biblioTekebida inaxebian calkeuli failebis saxiT.maSasadame, SevqmeniT komponenti K1554LA3 mikrosqemis saxiT,axla ki saWiroa SevqmnaT am mikrosqemisTvis damagrebis adgili.daviwyoT axali biblioTekis Seqmna, risTvisac SevasruloTbrZaneba File>New>Library>PCB Library.damagrebis adgilis redqtorTan muSaobisaTvis gamoiyenebaPCB Library fanjara, romelic avtomaturad ar gaiSveba. amfanjris gamoZaxebisaTvis saWiroa movZebnoT PCB fanjara ekranismarcxena qveda mxareSi, ris Sedegadac programis interfeisimiiRebs naxazze 10 gamosaxul saxes.82


naxazi 18. damagrebis adgilebis redaqtoris interfeisi.parametrebis dayenebisaTvis SevasruloT brZanebaTools>Library Options, da ekranze gamova fanjara, romelicnaCvenebia 11 naxazze, sadac gamofenilia zomis erTeulebi (velSiUnits), badis biji (Snap Grid), da badis biji komponentebisdamagrebisaTvis (Component Grid, biblioTekebisTvis es bade argamoiyeneba) da ori xiluli bade (Grid1 da Grid2). xiluli badeCairTveba Snap Grid badis mimarTebaSi, pirveli toli unda iyosbadis bijis, meore _ aTjer meti. am dros badis gawyoba AltiumDesigner sistemaSi identuri iqneba PCAd sistemaSi badis gawyobisa.mocemul fanjaraSi sxva parametrebis am momentisaTvis ar arismniSvnelovani amitom OK RilakiT vadasturebT cvlilebas. axlaekranze gamoCndeba naTeli bade, xolo masStabis gazrdiTgamoCndeba muqi bade.83


naxazi 19. damagrebis adgilebis redaqtoris samuSao sivrcis gawyoba.axla gadavideT uSualod damagrebis adgilebis Seqmnaze,romelic xorcieldeba ori ZiriTAdi etapis saSualebiT:• kontaqturi velis mowyoba;• komponentis korpusis grafikuli gamosaxulebisSeqmna.damagrebis adgilis Seqmna SesaZlebelia ori meTodiT:xeliT da ostatis daxmarebiT. jer ganvixiloT rezistorisdamagrebis adgilis Seqmna xeliT, xolo Semdeg zemoT aRwerilimikrosqemis damagrebis adgilis realizacia ostatis daxmarebiT.84


naxazi 20. kontaqturi velis parametrebi.damagrebis axali adgilis SeqmnisaTvis SevasruloTbrZaneba Tools>New Blank Component, Semdeg PCB Library fanjaraSigamoCndeba axali damagrebis adgili pirobiTi dasaxelebiT.imisaTvis rom mivaniWoT sasurveli dasaxeleba Sesaqmnelkorpuss, saWiroa PCB biblioTekaSi mis warweraze orjerdavawkapunoT Tagvis Rilaki da davaweroT sasurveli warwera(Cvens SemTxvevaSi Resistor).85


1. kontaqturi velebis SeqmnisTvis SevasruloT brZanebaPlace>Pad da Tab klaviSis daxmarebiT movaxdinoT kontaqturivelebis aRwera. gamoCenil fanjaraSi (naxazi 12) saWiroaSeviyvanoT xvrelis parametrebi (velSi Hole Information) dakontaqturi velebis parametrebi (velSi Size da Shape). amisgarda, SesaZlebelia mivuTiToT sxva parametrebic, amasTanerTad saWiroa mieTiTos fena im zedapiris qveSi sadacsruldeba montaJi. Tavdapirvelad unda mivaniSnoT fena velSiLayer, ris Sedegadac Hole Information veli iqneba SeuRwevadi.kontaqturi velebis numeracia saWiroa daviwyoT 1-dan. 0nomeri Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba Casamagrebeli xvrelisTvis.rezistorisaTvis keTdeba ori kontaqturi veli, romlisdrosac erTi aris koordinatis dasawyisSi, xolo meore 10milimetris marjvniv (ZiriTadi badis 4 biji).2. damagrebis adgilis Seqmnis meore variants warmoadgensgrafikis damuSavebaa. igi unda Sesruldes gansazRvrulfenaSi. Cvens SemTxvevaSi komponentis korpusis konturiSesrulebuli unda iqnes Top Overlay. fenis amorCevaxorcieldeba maTi Sesabamisi dasaxelebis RilakebiT,romlebic ganlagebulni arian ekranis qveda nawilSi (naxazi10). amis Semdeg amorCeul fenaSi SevqmnaT komponentis konturiPlace>Line brZanebis daxmarebiT, romelsac gansxvavebuliasimboloebis Seqmnis analogiuri brZanebebisgan. pirvel rigSi,G klaviSiT badis gadarTva xdeba ara winaswar miTiTebulimniSvnelobebiT, aramed siidan badis amorCeviT (SesaZlebeliamivaniWiT samomxmareblo mniSvneloba Set Snap Grid). meore rigSiki xatvis xuTi reJimis nacvlad, TiToeuli reJimi gayofiliaqvereJimebad, romelic gamosaxulia naxazze 13. reJimebisgadarTva SesaZlebelia Shift+Space klaviSebis kombinaciiT.qvereJimebis gadarTva ki xorcieldeba Shift klaviSiT. xatvisdasrulebis Semdeg rezistoris korpuss eqneba naxazze 14naCvenebi gamosaxulebis saxe.86


naxazi 21. xazis daxatvis reJimebiam redaqtoris gansakuTrebulobas (PCAd redaqtorTanSedarebiT) warmoadgens Semdegi:ar idgmeba atributi RefDes, aq, iseve rogorc simboloebisredaqtorSi, igi avtomaturad ganTavsdeba komponentis korpusisqveS.naxazi 22. damagrebis adgilis saboloo saxe.87


naxazi 23. damagrebis adgilebis Seqmnis ostati.ar mieTiTeba damagrebis wertili, Sesabamisad arfunqcionireben elementebi: Glue Point (damagrebis wertili), PickPoint (CaWeris wertili avtomaturi damagrebisaTvis)) da Test Point(testirebis wertili). damagrebis wertili avtomaturadfiqsirdeba koordinatis dasawyisSi, xolo wertilebi Glue Pointda Pick Point emTxvevian am wertils. amitomac Tu aucilebelixdeba maTi gamoyeneba, saWiroa koordinatis dasawyisiganvaTavsoT komponentis geometriul centrSi. aseTi operaciamosaxerxebelia gamoviyenoT damagrebis adgilebis damuSavebisdasasruls (brZanebiT Edit>SetReference> center).axla, mas mere, rac rezistoris damagrebis adgilidamuSaveba SevasruleT, ganvixiloT ufro rTuli mikrosqemisdamagrebis adgilis momzadeba ostatis daxmarebiT. ostatisfunqciis gaSveba xorcieldeba brZanebiT Tools>Component Wizard.ekranze gamoCndeba damagrebis adgilebis Semqmneli ostatisdialoguris fanjara. Next Rilakze daWeris SemdegSemoTavazebuli iqneba koprusis tipis da ganzomilebiserTeulis amorCevis veli. (naxazi 14). amis Semdeg, nabij-nabij88


SemoTavazebuli iqneba parametrebis krebuli, romelic aRwersSesaqmnel models, magaliTad _ kontaqturi velebis parametrebi,gamomyvanebis ricxvi, koprusis xazis sisqe da a.S. Cvens SemTxvevaSiSevqmnaT 14 gamomyvaniani korpusi. bolo etapze Semo-Tavazebuli iqneba damagrebis adgilebis dasaxelebis miniWeba.ostatTan muSaobis damTavrebis Semdeg saWiroa biblio-Tekis monacemebis Senaxva, romelic xorcieldeba disketis formispiktogramaze dawkapunebiT. amis Sedegad ukve gveqneba oritipis biblioTeka: erTSi Senaxuli iqneba mikrosqemis simbolo,xolo meoreSi rezistoris da mikrosqemis damagrebis adgili.Cveni samuSaos bolo etapi, romlis Sedegadac SesaZlebeli iqnebasruladfunqcionirebadi komponentis gamoyeneba sqemaze anplataze, uzrunvelyofs komponentis modelis damagrebis adgilebzeSeerTebas. es procedura SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldessxvadasxva saSualebebiT da meTodebiT. arsebobs biblioTekebisrealizaciis ramodenime varianti. ganxilul varianSi naCvenebiameTodi, romelic gvTavazobs yvela komponentisa da modelebisSenaxvas integrirebuli biblioTekebis saxiT.integrirebuli biblioTekebis SeqmnisaTvis SevasruloTbrZaneba: File>New>Project>Integrated Library, ris Sedegadac Projectvelis struqturaSi Caemateba axali dokumenti, romelic saWiroaSevinaxoT Semdegi meTodiT: masze Tagvis marjvena Rilakis dawkapunebisSemdeg SevasruloT brZaneba Save Project. axala aucilebeliadavamatoT Seqmnili proeqtis struqturaSi adre SeqmnilibiblioTekebi maTi Project velis xeSi gadaTreviT (naxazi 16).rogorc ki yvela saWiro biblioTeka aRmoCndeba integrirebulibiblioTekebis struqturaSi, SesaZlebeli iqneba modelebisSeerTeba Sesabamis komponentTan. Cvens SemTxvevaSi aucilebeliagavxsnaT simboloebis biblioTeka: modelebis SeerTebisfanjaraSi davawkapunoT Rilakze Add Footprint (naxazi 3).89


naxazi 24. integrirebuli biblioTekis Seqmna.naxazi 25. damagrebis adgilebis SeerTeba.90


3.2. Altium Designer programul paketSisxvadasxva ierarqiul donezekavSirebis realizaciaam TavSi mravalricxovan proeqtebSi beWduri platebisierarqiebSi kavSirebis Seqmnis yvela SesaZlo varianti kompiuteruliavtomatizirebuli proeqtirebis sistemis Altium DesignerisgamoyenebiT. CamoTvlilia programaSi gamoyenebuli yvelaidentifikatori (jaWvis niSnulebi) da ganxilulia TiToeulitipisaTvis identifikatoriT marTvis yvela saSualeba.radioeleqtronuli saSualebebis damuSavebisasprincipialuri eleqtruli sqemebis Seqmnis etapze xSiradgamoiyeneba ierarqiuli da mravalkristaliani struqturebi.sqemoteqnikebi iyeneben mravalfenovan proeqtebs sxvadasxvamizezis gamo. pirvel rigSi seqmebis zomebis gamo; zogierTi proeqtiimdenad didi da rTulia, rom maTi erT fenaze ganlagebaubralod SeuZlebelia. da Tundac proeqti ar iyos didi darTuli, arsebobs misi sxvadasxva fenaze ganTavsebis kidev sxvaupiratesobac. magaliTad, SeiZleba CarTulia sxvdasxvafunqcionaluri modulebis elementebi, organizacia, romelSicerTi proeqtis damoukidebel sqemebze muSaobs sxvadasxvainJineri. da kidev erTi martivi mizezi, SeiZleba gamoyenebuliiyos mxolod A4 formatis zomis sabeWdi mowyobiloba.programa Altium Designer-Si mravalfeniani proeqtisSeqmnisaTvis arsebobs problemis gadawyvetis ori gza: fenebsSoris struqturuli gawyoba da am fenebze sqemis fragmentebsSoris kavSirebis gamoyeneba. konkretuli arCevani damokidebuliaTiToeuli proeqtis zomaze da tipze.sxvadasxva donis fenebs Soris signalebis gadacemiserTaderT meTods warmoadgens identifikatorebis gamoyeneba,romlebic qmnian sqemis elementebs Soris ufro iol logikurSeerTebas, vidre es SeerTeba fizikuri (gamtarebiT) SeerTebebiT.91


identifikatorebi SesaZlebelia gamoviyenoT erTi fenisfarglebSi, rogorc es naCvenebia naxazze 1. magram maTi ZiriTadidaniSnulebaa _ mTeli proeqtis SigniT globaluri kavSirebisrealizacia. Cven dawvrilebiT ganvixilavT identifikatorebissaSualebiT yvela obieqtis kavSirebs.zogierT konstruqtors miaCnia, rom sxvadasxva tipisidentifikatorebs (rogorebicaa kavSirebis niSnulebi da portebi),romlebsac gaaCniaT erTidaigive dasaxeleba logikuradiqnebian dakavSirebulni. faqtiurad es ase ar aris. sxvadasxvatipis identifikatorebs SesaZloa hqondeT sxvadasxvadasaxeleba, magram miuxedavad amisa, erTiani kavSiris (jaWvis)formirebis mizniT erTiandebian.sxvadasxva tipis identifikatorebi, SesaZloa fizikuradSeerTebulni iyvnen erT fenaze, magram amave dros arc erTmaTganze vizualurad ar SeiZleba iTqvas, Tu rogori kavSirigaaCniaT maT mravalfenian proeqtSi. fenaTSorisi kavSirebisrealizacia damokidebulia proeqtSi gamoyenebul identifikatorebzeda maT moqmedebaze dadgenil SezRudvebze.identifikatorebiprograma Altium Designer-Si sxvadasxva donis ierarqiebzekavSirebis realizaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba ramodenime tipisidentifikatori da TiToeul maTgans gaaCnia Tavis daniSnuleba.yvelaze ubralo identifikators warmoadgens kavSiris niSnuli.maTi pirveladi amocanaaa fenaze gamtarebis SeerTebisfunqcionaluri daniSnulebis gamosaxva (ix. cxrili).manam, sanam SesaZlebelia da proeqti ar zRudavs, kavSirisniSnulebi SesaZlebelia gamoviyenoT ara mxolod lokaluriSeerTebebisaTvis, aramed fenaTSoris kavSirebisaTvis.portebic kavSiris niSnulebis analogiurad, SesaZlebeliagamoviyenoT lokaluri SeerTebebisTvis erT dokumentSi, magram92


kavSiris niSnulebisgan gansxvavebiT, Tavidanve portebigankuTvnilia fenaTSoris SeerTebebisTavis. isini axorcilelebenhorizontalur da vertikalur kavSirebs.horizontaluroba warmoadgens farTod gavcelebulfunqcias, imdenad, ramdenadac is ar aris mgrZnobiaremaravalfenovan struqturaSi erT kavSirSi aerTianebserTsaxelian portebs mTels sqemaze. vertikaluri SeerTebebi kiaris advilad marTvadi, radgan isini aerTianeben kavSirebsmxolod daqvemdebarebul da monaTesave fenebs Soris. portisSeerTebis adgilas, vertikaluri SeerTeba sruldebadaqvemdebarebuli fenis portsa da Sesasvleli fenis simbolosSoris monaTesave dokumentze. es fenis Sesasvleli ganTavsebuliunda iyos fenis simbolos farglebSi miniSnebiT gansazRvruldaqvemdebarebul fenaze. aseTnairad, vertikaluri SeerTebagamoiyeneba ierarqiis sxvadasxva doneze fenebis SeerTebisaTvis.fenaTSorisi SeerTeba warmoadgens Sualedur rgols,romelic saSualebas iZleva proeqtis farglebSi arCeulifenebis jgufs Soris daamyaros horizontaluri kavSirebi. amfenebis dajgufebisaTvis saWiroa mravalricxovani fenebisdasaxeleba ganvaTavsoT fenis erTi simbolos Fileneame-s velSida gamovyoT erTmaneTisgan wertil-mZimiT. am signalebisaTvisfenaTSorisi SemaerTeblebi unda ganvalagoT ise, rom isiniimyofebodnen am jgufibis fenebs Soris. erTsaxelianifenaTSorisi SemaerTeblebi SeerTebulni iqnebian mxolod imfenebis farglebSi, romelnic dajgufebulni arian monaTesavefenis simboloze. Tu fenis simboloze warmodgenilia mxoloderTi daqvemdebarebuli fena, maSin misi fenaTSorisiSemaerTeblebi ar iqnebian dakavSirebulni erTnairi tipisSemaerTeblebiT, romlebic SesaZlebelia arsebobdnen proeqtissxva adgilebSic.Zalovani portebi ar arian mgrZnobiareni proeqtisstruqturis mimarT da erTsaxelian Zalovan portebs aerTianeben93


yvela dakavSirebul fenas Soris (magaliTad, kvebis da damiwebisporti).uxilavi gamomyvanebi simbolosaTvis SesaZlebelia Seyvaniliqnas biblioTekaSi da CarTuli iqnas gansazRvruli jaWvismimarT mniSvnelobis uSualo dayenebiT velSi Connect to(dialogSi Pin Properties). proeqtSi Zveli versiebidan uxilavigamomyvanebis Semotanis SemTxvevaSi maT aqvT jaWvis dasaxelebada ganTavsebulni arian am velSi avtomaturad.kavSirebis niSnulebze, portebze, fenis Sesasvlelebze,fenaTSoris SemaerTeblebze da Zalovan portebze ufrodawvrilebiTi informaciis miReba SesaZlebelia Tu kursorsganvaTavsebT identifikatorze da F1 klaviSze daWeriTgamoviZaxebT sqemis redaqtors.jaWvis inversiuli identifikatoriTu saWiroeba moiTxovs kavSiris niSnuli, fenisSesasvleli an porti aRniSnuli iyos inversiis niSniT, esSesaZlebelia ori meTodiT:1. SeviyvanoT simbolo `\~ jaWvis saxelSi yovelisimbolos Semdeg (magaliTad, E\N\A\B\L\E\);2. gavaaqtiuroT opcia Single ‘\’ Negation, SemdegSchematic>Graphical Edtting dialogis fanjaraSiDXP>Preferencec, Semdeg SeviyvanoT erTi simbolo `\~jaWvis saxelis dasawyisSi (magaliTad, \ENABLE).SeZRuduli moqmedebis identifikatorebis dayenebaprograma Altium Designer platebis yovel axal proeqtSiidentifikatorebis moqmedebis SezRudvisTvis iyenebs gansazRvrisavtomatur reJims.Tu kompilaciisas aRmoCenili iqneba warmodgenildamuSavebul proeqtSi fenis mxolod erTi Sesasvleli mainc,94


maSin avtomaturad iqneba amorCeuli ierarqiuli SezRudvebivertikaluri kavSirebisTvis. kavSiris niSnulebi da portebigamoyenebul iqnebian erT fenaSi (Cveulebriv) lokaluriSeerTebebisaTvis, magram portebs eqnebaT mxolod fenaTSoriskavSirebi, Tu mTavari fenis simboloze ganTavsebuli iqnebaSesabamisi fenis Sesasvleli. Tu mocemulia ierarqiuliSezRudva, portebi da kavSiris niSnulebi ar amyareben logikurkavSirs proeqtis sxva fenis jaWvis erTsaxelianidentifikatorebTan.Tu sqema Seicavs portebs, magram ar gaaCnia fenisSesasvleli, maSin avtomaturad CaiTveba portebisaTvisglobaluri SezRudva. es niSnavs, rom mTel proeqtSi portebiCaiTvlebian horizontalurad miuxedavad mravalfenianistruqturisa da gaaerTianeben erTsaxelian portebs erTkavSirSi (jaWvSi). kavSiris niSnulebi am dros Seqmnian mxolodlokalur SeerTebas.Tu proeqtis sqema ar Seicavs fenis arc Sesasvlels daarc ports, maSin avtomaturad ganisazRvreba kavSirisniSnulebis satatusi globaluramde.fenaTSoris SemaerTeblebs, Zalovan portebs da specialuruxilav gamomyvanebs identifikatorebis SezRudvis miuxedavadgaaCniaT mudmivi daniSnuleba da moqmedebis principi.Altium Designer-s SeuZlia awarmoos sruli kontrolikavSiris identifikatorebis SezRudvebze (Net Identifler Score).kontroli SesaZlebelia punqtiT Options, dialogis fanjridanOptions for Project, Semdegi operaciebis Sesrulebis SedegadProject>Project Option. Option punqtis gadarTvebis SedegadSesaZlebelia SevitanoT cvlileba mTels proeqtSiidentifikatorebis SezRudvis gansazRvrisa da avtomaturigawyobis TvalsazrisiT. kontroli gulisxmobs SezRudvebs, risSedegadac identifikatorebi (niSnulebi, kavSirebi da portebi)mTel proeqtSi miiReben SeerTebebis gansazRvrul tips(globalurs an lokalurs).95


struqturis TvalsazrisiT, yvela mravalfeniani proeqtiorganizebulia ierarqiulad, Tundac ierarqia Seicavdes orfenas (magaliTad, zeda fena, romelic Seicavs im fenissimboloebs, romelic mas eqvemdebareba da warmoadgens mis qvedafenas). amasTanave proeqti SeiZleba Sesruldes an erT fenaze, anierarqiuli struqturiT. maT Soris ZiriTadi gansxvaveba isaa,rom ierarqiul proeqtebSi signalebi Seqmnili struqturisSesabamisad gadairTvebian fenebs Soris, im dros, rocaerTdoniani proeqtebi ar saWiroeben fenebis struqturulorganizacias [22].aRsaniSnavia, rom Tanamedrove sqemebis proeqtirebisasaucileblad iyeneben ierarqiul struqturas, radgan igiamcirebs xarjebs da sqemis zomebs, rac metad mniSvnelovanifaqtoria Tanamedrove eleqtronuli aparaturis SeqmnissakiTxSi.erTdoniani proeqtebi zeda donis fenis gareSeTu dasamuSavebeli proeqti ar aris ierarqiuli,magaliRad, sqemis yvela fena ganfenilia erTsa da imave doneze,furclis simbolos gareSe, romelzedac miTiTebuliadaqvemdebarebuli fena, maSin aseT proeqts ewodeba erTdonianiproeqti. am SemTxvevaSi aucilebeli ar aris zeda donis fenaSi,romelic Seicavs mxolod fenis simboloebs, mieTiTos sqemaze.zeda donis fenis arsebobis aucilebloba gamowveuli proeqtisfailis ar arsebobiT, programuli uzrunvelyofis faili kidamokidebulia umaRlesi donis fenis simboloebze, proeqtSiarsebuli dokumentebis gansazRvrisaTvis. iseTi proeqtistestirebisaTvis, romelsac zeda donis fena ar gaaCnia, saWiroaopciaSi Projects davaWiroT failis saxels da CamoSlil meniuSimivuTiToT brZanebaze Remove from Project.96


erTdoniani proeqti, romelic Seicavs zeda donis fenas,iqneba koreqtulad kompilirebuli, magram Altium Designer programasaWiroebis SemTxvevaSi iZleva SesaZleblobas proeqti gakeTdeszeda fenis gareSec.kavSirebis tipebis proeqtebis magaliTebiSemdegi oTxi magaliTi gviCvenebs, rogor ganvsazRvroT anamovirCioT identifikatorebis SezRudva, romlebic calkeulijaWvis niSnulebis da portebis ierarqiul struqturaSimoaxdens gavlenas kavSirebze. mexuTe magaliTi gviCvenebs, Turogor muSaobs fenaTSorisi SemaerTeblebi. moyvanilmagaliTebSi naCvenebia identifikatorebis moqmedebis SezRudvisdafiqsireba, romelic xorcieldeba dialogis fanjaraSi Optionsfor Project (Project>Project Option), opciaSi Options, CamonaTvalidan NetIdentifier Scope-s amorCeviT.pirvel magaliTSi (naxazi 2.) sqemis proetis avtomaturadiqneba gansazRvruli, ise rogorc mTavar sqemaze aris adgilifenis Sesasvleli fenis simboloebSi. jaWvis niSnulebi C1 da C2yovel daqvemdebarebul fenaze ar iqneba SeerTebuli sxva fenisSesabamis jaWvis niSnulebTan, magram moqmedebs TiToeuli fenissazrvrebSi. am magaliTSi portebs gaaCniaT sxvadasxva saxeli,magram Tundac maTi saxelebi erTmaneTs emTxveodnen, isini maincver daamyareben horizontalur kavSirs sxva fenis erTsaxelianportebs Soris, im martici mizezis gamo, rom SezRuduliaidentifikatorebi mocemuli tipis ierarqiisaTvis. amitom esportebi Seqmnian mxolod vertikalur kavSirs sqemis zedamonaTesave fenasTan. imisaTvis rom moxdes SeerTeba, portsdaqvemdebarebul fenaze unda hqondes erTsaxeliani Sesasvlelifenis SigniT Sesabamisi fenis simbolo.meore magaliTSi (naxazi 3) mTavari fenis Sesasvlelielementebi SeerTebulia sxvadasxva fenasTan (kidev erTxel97


aRvniSnavT, rom maT ar aqvT erTnairi dasaxeleba: es arisfizikuri da ara logikuri CarTva). struqturulad damuSavebulproeqtSi es signalebi grovdeba portTan da utoldebaSesasvelebis mixedviT fenis sxva simbolebs monaTesave fenebze.am proeqtSi fenebis Sesasvlelebis ar qonis SemTxvevaSierTiani kavSirebis realizaciisaTvis gamoiyeneba avtomatizirebulidaniSnulebis globaluri portebis varianti. es ariserTdoniani proeqti gansakuTrebuloba: imdenad, ramdenadacportebi arian SeerTebulni, isini iReben logikur kavSirebsyvela erTsaxeliani portebidan proeqtis yvela fenaze. jaWvisniSnulebi ar uerTdebian am process, isini arian lokalurnisqemis yovel fenaze.ramdenadac es proeqti ertdoniania, zeda fena SesaZloamovaciloT proeqts da is iqneba konkretulad kompilirebuli.aRvniSnavT, rom Altium Designer iyenebs proeqtis fails proeqtSifenebis raodenobis gansazRvrisaTvis, rac aucilebeliaerTdoniani damuSavebisaTvis Flat tipis SezRudvebianiidentifikatorebisaTvis.magaliT 3 (naxazi 4) ar gaaCnia fenis Sesasvlelis daportebis elementebi. es erTaderTi SemTxvevaa, roca jaWvisniSnulebi avtomaturad qmnian globalur CarTvas mravalfenianiproeqtis yvela sqemaze. es jaWvis niSnulebi, miuxedavad matistruqturisa, proeqtSi SeerTebulni iqnebian erTsaxelianijaWvis niSnulebiT. da isev, radganac proeqti erTdoniania,proeqtidan zeda fenis mocileba SesaZlebelia da proeqti iqnebakoreqtulad kompilirebuli.Semdegi variantia, magaliTi 4 (naxazi 5), romelicierarqiis avtomatur gansazRvras ar eqvemdebareba, magram AltiumDesigner-Si SesaZloa miRebul iqnas gamokvleuli proeqtebismxardaWerisaTvis. masSi rogorc jaWvis niSnulebi, aseve portebiproeqtSi Sesabamisi identifikatorebiT iReben globalurkavSirebs horizontalurad. erTaderTi gza aseTi tipisSeerTebebisa miiRweva opcia Option-s Options for Projects dialogis98


fanjris Net Identifier Score punqtis Global (Netlabels and ports global)punqtiT SecvliT.ramdenadac es aris erTdoniani proeqti, zeda fenaSesaZlebelia moscildes proeqtidan da proeqti iqnebakoreqtulad kompilirebuli (proeqtis faili iseve, rogorc winaor magaliTSi, TviTon Seicavs informacias proeqtSiformirebuli gamosavali dokumentebis Semadgenlobaze) [23].mexuTe magaliTSi (naxazi 6) zeda fena mxolod fenis orisimbolos daxmarebiT ukavSirdeba meoTxe daqvemdebarebul fenas.es xorcieldeba fenis simboloebis Name velSi ramodenimesqemis failebze gzavnilebis dakavSirebiT, romlebicerTmaneTisagan gamoiyofian wertil-mZimis saSualebiT.fenaTSorisi SeerTebebi fenis erT simbolos farglebSiSeqmnian erTdonian SeerTebas yvela dajgufebul fenas Soris,maSinac ki Tu proeqtis sxva fenebi iyeneben erTsaxelianvertikalur SeerTebebs.dajgufebuli fenebi ar iyeneben raime sxva saxis jaWvebisidentifikatorebs. es SeerTebebi dgindeba mxolod jgufisfarglebSi.dRes jer kidev sqemis yvela Semqmneli ar iyenebsfenaTSoris SeerTebebs, romlebic adre SemoRebuli iyo mxolod,rogorc sqemoteqnikuri proeqtirebis sxva programulipaketebidan proeqtis Semotanis saSualeba. arada Tanamedrovesqemebis proeqtirebaSi aseTi kavSirebis ganxorcieleba Zalianmosaxerxebelia. magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT maRalmoduluriproeqti, romelSic yoveli fena warmoadens proeqtis logikurnawils. fenis simboloebis ganlageba Seqmnis aramarto sasurvelkavSirebs, aramed dasamuSavebeli proeqtis sxva monawilesnaTlad aCvenebs mTel proeqtSi ganxorcielebul SeerTebebs.axla warmovidginoT, rom erTerTi aseTi funqcionaluriblokis sqema scdeba erT fenaze ganlagebis SesaZleblobisfarglebs. ierarqiis Sesaqmnelad saWiro xdeba jaWvisniSnulebis garkveuli raodenoba, romlebic unda gadavidnen99


fenidan fenaze da portebi, romlebmac unda gadascen jaWvebizeviT fenis Semosasvlels, gamtarebiT SeerTdes. am amocanismagaliTi moyvanilia naxazze 6, sadac proeqti gayofilia orfenad, romelTagan TiToeuli gadanawilebulia ramodenimesxvadasxva fenaze. am meTodiT xdeba jaWvebis niSnulebis iseTiganlageba, romelic SesaZlebels qmnis fenaTSorisi SeerTebisdaxmarebiT Seiqmnas kavSirebi mTeli proeqtis farglebSi.100


4. დასკვნაsadisertacio naSromSi ganxilulia integraluri sqemebisada Tanamedrove mikro da nano komponentebis, agreTve maTsafuZvelze eleqtronuli mowyobilobebis daproeqtebisavtomatizirebuli sistemis Altium Designer Summer 08 muSaobisprincipebi. gamotanilia daskvnebi am sruliad Tanamedrove daunikaluri programuli paketis upiratesobis Sesaxeb aqamdearsebuli proeqtirebis sistemebTan SedarebiT.am programuli paketis gamoyeneba mniSvnelovnad amartivebsTanamedrove mravalfunqciuri da urTulesi sistemebis SeqmnasZalian mcire danaxarjebiT. sistema agebulia ise, rommomxmarebels SeuZlia nakeTobis daproeqtebis yvela etapzemoaxdinos monacemTa sinqronizacia da erT nebismier modulSiSetanili cvlileba aisaxos mTeli daproeqtebis procesze,dawyebuli eleqtruli principialuri sqemis monacemebisSetanidan saboloo produqciis miRebamde.Altium Designer damuSavebis unificirebuli saSualebaa,romelic aerTianebs aparaturul, programul da programirebulaparaturuldamuSavebas gaerTianebuls erTian avtomatizirebulidaproeqtebis sistemaSi, uzrunvelyofs sqemisdammuSavebeli jgufebis efeqtur erTian muSaobas. proeqtismonacemebis marTva SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes damuSavebisunificirebuli interfeisis farglebSi, rac warmoadgenssaukeTeso gadawyvetas proeqtuli monacemebis erTianidamuSavebisa da marTvisaTvis anu ar aris saWiro sxvaprogramuli produqtis gamoyeneba da integracia. es kigacilebiT amartivebs rTul proeqtebze muSaobas.Cemi rekomendacia aris aRniSnuli programuli paketis,rogorc yvelaze Tanamedrove da daxvewili sistemis danergvasaswavlo procesSi, romelic gansakuTrebiT did daxmarebasgauwevs sqemoteqnikis sferoSi niWieri kadrebis momzadebas. amsferoSi momuSave warmatebul sul ramodenime adamiansac ki101


SeuZlia fables tipis sawarmos Seqmna. aseTi sawarmoebis ricxvi kimsoflioSi ukve didi siswrafiT izrdeba da arian erT-erTiyvelaze rentabelurni. Cvens qveyanaSi arsebobs inteleqtualuripotenciali da, Cemi azriT, Zalian marTebuli iqneba ampotencialis swori mimarTulebiT warmarTva.102


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[17] Highly Advanced National Programme (HAN - “G7 Programme”) / AsianMEMS update Semicon conference, 1998.[18] National nanotechnology Initiative. Jule 2000. Washington D.C.[19] Van Heeren H., Elders I. Foundries for MEMS/MST: a status overview2001/2002 // MST news. 2002, № 2/02. C. 41-43.[20] NEXUS. www.nexus-mems.com.[21] www.altium.com[22] Мурога Т. Основы проектирование микроэлектронной аппаратуры. стр.115.[23] Smart systems technologies mst/news. No 3/08 – June 2008. P.5.104

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