კარი 2: წყალი - momxmarebeli.ge

momxmarebeli.ge

კარი 2: წყალი - momxmarebeli.ge

Tavi 5. zedapiruli mtknari wylebireziumeკარი 2: წყალიsaqarTvelos zedapiruli wylebis xarisxi xSir SemTxvevaSi ar Seesabamebadadgenil normebs. amis ZiriTad mizezs gauwmendavi sakanalizacio Camdinarewylebi da wylis obieqtebTan axlos ganTavsebuli nagavsayrelebi warmoadgens.mimdinareobs sakanalizacio infrastruqturisa da gamwmendi nagebobebisreabilitacia, aseve _ axali, Tanamedrove nagavsayrelebis mSenebloba, racmniSvnelovnad Seamcirebs wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebas.1. SesavalisaqarTvelo mdidaria mtknari wylis resursebiT, rac ganpirobebuliateritoriis mTiani xasiaTiTa da uxvi atmosferuli naleqebiT. saqarTvelosteritoriaze wlis ganmavlobaSi saSualod mosuli naleqi Seadgens 1338 mm-s(wliuri naleqis moculoba _ 93.3 km 3 ), riTac saqarTvelo yvela yofil sabWoTarespublikas uswrebs, xolo evropis qveynebidan mxolod norvegias, Sveicariasada avstrias CamorCeba. erT sul mosaxleze mtknari wylis ganaxlebadi wliuriresursebis raodenoba saqarTveloSi 14 aTas m 3 -s Seadgens. 5.1 diagramazewarmodgenilia am maCveneblis mixedviT saqarTvelos adgili sxva qveynebs Soris.10 000 0001 000 000100 00010 0001 000z eweliwadSi3msul100101a ai ia ad d ad ia a i i i a aanankan vegi iacrl len s oer vat eTneTeT iir f ved b ven vi i i o i i i aer atoi n ed o S s l vakeTkeTi vel eTeT eT iaia i indanxl o aj T bsr fl tgs aqarqmen rg anrt vi eTeTnnal r ulravs o zg o io t gu i c es rss T r yiheieTadsuairnsobSais va i a au tr i eT i ii i al ax arcal eT eb iin an va i aoyazveig Zn duter ano j d qeT ni a aai eT i i o i i i a i i aS r ab lpo s er maked ai rlb u kr g anan d alt amefekeTeTer mo Tu r i s b paneT imx man eT eT ii i igzaf i u es os er ar neTeTg mi el nog u b Cex aelrll srdi az s lu poibunebaniTaergaelbdiagrama 5.1. sxvadasxva qveynis mtknari wylis wliuri ganaxlebadi resursi,erT sul mosaxleze gadaangariSebiT.wyaro (sxva qveynebis monacemebisTvis):http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/waterresources.htm


saqarTveloSi 26 aTasze meti mdinarea, saerTo sigrZiT 60 aTasi km.mdinareebis raodenobis 99,5% da saerTo sigrZis 84,5%-s 25 km-ze mokle mdinareebiSeadgens. maTi didi nawili mTis mokle da mcirewyliani mdinareebia, saSualosigrZiT _ 2,3 km. didi sigrZisa da didi farTobis mqone auzis mdinareebi,reliefis zedapiris didi danawevrebis gamo, saqarTveloSi ar gvxvdeba. 25 km-zemeti sigrZis mdinareebis raodenoba sul 273-ia.mdinareebis jamuri wliuri Camonadeni 61,5 mlrd m 3- ia, aqedan saqarTvelosteritoriaze formirebuli Camonadeni – 52,77 mlrd m 3 .ruka 5.1. saqarTvelos mtknari wylis zedapiruli resursebilixis qedi saqarTvelos teritorias mdinareTa or did auzad yofs _ SavizRvis mdinareebis da kaspiis zRvis mdinareebis auzebad. wylis resursebisganawileba am auzebs Soris araTanabaria _ Savi zRvis auzis mdinareebis jamuriwliuri Camonadeni 3-jer aRemateba kaspiis zRvis auzis mdinareebis Camonadens.Savi zRvis auzis ZiriTadi mdinareebia: rioni, Woroxi da enguri. kaspiiszRvis auzis _ mtkvari da alazani.24%Savi zRvis auzismdinareebikaspiis zRvisauzis mdinareebi76%diagrama 5.2. saqarTvelos mdinareTa jamuri wliuri Camonadenis ganawileba kaspiisa daSavi zRvis auzis mdinareTa Soris.saqarTveloSi 860 tbaa, saerTo farTiT 175 km 2 da saerTo moculobiT 400mln. m 3 . maTi umetesoba mcire tbebia, romelTa farTobi ar aRemateba 1 km 2 -s.yvelaze didi zedapiri aqvs faravnis tbas – 234 km 2 , yvelaze didi moculoba _tba tabawyurs – 221 mln. m 3 .hidroenergetikis, sairigacio da sasmeli wyliT uzrunvelyofismiznebisTvis saqarTveloSi Seqmnilia 43 xelovnuri wyalsacavi, aqedan 35 –kaspiis zRvis auzSi (jamuri moculobiT 1700 mln. m 3 ) da 8 – Savi zRvis auzSi(jamuri moculobiT 1470 mln. m 3 ).saqarTveloSi 734 myinvaria, saerTo farTiT 511 km 2 , sadac 30 mlrd. m 3yinulia akumulirebuli. wylis yovelwliur wrebrunvaSi am maragis saSualod 5%(1,5 mlrd. m 3 ) monawileobs, danarCeni ki saukuneebis manZilze dagrovili maragia,romelic garkveul cvlilebas ganicdis: me-12-me-19 ss-Si saqarTveloSi tenianoba


matulobda da myinvarebis moculobac izrdeboda. man piks miaRwa me-19 saukunis50-ian wlebSi, rodesac myinvarebis saerTo farTobma 850 km 2 Seadgina, xolomoculobam _ 39 km 3 . amis Semdeg saqarTvelos myinvarebi mcirdeba, “ukan ixevs”,Tumca cvalebadi intensivobiT. yvelaze intensiuri myinvarebis ukandaxeva iyo1940-1955 wlebSi, rodesac gergeTis myinvaris ukandaxevam weliwadSi 50 m-s miaRwia.axlo warsulSi saqarTveloSi iyo 2,560km 2 -is farTobis Waobebi, maTi didinawili amJamad daSrobilia. dRes saqarTvelos Waobebis farTi 627 km 2 -s Seadgens.mdinareebi, 0.2 tbebi, 0.7Waobebi, 1.9wyalsacavebi, 3.2myinvarebi, 24.1diagrama 5.3. wylis maragi saqarTvelos zedapiruli wylebis sxvadasxva obieqtSi,km 3 .SeniSvna: mdinareebisTvis miTiTebulia wylis saSualo maragi mdinareebis kalapotebSi.myinvarebi, 51.1sarwyavimagistraluriarxebi da Sidaqselebi, 33.4Waobebi, 6.27mdinareebi danakadulebi, 59.6wyalsacavebi, 16.3tborebi, 0.9tbebi, 14.8diagrama 5.4. saqarTvelos zedapiruli wylebis farTobi, km 2 .


zedapiruli mtknari wylis resursebis dacvis normatiuli safuZvlebizedapiruli mtknari wylebi rogorc sasmeli, aseve sarwyavi wylisbunebrivi wyaroa, romlis gareSe civilizacia ar iarsebebda. amave dros es ariscocxal arsebaTa didi jgufis sacxovrebeli garemo da Cveni ekosistemisumniSvnelovanes komponents warmoadgens.adamianTa ekonomikuri saqmianoba uaryofiTad moqmedebs wylis ekosistemebze:adamianebi sxvadasxva mizniT (ZiriTadad sarwyavad da sameurneo miznebisTvis)moixmaren mdinareebis da tbebis wyals, riTac am ekosistemiebis resursimcirdeba. garda amisa, adamianebi wylebSi uSveben sxvadasxva saqmianobis SedegaddabinZurebul wylebs. wylis ekosistemas dabinZurebis garkveuli odenobisganeitralebis unari aqvs, Tumca es unari ar aris usazRvro. gadametebulidabinZurebis CaSvebis an wylis obieqtidan wylis didi odenobiT amoRebisSemTxvevaSi ekosistema SeiZleba seriozulad daziandes an mTlianad ganadgurdes.amis Tavidan asacileblad aucilebelia zedapiruli wylebis dacva.saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs zedapiruli wylebis ekologiuri wonasworobisdacvas maTze zemoqmedebis regulirebis saSualebiT. am regulirebis safuZveliabunebrivi wyalsatevebis wylis xarisxis normireba. igi mdgomareobs wylisSemadgenlobisa da Tvisebebis iseTi maCveneblebis dadgenasa da SenarCunebaSi,romlebic wylis obieqtebis ekologiur sisufTaves uzrunvelyofen. Sesabamisad,uzrunvelyofili iqneba, agreTve, am wyliT sargeblobis xelsayreli pirobebicda wyliT mosargeble mosaxleobis janmrTelobac.saqarTveloSi wylis obieqtebis wylis xarisxis normebis dadgena xdebawyalsateviT sargeblobis calkeuli kategoriebis mixedviT.wyalsargeblobis kategoriebia:• `sasmel-sameurneo wyalsargebloba~ _ am kategorias miekuTvnebian wylisobieqtebi, romelTa wylis resursebi gamoiyeneba sasmeli miznebisaTvis ankvebis mrewvelobaSi;• `sameurneo-sayofacxovrebo wyalsargebloba~ _ am kategorias miekuTvnebawylis obieqtebi, romelTa wylis resursebiT sargebloba warmoebssarekreacio an sairigacio miznebisaTvis an ganTavsebulia dasaxlebulipunqtebis farglebSi;• `Tevzsameurneo wyalsargebloba~ _ am kategorias miekuTvneba wylisobieqtebi an maTi nawilebi, romlebic mniSvnelovania Tevzis maragisaRwarmoebisaTvis, Tevzrewvisa da Tevzis migraciisaTvis. es kategoria,masSi mobinadre Tevzebis jiSis da maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT (ramdenadiSviaTia, mgrZnobiarea garemo-pirobebisadmi, faseulia ekonomikuriTvalsazrisiT), Tavis mxriv iyofa umaRles, pirvel da meore kategoriebad.sasmel-sameurneo da sameurneo-sarekreacio wylis obieqtebisTvis wylis dasaSvebixarisxis normas warmoadgens mdinareebis wyalSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTaadamianTa janmrTelobisTvis zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentraciebi,dadgenili”zedapiruli wylis dabinZurebisagan dacvis sanitaruli wesebiT danormebiT” da damtkicebuli saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuridacvis ministris 2001 wlis 16 agvistos #297/n brZanebiT. mdinareTa ekologiuriwonasworobis SenarCunebas ki emsaxureba sxva normebi, romlebic dadgeniliameore normatiuli dokumentiT _ `saqarTvelos zedapiruli wylebisdabinZurebisagan dacvis wesebiT~, romelic damtkicebulia saqarTvelos garemosada bunebrivi resursebis dacvis ministris 1996 wlis 17 seqtembris #130brZanebiT. es wesebi adgens wyalsatevebis wylebSi dambinZurebelTa zRvruladdasaSveb koncentraciebs rogorc adamianTa janmrTelobis, aseve TevzsameurneomiznebisTvis. es wesebi axlosaa evrokavSiris normebTan, romlebic dadgenilia


sxvadasxva kategoriis wylis obieqtebisTvis Semdegi direqtivebiT: 2006/7/EC(sabanao wylis xarisxis Sesaxeb), 2006/44/EC (Tevzebis sicocxlisTvis saWirowylis xarisxis gaumjobesebisa da SenarCunebis Sesaxeb) da 98/83/EC (adamianTamoxmarebisTvis gankuTvnili wylis xarisxis Sesaxeb).saqarTvelos wylis obieqtebi aRweril kategoriebad formalurad dayofili araris. amitom praqtikaSi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba zRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentraciebi, romlebic adamianTa janmrTelobas icavs. es normebi, rogorcwesi, naklebad momTxovnia Tevzebisa da ekosistemis dacvisTvis gankuTvnilnormebTan SedarebiT. es bunebrivic aris, vinaidan Tevzebi, gansakuTrebiTlifsitebi, adamianze bevrad mgrZnobiare arian wylis sisufTavisadmi. TumcasaqarTveloSi dRes moqmedi, Tevzebisa da ekosistemis dacvisTvis gankuTvnilinormebi realurad sabWoTa memkvidreobaa da, rogorc es bevr sabWoTa normasaxasiaTebda, xSirad sruliad gaumarTlebeli da ararealuri moTxovnebi aqvs.amrigad, praqtikulad saqarTveloSi Tevzebisa da ekosistemis dacvisTvisevrokavSiris Sesabamisi, ufro realisturi normebi gamoiyeneba (es imiTac arisgamarTlebuli, rom momavalSi saqarTvelo apirebs moqmedi normebis srulharmonizacias evropul normebTan).Sesabamisad, am TavSi moyvanili diagramebis umetesobaze ori norma figurirebs:adamianTa janmrTelobis dacvisTvis gankuTvnili qarTuli norma da wylisobieqtis ekosistemis (Tevzebis) dacvis evropuli norma.wylis dadgenili xarisxis normebis SenarCunebisTvis saxelmwifo aregulirebswyliT mosargebleTa saqmianobas. regulirebis forma damokidebulia im zianze,romelic saqmianobam SeiZleba garemos moutanos: mniSvnelovani zianis momtansaqmianobas esaWiroeba garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTva. amis misaRebad saqmianobisiniciatorma unda moamzados Tavisi saqmianobis garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba,romelSic unda aCvenos, rom miRebuli aqvs yvela zoma, rom misi saqmianobiszemoqmedeba garemoze (maT Soris wylis obieqtis ekosistemebze) minimaluri iyos.ufro mcire zianis momtan saqmianobebs udgindebaT wyalaRebisa da wyalCaSvebiswesebi, romelTa dacva savaldebuloa. paralelurad saxelmwifo awarmoebs wylisobieqtebis mdgomareobis monitorings imis Sesamowmeblad, sakmarisia Tu araregulirebis arsebuli formebi wylis xarisxisa da ekologiuri mdgomareobisSesanarCuneblad.2. zedapiruli mtknari wylebis xarisxiruka 5.2. zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis wertilebisaqarTvelos zedapiruli mtknari wylebis xarisxis monitorings garemoserovnuli saagento awarmoebs. dakvirveba xdeba saqarTvelos 22 mdinaris 39 dapaliastomis tbis 1 wertilSi. dakvirvebis punqtebze wylis sinjebis aReba xdebaTveSi erTxel. yvela sinjSi ganisazRvreba 33 ingredienti. 2009 wlis maisidan,sabanao sezonis ganmavlobaSi warmoebs yovelTviuri gazomvebi sarekreaciotbebSi (kus tba, lisis tba, Tbilisis zRva), sadac agreTve izomeba wylismikrobiologiuri maxasiaTeblebic. gazomvebis monacemebi xelmisawvdomiainternetSi, garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros `orhusiscentris~ vebgverdze.diagramebi 5.5-5.15. wylis xarisxis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi Savi zRvis auziswylis obieqtebSi(ix. TandarTuli faili)


diagramebi 5.16-5.26. wylis xarisxis ZiriTadimaxasiaTeblebi kaspiis zRvis auzis wylisobieqtebSi. (ix. TandarTuli faili)rogorc mtknari zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis diagramebidan Cans,saqarTvelos wylis obieqtebSi amoniumisionis koncentracia umetes SemTxvevaSiaRemateba adamianebisTvis dadgenil normas,nitritis ionis koncentracia ki _TevzebisTvis usafrTxo normas. aqve undaaRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos mdinareebisswrafi dinebis gamo Jangbadis koncentraciamdinareebis wyalSi yovelTvis imdenadmaRalia, rom yvelaze mgrZnobiare TevzebismoTxovnebsac ki akmayofilebs. amis gamowylis dabinZurebis mizeziT Tevzebismasobrivi daRupvis SemTxvevebi saqarTveloSiaRricxuli ar aris.ruka 5.3. Jangbadis bioqimiurimoxmarebis saSualo wliuri mniSvnelobebizedapirul mtknar wylebSi 2009 wels.`Jangbadis bioqimiuri moxmareba~(Jbm)gavrcelebuli indikatoriaorganuli nivTierebebiT wylisdabinZurebis Sesafaseblad. igiwarmoadgens Jangbadis raodenobas,romelsac wylis mikroorganizmebiam wyalSi gaxsnili organulinivTierebebis gadamuSavebisasmoixmaren. rac metia Jbm, miTmetadaa dabinZurebuli wyaliorganuli nivTierebebiT.ruka5.4. amoniumis azotis saSualo wliurikoncentracia zedapirul mtknar wylebSi 2009wels.arsebuli monacemebis mixedviT,saqarTvelos mdinareebs Soris Jangbadisbioqimiuri moxmareba yvelaze maRalia mtkvrisqveda welSi (q. Tbilisis teritoriaze daSemdgom), mdinare suramulaSi da aWarismdinareebSi. amoniumis ionis koncentracia ki maRalia praqtikulad dakvirvebisyvela punqtSi, aragvis zedawelisa da aWaris mdinareebis garda. unda aRiniSnos,rom amoniumis ionis aRricxuli koncentraciebi adamianTa janmrTelobisTvissaSiSi ar aris. garda amisa, amoniumis ioniT dabinZurebuli wylis maxasiaTebeliaarasasiamovno suni da mis dalevas adamianebi bunebrivad eridebian.adamianTa saqmianoba, romelic wylis obieqtebis rkinis ionebiTdabinZurebas gamoiwvevda, saqarTveloSi gamovlenili ar aris. amave dros uxvadaawarmodgenili rkinis Semcveli qanebi, romelTa bunebrivi gamorecxvis Sedegadwylis obieqtebSi rkinis ionis maRali Semcveloba fiqsirdeba. Sesabamisad,wylebSi rkinis ionis koncentraciis gadaWarbeba daSvebul normaze bunebrivimizezebiT unda iyos gamowveuli da normis gadaxedvis saWiroebaze miuTiTebs.igive iTqmis manganumis ionis maRal koncentraciazemdinare maSaveras zeda wertilSic.adamianis samrewvelo saqmianobis Sedegad mZimeliTonebiT maRali dabinZurebis SemTxvevebiaRiniSneba mdinareebSi yvirilasa (manganumi) damaSaveraSi (spilenZi). am mdinareebSi ekosistemaseriozuladaa darRveuli.arsebobs informacia (magaliTad [2])azotis Semcveli ionebi (amoniumis,nitritis da nitratis ionebi) wylisobieqtebSi sxvadasxva gziT xvdeba. maTZiriTad wyaros warmoadgensarasakmarisad gawmendili sakanalizaciowylebi. azotis Semcveli ionebis kideverTi mniSvnelovani wyaroa azotovanisasuqebiT gamdidrebuli sasoflosameurneomiwebis gadanarecxi an maTSiCaJonili wylebi, romlebic miwisqveSa anzedapiruli wylis obieqtebSi xvdeba.amoniumisa da nitritis ionebi uaRresadtoqsikuria TevzebisTvis, nitratis ioniki naklebad toqsikuria. wyalSi(gansakuTrebiT JangbadiT mdidarmdinareebSi) moxvedrili amoniumis ioniTandaTan gardaiqmneba nitritis, Semdgomki nitratis ionad. civ mdinareebSi esprocesi sakmaod nela mimdinareobs.azotis Semcveli ionebi wylismikroskopuli organizmebisa dawyalmcenareebis aqtiur zrdas iwvevs. esprocesi cnobilia, rogorc wylisobieqtebis evtrofikacia. Sedegad irRvevawylis ekosistemis wonasworoba, mcirdebaJangbadis Semcveloba wyalSi(gansakuTrebiT tbebSi), ramac Tevzebismasobrivi daRupva SeZleba gamoiwvios.dariSxani uaRresad toqsikurinivTierebaa. misi inhalaciis angadaylapvis Sedegad SesaZlebeliamZime mowamvla an sikvdili. mcirekoncentraciebis zemoqmedebisasviTardeba sxvadasxva daavadeba, maTSoris sibrmave, paralizeba, kibo.dariSxaniT dabinZurebuli wylismoxmareba dauSvebelia.


mdinareebis luxuniswyalisa da cxeniswyalis dariSxaniT dabinZurebis Sesaxeb,Tumca am dabinZurebis monitoringi dResdReobiT ar warmoebs.wylis obieqtebSi E. Coli SeiZlebamoxvdes adamianTa an cxovelebiseqskrementebidan an gauwmendavisakanalizacio Camdinare wylebidan.diagrama 5.27. baqteria E.coli-s raodenobaTbilisis mimdebare sarekreacio tbebis wyalSi 2009 wlis sabanao sezoniscalkeul dReebSi.Tbilisis mimdebare sarekreacio wyalsatevebSi banaobis sezonze (maisidanseqtembramde) rig SemTxvevebSi SeiniSneba mikrobiologiuri dabinZurebisdasaSvebze maRali mniSvnelobebi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia lisis tba, sadacyvela aRebul sinjSi mikrobiologiuri dabinZureba daSvebulze maRali aRmoCnda,rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom wylis am obieqtebSi banaoba janmrTelobisTvisusafrTxo ar aris.3. zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebis mizezebibaqteria Escherichia Coli adamianebisada bevri cxovelis nawlavurifloris normaluri da uvnebeliwarmomadgenelia, Tumca organizmissxva qsovilebSi igi iseT seriozuldaavadebebs iwvevs, rogoricaasaSarde sistemis infeqciebi,baqteremia da meningiti. garda amisa,arsebobs E. Coli-s paTogenuriStamebi, romlebic kuW-nawlavSimoxvedrisas (gansakuTrebiT 5-wlamde asakis bavSvebSi) sxvadasxvasimwvavis diareas iwvevs,mdinareebis wyalSi amoniumis da nitritis ionebis zRvrulad dasaSvebikoncentraciebis gadaWarbeba gamowveulia mdinareebSi gauwmendavi municipaluriCamdinare wylebis CaSvebiT, agreTve sasoflo-sameurneo savargulebidandifuziuri CamonadeniT.mdinareebis mniSvnelovan dabinZurebas iwvevs agreTve dabinZurebaarsebuli legaluri da aralegaluri nagavsayrelebidan, romlebic xSirSemTxvevaSi ganlagebulia mdinareebis napirebze. aRsaniSnavia, romnagavsayrelebis dabinZurebuli naJuri wylebi uaRresad toqsikuria wylisekosistemebisTvis. isini Seicavs rogorc organul nivTierebebs, aseve mZimeliTonebs da sxva saSiS komponentebs.mdinareebis liTonis ionebiT dabinZurebis did wyaros warmoadgens`jorjian manganezis~ sawarmoebi, romlebic ganlagebulia md. yvirilas auzSi dasaaqcio sazogadoeba `madneulis~ sawarmo, romelic mdebareobs md. maSaverasauzSi.mdinareebis luxuniswyalisa da cxeniswyalis dariSxaniT dabinZurebis mizezswarmoadgens sabWoTa periodSi (1933-1997 ww) ambrolauris raionis sofel uravSida lentexis raionis sof. canaSi dariSxanis mopoveba da misi gadamamuSavebelisawarmoebi. am saqmianobaTa Sedegad wlebis manZilze mogrovda dariSxanisSemcveli asobiT tona narCeni, romelic sawarmoebis mimdebare teritoriazeakumulirdeboda. dResdReobiT dariSxanis mopoveba SeCerebulia, aRniSnulisawarmoebi mTlianad ganadgurebulia da narCenebi mimofantulia uravSidaaxloebiT 20 ha-ze, canaSi ki _ 4-5 ha teritoriaze.


Tbilisis sarekreacio tbebis mikrobiologiuri dabinZurebis mizezswarmoadgens sarekreacio zonebis aradamakmayofilebeli keTilmowyoba(arasakmarisi tualetebi da nagvis urnebi damsveneblTaTvis, Sinauricxovelebisgan daucveli teritoria), damsveneblebis mier pliaJebis teritoriisdabinZureba da zog SemTxvevaSi (mag., Tbilisis zRva) dabinZurebuli wylebisaralegaluri CaSveba.4. ZiriTadi gamowvevebimiuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos 40 dasaxleba aRWurvilia sakanalizaciosistemebiT, umetesi am sistemisa dazianebulia da, oris (Tbilisi-rusTavis dasaCxeris) garda, arc erTis gamwmendi nageboba ar funqcionirebs (detalebisTvisix. Tavi 10). amis Sedegia mdinareebis intensiuri dabinZureba sakanalizaciowylebiT. analogiuri mdgomareobaa nagavsayrelebTan dakavSirebiT _ arsebuli 69municipaluri nagavsayrelidan oris garda arc erTs ar gaaCnia garemozezemoqmedebis nebarTva da garemos dabinZurebis intensiur wyaros warmoadgens.aRricxulia agreTve 28 araoficialuri nagavsayreli, romelTa umetesobamdinaris pirasaa ganTavsebuli (detalebi ix. me-16 TavSi)amJamad saqarTveloSi xorcieldeba mTeli rigi ZviradRirebuli proeqtebisasakanalizacio sistemebidan da nagavsayrelebidan zedapiruli wylebisdabinZurebis Sesamcireblad. Tumca samuSaoTa Zalze didi moculobisa daRirebulebis gamo wylis obieqtebis dabinZurebis wyaroebis srul aRmofxvrassakmaod didi dro dasWirdeba. magaliTad, mxolod 2009 wels saqarTvelos regionebSisakanalizacio sistemebis reabilitaciaze 56 mln lari daixarja.rac Seexeba sarekreacio tbebs, aRsaniSnavia, rom 2006 wlamde rekreaciisa dabanaobisaTvis gankuTvnili zedapiruli wylis obieqtebis xarisxze saxelmwifosanitariul zedamxedvelobasa da kontrols saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisada socialuri dacvis saministros SemadgenlobaSi Semavali saqarTvelossaxelmwifo sanitariuli zedamxedvelobis centraluri, saqalaqo da raionuliinspeqciebi axorcielebdnen. 2005 wlis 31 dekembridan moxda maTi likvidacia dadRemde Sesabamisi funqcia arc erT sajaro uwyebas ar dakisrebia.rogorc Tbilisis sarekreacio tbebze garemosa da bunebrivi resursebissaministros mier 2009 wels ganxorcielebuli baqteriologiuri monitoringisSedegebma aCvena, yvela tbaze sabanao sezonis ganmavlobaSi sanitaruli normaerTxel mainc iyo darRveuli, xolo lisis tbaze darRveva yvela gazomvisasgamovlinda. aucilebelia dawesdes sarekreacio sezonSi yvela sarekreaciowylis obieqtis savaldebulo, regularuli mikrobiologiuri monitoringi dauzrunvelyofili unda iqnes damsvenebelTa operatiuli informireba sabanaoadgilebSi wylis xarisxisa da sabanaod vargisianobis Sesaxeb. garda amisa,baqteriuli dabinZurebis SemTxvevaSi gasarkvevia amis mizezebi da misaRebiazomebi, rom sabanao wylis xarisxi janmrTelobisTvis usafrTxo iyos.rac Seexeba mdinareebs, aRsaniSnavia, rom zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis arsebulimonitoringi mdinareebis qselis mxolod mcire nawils moicavs. monitoringisaseTi mcire qseli wylis ekosistemebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb srul suraTs ariZleva. aucilebelia qselis gafarToeba da pirvel rigSi iseTi cxeliwertilebis mocva, rogoricaa savaraudod dariSxaniT dabinZurebuli mdinareebiluxuniswyali da cxeniswyali. amasTan, miuxedavad imisa, rom arsebulimonitoringisas sinjebSi 33 standartuli fizikur-qimiuri parametri izomeba,mainca r moicavs yvela saSiS dambinZurebel nivTierebas (magaliTad,pesticidebs). amrigad, arsebuli monitoringi zedapiruli mtknari wylebis damaTi ekosistemebis xarisxobriv mdgomareobaze sakmaris informacias ar iZleva.kerZod, SeuZlebelia davaskvnaT, ramdenad binZurdeba wyali sasoflo-sameurneosavargulebidan. amitom 2010 wlidan etapobrivad inergeba 2000/60/EC wylis CarCo-


direqtiviT gansazRvruli prioritetuli nivTierebebis monitoringi (romelTaSoris saxifaTo sasoflo-sameurneo qimikatebic aris). amdenad, momavalSi wylisxarisxis monitoringis Sedegebi ufro informatiuli iqneba.bunebrivi wylis obieqtebis ekologiuri mdgomareobis Sefasebis kidev erTiefeqturi gzaa qimiuri monitoringis kombinireba biologiur monitoringTan.biologiuri monitoringi mdgomareobs fitoplanqtonis, wylis sxva florisa dafskeris uxerxemloTa faunis Semadgenlobis, simravlisa da biomasis regularulgansazRvraSi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki wylis faunis normalur SemadgenlobaSiaRmoCndeba cvlilebebi, misi mizezis dasadgenad tardeba intensiuri qimiurigazomvebi. 2010 wlidan igegmeba am meTodis danergva da zogierT mdinarezebiologiuri monitoringis dawyeba.aRsaniSnavia, rom wylis obieqtebis xarisxis monitoringis gaumjobesebissakiTxebSi saqarTvelo aqtiurad TanamSromlobs mezobel qveynebTan.regularulad tardeba transasazRvro mdnareebis (mtkvari, xrami, debeda,alazani) erToblivi monitoringi somxeTisa da azerbaijanis warmomadgenlebTanerTad. mimdinareobs informaciis regularuli gacvla da SexvedrebitransasazRvro mdinareebisa da tbebis (karwaxi, jandari) erToblivi dacvismizniT.wylis resursebis xarisxis SenarCunebisa daefeqturad marTvisTvis saqarTvelos dagegmiliaqvs wylis resursebis administraciuli principiTmarTvidan integrirebul, saauzo marTvazegadasvla.wylis resursebis marTvis administraciulimodelis mixedviT SeuZlebelia wylis resursebismoxmarebis efeqturi dagegmva mdinaris mTeliauzis farglebSi sxvadasxva wyalmosargeblis(energomwarmoeblebi, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba,sawarmoebi, wylis momxmareblebi sasoflosameurneoTu rekreaciuli mizniT) interesebis,agreTve auzis ekositemebis SenarCunebisa dadacvis gaTvaliswinebiT. msoflios sxvadasxvaqveynis gamocdileba aCvenebs, rom wylisresursebis saauzo marTva am mxriv gacilebiTefeqturia. saauzo marTvis SemTxvevaSi wylisresursi ganixileba erTianad, fragmentaciis gareSe, rac saSualebas iZlevagaTvaliswinebuli da dabalansebuli iyos mdinaris mTlian sazRvrebSi, zeda daqveda dinebaSi ganlagebuli sxvadasxva wyalmosargeble obieqtis, aseve urbanuliganviTarebisa Tu ekonomikis sxvadasxva dargis interesebi. am midgomis danergvismizniT amJamad muSavdeba `wylis Sesaxeb~ axali kanonis proeqti. uaxloesmomavalSi agreTve dagegmilia calkeuli auzebis marTvis gegmebisSemuSaveba.gamoyenebuli literatura1. gia xmalaZe, saqarTvelos wylis resursebi, 2009 w.wylis resursebis integrirebulimarTva aris procesi, romelicgulisxmobs wylisa da masTandakavSirebuli miwis resursebisiseT erTobliv marTvas, romelicar vnebs ekosistemis mdgradobas daamave dros uzrunvelyofsmaqsimalur socialur daekonomikur keTildReobas.wylis resursebis integrirebulimarTvis erT-erTi ZiriTadiprincipia saauzo marTvis principi.igi gulisxmobs wylis resursebismarTvas konkretuli mdinaris auzishidrografiul sazRvrebSi,landSaftis morfologiis daresursis specifikisgaTvaliswinebiT.2. mdinare rionis auzSi mTavari damabinZurebeli wyaroebis (`cxeliwertilebis~) identificireba da Sefaseba (Identification and Evaluation of PollutionSources (Hot Spots) in the River Rioni Basin), CENN, 2008 w.

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