saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSi mosamarTleTa regularuli ...

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saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSi mosamarTleTa regularuli ...

saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSimosamarTleTa regularuli Sexvedrebis Sedegadsamoqalaqo da administraciuli samarTlis sferoSiSemuSavebulir e k o m e n d a c i e b idasamoqalaqo samarTlis sakiTxebzesaqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlose r T g v a r o v a n ip r a q t i k aTbilisi2011


saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlo0110 Tbilisi, Zmebi zubalaSvilebis q. #32 tel: 931262; faqsi: 920876Tbilisi20111


s a r C e v iwinasityvaoba --------------------------------------------------------------- 3rekomendaciebi samoqalaqo samarTlis sakiTxebze ----------------- 5erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo samarTlissakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT ------------------------------------------------ 31rekomendaciebi administraculi samarTlis sakiTxebze -------- 762


winasityvaobasaqarTvelos saerTo sasamarTloebis mosamarTleebs!Zvirfaso kolegebo,TqvenTvis cnobilia, rom sasamarTlo sistemaSi masStaburi,yovlismomcveli reforma mimdinareobs. am reformis erT-erTi umTavresimizani erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibebaa. am miznismisaRwevad saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom ori mimarTulebiT daiwyomuSaoba.2006 wlis TebervalSi safuZveli Caeyara axal iniciativas, racgulisxmobs saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSi yvela instanciismosamarTleTa regularuli Sexvedrebis organizebas. am SexvedraTamizania sasamarTlo praqtikisaTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis ganxilva,analizi, sxvadasxva instanciis mosamarTleTa gansxvavebuli mosazrebebisSejereba da diskusiis Sedegad konkretul normaTa erTgvarovani gagebisCamoyalibeba. aRniSnuli Sexvedrebis Sedegad Camoyalibebulirekomendaciebi mTeli qveynis masStabiT egzavneba yvela mosamarTles.garda amisa, 2007 wlidan samoqalaqo saproceso samarTlis sakiTxebze,xolo 2009 wlidan administraciuli saproceso samarTlis sakiTxebzekonkretuli rekomendaciebis mosamzadeblad Seqmnilia mudmivmoqmedikomisiebi. maT mier Seswavlil da ganzogadebul iqna SesabamisisasamarTlo praqtika, ris Sedegadac SemuSavda saTanado praqtikulirekomendaciebi.2006 wlidan dRemde uzenaes sasamarTloSi ramdenime aTeuli SexvedragaimarTa, romlebSic monawileoba miiRes Tbilisisa da saqarTvelosTiTqmis yvela regionis mosamarTleebma. Sexvedrebis Sedegad samoqalaqoda administraciuli samarTlis normaTa erTgvarovani gamoyenebisrekomendacia Camoyalibda daaxloebiT asamde problematur sakiTxze.3


2010 wels gamoica zemoaRniSnuli Sexvedrebis Sedegad rogorcsamoqalaqo, ise administraciuli samarTlis sferoSi Camoyalibebuli,aseve, komisiebis mier Sedgenili rekomendaciebi krebulebis saxiT. eskrebulebi TiToeulma Tqvenganma miiRo da, albaT dameTanxmebiT, amankonkretuli problematuri samoqalaqo da administraciul-samarTlebrivisakiTxebis SedarebiT swrafi mogvarebisa da maTi erTgvarovanigamoyenebis saSualeba mogvca. miuxedavad amisa, arsebobs rigi sakiTxebisa,romlebsac aRniSnuli krebulebi ar iTvaliswinebs da romlebzecmosamarTleTa mier SemuSavebulia saTanado praqtikuli rekomendaciebi.winamdebare krebulSi mocemulia swored is rekomendaciebi, romlebicmiRebul iqna Tqven mier gasuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi da jer argamocemula krebulis saxiT. aqve warmodgenilia saqarTvelos uzenaessasamarTloSi SemuSavebuli erTgvarovani praqtika samoqalaqo saqmeebTandakavSirebiT.bolos, gacnobebT, rom Tqveni iniciativis SemTxvevaSi momavalSicgagrZeldeba mosamarTleTa yoveli konkretuli Sexvedris SedegadmiRebuli rekomendaciebis dagzavna TiToeul TqvenganTan, racmarTlmsajulebis swrafad da efeqturad ganxorcielebis erT-erTsafuZvels Seqmnis.pativiscemiT,konstantine kublaSvili4


ekomendaciebi samoqalaqo samarTlis sakiTxebze* * *saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSi samoqalaqo samarTlis sakiTxebzemosamarTleTa Sexvedrebi Sedga 2006 wlis 18 Tebervals, 25 marts, 20maiss, 28 oqtombers, 2007 wlis 3 marts, 30 ivniss da 2008 wlis 25ivliss, ris Sedegadac Camoyalibda Semdegi rekomendaciebi:I.sakmaod xSirad sazogadoebis partniorebi an aqcionerebi moiTxovensazogadoebis qonebidan TavianTi wilis proporciulad qonebis naturiTgamoyofas. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier Camoyalibebulipraqtikis mixedviT, ar SeiZleba sazogadoebidan gasul partniors Tavisiwilis Tundac proporciulad mieces qoneba naturiT. sazogadoebisqoneba da sawesdebo kapitalSi partnioris wili sxvadasxvasamarTlebrivi bunebis mqone elementebia, Tundac isini erTianiekonomikuri aRmniSvnelis qveS moiazrebodnen. `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanoniTdadgenilia swarmos naturiT gayofis wesi, kerZod, kanonis 14.13-emuxliT sawarmo, romlis SemadgenlobaSi ramdenime swarmoo erTeulia,SeiZleba daiyos mis SemadgenlobaSi myof sawarmoebad da maT gaagrZelonsaqmianoba rogorc damoukidebelma sawarmoebma – subieqtebma sakuTariorganizaciul-samarTlebrivi formiT. sawarmos naturiT gayofis Taobazeunda arsebobdes partniorTa (saerTo) krebis gadawyvetileba. aRniSnulinormidan gamomdinare, kanoni uSvebs sawarmos gayofas mxolod sawarmosSigniT arsebuli sawarmoo erTeulebis mimarT, e.i iseTi warmonaqmnebismimarT, romelnic organizaciulad calke gamoyofis SemTxvevaSigaagrZeleben damoukideblad saqmianobas. sawarmos gayofa partniorTa anaqcionerTa saerTo krebis kompetencias warmoadgens. partniors ara aqvssawarmos qonebidan Tavisi wilis naturiT gamoyofis samarTlebrivisafuZveli. qonebis naturiT gayofa dasaSvebia mxolod partniorTaSeTanxmebiT. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom aqcioneris (wilismflobelis) mier sazogadoebis sawesdebo kapitalSi Setanili(ganxorcielebuli) Senatani, anu qoneba (fuladi Tu arafuladi qonebissaxiT), kanonis Tanaxmad xdeba sazogadoebis sakuTreba da misi, ubralodukan dabruneba SeuZlebelia. swored aman gamoiwvia gaugebroba da kamaTi.samarTlebrivad dauSvebelia, partniorma, magaliTad, sxva partniorebTanazrTa sxvadasxvaobisa da saqmianobis SeuTavseblobis gamo, moindomos5


sazogadoebidan gasvla da paralelurad im qonebis misTvis gadacema(Tundac sawesdebo kapitalSi Tavisi wilis proporciulad), romelzedacsakuTrebis ufleba sazogadoebas ekuTvnis. Sida SeTanxmebiT,rasakvirvelia, SesaZlebelia `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanonis 14.13-e muxlisSesabamisad ganxorcieldes sawarmos reorganizacia. reorganizaciis erTerTinairsaxeoba ki sawarmos naturiT gayofaa. am ukanasknels ki, raTqma unda, icnobs da uSvebs `mewarmeTa Sesaxeb~ kanoni. (amis TaobazeixileT mag. uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganCinebebi: #as 117815-03; #3k/409-03).II.ganxilul iqna samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1343-e muxli da masSi 2005 wlis 9dekembers Setanili cvlileba. winamdebare muxli awesrigebs umkvidroqonebis saxelwifoze gadasvlis sakiTxs. am muxlidan gamomdinare, metadmniSvnelovania, Tu vin unda iqnes Cabmuli saTanado mopasuxed saqmeSisamkvidros miRebis vadis gagrZelebis Taobaze. manamde moqmedi redaqciiTumkvidro qoneba gadadioda xazinaze (da am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifoswarmomadgenlad da, Sesabamisad, mopasuxed gamodioda finansTasaministro). ganxorcielebuli cvlilebiT es norma Seicvala daganisazRvra, rom `Tuki arc kanoniT da arc anderZiT memkvidreebi ararian, an arc erTma memkvidrem ar miiRo samkvidro, anda, roca yvelamemkvidres CamoerTva memkvidreobis ufleba, umkvidro qoneba gadadissaxelmwifoze~.saxelmwifo metad farTo cnebaa. xSirad amgvari tipis procesSimosarCele mxare mopasuxed uTiTebs notariussa da sxva pirebze,romelnic arasaTanado mopasuxeebs warmoadgenen, amitom dgeba saTanadomopasuxis gansazRvris (procesSi Cabmis, Canacvlebis) sakiTxi. amproblemasTan mimarTebiT saWiroa ganvsazRvroT, Tu ra igulisxmebaumkvidro qonebaSi da, aqedan gamomdinare, umkvidro qonebis saxelmwifozegadasvlaSi, anu ra iuridiuli faqtebi ganapirobeben imis dadginas, arisTu ara qoneba umkvidro da meore _ gadavida Tu ara umkvidro qonebasaxelmwifoze. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1343-e muxliganmartavs, Tu ra samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis arsebobisas miiCneva qonebaumkvidrod. amas gansazRvravs is iuridiuli mniSvnelobis Semadgenloba,romelic mocemulia winamdebare muxlSi, kerZod: 1. rodesac arc kanoniT6


da arc anderZiT memkvidreebi ar arian; 2. arc erTma memkvidremsamkvidro ar miiRo; 3. yvela memkvidres CamoerTva memkvidreobis ufleba,anu es iuridiuli mniSvnelobis Semadgenloba iZleva imis SesaZleblobas,rom qoneba cnobil iqnes umkvidrod, xolo Semdeg es umkvidro qonebagadavides saxelmwifoze. uZravi qonebis gadasvlis sakiTxs zogadadaregulirebs samoqalaqo kodeqsis 183-e muxli. ase rom, umkvidro qonebasaerTo dadgenili wesiT gadadis saxelmwifos sakuTrebaSi.saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi gadasvlis sakiTxi dakavSirebulia im organosuflebamosilebasTan, romelic samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi gamodissaxelmwifos saxeliT. kerZod, saxelmwifos uflebamosilebebikonkretul SemTxvevaSi unda ganaxorcielos im organom, romliskompetenciaSic Sedis saxelmwifos saxeliT saxelmwifo qonebis floba,marTva da gankargva.gansaxilveli normiT umkvidro qonebis miRebis valdebuleba gaaCniasaxelmwifos da ara TviTmmarTvelobas. am SemTxvevaSi yuradReba undagamaxvildes imaze, rom adgilobrivivi TviTmarTvelobis erTeulidamoukidebeli iuridiuli piria da misi qonebis Seqmnis wess, wyaroebsda kategoriebs, agreTve, TviTmmarTveli erTeulisaTvis saxelmwifosakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis gadacemis wess ganisazRvravs kanoni(saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1509-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~da `b~ qvepunqtebi, `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTveloskanonis me-10 muxlis pirveli nawili, 46-e muxlis me-4 nawili da`adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis erTeulis qonebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTveloskanoni.)amrigad, aRniSnuli kategoriis saqmeebze mopasuxed unda iqnes CabmulisaqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro (saqarTvelosekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros debulebis me-2 muxlis me-2nawilis `m~ qvepunqti), radgan mis kompetenciaSi Sedis saxelmwifoqonebis floba, marTva da gankargva.qoneba, romelic saxelmwifoze gadavida (saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsis 1444-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos ara aqvs ufleba, uariTqvas samkvidros miRebaze, romelic masze gadavida) Sedis saxelmwifossamarTlebrivi interesis sferoSi.7


im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac samkvidros realurad floben sxva memkvidreebi,xolo piri iTxovs gaSvebuli vadis aRdgenas, procesSi mopasuxedmowveul unda iqnan pirebi, romelTac samkvidro faqtobrivad miiRes daara saxelmwifo. mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, Tu romeli piris uflebasa dakanoniT dacul interess exeba sasamarTlos mier gaSvebuli vadissapatiod miCneva.administraciul-teritoriul erTeulebSi SeiZleba aseT davebSimopasuxed CarTuli iqnen ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministrosadgilobriv-teritoriuli organoebi.Tuki arsebobs mxolod ori memkvidre, romelTagan orivem gauSvasamkvidros vada da mxolod erTi iTxovs am vadis aRdgenas,zemoaRniSnuli samarTlebrivi safuZvlebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aseTprocesSi saxelmwifo Caebmeba procesSi mopasuxed.am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mosamarTleebma aseve dasves SekiTxvasaxelmwifo baJTan dakavSirebiT, kerZod, rogor unda moxdes amSemTxvevebSi baJis gadaxda da ra moculobiT.gamomdinare iqidan, rom aRniSnuli kategoriis saqmeebi warmoadgensqonebriv-samarTlebriv davebs, e.i. saxelmwifo baJis odenoba aseT davebSidamokidebulia davis sagnis Rirebulebaze (sabazro Rirebuleba).III.ganxilul iqna procesSi erT-erT mxared filialebis monawileobissakiTxi. mosamarTleTa nawili Tvlida, rom sawarmos filialis mierdadebul garigebebze (ZiriTadad Sromis xelSekrulebebze) saTanadomopasuxea swored sazogadoebis filiali, Tumca raionuli sasamarTloebiam saxis davebs mainc ZiriTadi sawarmos adgilsamyofelis misamarTiTagzavnian.saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier dadgenili praqtikiT saboloodCamoyalibda Semdegi: yvela im sakiTxze, romelzedac mxare edavebasawarmos filials, procesSi mopasuxed Cabmuli unda iyos ZiriTadisawarmo da ara misi filiali. filiali ar warmoadgens calke iuridiulpirs, igi ZiriTadi sawarmos (iuridiuli piris) warmomadgenlobaa, mas ar8


gaaCnia gancalkevebuli qoneba da kreditorTa winaSec igi damoukidebladsakuTari qonebiT pasuxs ar agebs. amitom miCneulia, rom ZiriTadmasawarmom Tavis filialze unda gasces saproceso warmomadgenlobiTiuflebamosileba. Tuki filials mis wesdebaSi (an misi Semqnis raime sxvasaxis dokumentSi) aRniSnuli aqvs, rom igi aris ZiriTadi sawarmoswarmomadgeneli ara mxolod mesame pirebTan _ kontrahentebTangarigebebis dadebaSi, aramed ZiriTadi sawarmos saprocesowarmomadgenelic aris – maSin damatebiT filialze ZiriTadi sawarmosaganwarmomadgenlobis damadasturebeli uflebamosilebis miReba saWiro aRararis.IV.sakiTxi Seexo samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1274-e muxls, kerZod, romelsamoqalaqo saproceso subieqtad unda iqnes miCneuli, samoqalaqokodeqsis 1274-e muxlis Tanaxmad, Svilad ayvanis gauqmebis an baTiladcnobis saqmis ganxilvisas meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo?aRniSnuli normis mixedviT, sasamarTloSi Svilad ayvanis gauqmebis anbaTilad cnobis saqmis ganxilvisas yvela SemTxvevaSi monawileoba undamiiRos meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organom, anu sasamarTloSi esorgano unda gamovides raime saxis subieqtad. materialurma samarTalmagansazRvra, rom yvela SemTxvevaSi meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organomam tipis saqmeebSi aucileblad unda miiRos monawileoba. gamomdinareiqidan, rom mosarCele Tavad gansazRvravs, Tu vin Caabas mxared procesSida mesame pirebic damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe sworedmisi iniciativiT iqnebian CarTulni saqmeSi, problemac naTelia – amSemTxvevaSi materialuri norma gansazRvravs amgvar procesSi meurveobisada mzrunvelobis organos savaldebulo monawileobas, xolo, Tu romelsubieqtad unda iqnes igi Cabmuli am saqmeSi, arsadaa gansazRvruli. amasarc saproceso kodeqsi aregulirebs. gamoiTqva mosazreba _ xom ar undamonawileobdnen es organoebi aRniSnul procesSi rogorc specialistebi?sabolood azri Sejerda imaze, rom am saqmeebSi meurveobisamzrunvelobis organoebi unda gamovidnen mesame pirebad damoukidebelisasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe. am organoebis kanonier interess aRniSnulsaqmeebze gamotanili gadawyvetilebebi namdvilad exeba. Tundac is faqti,rom Svilad ayvanis sakiTxSi es organoebi erT-erT gadamwyvet rols9


asruleben, gascemen Tanxmobas Svilad ayvanasTan dakavSirebiT, daskvnebsda a.S., Svilad ayvanis gauqmebis an baTilad cnobis sakiTxebSic esurTierToba ueWvelad Seexeba meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organoTasamarTlebriv interess. problema ar iqmneba iseT SemTxvevebSi, rodesacSvilad ayvanis gauqmebas da baTilad cnobas Tavad meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organo iTxovs da, maSasadame, gamodis mosarCeled anmxarem Tavad moiTxova aseTi organos CarTva procesSi mopasuxed. Tukidava aqts Seexeba, SesaZlebelia, sssk-is 85-e muxlis Sesabamisad daisvassakiTxi saTanado mopasuxis Sesaxeb an amave kodeqsis 84-e muxliTganisazRvros saTanado mosarCelis sakiTxi. ase rom, sssk-is 203-emuxlis safuZvelze mosamzadebel sxdomaze SeiZleba aseTi sakiTxebisgarkveva, magram, Tuki ar arsebobs amgvari SemTxveva da maincsavaldebuloa meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos CarTva saqmeSisaproceso subieqtad, maSin ra xerxs unda mimarTos sasamarTlom?sasarCelo moTxovnam Tavad unda miaxvedros sasamarTlo, Tu romelsubieqtad unda iqnes miCneuli ama Tu im saqmeSi meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organo, anu sasarCelo moTxovnam Tavad unda daanaxossasamarTlos, Tu baTilobis romel safuZvels exeba dava da Tu visTanaqvs saqme. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, SesaZlebelia es organo warmodgesmopasuxis, mosarCelis, Tanamonawilis (TanamosarCelis an Tanamopasuxis)rangSi da a.S. niSandoblivia is faqti, rom am mxriv namdvilad ariswinaaRmdegoba samoqalaqo kodeqssa da samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqssSoris, vinaidan, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Tanamxad, mesame piradprocesSi ama Tu im subieqtis CarTva ar xdeba sasamarTlos iniciativissafuZvelze, es Tavad mxaris prerogativaa. magram, vinaidan aseTimperatiul danawess adgens samoqalaqo materialuri kodeqsi,sasamarTlo unda gamovides swored materialuri samarTlidan da amissafuZvelze Caabas meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo saqmeSi mesamepirad damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe.sabolood Sejerda azri, rom aseT saqmeebSi sasamarTlos miermeurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo CaerTveba mesame piraddamoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnis gareSe, gamomdinare iqidan, Tu rasaxis sasarCelo moTxovnaa dayenebuli sasamarTloSi. im SemTxvevaSi,roca arsebobs sssk-is 89-e muxlis safuZvelze mesame piridamoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovniT (rasac iTvaliswinebs samoqalaqosaproceso kanonmdebloba), magram ar arsebobs iniciativa mxarisa am10


piris sasamarTloSi mowvevis Taobaze, maSin aseTi iniciativisganxorcielebis uflebamosileba materialuri samoqalaqo kodeqsissafuZvelze sasamarTlom unda itvirTos. amasTan, SeiZleba ganimartossssk-is 203-e muxli, sadac gansazRvrulia, Tu risi moqmedebisganxorcieleba SeuZlia mosamarTles saqmis ganxilvisaTvis, maT Soris,procesSi mesame pirebad da Tanamonawileebad Cabmis sakiTxic da saqmeSimesame pirad damoukidebeli moTxovnis gareSe meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organos Cabmis motiviT, daeyrdnos samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis zemoaRniSnul normas.V.es sakiTxi warmoiSva quTaisis saapelacio sasamarTloSi da igiSemdegnairad Camoyalibda: pirvel instanciaSi mosarCelem dava moigo. esgadawyvetileba mopasuxe mxarem gaasaCivra saapelacio saasamarTloSi.apelaciaSi pirvel instanciis sasamarTloSi mopasuxed myofi piri ukveapelantia. xolo mowinaaRmdege mxare saapelacio instanciaSi uars ambobssarCelze. rogor wyvets sasamarTlo am sakiTxs da ras aRniSnavs TavisgadawyvetilebaSi?azri Semdegze Sejerda: am SemTxvevaSi, dispoziciurobis principidangamomdinare, samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis me-3 muxlis me-2 nawilisme-2 winadadebis Tanaxmad, mosarCeles SeuZlia uari ganacxadossarCelze, anu mas procesis nebismier stadiaze aqvs ufleba, isargeblosdispoziciurobis principiT da uari Tqvas sarCelze. sssk-is 372-emuxlis Tanaxmad, saapelacio sasamarTloSi saqmis warmoebisas gamoiyenebapirveli instanciis sasamarTlosaTvis dadgenili wesebi, xolo 272-emuxlis ”e” punqtis mixedviT, saqmis warmoeba Sewydeba im safuZvliT, TumosarCele uars ambobs sarCelze, anu mosarCeles, Tundac igi mogebulimxaris poziciidan gamodiodes, dispoziciurobis principis Sesabamisad,ar erTmeva ufleba ganacxados uari sarCelze. azri Sejerda asevesaapelacio sasamarTlos mier saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSisarezolucio nawilis CamoyalibebasTan mimarTebiTac, kerZod,sarezolucio nawilSi mieTiTeba: dakmayofildes mosarCelisSuamdgomloba saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis Taobaze mis mier sarCelzeuaris Tqmis gamo, xolo pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos mier mocemulsaqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetileba gauqmdes da Sewydes saqmis warmoeba. am11


SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo xelmZRvanelobs sssk-is me-3 muxlis me-2nawiliT, 272-e muxlis “g” punqtiT da 372-e muxliT.VI.pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi mosarCelem moigo dava. mopasuxemgadawyvetileba saapelacio wesiT gaasaCivra. saapelacio sasamarTloSimosarCelem (pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi mosarCele mxarem)moindoma davis sagnis gadideba, magaliTad, pirvel instanciaSi igiiTxovda 5000 lars, xolo apelaciaSi moTxovna gazardia da iTxova7000 lari. aqvs Tu ara mosarCeles amis ufleba?azri Sejerda imaze, rom mosarCeles saapelacio sasamarTloSi aseTisaproceso ufleba ar gaaCnia. rodesac mosarCeles Seaqvs sarCelipirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi, man swored aq unda gansazRvros davissagnis Rirebuleba da misi gazrda saapelacio sasamarTloSi, Tu mas araqvs Setanili saapelacio saCivari, dauSvebelia. saapelacio sasamarTloamowmebs gadawyvetilebas saapelacio saCivris farglebSi.VII.sakiTxi aseve Seexo gasuli saukunis 20-30-ian wlebSi CamorTmeuliqonebis dabrunebasTan dakavSirebul davebze sarCelis xandazmulobisproblemis gadawyvetas (e.w. restitucias).aseTi kategoriis ramdenime dava ganixila saqarTvelos uzenaesmasasamarTlom. miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis mixedviT, aseT moTxovnebssasarCelo xandazmulobis vadis amowurvis gamo eTqvaT uari. am davebSimosarCeleebi apelirebdnen, rom maT Tavis droze ar hqondaT gasaCivrebisSesaZlebloba. aRniSnuls arc kanoni iTvaliswinebda, amitomac maTisasarCelo moTxovna ar aris xandazmuli da igi sasamarTloSi waradginesmas Semdeg, rac amis SesaZlebloba realurad miecaT. sasamarTloebmamiiCnies, rom es pozicia ar iyo swori. maT sarCelis aRZvris kanonierisafuZveli sabWoTa periodSi moqmedi normatiuli aqtebis safuZvelzehqondaT da 90-ian wlebSic, magram sarCeli ar aRuZravT. Sesabamisad,uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtikiT ganisazRvra, rom aseTi sarCelebi12


xandazmulia da ver dakmayofildeba. Tuki aseTi CamorTmeuli qoneba undadaubrundes yofil mesakuTres, saWiroa saxelmwifoebrivi, politikurineba _ amis Taobaze unda iqnes miRebuli specialuri kanoni da sworedmasSi unda aisaxos aseTi pirebisaTvis kompensaciisa Tu CamorTmeuliqonebis ukan dabrunebis sakiTxi, rogorc es sxva qveynebSi ganxorcielda.saqarTveloSi dRes moqmedi kanonmdebloba ar iZleva imis safuZvels, romsasamarTlom aseTi sarCelebi daakmayofilos.rac Seexeba im mosazrebas, rom saerTod sasamarTlom mosarCeles uariunda uTxras aseTi sarCelebis miRebaze, uaryofil iqna. uflebissasamarTlo wesiT dacva mxaris konstituciuri uflebaa. gamomdinareaqedan, sasamarTlom unda miiRos warmoebaSi aseTi sarCeli (saprocesokanonmdeblobis normaTa gaTvaliswinebiT), xolo dakmayofilebaze,zemoaRniSnuli mizeziT, unda uTxras uari, anu es unda moxdes saqmisarsebiTi ganxilvis Sedegad (am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT magaliTisTvisSegiZliaT ix. susg #as-721-973-04).VIII.movalis gardacvalebis Semdeg, xSir SemTxvevaSi, misi memkvidreebiganzrax ar iReben samkvidros (ZiriTadad, Tumca ara yovelTvis), uZravqonebas, romelic datvirTulia ipoTekiT) samkvidro mowmobis miRebisgziT, raTa ar moxdes am qonebaze aRsrulebis miqceva, maSin, rodesacmemkvidreebs es qoneba faqtiuri flobiT miRebuli aqvT, ris gamockreditors uWirs Tavisi uflebis dacva. am sakiTxs gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba eniWeba agreTve `sacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobisaswarmoSobili urTierTobebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis subieqtebsSoris urTierTobisas. xSir SemTxvevaSi mesakuTre gardacvlilia da misimemkvidreebi samkvidros ar iReben, an mesakuTres memkvidre ar hyavs. aseTSemTxvevaSi kanoniT mesakuTrisTvis miniWebuli ufleba savaraudodsaxelmwifom unda ganaxorcielos? anu mosargeblis mier aseTSemTxvevaSi sarCeli wardgenil unda iqnes ekonomikuri ganviTarebissaministros mimarT? amdenad, vin unda iyos mopasuxe: a) Tu memkvidreebiar iReben samkvidros da b) Tu memkvidre ucnobia an ar arsebobs.aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT mniSvenlovania ori SemTxveva: 1. sanamkreditori sarCels aRZravs, movale manamde gardaicvala da 2. movale13


gardaicvala saqmis ganxilvis periodSi, Sesabamisad, sakiTxi dgas imisTaobaze, Tu rogor unda Caebas movale am procesSi. pirveli SemTxvevisdros, anu rodesac movale ukve gardacvlilia da kreditori sarCelsaRZravs, maSin am ukanasknels SeuZlia, sarCeli aRZras memkvidreebismimarT. maT SesaZloa memkvidreoba sanotaro wesiT miRebuli ar aqvT,magram samkvidros faqtobrivad daeuflnen. aseT SemTxvevaSi saqmeSimopasuxed mowveuli iqneba yvela memkvidre (visac kreditori CarTavs),xolo Tu mowveulma mopasuxeebma ganacxades, rom isini uars ambobenmemkvidreobaze, maSin samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 85-e muxlisSesabamisad daismeba sakiTxi saTanado mopasuxis CarTvasTan dakavSirebiTda saqmeSi mopasuxed saxelmwifo Caebmeba. rodesac memkvidreebiaRmoCndebian TavianTi qonebis dakargvis realuri safrTxis winaSe,cxadia, rom arc erTi maTgani (Tanamopasuxeebis SemTxvevaSi) ardaeTanxmeba mopasuxis Secvlas da procesze gairkveva, rom memkvidreebi(mopasuxeebi) dasaxelebuli pirebi arian. xolo, Tuki isini ganacxadeben,rom ar arian memkvidreebi, maSin saqmeSi Caebmeba saxelmwifo. Tu uZraviqoneba datvirTulia ipoTekiT, gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawilSiCaiwereba, rom aRsruleba moxdes ipoTekiT datvirTuli qonebisrealizaciis gziT. Tu movale gardaicvleba saqmis ganxilvis peridoSi,maSin saqme SeCerdeba uflebamonacvlis dadgenamde, xolo ganaxlebisdros ganCinebiT dadgindeba, rom is piri, romelic daeufla qonebas, arismemkvidre da, Sesabamisad, igi iqneba Cabmuli saqmeSi. im SemTxvevaSi,rodesac memkvidre ucnobia, maSin amoqmeddeba saTanado meqanizmi da ukvesaqmeSi uflebamonacvled saxelmwifo Caebmeba.IX.sakiTxi Seexo Sromis kodeqsis 48-e muxls. kerZod, saqarTvelos Sromiskodeqsis 48-e muxliT gansazRvrulia davis mogvareba SemaTanxmebeliproceduriT, ra drosac erTi mxare ugzavnis meore mxares Setyobinebasdavis warmoSobis safuZvlebisa da moTxovnebis Sesaxeb. meore mxarevaldebulia, ganixilos werilobiTi Setyobineba da Tavisigadawyvetileba werilobiT acnobos meore mxares Setyobinebis miRebidan10 dRis vadaSi. Tu mxareTa Soris SeTanxmeba ver iqna miRweuli 14kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi an Tu mxarem Tavi aarida SemaTanxmebelprocedurebSi monawileobas, meore mxares ufleba aqvs, mimarTos14


sasamarTlos an arbitraJs. aq warmoiWreba Semdegi sakiTxebi: a) ar arisgansazRvruli, davis warmoSobidan ra vadaSi unda mimarTos muSakmawerilobiTi SetyobinebiT administracias. magaliTad, muSaki daaqveiTes2006 wlis 1 agvistos, man ki SetyobinebiT mimarTa administracias 2006wlis 1 oqtombers; b) araa gansazRvruli, savaldebuloa Tu ara aseTiproceduris gavla davis sasamarTloSi warmoarTvisaTvis. zogadad,saqarTvelos konstitucia ganamtkicebs sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTvisuflebas, magram am konkretul SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia Tu araSemaTanxmebeli proceduris amowurva sasamarTlosTvis misamarTad; g)SesaTanxmeblad gansazRvruli 14 kalendaruli dRe unda aiTvalos Tuara werilobiTi pasuxis miRebidan? d) 14 dRis gasvlis Semdeg ravadaSia SesaZlebeli sasamarTlosTvis an arbitraJisaTvis mimarTva?saqarTvelos axali Sromis kodeqsi amoqmedda 2006 wlis agvistodan. amkodeqsis 48-e muxlma daadgina damsaqmebelsa da dasaqmebuls SoriswarmoSobili davis ganxilvisa da gadawyvetis axali wesi, kerZod, ammuxlis pirvel nawilSi miTiTebulia, rom dava unda gadawydes mxareTaSoris SemaTanxmebeli procedurebiT. imave muxlis meore nawiliT kigansazRvrulia aseTi proceduris dawyebis wesi, kerZod, SemaTanxmebeliprocedurebis dawyebis Sesaxeb mxare meore mxares ugzavnis werilobiTSetyobinebas, romelSic zustad unda iyos gansazRvruli daviswarmoSobis safuZveli da moTxovnebi. mesame nawili ki exeba meore mxarisvaldebulebas, werilobiTi Setyobineba ganixilos da Tavisigadawyvetileba aseve werilobiT acnobos mxares Setyobinebis miRebidan10 kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi.Tu SromiTi urTierTobis mxareebi miaRweven SeTanxmebas sadavo sakiTxisTaobaze, imave muxlis me-4 nawilis Tanaxmad, warmomadgenlebi an mxareebiiReben werilobiT gadawyvetilebas, romelic xdeba arsebuli SromiTixelSekrulebis nawili. magram, Tu aseTi SemaTanxmebeli proceduriTSeTanxmeba ver iqneba miRweuli 14 kalendaruli dRis ganmavlobaSi, anTu mxarem Tavi aarida SemaTanxmebel procedurebSi monawileobas, meoremxares ufleba eqneba mimarTos sasamarTlos an arbitraJs.azri Sejerda imis Taobaze, rom dasaqmebuls SemaTanxmebeli procedurisgareSec aqvs ufleba mimarTos sasamarTlos. radgan saqarTveloskonstituciis 42-e muxlis pirveli punqtiT yovel adamians ufleba aqvs,Tavis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dasacavad mimarTos sasamarTlos,15


xolo `saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos organuli kanonisme-3 muxlis pirvel nawilSi pirdapiraa miTiTebuli, rom yovel adamiansufleba aqvs, Tavis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dasacavad piradad anwarmomadgenlis meSveobiT pirdapir mimarTos sasamarTlos. amdenad,dasaqmebuls SemaTanxmebeli proceduris dacvis gareSec SeuZlia SromiTidavis gadasawyvetad mimarTos sasamarTlos. mas es ufleba ar SeiZlebaSeezRudos; magram konkretuli SromiTi davis ganxilvisas, dasaqmebulismoTxovnis safuZvlianobis Semowmebisas sasamarTlos SeuZlia gamoarkviosis garemoeba, ratom ar gamoiyena dasaqmebulma Sromis kodeqsis 48-emuxliT miniWebuli ufleba. aRniSnuli garemoebis gamorkvevis SedegadgakeTebuli daskvnebi ki sasamarTlos SeuZlia safuZvlad daudosmocemul saqmeze miRebul gadawyvetilebas.azri Sejerda aseve imaze, rom muSakma, SemaTanxmebeli procedurismeSveobiT davis gadawyvetis Taobaze, werilobiTi SetyobinebiTadministracias SeuZlia mimarTos aseTi davis warmoSobidan nebismierdros.erTiani pozicia agreTve Camoyalibda imasTan dakavSirebiT, romSesaTanxmeblad gansazRvruli 14 kalendaruli dRe unda aiTvaloswerilobiTi pasuxis miRebidan da SemaTanxmebeli procedurisxangrZlivoba sul ganisazRvreba 24 dRiT.winamdebare sakiTxis `d~ punqtTan mimarTebiT azri Sejerda imaze, romsasamarTlosaTvis an arbitraJisaTvis mimarTvis vadis aTvla daviswarmoSobis momentidan iwyeba da aq gamoiyeneba saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsiT gansazRvruli sasarCelo xandazmulobis vada.X.sakiTxi Seexo saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdis problemas. kerZod, `saxelwifobaJis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-5 muxlis pirveli punqtis `a~qvepunqtis mixedviT, saxelmwifo baJisagan Tavisufldebian fizikuripirebi sarCelebze xelfasis gadaxdevinebis Sesaxeb da sxva moTxovnebzeSromis anazRaurebis Taobaze, romlebic gamomdinareobs SromissamarTlebrivi urTierTobidan. aSkaraa, rom baJi ar gadaixdevinebaanazRaurebis ama Tu im formis miRebis moTxovniT wardgenil sarCelebze.16


aseT SemTxvevaSi, mosarCele, romelic iTxovs mxolod samuSaozeaRdgenas, unda gaTavisufldes Tu ara saxelmwifos baJis gadaxdisagan?aRsaniSnavia, rom Sromis kanonTa kodeqsSi iyo norma, romlissafuZvelzec, SromiTsamarTlebriv davebze mosarCele gaTavisfulebuliiyo saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisagan. amJamad es norma gauqmebulia. amitomrCeba mxolod `saxelmwifo baJis Sesaxeb~ kanonis me-5 muxli.winamdebare muxliT fizikuri piri saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisaganTavisufldeba mxolod SromiT samarTlebriv davebSi xelfasisanazRaurebis moTxovnis Sesaxeb sarCelis wardgenisas. ase rom, mxolodam SemTxvevebSi Tavisufldebian fizikuri pirebi baJis gadaxdisagan. sxvaSemTxvevebSi, magaliTad, rodesac mxare iTxovs, samuSaoze aRdgenas dasxv. piri baJis gadaxdisagan ar Tavisufldeba, xolo Tuki, ramdenimemoTxovnaa dayenebuli (SromiT samarTlebrivi urTierTobidangamomdinare), maSin sasamarTlo fizikur pirs saxelmwifo baJs argadaaxdevinebs mxolod xelfasis anazRaurebis nawilSi.sabolood azri Sejerda imis Taobaze, rom zemoT moyvanil SemTxvevebSifizikuri pirebi saxelmwifo baJis gadaxdisagan ar Tavisufldebian.XI.problema Semdeg sakiTxs Seexo: mosarCelem (dedam) mopasuxes (Svils)aCuqa uZravi qoneba, romelsac amJamad mTeli rigi kreditorebis mimarTdavalianeba gaaCnia. imisaTvis, rom Tavidan iqnes acilebuli aRsrulebismiqceva Svilis uZrav qonebaze, mosarCelem aRZra sarCeli CuqebisxelSekrulebis baTilad cnobis Taobaze, romelsac savaraudod mopasuxecnobs. rodesac cxadia aseTi Sedegis dadgomis albaToba, rogor SeuZliasasamarTlos raime formiT Caabas kreditori davaSi, raTa man SeZlosTavisi uflebebis dacva imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saqmeSi mesame pirebisCabma sasamarTlos sakuTari iniciativiT ar SeuZlia.saqarTvelos konstituciis Tanaxmad, yvela pirs aqvs ufleba, TavisidarRveuli an sadavod gamxdari uflebebis dasacavad mimarTossasamarTlos. es piris konstutuciuri uflebaa da misi SezRudva arSeiZleba. rodesac pirs sasamarTloSi Seaqvs garkevuli SinaarsissarCeli, ivaraudeba, rom piris es sarCeli marTlzomieria. meore17


sakiTxia, ramdenad safuZvliania igi da ramdenad akmayofilebs immoTxovnebs, romelTa safuZvelzec igi sasamarTlos mier gaziarebul dadakmayofilebuli iqneba. samoqalaqo saproceso kanonmdeblobis zogadiprincipidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo pirs aseT uflebas veranairad verSeuzRudavs. Tumca zemoT dasmul konkretul SemTxvevaSi marTlac amsarCelis ukan idges garkveuli arakeTilsindisieri ganzraxva pirebisa,daicvan qoneba SesaZlo realizaciisagan. umravles SemTxvevaSi aseTisarCelebi usafuZvlo iqneba da ar dakmayofildeba. amitom, saboloojamSi, aseTi RonisZieba arakeTilsindisieri mxareebis mxridankreditorebis sasargeblod qonebis realizaciis mxolod droebiTbariers Seqmnis. sxvagvarad aris viTareba, rodesac mopasuxe cnobssarCels, rac samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis Sesabamisad, sarCelisdakmayofilebis sruli safuZvelia. am SemTxvevaSi kreditorebi SesaZloamarTlac uTanasworo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnen magram amis Tavidanacileba aseT SemTxvevaSi arafriT SeiZleba. rodesac esa Tu mxarevaldebulebiTsamarTlebriv urTierTobaSi Sedis meore mxaresTan, manimTaviTve unda gaiTavisos is SesaZlo ekonomikuri riski, racsavaraudod SeiZleba moyves valdebulebis Seusruleblobas. amitomrealur cxovrebaSi am riskis Tavidan acileba faqtobrivad SeuZlebelia.sabolood azri Sejerda da dadginda, rom zemoT moyvanil SemTxvevaSisasamarTlom Cveulebriv unda miiRos warmoebaSi aseTi tipis sarCeli daganixilos igi saerTo wesis mixedviT. sxva SesaZleblobas saqarTvelosmoqmedi kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs.XII.komli1.1. sakolmeurneo komli;1.2. sakomlo meurneoba;1.1. Sexvedraze mosamarTleebma mimoixiles aseve sasoflo sameurneokomlTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, kerZod, Sexvedraze ganimarta Semdegi:1993 wlamde saqarTveloSi arsebobda sakolmeurneo komli.sakolmeurneo komlis erT-erTi da ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSani iyokomlis yvela Sromisunariani da srulwlovani wevris kolmeurneobis18


wevroba, piradi SromiT sakolmeurneo warmoebaSi da komlis damxmaremeurneobaSi monawileobis savaldebulo xasiaTi. sakolmeurneo komliswevrebi damxmare meurneobas komlisaTvis gankuTvnil sakarmidamo miwisnakveTze saerTo ZalebiT awarmoebdnen da komlis qonebisTanamesakuTreebad gvevlinebodnen. Tu ojaxSi kolmeurneobis arc erTiwevri ar rCeboda, sakolmeurneo komli ispoboda da muSa-mosamsaxurisojaxi iqmneboda, xolo damxmare meurneobis adgils muSa-mosamsaxurismeurneoba ikavebda. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsis (1964wlis) 122-e muxlis Tanaxmad, sakolmeurneo komlis qoneba komliswevrebs TanasakuTrebis uflebiT ekuTvnoda. aRniSnuli kodeqsis 125-emuxlis Tanaxmad, komlis yvela wevrs, maT Soris arasrulwlovansa daSromisuunarosac, Tanabari wili ekuTvnoda. `saqarTvelos respublikaSisaxelmwifo meurneobebis, kolmeurneobebis da sxva sasoflo-sameurneosawarmoebis reorganizaciis wesis Sesaxeb~ mTavrobis 22.09.92 wlis#949 dadgenilebis, saxelmwifo sabWos 21.10.1993 wlis #29 dekretissafuZvelze 1993 wlidan dadginda saxelmwifo meurneobebis,kolmeurneobebis reorganizacia da axal organizaciul samarTlebrivformaze gadasvla. kolmeurneobebis gauqmebiT sakolmeurneo komlisarsebobas samarTlebrivi safuZveli gamoecala da man arseboba Sewyvita.Sesabamisad, qoneba, romelic komlis qonebas da amave dros komliswevrTa saerTo sakuTrebas warmoadgenda, aRar warmoadgens komlisqonebas da Tanabar wilad aris im pirTa saerTo sakuTreba, romlebickomlis wevrebs warmoadgenen. aRniSnul qonebaze vrceldeba saqarTvelossamoqalaqo kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli sakuTrebis saeTo reJimi.1.2. rac Seexeba `sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwis sakuTrebisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos 1996 wlis 22 martis saqarTvelos kanoniTgaTvaliswinebul sakomlo meurneobas, aRniSnuli sruliad axaliinstitutia da arsebiTad gansxvavdeba 1993 wlamde arsebulisakolmeurneo komlisagan, Sesabamisad, `sasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebismiwis sakuTrebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulisakomlo meurneoba ar unda iqnes ganxiluli sakolmeurneo komlissamarTalmemkvidred. aRniSnuli kanonis Sesabamisad, sakomlo meurneobaaris sasoflo-sameurneo miwis nakveTebis, maTze arsebuli sacxovrebelida sameurneo nagebobis, agreTve, Sesabamisi gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobisobieqtebisa da mowyobilobebis erToblioba, romelic warmoadgens erTifizikuri piris sakuTrebas anda meuRleTa an ojaxis sxva wevrebis19


saerTo sakuTrebas. sakomlo meurneoba registrirebul unda iqnessaadgilmamulo wignSi (sajaro reestrSi). Tu es meurneoba meuRleTa anojaxis sxva wevrebis saerTo sakuTrebaa, saadgilmamulo wignSi (sajaroreestrSi) TiToeuli maTgani sakomlo meurneobis TanamesakuTred undadaregistrirdes.XIII.`sacxovrebeli sadgomiT sargeblobisas warmoSobili urTierTobebisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli sacxovrebeli farTisganmartebamorigi sakiTxi, romelic Sexvedraze iqna ganxiluli, ukavSirdebasacxovrebeli farTis ganmartebas. `sacxovrebeli sadgomiTsargeblobisas warmoSobili urTierTobebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonisme-2 muxlis me-11 punqtis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebel sadgomad ganisazRvrebais farTi, romelzedac Tavdapirvelad arsebobda garigeba mesakuTresa damosargebles Soris an gaTvaliswinebuli iyo administraciuli aqtiT.Sexvedraze Sejerda mosazreba Semdegze: rodesac arsebobs registraciiTda komunaluri gadasaxadebis gadaxdiT warmoSobili urTierToba damosargeble uTiTebs, rom mis mier sacxovreblad faqtobrivad dakavebulfarTTan erTad flobs uSualod am farTisgan moSorebiT ezos siRrmeSiarsebul saTavsos (iyenebs sakuWnaod, abanod da a.S.), aRniSnuli miCneulunda iqnes sacxovrebeli sadgomis farTSi, mocemul farTze daTmobisgarigebis arseboba ki unda dadasturdes uSualod aRniSnuli farTismoxmarebis faqtis damadasturebeli mtkicebulebebiT.XIV.sakiTxi, romelic Sexvedraze iqna ganxiluli, Seexebodagadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis paralelurad movalis mimarTsasarCelo moTxovnebis ganxilvas. sakiTxi Semdegnairad iyo dasmuli: mag.mimdinareobs sasarCelo dava gakotrebis reJimSi myof sawarmosa(movalesa) da sxva pirs (kreditors) Soris. davuSvaT Tanxis dakisrebisTaobaze. am davas, rogorc kanoni moiTxovs, ganixilavs igive mosamarTle,romelic gakotrebis saqmes awarmoebs. moTxovnebis wardgenis 30-dRian20


vadaSi da arc amis Semdeg kreditorma moTxovna ar warmoadgina. arada,mosamarTlem icis, rom kreditors aqvs moTxovna. Tu aseTi moTxovnareestrSi ar Seva, radgan kreditorma ar waradgina igi, maSin aqvs Tuara kreditoris sarCelis ganxilvas raime azri?movalis mimarT aRZrul sasarCelo moTxovnas gadaxdisuunarobis saqmismwarmoebeli mosamarTle ganixilavs im SemTxvevaSi, roca kreditorigakotrebis reJimSi waradgens moTxovnas, magram mas uars eubnebian ammoTxovnis aRiarebaze. sxva SemTxvevaSi ki sarCels igive mosamarTleganixilavs, Tu ukve dawyebulia sasarCelo warmoeba da SemdgomSimovalis mimarT gakotrebis saqmis warmoeba daiwyeba an movalis qonebismimarT dawyebuli sasarCelo warmoeba kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisadgadaegzavneba gadaxdisuunarobis saqmis mwarmoebel mosamarTles.problema mocemul SemTxvevaSi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom im momentisaTvismoTxovna TavisTavad dagvianebuli iqneba, Tundac sarCeli dakmayofildes,vinaidan kreditors gakotrebis reJimSi myofi sawarmos mimarT TavisimoTxovna droulad ar warudgenia da misi gakotrebis tabulaSi Seyvanaar momxdara. gadawyvetilebiT aRiarebul amgvar moTxovnas realizaciisSesaZlebloba praqtikulad aRar gaaCnia. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiTSemdegi mosazreba gamoiTqva: is garemoeba, rom gakotrebis procesSimoTxovna wardgenili ar yofila, mosarCeles sarCelis wardgenisa damisi ganxilvis uflebas ar uspobs. sarCelis procesualuri ufleba, anusarCelis ganxilvis ufleba ar aris damokidebuli materialurisamarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnis wardgenis an sasarCeloxandazmulobis vadis gasvlaze. konkretuli davis ganxilva pirissamarTlebriv interess warmoadgens da kreditoris mimarT gakotrebisreJimSi moTxovnis wardgenis dagvianeba am interess ar zRudavs.amgvarad, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasarCelo gancxadebas ganixilavsmosamarTle, romelic gadaxdisuunarobis saqmes awarmoebs da misTviscnobilia, rom mosarCeles movalis mimarT Tavisi moTxovna gakotrebisproceduris farglebSi wardgenili ar aqvs, igi uflebamosili ar aris,am safuZvliT sarCeli warmoebaSi ar miiRos, ar ganixilos,dakmayofilebaze uari uTxras an saqmis warmoeba Sewyvitos. saprocesokanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZveli saqmis warmoebisSewyvetisaTvis mocemul SemTxvevaSi ar arsebobs. gakotrebis reJimSimoTxovnis warudgenloba sasarCelo warmoebaze gavlenas ar axdens. aseT21


dros Cveulebrivad mowmdeba sasarCelo moTxovnis safuZvlianoba da davaSesabamisad unda gadawydes.amrigad, Sejerda erTiani pozicia imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom gakotrebisproceduris farglebSi moTxovnis droulad warudgenloba da misireestrSi Seutanloba ar warmoadgens sarCelis warmoebaSi miRebazeuaris Tqmis, saqmis warmoebis Sewyvetis an sarCelis dakmayofilebazeuaris Tqmis safuZvels. mocemul SemTxvevSi sasarCelo warmoebaCveulebrivi proceduris farglebSi unda ganxorcieldes da saprocesokanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad sasarCelo moTxovna Cveulebrivi wesiT undaSefasdes.XV.momdevno sakiTxi, romelic Sexvedraze ganixiles, Seexeboda`gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis gardamavalidebulebebis ganmartebas. aRniSnuli kanoniT axleburadaa mowesrigebuligansjadobis, valauvali movalis mimarT saqmis warmoebis sakiTxebi,saqmis warmoebis procesSi aRZruli kerZo saCivris ganxilvis wesebi davadebi, SemoRebulia iseTi institutebi, romlebsac `gakotrebis saqmeTawarmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanoni ar iTvaliswinebda. kanoni amartivebsgakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis proceduras, uzrunvelyofs ra amgvarisaqmeebis maqsimalurad swrafad da operatiulad ganxilvas.gardamavali debulebebis ganmartebis praqtikuli mniSvneloba imiTgamoixateba, rom aRniSnuli normebi adgens kanonis droSi moqmedebissakiTxs da iTvaliswinebs ukuqceviTi Zalis miniWebas im saqmeebis mimarT,romlebic `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis Sesabamisadmimdinareobda, kerZod, `gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~kanonis 56-e muxlis me-2 punqti adgens, rom im gadaxdisuunarobissaqmeebis mimarT, romlebzedac gadaxdisuunarobis gancxadeba Setanilia`gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ 1996 wlis 25 ivnisis kanonisSesabamisad, gakotrebisa da reabilitaciis procesi unda dasruldes amkanonis amoqmedebidan 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi, xolo, amave muxlis me-3punqtis Tanaxmad, me-2 punqtiT dadgenili vadis gasvlis Semdegreabilitaciis processa da gakotrebis reJimSi myofi subieqtebis mimarTaRar gavrceldeba `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos22


1996 wlis 25 ivnisis kanonis moqmedeba da isini valdebuli iqnebiandaiwyon gadaxdisuunarobis saqmis warmoeba am kanonis Sesabamisad.aRniSnul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT pirvel rigSi sainteresoa is, Tusaidan unda aiTvalos 1-wliani vada, romlis ganmavlobaSi undadasruldes Zveli kanonis Sesabamisad mimdinare gakotrebisa dareabilitaciis saqmeebi _ `valauvalobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~kanonis 56-e muxlSi cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb kanonis miRebidan (anu2008 wlis 19 martidan), Tu Tavad kanonis amoqmedebis momentidan?aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT Sexvedraze dafiqsirda pozicia, rom 56-emuxlis me-2 punqtSi miTiTebuli _ `am kanonis amoqmedebidan 1 wlisvadaSi~ igulisxmeba `gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ZiriTadi kanonis amoqmedebis TariRi (imave kanonis 58-e muxlis mixedviT,es TariRi 2007 wlis 15 agvistoa) da ara masSi cvlilebebisganxorcielebis momenti. Sesabamisad, saqmeebis dasrulebis erTwlianivada 2008 wlis 15 agvistos iwureba.rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, `gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebisSesaxeb~ kanonis 56-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Sesabamisad, gakotrebis anreabilitaciis reJimSi myofi im subieqtebis saqmeebze, romelTa mimarTacver dasruldeba saqmis warmoeba 2008 wlis 15 agvistomde, moqmedebasiwyebs axali kanoni. aRniSnuli ar gulisxmobs sasamarTloSi saqmiswarmoebis Sewyvetas. mocemul SemTxvevaSi warmoeba grZeldeba axalikanonis Sesabamisad. erT-erTi problema, romelic axali kanonisgavrcelebam SeiZleba warmoSvas, aris gansjadi sasamarTlos dadgena.`gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT SemoRebuliaspecialuri gansjadoba, kerZod, aRniSnuli kanonis me-4 muxlis me-2 dame-3 punqtebis Tanaxmad, am kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul saqmeebs ganixilavenTbilisisa da quTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTloebi. am kanoniTgaTvaliswinebuli saqmeebis ganxilvis miznebisaTvis Tbilisis saqalaqosasamarTlos iurisdiqcia moicavs aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, xoloquTaisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos iurisdiqcia – dasavleT saqarTvelos.ibadeba kiTxva: vrceldeba Tu ara aRniSnuli norma im saqmeebze, romelTamimarTac mimdinareobs gakotrebis an reabilitaciis saqmis warmoeba`gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ 1996 wlis 25 ivnisis kanonisSesabamisad? anu am saqmeebis mimarT axali kanonis moqmedebis dawyebismomentidan es saqmeebi xom ar unda gadaigzavnos quTaisisa da Tbilisissaqalaqo sasamarTloebSi?23


samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 22-e muxlis mixedviT, sasamarTlomgansjadobis wesebis dacviT Tavis warmoebaSi miRebuli saqme undaganixilos da arsebiTad gadawyvitos, Tundac es saqme SemdgomSi sxvasasamarTlos gansjadi gaxdes. mocemul SemTxvevaSi gakotrebis Sesaxebgancxadebebi warmoebaSi miRebulia da maT ixilavs `gakotrebis saqmeTawarmoebis Sesaxeb kanonis~ Sesabamisad gansjadi sasamarTloebi.samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis zemoaRniSnuli norma saqmis warmoebiszedmetad gaWianurebis Tavidan acilebas emsaxureba. sxvasasamarTlosaTvis garkveul etapze misuli saqmis gadagzavna bevrsirTules ukavSirdeba. kerZod, mocemul SemTxvevaSi Tavidan undadaiwyos saqmis ganxilva. amasTan, axal mosamarTles (an kolegiursasamarTlo Semagdenlobas) sWirdeba didi dro saqmis srulyofiladSeswavlisaTvis. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom gakotrebis saqmeebi, rogorcwesi, sakmaod moculobiTia, unda vivaraudoT, rom axali mosamarTlepraqtikulad verasodes gaecnoba da gaiTavisebs maT imgavard, vidremosamarTle, romelic Tavidanve axorcilebda warmoebas. amgvarad,saqmoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 22-e muxlis, agreTve, swrafi daefeqturi marTlmsajulebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, im saqmeebismimarT, romelTa warmoebac dawyebulia `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebisSesaxeb~ kanonis Sesabamisad da romelTa mimarTac 2008 wlis 15agvistodan moqmedebas iwyebs `gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebisSesaxeb~ axali kanoni, gansjadoba ar icvleba. aRniSnuli saqmeebiswarmoebas asrulebs is mosamarTle, romelic maT ixilavda mxolodaxali kanonis Sesabamisad.rac Seexeba saqmis warmoebis axali kanonis Sesabamisad Secvliskonkretul proceduras, garkveul sirTuleebs ukavSirdeba is garemoeba,rom yvela am mimdinare saqmis mimarT dawyebulia reabilitaciis angakotrebis saqmis warmoeba, Sesabamisad, axali kanonis amoqmedebis Semdegromeli etapidan unda gagrZeldes maTi warmoeba? Sexvedraze gamoiTqvamosazreba, rom saqmis warmoeba axali kanonis safuZvelze Sesabamisietapidan unda gagrZeldes, anu Tu dawyebulia reabilitaciis procesi,sasamarTlo ixelmZRvanelebs valauvalobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxebkanonis reabilitaciis momwesrigebeli normebiT, Sesabamisad, Tugakotrebis proceduraa dawyebuli – gakotrebis momwesrigebelinormebiT. axali kanonis amoqmedebam saqmeebis ganxilvis Tavidan dawyebaar unda gamoiwvios. saproceso kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs24


sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis gamo garkveul etapze misuli saqmiswarmoebis wina etapidan dawyebas.zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, Sexvedraze Sejerda pozicia, romsaqmeebis mimarT, romelTa warmoeba dawyebulia `gakotrebis saqmeTawarmoebis Sesaxeb~ 1996 wlis 25 ivnisis kanonis Sesabamisad, 2008 wlis15 agvistodan gavrceldeba `gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxebkanonis moqmedeba~. amasTan, aRniSnuli kanonis amoqmedeba saqmeebisgansjadobas ar cvlis. saqmis warmoebas ganagrZoben mosamarTleebi,romlebic maT ixilavdenen `gakotrebis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~kanonis Sesabamisad, Tumca maT mier gamoyenebul unda iqnes`gadaxdisuunarobis saqmeTa warmoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis Sesabamisi normebi.XVI.Sexvedraze ganmartebul iqna samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1261-e muxli.aRniSnuli muxlis mixedviT, Svilad ayvanisas mSvilebels ekisreba igiveuflebebi da movaleobebi, romlebic biologiur mSoblebs am kodeqsisTanaxmad. mSvilebels SeiZleba SeezRudos an CamoerTvas mSoblisuflebebi, Tu gairkveva, rom is sistematurad Tavs aridebda bavSvisaRzrdis movaleobis Sesrulebas an arajerovnad iyenebda mSoblisuflebebs, an am kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva mizezis arsebobisSemTxvevaSi. daisva kiTxva: 1261-e muxlis me-2 nawili xom ar exebodagamSvilebels, agreTve ra igulisxmeboda `an sxva mizezis arsebobisSemTxvevaSi~?1261-e muxli exeba Svilad ayvanis Sedegebs da igi calsaxad adgens impirebs, viszec vrceldeba. vinaidan bavSvis Svilad ayvanis SemTxvevaSimSvilebeli biologiuri mSoblis adgils ikavebs da mas yvela isufleba-movaleoba gaaCnia bavSvis mimarT, rac biologiur mSobels,bunebrivia, analogiuri pasuxismgeblobis formaa gaTvaliswinebuliaRniSnuli movaleobebis Seusruleblobis an arajerovaniSesrulebisaTvis. rac Seexeba imas, Tu ra igulisxmeba `sxva mizezebSi~,1261-e muxlis me-2 nawili adgens, rom mSvilebilisaTvis mSoblisuflebis CamorTmeva an SezRudva dasaSvebia, Tu igi sistematurad Tavsaridebda bavSvis aRzrdis movaleobis Sesrulebas an arajerovnadiyenebda mSoblis uflebebs. es ori safuZveli pirdapiraa25


gaTvaliswinebuli normiT. garda amisa, kanoni uSvebs SesaZleblobas, rommiTiTebulis garda sxva safuZvelbis arsebobis SemTxvevaSic sasamarTlommiiRos gadawyvetileba mSoblis uflebis CamorTmevis an SezRudvisTaobaze. aseT `sxva mizezebad~ SeiZleba miCneul iqnes samoqalaqokodeqsis 1206-e muxlis me-2 nawilSi miTiTebuli garemoebebi:mSvilebeli bavSvs uxeSad eqceva, masze uaryofiT gavlenas axdensamoraluri saqcieliT, an qronikuli alkoholiki an narkomania, an Tuarsebobs samoqalaqo kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva raime safuZveli.momdevno kiTxva am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT iyo Semdegi: es safuZvlebiramdenad SesabamisobaSia 1272-e muxlis pirveli nawilis “d”qvepunqtTan?samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1272-e muxli Svilad ayvanis baTilad cnobas exeba.pirveli nawilis `d~ qvepunqti adgens, rom Svilad ayvana SeiZlebabaTilad iqnes cnobili, Tu mSvilebels SezRuduli an CamorTmeulihqonda mSoblis ufleba mSoblis uflebebisa da movaleobebisSesrulebisaTvis Tavis aridebis an maTi borotad gamoyenebissafuZvelze. 1261-e muxlis 1272-e muxlTan SesabamisobaSi ganmartebisaucilebloba ar arsebobs. aRniSnuli muxlebiT erTmaneTisagandamoukidebeli SemTxvevebia mowesrigebuli. 1272-e muxli baTilobiskonkretul safuZvlebs CamoTvlis da, Sesabamisad, 1261-e muxlis me-2nawili masTan winaaRmdegobaSi ver iqneba. mniSvnelovania imis garkveva,SeiZleba Tu ara Svilad ayvanis baTilad cnoba sxva mizezebisarsebobisas, Tu mSoblis uflebis CamorTmeva kanoniT pirdapirgaTvaliswinebulis garda sxva safuZvlebiT dasaSvebia. aRniSnuli orinormis samarTlebrivi formulirebidan gamomdinare, naTelia, rom 1272-emuxli imperatiul xasiaTs atarebs da masSi amomwuravadaa mocemuliSvilad ayvanis baTilad cnobis safuZvlebi. rac Seexeba 1261-e muxls, aqukve Tavad kanonmdebeli iZleva SesaZleblobas, sasamarTlom TavisiSexedulebisamebr, CamoTvlilis garda, sxva mizezi miiCnios mSoblisuflebis CamorTmevis an SezRudvis safuZvlad. amdenad praqtikaSi 1272-emuxlis farTod ganmartebis SesaZlebloba ar arsebobs.amrigad, 1261-e muxli exeba mSvilebels. mSoblis uflebis CamorTmevvisan SezRudvis `sxva mizezebSi~ igulisxmeba samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1206-emuxlis me-2 nawilSi miTiTebuli garemoebebi: Tu mSvilebeli bavSvsuxeSad eqceva, masze uaryofiT gavlenas axdens amoraluri saqcieliT, an26


qronikuli alkoholiki an narkomania, an Tu samoqalaqo kodeqsiT sxvaraime safuZvelia gaTvaliswinebuli. 1261-e da 1272-e muxlebiserTmaneTTan SesabamisobaSi ganmartebis aucilebloba ar arsebobs. 1261-emuxlisagan gansxvavebiT, 1272-e muxlSi Svilad ayvanis baTilad cnobissafuZvlebi amomwuravadaa mocemuli. aRniSnulis garda sxva safuZvliTSvilad ayvanis baTilad cnoba ar daiSveba.XVII.garkveuli sirTuleebs ukavSirdeba gaSvilebis Sesaxeb Tanxmobisspecialuri formebis meSveobiT wardgenis sakiTxi. aRniSnulTandakavSirebiT Sexvedraze Semdegi problemebiiqna ganxiluli: ra xdeba2008 wlis 1 maisamde gacemuli TanxmobebTan, an 1 maisidan gacemuliTanxmobebTan dakavSirebiT, vidre ar iqneba damtkicebuli es formebi.SesaZlebelia, gamSvileblebi ver iqnen moZiebulni, Tumca arsebobs maTmier ukve gacemuli Tanxmobebi? ras vakeTebT aseT SemTxvevaSi –veyrdnobiT Tu ara Zvel Tanxmobebs? Sexvedraze ganimarta, rom vinaidangaSvilebasTan dakavSirebuli axali formebi ukve damtkicebulia,SedegebTan dakavSirebuli samarTlebrivi problemebis acilebis mizniT,maT damtkicebamde gacemuli Tanxmobebi SesabamisobaSi unda movidesaRniSnul formebTan, anu warmodgenil unda iqnes axali formebisSevsebis gziT gacemuli Tanxmoba.XVIII.kidev erTi sakiTxi, romelic Sexvedraze ganixiles, iyo samoqalaqokodeqsis 1200-e muxlis Sesabamisad saqmeSi meurveobisa da mzrunvelobisorganos CabmasTan dakavSirebuli problema, sakiTxi amgvarad iyodasmuli: praqtikaSi warmoiSva Semdegi problema – sasamarTlos mTavarsxdomaze ar gamocxadda meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo, romelsacuwyebac da gzavnilic Cabarebuli hqonda. aseve ar gamocxdda mopasuxe.bunebrivia, mosarCelem moiTxova dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana,rac dakmayofilda. dasaSvebia Tu ara aseTi davebis ganxilva meurveobisada mzrunvelobis organos monawileobis gareSe maSin, roca es27


dawesebuleba, aris ra saTanadod informirebuli, mainc ar cxaddebasxdomaze?samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1200-e muxli exeba Svilis mSoblebisurTierTSeTanxmebiT aRzrdis sakiTxebs. am muxlis pirveli da me-2nawilis Tanaxmad. Svilebis aRzrdis sakiTxs mSoblebiurTierTSeTanxmebiT wyveten. mSobelTa SeuTanxmeblobisas sadavo sakiTxswyvets sasamarTlo mSoblebis monawilebiT. am SemTxvevaSi mSoblisufleba, iyos bavSvis warmomadgeneli sasamarTlo davasTan mimarTebiT,SeCerebulia. meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organo niSnavs bavSviswarmomadgenels, romelic saqmis sasamarTloSi ganxilvis dros bavSvisinteresebs warmoadgens. imisaTvis, rom dasmul kiTxvas pasuxi gaeces,pirvel rigSi unda dadgindes, ra statusiT monawileobs meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organo amgvar davaSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi mosarCeled damopasuxed Tavad mSoblebi gvevlinebian. meurveobisa da mzrunvelobisorgano aris bavSvis warmomadgeneli, romelic, Tavis mxriv, davaSi mesamepirad damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxvnis gareSe gamodis, vinaidansasamarTlos gadawyvetileba mis interesebs Seexeba. Sesabamisad, Tusxdomaze ar cxaddeba mesame piri damoukidebeli sasarCelo moTxovnisgareSe, aRniSnuli ar warmoadgens saqmis ganxilvis gadadebis safuZvels.rac Seexeba erT-erTi mxaris gamoucxadeblobis SemTxvevaSi dauswrebeligadawyvetilebis gamotanas, aseT dros dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebismiRebis sakiTxi unda gadawydes saproceso kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisinormebis dacviT.XIX.sakiTxi Seexeboda valis aRiarebis xelSekrulebis ganmartebas(samoqalqo kodeqsis 341-e muxli). samoqalaqo kodeqsis 341-e muxliTmowesrigebuli valis arsebobis aRiareba aris calmxrivi, abstraqtulixelSekruleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, erTi mxare damoukideblad kisrulobsmeore mxaris sasargeblod garkveul Sesrulebas. igi ZiriTadivaldebulebiTi urTierTobisagan damoukideblad qmnis axal moTxovnas.miuxedavad imisa, rom ZiriTadi valdebulebiTi urTierTobis arsebobaSeiZleba sadavoc ki iyos, valis arsebobis aRiareba mainc warmoSobsSesrulebis valdebulebas, xolo kreditors aniWebs moTxovnis uflebas.28


mxareebs Soris aseTi xelSekrulebis arseboba sakmarisia, romdakmayofildes kreditoris moTxovna da saWiro aRaraa ZiriTadivaldebulebiTi urTierTobis warmoSobis safuZvlis gamokvleva. TumcaaRniSnuli norma ar gulisxmobs ararsebuli valis aRiarebas. mocemulSemTxvevaSi ZiriTadi valdebulebis arseboba SeiZleba sadavo iyos, magrammisi arseboba gamoricxuli ar unda iyos. amasTan, valis arsebobisaRiarebis xelSekruleba unda akmayofilebdes garigebis namdvilobispirobebs (moCvenebiToba, TvalTmaqcuroba da sxva). samoqalaqo kodeqsis341-e muxlis Sesabamisad gaTvaliswinebuli valis aRiareba imiTgansxvavdeba nebismieri sxva formiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxvnisaRiarebisagan, rom igi axali xelSekrulebaa da ara sxvasaxelSekrulebo urTierTobis farglebSi nebis gamovlena. saqarTvelosuzenaesi sasamarTlos samoqalqo, samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeTapalatas araerTgzis aqvs ganmartebuli, rom valis aRiareba axalixelSekrulebaa. amdenad igi xelSekrulebis namdvilobisaTvis dagdenilyvela pirobas unda akmayofilebdes, maT Soris moTxovnas formis mimarT.kerZod, Tu ZiriTadi valdebulebiTi uerTierTioba formasavaldebulogarigebaa, valis aRiarebac Sesabamisi formis dacviT undaganxorciledes. amasTan, valis aRiarebis xelSekruleba undaakmayofilebdes samoqalaqo kodeqsis 327-e muxlis moTxovnebs, anumxareebi unda SeTanxmdnen yvela arsebiT pirobaze. swored aRniSnulifaqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos valisarsebobis aRiarebad ar miiCnevs sawarmoebs Soris Sedgenil buRaltruliurTierTSedarebis aqtebs. nebismieri dokumenti, romelic SeiZlebamniSvnelovani iyos buRaltruli an sxva TvalsazrisiT da romelSicvalis arsebobaa dafiqsirebuli, ver CaiTvleba valis arsebobis SesaxebxelSekrulebad, Tu ar dadgindeba, rom mxareebi SeTanxmdnenxelSekrulebis arsebiT pirobebze. amgvari aqti axal xelSekrulebas arwarmoadgens. am SemTxvevaSi esaa Zveli xelSekrulebis farglebSiganxorcilebeuli garkveuli moqmedeba da igi ver gamoiwvevs samoqalaqokodeqsis 341-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul Sedegebs.XX.bolo sakiTxi, romelic Sexvedraze ganixiles, exeboda samoqalaqokodeqsis 415-e da 999-e muxlebis urTierTmimarTebas. 415-e muxliadgens Sereuli bralis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi zianis anazRaurebisodenobis gamoTvlis wess. kerZod, am muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad,29


Tu zianis warmoSobas xeli Seuwyo dazaralebulis moqmedebamac‚ maSinzianis anazRaurebis valdebuleba da am anazRaurebis moculobadamokidebulia imaze‚ ufro metad romeli mxaris braliT aris zianigamowveuli. rac Seexeba 999-e muxls, igi iTvaliswinebs e.w. bralisgareSe pasuxismgeblobis erT-erT saxes, rac dakavSirebulia satransprtosaSualebis eqspluataciis Sedegad damdagari zianisaTvispasuxismgeblobis dakisrebasTan. am muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad,mgzavrobis gadayvanisa da tvirTebis gadazidvisTvis gaTvaliswinebulisatransporto saSualebis mflobeli, Tu misi satransporto saSualebiseqspluatacias mohyva adamianis sikvdili, dasaxiCreba an janmrTelobismoSla, anda nivTis dazianeba, valdebulia, dazaralebuls aunazRauroswarmoSobili ziani. ismis kiTxva: aqvs Tu ara dazaralebulis bralsraime mniSvneloba zianis anazRaurebis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas?samoqalaqo kodeqsis 415-e muxli zogadi normaa da vrceldebadeliqturi valdebulebis dros zianis anazRaurebis odenobisgansazRvrazec. Tumca samoqalaqo kodeqsis 999-e muxliTgaTvaliswinebuli SemTxveva sxva deliqturi valdebulebebisagangansxvavdeba. mocemul SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs mometebuli safrTxis wyarosfaqtori da avtosatransporto saSulebis mflobelis pasuxismgeblobisstandarti ufro maRalia, vidre zianis miyenebis sxva SemTxvevbSi, Tumcabralis gareSe pasuxismgebloba imgvarad ar unda gavigoT, romavtosatransprto saSualebis mflobeli yovelTvis agebs pasuxsmiyenebuli zianisaTvis. mTavari faqtori, romelic pasuxismgeblobisdadgenisas gadamwyvetia, ukavSirdeba im garemoebas, rom zianis miyeneba amavtosatransproto saSualebis eqspluataciis Sedegi unda iyos.mometebuli safrTxis wyaroTi miyenebuli zianisaTvis pasuxismgebelobisgansakuTrebuli normebi moqmedebs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu zianisdadgoma gamowveulia im faqtorebis moqmedebiT, romelTa gamoc essaSualeba mometebuli safrTxis wyarodaa miCneuli. avtosatransprotosaSualebis mflobeli pasuxs agebs miyenebuli zianisaTvis, Tu verdaamatkicebs, rom zianis dadgoma gamowveulia dauZleveli ZalismoqmedebiT an Tavad dazaralebulis ganzraxviT. am faqtorebisgaTvaliswinebiT, calkeul SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia rogorc pirispasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisufleba, ise, zianis anazRaurebis odenobisSemcireba. aseT SemTxvevebSi unda moxdes Tavad dazaralebulis bralisgamokvleva.30


saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos erTgvarovani praqtikasamoqalaqo samarTlis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT* * *ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova da xelSeSlis aRkveTasaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e muxlis pirveli nawili1. mesakuTres SeuZlia mflobels mosTxovos nivTis ukan dabruneba,garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca mflobels hqonda am nivTis flobisufleba.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-sa da g-s mimarT da moiTxova maTibinidan gamosaxleba im safuZvliT, rom d-s gardacvalebis Semdeg maszegaica kanonismieri memkvidreobis uflebis damadasturebeli mowmoba. b-mda g-m uari ganacxades binis gamonTavisuflebaze im safuZvliT, rom maTqiravnobis xelSekruleba dades e-sTan da sacxovrebel saxls flobdnenkanonierad. sakasacio palatam saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebisSesabamisad damtkicebulad miiCnia is garemoebebi, rom b-s da g-s binisflobis ufleba miRebuli hqonda e-sgan d-s gardacvalebis Semdeg da e-sd-sgan ar hqonda miRebuli sadavo binis gankargvis ufleba. sakasaciopalatam dadgenilad miiCnia, rom a-s hqonda sadavo binis sakuTrebisufleba, xolo b da g iyvnen nivTis mflobelebi, Tumca maT argaaCndaT nivTis flobis ufleba. palatam ixelmZRvanela ssk-is 172-emuxlis pirvelis nawiliT da b-s da g-s daakisra nivTisgamoTavisuflebis movaleoba.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova im safuZvliT, rom sadavo qonebawarmoadgenda mis sakuTrebas, rac dasturdeboda g-sTan dadebulinasyidobis xelSekrulebiT, xolo b aRniSnul qonebas flobda31


ukanonod. b-m sarCeli ar cno, vinaidan igi sadavo qonebas flobda d-sTan dadebuli qiravnobis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze. sakasaciosasamarTlom saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisaddadgenilad miiCnia, rom sadavo qonebis mesakuTres warmoadgenda a,vinaidan misi sakuTrebis ufleba uZrav qonebaze dasturdeboda sajaroreestris monacemebiT, xolo b ki flobda qonebas, magram ar gaaCndamisi flobis ufleba, vinaidan man qiravnobis xelSekruleba dado d-sTan,romelic ar warmoadgenda aRniSnuli qonebis mesakuTres. sakasaciopalatam ixelmZRvanela ssk-is 170-e, 172-e, 183-e da 312-e muxlebiT da b-s daakisra sadavo farTis gamoTavisuflebis movaleoba.magaliTi 3a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova im safuZvliT, rom man sacxovrebelibina Cuqebis xelSekrulebiT miiRo g-sgan, xolo b ukanonod flobdaaRniSnul binas. miuxedavad imisa, rom Cuqebis xelSekrulebaregistrirebuli ar iyo sajaro reestrSi, pirveli instanciissasamarTlom dadasturebulad CaTvala a-s sakuTrebis ufleba sadavobinaze mxolod Cuqebis xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare, vinaidan TviT b-caRiarebda, rom mas ar gaaCnda sakuTrebis ufleba sadavo binaze daSesaxlebuli iyo unebarTvod, Tumca a-s sasargeblod ar aTavisuflebdabinas, vinidan Cuqebis xelSekruleba, romliTac a-s g-sgan sakuTrebaSigadaeca sacxovrebeli bina, registrirebuli ar iyo sajaro reestrSi.saqmis sakasacio instanciiT ganxilvis dros Cuqebis xelSekruleba ukveregistrirebuli iyo sajaro reestrSi. amdenad, a warmoadgenda sadavofarTis mesakuTres, xolo b ukanonod flobda sadavo binas. sakasaciopalatam ixelmZRvanela 172-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT da b-s daakisrabinis gamoTavisuflebis movaleoba.magaliTi 4a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova Semdegi safuZvlebiT: a-m zepirigarigebis Sedegad avtomanqana gadasca g-s, im pirobiT, rom g avtomanqanas32


gadaiformebda mxolod Rirebulebis gadaxdis Semdeg. g-m isargeblaavtomanqanis saregistracio mowmobiT da notariusTan SeTanxmebiTavtomanqana daagirava b-sgan aRebuli sesxis _ 8000 aSS dolarisuzrunvelsayofad da miimala. sakasacio palatam ganmarta, rom nasyidobisxelSekrulebis dadeba niSnavs xelSekrulebiT nakisri uflebebisa davaldebulebebis warmoSobas‚ magram es jer kidev ar niSnavs sakuTrebisgadasvlas myidvelze. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlis pirveli nawilisTanaxmad‚ moZrav nivTebze sakuTrebis gadasacemad aucilebelia‚ rommesakuTrem namdvili uflebis safuZvelze gadasces SemZens nivTi. amrigad‚moZrav nivTze sakuTrebis gadacemisavTis aucilebelia ori winapirobisarseboba: namdvili ufleba (am konkretul SemTxvevaSi nasyidobisxalSekrulebidan warmoSobili ufleba myidvelisa moiTxovos nivTisgadacema) da nivTis faqtobrivi gadacema (am SemTxvevaSi avtomanqanisgadacema myidvelze). samoqalaqo kodeqsis 188-e muxlis pirveli nawilispirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, Tu ganmsxvisebelma pirobad daTqvasakuTrebis gadasvla SemZenze mxolod nivTis safasuris gadaxdis Semdeg.SemZenze gadacemuli nivTi safasuris srulad gadaxdamde gamsxviseblissakuTrebaa.miuxedavad a-sa da b-s Soris dadebuli nasyidobis xelSekrulebisa‚ adarCa avtomanqanis mesakuTred da sakuTrebis ufleba avtomanqanaze b-sTvis ar gadaucia. amitom mas, rogorc mesakuTres‚ SeuZlia samoqalaqokodeqsis 172-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad‚ moiTxovos sxvisiukanono mflobelobidan avtomanqanis gamoTxova.komentari:ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovasa da xelSeSlis aRkveTismoTxovnas iTvaliswinebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e muxli.ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova (vindikaciuri sarCeli)mesakuTris uflebis dacvis ZvelTaganve miRebuli saSualebaa. esaasarCeli, romelsac mesakuTre maSin iyenebs, roca Selaxulia nivTze misimflobelobis ufleba, saxeldobr, roca mesakuTris qoneba ukanonomfloblis xelTaa. nivTis vindicirebac sxvisi ukanono mflobelobidanmis gamoTxovas gulisxmobs. vindikaciuri sarCelis arsi sakuTrebisabsoluturi bunebidan momdinareobs. mesakuTres ssk-s 158-e muxlis me-2nawilisa da 170-e muxlis me-3 nawilis Sesabamisad ufleba aqvs, ar33


flobdes an ar sargeblobdes kuTvnili nivTiT. amdenad, mesakuTres aqvssakuTari nivTis Tavisufali flobisa da sargeblobis ufleba, Tuki ararsebobs sargeblobis aucilebeli socialuri interesi. es kigulisxmobs mesakuTris Tavisuflebas, nebismier dros daeuflos kuTvnilnivTs an isargeblos am nivTiT, maT Soris, moiTxovos ukanonomflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova. aRniSnul urTierTobas awesrigebs sskis172-e muxlis pirveli nawili, romelic normis aRwerilobiTi nawilisSemadgenel sam elements Seicavs:1. mosarCele unda iyos nivTis mesakuTre;2. mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli;3. mopasuxes ar unda hqondes am nivTis flobis ufleba (normisaRwerilobiTi nawilis e.w. negatiuri, uaryofiTi Semadgeneli elementi).mxolod mas Semdeg, rodesac mosamarTle am samive winapirobis (normisaRwerilobiTi nawilis Semadgeneli elementebis) arsebobas daadgens,SeuZlia ganawesos samarTlebrivi Sedegi: mosarCelis sasargeblodmopasuxisaTvis ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxovis dakisreba.vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis pirvel pirobas, rogorc zemoTaRvniSneT, warmoadgens is, rom mosarCele unda iyos mesakuTre. vinaidanmesakuTris mier dabrunebis moTxovna Tanabrad ukavSirdeba rogorcmoZrav, ise uZrav nivTebs, amitom mesakuTred yofnis prezumfciasxvadasxvagvarad dasturdeba. uZravi nivTis mesakuTreoba ssk-is 183-emuxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad sajaro reestridan dasturdeba,sajaro reestris monacemebis mimarT ki 312-e muxlis Sesabamisadmoqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia (mag. 2). Tumca, pirissakuTrebis ufleba uZrav qonebaze SeiZleba ar dasturdebodes sajaroreestridan, magram aRniSnuli udavod iqnes miCneuli piris sakuTrebadsxva samarTlebrivi safuZvlidan gamomdinare da gaxdes vindikaciurisarCelis dakmayofilebis safuZveli (mag. 1).vindikaciuri sarCelis dakmayofilebis meore aucilebel pirobaswarmoadgens is, rom mopasuxe unda iyos nivTis mflobeli. aRniSnuliTavisTavad gamomdinareobs moTxovnis arsidan, vinaidan sasarCelomoTxovna exeba nivTis mflobelobidan gamoTxovas. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rommflobeloba ar unda iyos kanonieri, vinaidan 172-e muxlis pirveli34


nawili mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi iZleva mflobelobidan nivTisgamoTxovis SesaZleblobas.uZrav nivTebTan mimarTebiT sakiTxi martivadwydeba, vinaidan sakuTrebis ufleba sajaro reestridan dasturdeba,xolo, rac Seexeba moZrav nivTebs, am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom undagaiTvaliswinos iseTi mniSvnelovani garemoebebi, rogoricaa mewarmisgulisxmiereba, sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemis momenti da a.S (mag. 4).kidev erTi sakiTxi aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT aris mflobelissubieqturi damokidebulebis garkveva mflobelobis faqtis mimarT.aRniSnuli, zegavlenas ar axdens 172-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebulSedegze (ukanono mflobelobis dadgenis SemTxvevaSi nivTi gamoTxovilunda iqnes mesakuTris sasargeblod).ukanono mflobelobidan nivTis gamoTxova, Tavisi arsidan gamomdinare,yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi sakmaod gavrcelebuli moTxovnaa. aqedangamomdinare, aRniSnul sakiTxze arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtikac sakmaodvrcelia.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 172-e muxlis me-2 nawili.2. Tu sakuTrebis xelyofa an sxvagvari xelSeSla xdeba nivTisamoRebis an misi CamorTmevis gareSe, maSin mesakuTres SeuZliaxelis SemSlels mosTxovos am moqmedebis aRkveTa. Tu amgvarixelSeSla kvlav gagrZeldeba, mesakuTres SeuZlia moiTxovosmoqmedebis aRkveTa sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis gziT.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra b-s (mezoblis) mimarT, romelmac misi sacxovrebelioTaxis Tavze abazanisa da tualetis mSenebloba daiwyo da amoWraiataki. a-m moiTxova misi, rogorc mesakuTris, sakuTrebiT sargeblobisuflebis xelSeSlis aRkveTa. saqmeze Catarebuli sainJinro-teqnikurieqspertizis daskvniT mopasuxis mier binaSi saabazanosa da tualetismowyobiT dairRva samSeneblo normebi da wesebi. sakasacio palatam ssk-is170-e muxlisa da 172-e muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, mesakuTris miersakuTrebiT sargeblobis ufleba darRveulad miiCnia da moTxovnadaakmayofila.35


komentari:sakuTrebis xelyofis an sxvagvari xelSeSlis aRkveTa nivTis amoRebis anmisi CamorTmevis gareSe literaturaSi moixsenieba rogorc negatorulisarCeli. sakuTrebis xelyofa an sxvagvari xelSeSla SeiZlebagamoixatebodes rogorc moqmedebaSi, aseve _ umoqmedobaSi. negatorulisarCelis safuZveli SeiZleba iyos mesakuTris mier sakuTrebiTSezRudulad sargebloba. mesakuTre aseve saerTod SeiZleba moklebuliiyos Tavisi sakuTrebiT sargeblobis SesaZleblobas. mesakuTris ufleba,moiTxovos xelSeSlis aRkveTa, ar SeiZleba iyos xandazmuli.xandazmulobis vadebi ar unda gavrceldes ukanono mflobelobidannivTis gamoTxovasa da xelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovnaze, vinaidanmesakuTres xelSeSlis aRkveTis moTxovniT sarCelis aRZvris uflebaaqvs iqamde, sanam xelSeSla grZeldeba. vidre igi Tanaxmaa, iTminos xelisSeSla, misi ufleba ar SeiZleba darRveulad CaiTvalos. uflebadarRveulad iTvleba mxolod mas Semdeg, roca igi realurad gamoavlensnebas Tavisi uflebis dasacavad, Tundac sarCelis Setanis gziT.aRniSnuli aseve gamomdinareobs uZrav nivTze sakuTrebis uflebisTaviseburebidan.sarCelis xandazmulobasaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 128-e muxli1. sxva pirisagan raime moqmedebis Sesrulebis an moqmedebisagan TavisSekavebis moTxovnis uflebaze vrceldeba xandazmuloba.2. xandazmulobis vada ar vrceldeba:a. pirad araqonebriv uflebebze, Tu kanoniT sxva ram ar arisgaTvaliswinebuli;b. meanabreTa moTxovnaze banksa da sxva sakredito dawesebulebebSiSetanili anabrebis gamo.g. xandazmulobis saerTo vada Seadgens 10 wels.36


saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 129-e muxli1. saxelSekrulebo moTxovnebis xandazmulobis vada Seadgens samwels, xolo uZrav nivTebTan dakavSirebuli saxelSekrulebomoTxovnebisa _ eqvs wels.2. xandazmulobis vada im moTxovnebisa, romlebic warmoiSobaperiodulad Sesasrulebeli valdebulebebidan, sami welia.3. calkeul SemTxvevebSi kanoniT SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnesxandazmulobis sxva vadebic.magaliTi 1a-m 2002 wlis 6 agvistos sarCeli aRZra b-sa da g-s mimarT damoiTxova 1996 wlis 7 ivniss dadebuli binis nasyidobis xelSekrulebisbaTilad cnoba Semdeg garemoebaTa gamo: b warmoadgenda a-s meuRles. b-sada g-s Soris daido binis nasyidobis xelSekruleba, romelic fiqtiuriiyo da ar emsaxureboda iuridiuli Sedegis dadgomas. g-m sarCeli arcno da miuTiTa, rom nasyidobis xelSekruleba daido b-s mier g-sgannasesxebi 2300 aSS dolaris miRebis sanacvlod. sakasacio sasmarTlommoTxovna xandazmulad miiCnia da ganmarta, rom a-m sadavo nasyidobisxelSekrulebis dadebis Taobaze Seityo xelSekrulebis dadebis dros,Sesabamisad‚ kanoniT dadgenili 6-wliani xandazmulobis vada sarCelisSetanis droisaTvis gasulad unda CaiTvalos. aRniSnul garemoebebzedayrdnobiT sasamarTlom gamoiyena samoqalaqo kodeqsis 129-e muxlispirveli nawili‚ romlis Tanaxmad‚ uZrav nivTebTan dakavSirebulisaxelSekrulebo moTxovnis xandazmulobis vada Seadgens 6 wels. amavekodeqsis 130-e muxlis Sesabamisad‚ xandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovniswarmoSobis momentidan. moTxovnis warmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro‚roca pirma Seityo an unda Seetyo uflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb.samoqalaqo kodeqsi xandazumulobis vadebs adgens im mizniT‚ rom amvadebSi pirma moiTxovos darRveuli uflebis iZulebiT ganxorcieleba.es SesaZlebloba ki pirs ekargeba moTxovnis xandazmulobis vadisgasvliT.37


saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 130-e muxlixandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobis momentidan. moTxovniswarmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro, roca pirma Seityo an unda Seetyouflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 140-e muxli1. sarCelis Setana xandazmulobis vadis denis Sewyvetas argamoiwvevs, Tu mosarCele uars ityvis sarCelze an sasamarTlos kanonierZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT sarCeli ganuxilvelad iqnebadatovebuli.magaliTi 22001 wlis 28 agvistos a-m sarCeliT mimarTa b-s da moiTxova binisqiris _ 800 aSS dolaris gadaxdis dakisreba. aRniSnuli saqme 2002wlis 8 ianvris ganCinebiT ganuxilvelad iqna datovebuli. a-m axalisarCeli aRZra 2004 wlis 5 noembers. ssk-is 129-e muxlis me-2 nawilismixedviT, xandazmulobis vada im moTxovnebisa, romlebic warmoiSobaperiodulad Sesasrulebeli valdebulebebidan, 3 welia. amave kodeqsis130-e muxlis Tanaxmad ki xandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobismomentidan. moTxovnis warmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro, roca pirmaSeityo an unda Seetyo uflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb. gansaxilvelSemTxvevaSi kasators moTxovnis ufleba warmoeSva 2000 wlisseqtemberSi. ssk-is 140-e muxlis pirveli nawilis mixedviT, sarCelisSetana xandazmulobis vadis denis Sewyvetas ar gamoiwvevs, Tu mosarCeleuars ityvis sarCelze an sasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi SesuligadawyvetilebiT sarCeli darCeba ganuxilveli. rogorc cnobilia, mxaresdadgenil vadaSi ar Seutania kerZo saCivari 2002 wlis 8 ianvrisganCinebaze da amdenad, gasaCivrebisaTvis dadgenili 12-dRiani vadisgasvlis Semdeg igi kanonier ZalaSi Sevida. aqedan gamomdinare,xandazmulobis 3-wliani vada amoiwura 2003 wlis seqtemberSi, a-m kiaxali sarCeli saerTo wesiT aRZra 2004 wlis 5 noembers. amdenad,sakasacio palatam a-s moTxovna miiCnia xandazmulad da ar daakmayofila.38


komentari:sasarCelo xandazmuloba gulisxmobs dros, romlis ganmavlobaSi pirsSeuZlia moiTxovos Tavisi darRveuli uflebis aRdgena. xandazmulobisSemofargvla drois periodulobiT, sasamarTlo praqtikidan gamomdinare,mraval mizezs ukavSirdeba:1. xandazmulobis vada sasamarTlos umsubuqebs faqtebis dadgenisa daSeswavlis process da am gziT xels uwyobs dasabuTebuligadawyvetilebis gamotanas; 2. xels uwyobs samoqalaqo brunvisstabilizacias; 3. aZlierebs samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi urTierTobissubieqtebis urTierTkontrolsa da darRveuli uflebis dauyovneblivaRdgenis stimuls iZleva. xandazmulobis vadis warmoSobis safuZveliauflebis darRveva, Tumca vadis aTvla ar xdeba uflebis darRvevismomentidan. misi aTvla iwyeba im momentidan, roca pirma Seityo an undaSeetyo uflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb.xandazmulobis saerTo vadaa 10 weli. aRniSnuli xandazmulobis vadadadgenilia yvela im urTierTobisaTvis, romlisTvisac kanonmdebloba ariTvaliswinebs specialur xandazmulobis vadas. specialurixandzmulobis vadis dadgena ki SesaZlebelia kanoniT.xandazmulobis cneba uSualod dakavSirebulia sarCelis aRZvrisuflebasTan. sssk-is me-2 muxli uzrunvelyofs yoveli piris uflebas,mimarTos sasamarTlos sakuTari uflebebis dasacad. aq ar igulisxmebamxolod araxandazmul moTxovnebi. pirs sasamarTlo wesiT nebismieridarRveuli uflebis aRdgenis moTxovnis SesaZlebloba aqvs. sarCelisufleba 2 nawilisagan Sedgeba: sarCelis aRZvrisa da sarCelisdakmayofilebis uflebebisagan. xandazmulobis vadac swored sarCelisdakmayofilebis uflebaze vrceldeba da ara sarCelis aRZvraze.sasamarTlo praqtikisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvsxandazmulobis vadis gamoyenebis safuZvels. xandazmulobis vadaze undamiuTiTos mxarem da ara sasamarTlom Tavisi iniciativiT. es imas niSnavs,rom mxares unda ekavos aqtiuri pozicia xandazulobis sakiTxebTanmimarTebiT. amaze metyvelebs Tundac is garemoeba, rom mas Semdeg, racmxare miuTiTebs xandazmulobis vadaze, sasamarTlos kompetencias39


warmoadgens xandazmulobis vadis gamoTvla, agreTve, imis dadgena, xomar iyo am periodSi xandazmulobis vada Sewyvetili da a. S. aRniSnuligamomdinareobs mxareTa SejibrebiTobis principidan, vinaidan, Tu erTmxares eniWeba darRveuli uflebis sasamarTlo wesiT dacvisSesaZlebloba, meore mxare uflebamosilia, gamoiyenos nebismierisamarTlebrivi meqanizmi mowinaaRmdege mxaris poziciis gasaqarwyleblad.sasamarTlos mier xandazmulobis vadaze miTiTebiT ilaxeba mxarisufleba, vinaidan aRniSnuli ewinaaRmdegeba mxaris sasamarTlo wesiTuflebis dacvis SesaZleblobas, aseve, SejibrebiTobis princips.mniSvnelovania sakiTxi imis Taobazec, Tu rogor unda moiqcessasamarTlo, rodesac saqmeSi ramdenime mopasuxea da mxolod erT-erTimaTgani uTiTebs xandazmulobis vadis gaSvebaze. pasuxi calsaxaa:sasamarTlo xandazmulobis sakiTxs wyvets mxolod im mopasuxesTanmimarTebiT, romelmac aRniSnuli moTxovna daayena.praqtikisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovania sakiTxi imis Taobaze, romxandazmulobis vadaze miTiTeba pirvelad sakasacio instanciissasamarTloSi dauSvebelia. aseT dros mxaris mier xandazmulobis vadazemiTiTeba SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqme dabrundebaqvemdgomi instanciis sasamarTloSi xelaxla gansaxilvelad.praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT, xandazmulobis vadis sasamarTlo wesiTdadgenisaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba xandazmulobiswarmoSobis momentis garkvevas. ssk-is 130-e muxlis Tanaxmad,xandazmuloba iwyeba moTxovnis warmoSobis momentidan. moTxovniswarmoSobis momentad CaiTvleba dro, roca pirma Seityo an unda Seetyouflebis darRvevis Sesaxeb, e.i. Tu xandazmulobis warmoSobis momentisdadgena obieqturad SeuZlebelia, yuradReba unda mieqces subieqturmoments. amasTan, igulisxmeba, rom xandazmulobis warmoSobis obieqturida subieqturi momentebi Tanmxvedria, xolo im SemTxvevaSi, TumosarCele ar eTanxmeba xandazmulobis warmoSobis obieqturi dasubieqturi momentebis Tanxvedras, maSin mtkicebis tvirTi ekisreba masimis gasarkvevad, Tu rodidan unda daiwyos xandazmulobis vadis aTvla.40


dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebasaqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso 241-e kodeqsis muxlidauswrebeli gadawyvetileba unda gauqmdes da saqmis ganxilvaganaxldes, Tu arsebobs 233-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebi,an Tu mxaris gamoucxadebloba gamowveuli iyo sxva sapatio mizeziT,romlis Sesaxebac mas ar SeeZlo Tavis droze ecnobebinasasamarTlosaTvis.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 233-e muxli1. sasamarTlos dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana dauSvebelia,Tu:a) gamoucxadebeli mxare mowveuli ar iyo 70-78-e muxlebiTdadgenili wsiT:b) sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili gaxda, rom adgili hqonda dauZlevelZalas an sxva movlenebs, romlebsac SeeZloT xeli SeeSalaTsasamarTloSi mxaris droulad gamocxadebisaTvis;g) gamoucxadebel mxares droulad ar ecnoba saqmis faqtobrivigaremoebebis Sesaxeb;d) ar arsebobs sarCelis aRZvris winapirobebi.2. am muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~, `b~ dan `g~ qvepunqtebSimiTiTebuli erT-erTi garemobis arsebobisas sasamarTlo saqmisganxilvas sxva droisaTvis niSnavs, ris Sesaxebac atyobinebsgamoucxadebel mxares da saqmeSi monawile sxva pirebs, xolo `d~qvepunqtSi miTiTebuli sarCelis aRZvris winapirobebis arsebobisas,sasamarTlo Sewyvets saqmis warmoebas 272-e muxlis Sesabamisad.3. mopasuxis mier pasuxis (Sesageblis) warudgenlobis SemTxvevaSidauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana dauSvebelia am muxlispirveli nawilis `b~ da `g~ qvepunqtebSi miTiTebuli erT-erTigaremoebis arsebobisas.41


magaliTi 1a-m quTaisis saolqo sasamarTloSi sarCeli aRZra b-s winaaRmdeg damoiTxova janmrTelobis vnebiT miyenebuli zianis _ 20 000 larisanazRaureba erTdroulad da 100 laris _ yovelTviurad. sxdomaze argamocxadda b. b-s warmomadgenelma procesis dawyebamde (procesiCaniSnuli iyo 12 saaTze) warmoadgina gancxadeba da moiTxova saqmisganxilvis sxva droisaTvis gadadeba im motiviT, rom igi imave dResmonawileobas iRebda saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSi sisxlissamarTlis procesSi. quTaisis saolqo sasamarTlom b-s warmomadgenlisgancxadeba ar miiCnia sapatiod, vinaidan gancxadebas ar erTvodaganmcxadeblis gamoucxadeblobis mizezis damadasturebeli dokumenti.amitom kolegiam daakmayofila a-s Suamdgomloba dauswrebeligadawyvetilebis gamotanis Taobaze da 2005 wlis 18 Tebervlisdauswrebeli gadawyvetilebiT a-s sarCeli daakmayofila. b-s daakisraerTdroulad 20 000 larisa da yovelTviurad 100 laris gadaxda.miuxedavad imisa, rom mxarem warmoadgina cnoba, romelic adastirebdamis gancxadebaSi miTiTebul garemoebebs, aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebaZalaSi darCa imave sasamarTlos 2005 wlis 30 martis ganCinebiT, racsakasacio wesiT gasaCivrda uzenaes sasamarTloSi. sakasacio palatammiaCnia, rom quTaisis saolqo sasamarTlos 2005 wlis 18 Tebervlisdauswrebeli gadawyvetilebiT Seilaxa mxaris sasamarTlo mosmenisufleba, vinaidan sasamarTlom dauswrebeli gadawyvetileba gamoitanaiseT pirobebSi, rodesac misTvis cnobili iyo mxaris gamocxadebisaTvisdamabrkolebeli garemoebebis arsebobis Sesaxeb da miuxedavad imisa, rommxarem warmoadgina sapatio mizezis arsebobis damadasturebelimtkicebuleba, sasamarTlom es garemoeba ar gaiTvaliswina.komentari:saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 241-e muxlis Tanaxmad,dauswrebeli gadawyvetileba unda gauqmdes da saqmis ganxilvaganaxldes, Tu arsebobs 233-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebi anTu mxaris gamoucxadebloba gamowveuli iyo sxva sapatio mizeziT,romlis Sesaxebac mas ar SeeZlo Tavis droze ecnobebinasasamarTlosaTvis.42


amave kodeqsis 233-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `b~ punqtis Tanaxmad,sasamarTlos dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana dauSvebelia, TusasamarTlosaTvis cnobili gaxda, rom adgili hqonda dauZlevel Zalasan sxva movlenebs, romlebsac SeeZloT xeli SeeSalaT sasamarTloSimxaris droulad gamocxadebisaTvis.zemoaRniSnuli muxlebis axsna-ganmartebidan naTlad Cans, rom mxarisgamoucxadeblobis sapatiod miCnevisaTvis da sxdomis gadadebisaTvis araris savaldebulo dauZleveli Zalis arseboba, aramed sakmarisia Tundac`sxva movlenis~ arseboba, rasac mxaris gamocxadebisaTvis xelis SeSlaSeeZlo. Tu sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili gaxdeba mxaris gamoucxadeblobisdamabrkolebeli gareoebebis arsebobis Sesaxeb, man unda uzrunvelyossamarTliani samarTalwarmoebis konstituciuri principis –dispoziciurobis – dacva da unda misces mxares saqmeSi monawileobismiRebis SesaZlebloba, Tundac mas eWvi eparebodes mxarisgamoucxadeblobis mizezebis sapatioobaSi. dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebisgamotana mxolod maSin aris mizanSewonili, rodesac mxare TavisimoqmedebiT an umoqmedobiT uars acxadebs saproceso TanamSromlobaze,anu rodesac mas aqvs procesze gamocxadebis SesaZlebloba, magram araqvs neba. sakasacio palata Tvlis, rom im pirobebSi, rodesac arsebobsmopasuxis aSkarad gamoxatuli neba, monawileoba miiRos saqmisganxilvaSi, magram amas xels uSlis garemoebebi, romelic misgandamoukidebeli mizezebiT aris gamowveuli, mis winaaRmdeg dauswrebeligadawyvetilebis miReba dauSvebelia. amgvari gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebisSemTxvevaSi gamoucxadebloba unda CaiTvalos sapatiod da dauswrebeligadawyvetileba gauqmdes.sakasacio palatas miaCnia, rom dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis miRebiserT-erT pirobas imis varaudic warmoadgens, rom mopasuxem cno sarCeli,amitom dakarga Tavis dacvis interesi. dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebisgamotana im mopasuxis winaaRmdeg, romelic sasamarTlos Seuqmnisrwmenas, rom man cno sarCeli da dakarga sarCelisagan Tavis dacvisinteresi, logikuri da gamarTlebulia, magram im mopasuxis winaaRmdeg,romlis gamoucxadeblobamac sasamarTlos ver Seuqmna amgvari rwmena,dauswrebeli gadawyvetilebis gamotana gaumarTlebelia.mocemul SemTxvevaSi saolqo sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili iyo rogorcmopasuxis gamoucxadeblobis mizezebis, aseve _ misi nebis Sesaxeb, raTa43


monawileoba mieRo saqmis ganxilvaSi da sarCelSi miTiTebuliargumentebis sawinaaRmdegod daeyenebina Tavisi moTxovnebi.sakasacio palatas miaCnia, rom mxares gaaCnda samoqalaqo saprocesokodeqsis 241-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva sapatio mizezi, rissafuZvelzec saolqo sasamarTlos dauswrebeli gadawyvetileba undagaeuqmebina.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 421 muxli.cnebabed miiCneva fuladi Tanxa, romelsac xelSekrulebis erTi mxareaZlevs meore mxares da amiT dasturdeba xelSekrulebis dadebis faqti.besaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 422 muxli.bes CaTvla gadasaxadis angariSSibe CaiTvleba valdebulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli gadasaxdelis angariSSi,xolo Tu ar CaiTvleba, – xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis Semdeg igi ukanunda dabrundes.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 423 muxli.bes CaTvla zianis anazRarebis angariSSi.1. Tu bes mimcemi braleulad daarRvevs masze dakisrebulvaldebulebas, be rCeba mis mimRebs. amasTan, be CaiTvleba zianisanazRaurebis angariSSi.2. Tu valdebulebis Seusrulebloba gamowveulia bes mimRebisbraleuli moqmedebiT, man be ukan unda daabrunos ormagad. amasTan, besmimcems SeuZlia moiTxovos zianis anazRaureba.44


magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova ZiriTadi valis_ 1500 aSS dolaris dabruneba. mosarCelem ganmarta, rom mas surdamopasuxisagan binis Sesyidva, risTvisac winaswar gadaixada 1500 aSSdolari. aRniSnuli xelSekruleba, mopasuxis moTxovniT, notariuliwesiT gaformda rogorc vadiani uprocento sesxis xelSekruleba. sesxisxelSekrulebis vadis gasvlis Semdeg mopasuxem mosarCeles arc binamihyida da arc fuli daubruna.mopasuxem sarCeli ar cno da miuTiTa, rom mosarCele marTlac apirebdamisi kuTvnili saxlis 15 000 aSS dolarad Sesyidvas, raSic bes saxiTwinaswar gadaixada 1500 aSS dolari, magram be ratomRac gaformdasesxis saxiT. saxlis gayidvaze mas uari arasdros ganucxadebia, magram,miuxedavad amisa, mosarCelem saxli ar SeiZina.sasamarTlom aRniSnuli Tanxa miiCnia bed saTanado formis dacvis gareSe,Tumca, mxareebs Soris dadebuli xelSekruleba baTilad CaTvala rogorcformis daucvelad dadebuli (ssk-is 50-e muxli) da TvalTmaqcuri (sskis56-e muxlis me-2 nawili). sasamarTlom ixelmZRvanela samoqalaqokodeqsis 976-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~ punqtiT, romlisTanaxmadac, pirs, romelmac sxvas valdebulebis Sesasruleblad raimegadasca, SeuZlia, viTom kreditors mosTxovos misi ukan dabruneba, Tuvaldebuleba garigebis baTilobis an sxva safuZvlis gamo ar arsebobs damosarCelis moTxovna daakmayofila.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da miuTiTa, rom igi b-savtomanqana „toiotas“ nasyidobis Taobaze SeuTanxmda da winaswargadaixada 1700 aSS dolari, xolo darCenili 800 dolari or TveSimanqaniT sargeblobiT miRebuli Semosavlidan unda gadaexada. a-sgancxadebiT, avtomanqanis wayvanidan meore dResve aRmoCnda, rom manqanateqnikurad gaumarTavi iyo, risTvisac a-m garkveuli periodis gasvlisSemdeg manqana saremontod profilaqtikaSi miiyvana. saremontosamuSaoebis dros b-m ZaliT waiyvana avtomanqa. a-m moiTxova gadaxdili1800 dolaris dabruneba.45


-m Segebebuli sarCeli aRZra da aRniSna, rom manqana unaklo iyo. manmoiTxova gadaxdili 1700 aSS dolaris bed CaTvla da misTvis datovebaa-s mier xelSekrulebiT SeTanxmebuli pirobebis darRvevis gamo.sasamarTlom aRniSnuli xelSekruleba miiCnia ganvadebiT nasyidobis daara bes Sesaxeb aqcesorul xelSekrulebad.sasamarTlom ganvadebiT dadebul xelSekrulebasa da b-s Taobazedadebul xelSekrulebas Soris gaavlo zRvari da aRniSna, romsamoqalaqo kodeqsis 421-e muxlis Tanaxmad, bed miiCneva fuladi Tanxa,romelsac xelSekrulebis erTi mxare aZlevs meore mxares da amiTdasturdeba xelSekrulebis dadebis faqti. gansaxilveli normisTanaxmad, be warmoadgens xelSekrulebis dadebis faqtis mtkicebulebas,romelic imavdroulad uzrunvelyofs ZiriTadi valdebulebisSesrulebas. amdenad, be damatebiTi, aqcesoruli xelSekrulebaa, romelicar arsebobs ZiriTadi valdebulebis gareSe da ara marto adasturebsmxareTa Soris ZiriTadi ufleba-valdebulebebis arsebobis faqts, arameduzrunvelyofs valdebulebebis Sesrulebas. gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi kiZiriTadi valdebuleba Sesrulebulia, anu manqana gadacemuliamyidvelisaTvis da darCenilia myidvelis mier gamyidvelisaTvis nawiliTanxis gadaxda. amdenad, sasamarTlom daakmayofila a-s moTxovna da b-sdaekisra a-s mier misTvis gadaxdili Tanxis ukan dabruneba, Sesabamisad,ar daakmayofila b-s moTxovna aRniSnuli Tanxis bed miCnevisa da misTvisdatovebis Taobaze.komentari:be warmoadgens moTxovnis uzrunvelyofis erT-erT damatebiT saSualebas.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 421-e muxlis Tanaxmad, bed miiCnevafuladi Tanxa, romelsac xelSekrulebis erTi mxare aZlevs meore mxaresda amiT dasturdeba xelSekrulebis dadebis faqti. imisaTvis, rom erTimxaris mier meore mxarisaTvis gadacemuli fuladi Tanxa miviCnioT bed,aucilebelia, rom aRniSnuli samarTalurTierToba akmayofilebdesSemdeg pirobebs: 1. be SeiZleba iyos mxolod fuladi Tanxa, anu fulisgansazRvruli raodenoba, amitom kreditorisaTvis sxva qonebrivi sikeTisgadacema ar ganixileba bed. dReisaTvis `fulad TanxSi~ igulisxmeba46


uSualod fuli, anu banknotebi da monetebi; 2. bes saSualebiT SeiZlebamxolod saxelSekrulebo valdebulebis uzrunvelyofa.be gadaicema gadasaxdeli Tanxis angariSSi, amitom igi CaiTvleba misisaSualebiT uzrunvelyofili valdebulebis Sesrulebisas. Tavad be arwarmoadgens ZiriTadi valdebulebis Sesrulebas. Tu movalem daiwyoZiriTadi valdebulebis Sesruleba Tundac arajerovnad, be xdebaSesrulebis nawili da, aqedan gamomdinare, unda CaiTvalos nawilobrivgadaxdad.bes gadacema xdeba xelSekrulebis dadebis dasadastureblad. am funqciasasrulebs mxolod gadacemuli be. gadacemulad unda CaiTvalos be,romelic gadaeca kreditors.qonebis gadacema xelSekrulebis dadebisas aris garigeba, romelic iwvevssaxelSekrulebo urTierTobis warmoSobas. zogadi wesis mixedviT,qonebis gadacemis faqtis dadastureba realuri xelSekrulebis dadebisaseqvemdebareba am xelSekrulebis formisadmi wayenebul moTxovnebs.be unda ganvasxvavoT avansisagan, anu gadaxdisagan, romelic xorcieldebavaldebulebis Sesrulebis saxiT manam, sanam meore mxare SeasrulebsSemxvedr valdebulebas. xSirad avansis nacvlad gamoiyeneba termini`winaswari gadaxda~. avansis gadacema ar axdens gavlenas xelSekrulebisnamdvilobaze. avansis bedi wydeba valdebulebis Sesrulebis Sesaxebzogadi wesebis mixedviT. valdebulebis Seusruleblobisas, avansieqvemdebareba dabrunebas. avansis datoveba im mxaris mier, romelmac arSeasrula valdebuleba, ganixileba usafuZvlo gamdidrebad.Tu daudgenelia, gadaxdili Tanxa bea Tu avansi, ivaraudeba, rom igiwarmoadgens avanss. sapirispiro prezumfcia gaumarTlebelia, radgangamoiwvevda mxareebis mdgomareobis damZimebas maTi nebis sawinaaRmdegod.garda amisa, kanonmdeblis pozicia mimarTulia samoqalaqo brunvisgamartivebisaken da Tu araa dadasturebuli sawinaaRmdego, ivaraudeba,rom mxareebi irCeven ufro martiv da Cveul formas (avanss) da araufro rTuls.Tu valdebulebis Seusruleblobaze pasuxismgebelia bes mimcemi, bedgadacemuli fuladi Tanxa rCeba meore mxares, xolo, Tu valdebulebisdarRvevaze pasuxismgebelia bes mimRebi, igi valdebulia, meore mxares47


ormagad gadauxados be. unda aRiniSnos, rom aRniSnuli wesebi moqmedebsmxolod maSin, roca mxareebi saerTod ar asruleben valdebulebas da arvrceldeba arajerovan Sesrulebaze.valdebulebis Seusrulebloba, bunebrivia, iwvevs zianis anazRaurebasac.be CaiTvleba zianis anazRaurebis TanxaSi. es niSnavs, rom, Tuvaldebulebis Seusruleblobaze pasuxismgebelia bes mimcemi, man zianiunda aanazRauros im odenobiT, ra odenobiTac aRemateba bes Tanxas,xolo, Tu pasuxismgebelia bes mimRebi, meore mxares SeuZlia moiTxovosbes ormagad gadaxda da, garda amisa, zianis anazRaureba im odenobiT, raodenobiTac igi aRemateba bes erTjerad Tanxas. am SemTxvevebSi ZiriTadivaldebuleba wydeba.realurad saqarTveloSi besTan dakavSirebuli davebis simravlemganapiroba erTgvarovani sasamarTlo praqtikis Camoyalibeba. aRniSnulikategoriis davebze saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos samoqalaqo,samewarmeo da gakotrebis saqmeTa palatam ganmarta Semdegi:be warmoadgens xelSekrulebis dadebis faqtis mtkicebulebas, romelicamavdroulad uzrunvelyofs ZiriTadi valdebulebis Sesrulebas. amdenad,be damatebiTi, aqcesoruli xelSekrulebaa, romelic ar arsebobsZiriTadi valdebulebis gareSe da aramarto adasturebs mxareTa SorisZiriTadi ufleba-valdebulebebis arsebobis faqts, aramed uzrunvelyofsvaldebulebebis Sesrulebas. sakasacio palatam ganmarta, rom benasyidobis xelSekrulebis nawilia‚ misi gadacemiT dasturdeba mxareTaSoris nasyidobis xelSekrulebis dadeba da amitom igi gaformebuliunda iyos iseTive formiT‚ rogorc nasyidobis xelSekruleba. besgadacema warmoadgens winare xelSekrulebas‚ romelic win uswrebsZiriTad nasyidobis xelSekrulebas. sk-is 327-e muxlis me-3 nawilismixedviT‚ xelSekrulebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli forma vrceldeba asevewinare xelSekrulebazedac. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare‚ ZiriTadixelSekrulebisaTvis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli formis dacvasavaldebuloa winare xelSekrulebis‚ mocemul SemTxvevaSi _ `bes~gacemis gaformebisas. ssk-is 323-e muxlis Tanaxmad‚ xelSekruleba‚romliTac erTi mxare iRebs valdebulebas‚ uZrav nivTze sakuTrebagadasces sxvas an SeiZinos igi‚ unda damowmdes sanotaro wesiT. ssk-is59-e muxlis I nawilis mixedviT‚ baTilia kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuliaucilebeli formis daucvelad dadebuli garigeba. amave kodeqsis 328-e48


muxlis Sesabamisad, Tu kanoniT xelSekrulebis namdvilobisaTvisdadgenilia gansazRvruli forma, maSin xelSekruleba ZalaSi Sedismxolod am formis Sesaxeb moTxovnis Sesrulebis Semdeg. amdenad, Tumxareebs Soris daideba xelSekruleba uZravi qonebis Sesaxeb, amxelSekrulebis dadebis damadasturebel uzrunvelyofis saSualeba – bessaxiT gadaxdili Tanxa (romelsac sagadamxdelo funqciac akisriasamoqalaqo kodeqsis 416-e da 422-e muxlebi) im formis dacviT undagaformdes, rogor formasac iTvaliswinebs uZravi qonebis nasyidobisxelSekruleba. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, radgan uZravi nivTisnasyidobis xelSekruleba sanotaro wesiT unda damowmdes, amxelSekrulebis dasadastureblad bes gadacema amave wesiT undagaformdes. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, xelSekruleba, saTanado formisdaucvelobis gamo, baTilad CaiTvleba, xolo, Tu aRniSnulixelSekruleba baTilad CaiTvleba, maSin urTierTobis mosawesrigebladgamoiyeneba usafuZvlo gamdidrebis maregulirebeli samarTlebrivinormebi. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 976-e muxlis pirveli nawilis `a~ punqtisSesabamisad, pirs, romelmac sxvas valdebulebis Sesasruleblad raimegadasca, SeuZlia viTom kreditors mosTxovos misi ukan dabruneba, Tuvaldebuleba garigebis baTilobis an sxva safuZvlis gamo ar arsebobs.sxeulis dazianebis an janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebis Sedegadmaterialuri da moraluri zianis anazRaurebasaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 992 muxli. Ýcnebapiri, romelic sxva pirs maTlsawinaaRmdegod, ganzraxi angaufrTxilebeli moqmedebiT miayenebs zians, valdebulia aunazRauros mases ziani.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 413 muxli.zianis anazRaureba araqonebrivi zianisaTvis49


1. araqonebrivi zianisaTvis fuladi anazRaureba SiZleba moTxoviliqnes mxolod kanoniT zustad gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi gonivruli dasamarTliani anazRaurebis saxiT.2. sxeulis dazianebis an janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebisSemTxvevebSi dazaralebuls SeuZlia moiTxovos anazRaureba araqonebrivizianisaTvis.magaliTi 1a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova miyenebulimoraluri zianis asanazRaureblad 2000 laris mopasuxisaTvis dakisreba.mosarCelem Tavisi moTxovna imiT daasabuTa, b-m mas miayena sxeulisganzrax msubuqi dazianeba. raionuli sasamarTlos ganaCeniT a-saTvisjanmrTelobis ganzrax msubuqi dazianebisaTvis b cnobil iqna damnaSavedda sasjelis saxiT Seefarda jarima, xolo amave raionuli sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebiT masve daekisra a-s sasargeblod materialuri zianisanazraurebis mizniT 205 laris gadaxda.sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina is garemoeba, rom b-s mis mier CadenilidanaSaulisaTvsi Seefarda sisxlissamrTlebrivi sasjeli, agreTve,mopasuxis asaki, socialuri mdgomareoba, is faqti, rom materialurizianis asanazRaureblad mas ukve dakisrebuli hqonda garkveuli Tanxa damoraluri zianis sakompensaciod daakisra 200 lari.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s mimarT da moiTxova zianissakompensaciod 3000 laris dakisreba Semdegi safuZvlebiT: b-m a-smiayena sxeulis mZime dazianeba, ris gamoc mosarCelis janmrTelobagauaresda da mas dasWirda mkurnalobis xarjebis gaReba. raionulisasamarTlos ganaCeniT b cnobil iqna damnaSaved saqarTvelos sisxlissamarTlis kodeqsis 121-e muxliT da miesaja pirobiTi msjavri 3 wlisvadiT.50


mopasuxem sarCeli ar cno da ganmarta, rom danaSaulis mizezi iyo a-sbraleuli moqmedeba, ramac mopasuxe miiyvana Zlier sulier aRelvebamde.mkurnalobisa da wamlebis Rirebuleba mosarCelem xelovnurad gazarda.sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom zianis anazRaurebis valdebulebis dakisreba daam anazRaurebis moculobis gansazRvra unda momxdariyo mxareTabraleulobis xarisxiT, kerZod, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Seuwyo Tu araxeli dazaralebulis moqmedebam zianis dadgomas da ufro metad romelmxares miuZRvoda brali zianis dadgomaSi.magaliTi 3a-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi ss `b-s~ mimarT zianis _ 15000 aSSdolaris anazRaurebis Sesaxeb Semdegi safuZvlebiT: ss `b~ kaxeTisgzatkecilis saval nawilze awarmoebda saremonto-sareabilitaciosamuSaoebs, rac amave wlis 31 agvistos droebiT SeCerda. imave dRes,3.45 saaTze, mosarCele moZraobda ra Tavisi avtomanqaniT daaxloebiT70km siCqariT Tbilisis mimarTulebiT, kaxeTis gzatkecilze, gzis mesamerigSi daejaxa saremonto samuSaoebisaTvis iqve dayril qva-RorRs, risSedegad mosarCelem da misma meuRlem miiRes sxeulis msubuqidazianebebi, xolo avtomanqana imdenad dazianda, rom misi aRdgenaSeuZlebeli gaxda. mopasuxem daarRvia `sagzao moZraobis usafrTxoebisSesaxeb~ kanonis 21-e muxlis me-15 punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebisamuSaoTa warmoebis adgilze Sesabamisi sagzao niSnebis, mimaniSnebeli daSesaRobi mowyobilobebis, RamiT da arasakmarisi xilvadobis pirobebSidamatebiTi wiTel-yviTeli sasinaTlo naTurebis damontaJebis Sesaxeb.sasamarTlom zianis sakompensacio Tanxis odenobis gansazRvrisasgaiTvaliswina is garemoeba, rom avtosagzao SemTxvevas xeli Seuwyodazaralebulis moqmedebamac, romelmac daarRvia `sagzao moZraobisusafrTxoebis Sesaxeb~ kanonis 29-e muxlis pirveli punqtis moTxovnebi,ar gaiTvaliswina meteorologiuri pirobebi, ar gauwia mudmivikontroli avtomanqanis moZraobas, nacvlad 60 km. sT. siCqarisa,moZraobda 70 km. sT. siCqariT da sasarCelo moTxovna nawilobrivdaakmayofila.51


magaliTi 4a-m da arasrulwlovan b-s warmomadgenelma g-m sarCeli aRZressasamarTloSi mopasuxe Sps „d-sa“ da ss „e-s“ mimarT janmrTelobisaTvisvnebis miyenebiT gamowveuli materialuri da moraluri zianisanazRaurebis Sesaxeb Semdegi safuZvlebiT: a-s kuTvnil miwis nakveTzeaSenda eleqtroqvesadguri. 1965 wlidan TviTon da misi ojaxis wevrebidasaqmebuli iyvnen am qvesadgurSi. 1991 wels gardaecvala mama - v, 1998wels – deda, z. maTi gardacvalebis mizezi iyo gul-sisxlZarRvTasistemis mwvave daavadeba. garda amisa, v-s dadgenili hqonda filtvebis,xolo z-s _ sarZeve jirkvlebis kibo. amave ojaxSi cxovrobda a-s 14wlis disSvili b, romelic daavadda mwvave leikoziT. aRniSnulidaavadebebi gamowveulia eleqtroqvesadguris eqspluataciisa daeleqtroenergetikuli danadgarebis teqnikuri usafrTxoebis wesebisdarRveviT, ris gamoc isini iZulebuli gaxdnen gamoecvalaTsacxovrebeli adgili. qvesadguris mflobelisagan a-s ojaxma ganicadarogorc moraluri, ise materialuri ziani.sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom udavod dadgenili iyo kavSiri mosarCeleTamimarT damdgar ziansa da mopasuxeTa uxeS gaufrTxilebel umoqmedobasSoris da daakmayofila mosarCeleebis moTxovna.komentari:saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 992-e muxlSi mocemulia deliqturvaldebulebebis warmoSobis safuZvlebi. aseTi saxis valdebulebebigansakuTrebul jgufad gamoiyofoda jer kidev romis samarTalSi.aRniSnuli valdebuleba warmoiSoba dazaralebulis absoluturadsubieqturi samoqalaqo uflebebis darRvevis Sedegad, igi atarebsarasaxelSekrulebo xasiaTs da mimarTulia miyenebuli qonebrivi anmoraluri zianis anazRaurebisaken. deliqturi valdebulebebi atarebsfardobiT xasiaTs, radganac warmoiSoba zianis miyenebis Sedegadkonkretul pirebs Soris, kerZod, dazaralebuls, romelicuflebamosilia, moiTxovos zianis anazRaureba (kreditori) da zianismimyenebels Soris, romelic valdebulia aanazRauros ziani (movale).52


ssk-is 992-e muxlis Tanaxmad, anazRaurebas eqvemdebareba nebismieriziani, miyenebuli moqalaqis pirovnebis an qonebisaTvis, aseve, ziani,miyenebuli iuridiuli piris qonebisaTvis.zianSi, pirvel rigSi, igulisxmeba, dazaralebulis subieqturisamoqalaqo uflebebis darRvevis qonebrivi Sedegebi. amasTan, darRveuliuflebebi SeiZleba iyos rogorc qonebrivi, ise _ piradi xasiaTis. zianiSeiZleba gamoixatos dazaralebulis qonebis ganadgurebiT an dazianebiT,gaSvebuli mogebis, dazaralebulis mier gamomuSavebis dakargvis anSemcirebiT misi Sromisunarianobis Semcirebis gamo da a.S. zianis erTerTisaxea e.w. moraluri ziani, gamoxatuli dazaralebulis fizikur ansulier tanjvaSi misi uflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis darRvevisgamo.zogadi wesis mixedviT, dazaralebuls zians Tavad mimyenebeliunazRaurebs. amasTan, zog SemTxvevaSi zianis anazRaurebis valdebulebaawevs im pirebs, romlebic Tavad ar arian zianis mimyeneblebi, magrampasuxismgebeli arian im piris qmedebaze, romelmac miayena ziani. aseTSemTxvevebs adgens kanoni, rac gamoricxavs xelSekrulebis saSualebiTSeTanxmebas.deliqturi pasuxismgeblobis erT-erTi principi aris zianis sruladanazRaureba. es niSnavs, rom dazaralebuls unda aunazRaurdes yvelaqonebrivi danakargi, rogorc realuri, aseve gaSvebuli mogeba. miyenebulizianis odenobis mtkicebis tvirTi awevs dazaralebuls.am principidan arsebobs gamonaklisebi. rig SemTxvevebSi zianisanazRaureba SeiZleba aRematebodes miyenebul zians an piriqiT, sruladar faravdes mas. kompensaciis gadaxda miyenebuli zianisaTvis SeiZlebadadgenili iyos kanoniT an xelSekrulebiT. praqtikaSi aseT anazRaurebaxdeba piris janmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebis an sxeulis dazianebisSemTxvevaSi.asanazRaurebeli zianis odenobis Semcireba dasaSvebia mxolod kanoniTdadgenil SemTxvevebSi, magram ara xelSekrulebis safuZvelze. esdasaSvebia ukiduresi aucileblobisas zianis miyenebis SemTxvevaSi, aseve,dazaralebulis bralis arsebobisas.53


ac Seexeba moralur zians, Selaxuli sikeTis xasiaTidan gamomdinare dasulieri tanjvis xarisxis zustad gansazRvris SeuZleblobis gamo,ufro marTebulia zianis ara srulad anazRaureba, aramed _ misikompensacia, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia saerTod.pasuxismgeblobis aucilebeli pirobaa zianis mimyeneblis bralisarseboba. brali gamoixateba ganzraxvis an gaufrTxileblobis formiT,romelic, Tavis mxriv, iyofa Cveulebriv da uxeS gaufrTxileblobad.bralis formas, zogadi wesis mixedviT, zianis anazRaurebisaTvismniSvneloba ara aqvs, garda kanoniT pirdapir gaTvaliswinebuliSemTxvevebisa. mniSvnelovania mxolod is, rom zianis mimyeneblismoqmedeba iyos braleuli. bralis forma ar axdens gavlenas kompensaciisodenobazec.garda amisa, samoqalaqo samarTali uSvebs zianis anazRaurebisvaldebulebis dakisrebas im pirebisaTvis, romlebsac ar miuZRviT bralidamdgar zianSi. vinaidan es aris gamonaklisi zogadi wesidan, aseTiSemTxvevebi pirdapir unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli kanoniT. maTmiekuTvneba mometebuli safrTxis wyaros mier miyenebuli ziani, zianismiyeneba ukiduresi aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi da a.Sdeliqturi valdebulebis warmoSobis erT-erTi piroba aris zianismimyeneblis qmedebis aramarTlzomiereba, raSic igulisxmeba sxvisisubieqturi uflebebis yovelgvari darRveva saTanado uflebamosilebisarqonis SemTxvevaSi. vinaidan aRniSnuli ikrZaleba kanoniT, uflebisdamrRvevi imavdroulad arRvevs kanons, romelic icavs pirebisuflebebs, Tavisuflebebsa da kanonier interesebs. aramarTlzomieriSeiZleba iyos rogorc moqmedeba, ise umoqmedoba.Tumca zogjer ziani dgeba marTlzomieri qmedebis Sedegad. aseTi zianianazRaurdeba mxolod kanoniT pirdapir gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi.ase, magaliTad, ar anazRaurdeba aucilebeli mogeriebis Sedegadmiyenebuli ziani, radganac momgerieblis moqmedeba miCneuliamarTlzomierad. marTlzomieria aseve zianis miyeneba damnaSavisSepyrobisas, xulignobis aRkveTisas, avadmyofi cxovelis Sepyrobisas daa.S. marTlzomieri qmedebis Sedegad damdgari zianis anazRaurebismagaliTi, romelic kanoniTaa gaTvaliswinebuli, aris ukiduresiaucileblobisas miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba.54


moraluri ziani gansazRvrulia rogorc fizikuri an sulieri tkivili.macalkevebeli kavSiri `an~ uSvebs moraluri zianis arsebobas rogorcmxolod fizikuri an sulieri tkivilisas, ise orivesas erTdroulad.moraluri zianis kompensacia, zogadi wesis mixedviT, SesaZlebeliamxolod piradi araqonebrivi uflebebis darRvevisas. sxva SemTxvevebipirdapir unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli kanoniT.moraluri zianis kompensacia xdeba fuladi saxiT. arc samoqalaqokodeqsi, arc sxva kanonebi ar iTvaliswinebs moraluri zianis odenobisgansazRvris zust wess. kanonmdebloba Semoifargleba mxolod imkriteriumebis gansazRvriT, romliTac sasamarTlom unda ixelmZRvanelosmoraluri zianis kompensaciis odenobis gansazRvrisas. sasamarTlo,pirvel rigSi, mxedvelobaSi Rebulobs zianis mimyeneblis bralisxarisxs. brali samoqalaqo samarTalSi aris pasuxismgeblobis piroba daara zoma, Tumca mocemul SemTxvevaSi daSvebulia gamonaklisi, amitomkompensaciis odenobis gansazRvrisas sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi undamiiRos zianis mimyeneblis damokidebuleba mis mier Cadenili qmedebisadmi.fizikuri tanjva ivaraudeba mxolod sicocxlisa da janmrTelobisaTviszianis miyenebisas, magram am SemTxvevaSic moTxovnili kompensaciisodenobis dasasabuTeblad unda damtkicdes fizikuri tanjvis xarisxi.Tu moraluri ziani eqvemdebareba kompensacias qonebriv zianTan erTad(piris janmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyenebis SemTxvevaSi man ganicadasulieri tkivili, amasTan gaswia mkurnalobisa da reabilitaciisxarjebi), moraluri zianis odenoba ubralod ar unda daematosqonebrivi zianis odenobas, Tumca sasamarTlo praqtika zogjer am gziTmidis. yvela konkretul SemTxvevaSi kompensaciis odenobisgansazRvrisaTvis, sasamarTlom unda daadginos piris individualurTaviseburebebTan dakavSirebuli fizikuri da sulieri tkivilis xarisxi,zianis mimyeneblis brali (im SemTxvevebSi, roca es pasuxismgeblobisaucilebeli pirobaa) da sxva yuradsaRebi garemoebebi.deliqtur samarTalSi saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTlos SemuSavebuliaqvs erTiani praqtika. deliqturi samarTalurTierTobidan warmoSobilidavebis ganxilvisas sakasacio sasamarTlom ganmarta Semdegi:55


saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 992-e muxlis Tanaxmad, piri, romelicsxva pirs marTlsawinaaRmdego, ganzraxi an gaufrTxilebeli moqmedebiTmiayenebs zians, valdebulia, aunazRauros mas es ziani. mocemuli muxliTpirs zianis anazRaureba ekisreba, Tu arsebobs zianis miyenebisaTvispasuxismgeblobis dakisrebis pirobebi, kerZod, Tu arsebobs ziani, zianimiyenebulia marTlsawinaaRmdego moqmedebiT, marTlsawinaaRmdegomoqmedebasa da zians Soris arsebobs mizezobrivi kavSiri da bralizianis mimyenebels miuZRvis.samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisaTvis udidesi mniSvnelobaaqvs piris braleulobis xarisxs im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki ar arisgamoricxuli varaudi imisa, rom zianis warmoSobas an gazrdas xeliSeuwyo dazaralebulis moqmedebam. samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiT, zianismimyenebelma pasuxi unda agos mxolod sakuTari braleulimoqmedebisaTvis, anu misi pasuxismgebloba unda Semoifarglos mis mierganxorcielebuli marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebiT. aRniSnuligamomdinareobs samoqalaqo kodeqsis 415-e muxlis pirveli nawilidan,romlis Tanaxmad, Tu zianis warmoSobas xeli Seuwyo dazaralebulismoqmedebamac, maSin zianis anazRaurebis valdebuleba da am anazRaurebismoculoba damokidebulia imaze, ufro metad romeli mxaris braliT arisziani gamowveuli. amave kodeqsis 326-e muxlis Sesabamisad ki wesebisaxelSekrulebo valdebulebis Sesaxeb gamoiyeneba sxvaarasaxelSekrulebo valdebulebaTa mimarTac, Tuki valdebulebisxasiTidan sxva ram ar gamomdinareobs.saqmis faqtobrivad ganmxilvelma sasamarTlom zianis anazRaurebisvaldebulebis dakisreba da am anazRaurebis moculobis gansazRvra undamoaxdinos mxareTa braleulobis xarisxiT, kerZod, sasamarTlom undaimsjelos, Seuwyo Tu ara xeli dazaralebulis moqmedebam zianisdadgomas da ufro metad romel mxares miuZRvis brali zianis dadgomaSi.am mimarTebiT sasamarTlom unda imsjelos dazaralebulismarTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebaze, misi bralis formasa da xarisxze.deliqturi valebulebidan warmoSobili moraluri zianis anazRaurebisSemTxvevaSi palatam ganmarta, rom TiToeul konkretul SemTxvevaSimoraluri zianis anazRaureba ganisazRvreba ara ekvivalentobisprincipiT, aramed saqmis individualuri Taviseburebebidan gamomdinare _56


moraluri zianis xarisxisa da xasiaTis, aseve, dazaralebulisa dazaralis mimyeneblis qonebrivi mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT.magaliTi 1binis privatizebaa-m sarCeli aRZra sasamarTloSi b-s winaaRmdeg da moiTxova anderZisbaTilad cnoba ESemdeg garemoebaTa gamo: sadavo binaze privatizebaganxorcielda 1992 wels, am droisaTvis binaSi Cawerilebi iyvnen a, b (asdedamTili), g (a-meuRle) da d (a- Svili). privatizeba ganxorcieldab-s saxelze. g-s gardacvalebis Semdeg sadavo binaSi cxovrebasganagrZobda mxolod b. vinaidan privatizebis Sedegad mTeli qonebaaRiricxa mxolod b-s saxelze, amitom am ukanasknelma mTeli bina Svilisgardacvalebis Semdeg uanderZa SviliSvil d-s. aRniSnul saqmesTandakavSirebiT sakasacio palatam ganmarta: „saqarTvelos respublikaSibinebis privatizaciis (usasyidlod gadacemis) Sesaxeb“ saqarTvelosministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis #107 dadgenilebis me-5punqtis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebeli saxli (bina) usasyidlod gadaecasaqarTvelos respublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebic am saxlis (binis)damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi arian. aRniSnulipunqtiT saxelmwifom yvela im moqalaqes, romelic dadgenili wesiT iyoCasaxlebuli binaSi, damqiravebeli iqneboda igi, Tu misi ojaxis wevri,misca saSualeba, gamxdariyo binis mesakuTre. am dadgenilebis Tanaxmad,privatizebis dros binaSi mcxovrebi yvela piri, maT Soris,arasrulwlovanic, unda CaiTvalos binis potenciur TanamesakuTred imismiuxedavad, ojaxis romeli wevris saxelze moxda binis privatizeba.aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sakasacio palatam CaTvala, rom ramdenadacprivatizebaSi monawileoba miiRo oTxma pirma, TiToeulma maTganma sadavobinaze moipova sakuTrebis ufleba sadavo binis 1\4-ze. sasamarTlomdaadgina, rom a-s meuRlis g-s gardacvalebis Semdeg sadavo binaSicxovrebas agrZelebda gardacvlilis deda – b. palatam miuTiTasamoqalaqo kodeqsis 1336-e muxlze, 1421-e muxlis mesame nawilze dadaaskvna, rom b-m, rogorc g-s pirveli rigis memkvidrem, faqtobriviflobiT miiRo Tavisi gardacvlili Svilis kuTvnili wili _ binis 1\4da misi wili sadavo binaSi ganisazRvra 2\4-iT (anu 1/2-iT). palatamixelmZRvanela samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1404-e muxlis pirveli nawiliT da57


miuTiTa, rom b-s mier gaformebuli anderZi, romliTac man sadavo binauanderZa d-s, nawilobriv baTilia, vinaidan, misi sakuTreba sadavo binaSiwarmoadgenda 1\2-s, danarCeni 1\2 samkvidro qonebaSi ar Sedioda.zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, saapelacio palatam sadavo anderZibaTilad cno binis 1\2-ze.magaliTi 2a-m da b-m sasamarTloSi sarCeli aRZres g-s, baTumis qarxnisa danotarius d-s mimarT da moiTxoves privatizebis xelSekrulebis gauqmeba.mosarCeleebma ganmartes, rom mravalricxovan ojaxTan erTadsacxovrebeli farTis simciris gamo SeiWrnen baTumis qarxnis kuTvnilibaga-baRis SenobaSi. q. baTumis meriis gadawyvetilebiT, aRniSnuli bagabaRimTlianad Cairicxa sacxovrebel fondSi da danawilda konkretulmosaxleebze, maT Soris, mosarCeleebzec. mogvianebiT gairkva, romqarxanam maT sargeblobaSi arsebul farTis nawilze sabinao orderigadasca g-s, romelmac moaxdina sadavo farTis privatizeba.sasamarTlom umarTebulod miiCnia kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli pirisSps-s qonebis gaigiveba saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi fondisqonebasTan. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom mesakuTresTavisi qoneba privatizaciis xelSekrulebiT ar unda gadaecaSemZenisaTvis, radganac kerZo pirebs Soris qonebis usasyidlodsakuTrebaSi gadacemasTan dakavSirebuli valdebulebiTi samarTlebriviurTierToba unda mowesrigdes sk-is Sesabamisi normebiT.komentari:vinaidan 90-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi moxda sabazro ekonomikazegadasvla da kerZo sakuTrebis damkvidreba, normaluri sakuTrebiTiurTierTobebis CamoyalibebisTvis aucilebeli gaxda saxelmwifosakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis kerZo samarTlis subieqtebisaTvisgadacema. privatizeba zogadad niSnavs fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis anmaTi gaerTianebebis mier saxelmwifo qonebaze sakuTrebis uflebisSeZenas, ris Sedegadac saxelmwifo kargavs privatizebuli qonebis58


flobis, sargeblobisa da gankargvis, saxelmwifo organoebi ki misimarTvis uflebebs.privatizebis normatiul safuZvlebs adgens kanoni „saxelmwifo qonebisprivatizebis Sesaxeb“. kerZod, me-2 muxlis pirvel punqtSi aRniSnulia,rom saxelmwifo qonebis privatizeba xorcieldeba saqarTveloskonstituciis, saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis, am kanonisa da agreTveim kanonqvemdebare aqtebis safuZvelze, romlebic 90-iani wlebisdasawyisidan dRemde iqna miRebuli am sferoSi.pirveli normatiuli aqti, romelic privatizebis process awesrigebda dawin uswrebda saqarTvelos konstitucias, iyo saqarTvelos respublikisministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis dadgenileba, `saqarTvelosrespublikaSi binebis privatizaciis (usasyidlod gadacemis) Sesaxeb“.privatizebis xelSekrulebis sayofacxovrebo bunebidan gamomdinare,xSiria aRniSnuli samarTalurTierTobebidan warmoSobili davebi,romelTa mimarTebiTac saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom moaxdina„saxelmwifo qonebis privatizebis Sesaxeb“ saqarTvelos kanonis normisinterpretacia da SeimuSava erTgvarovani praqtika.saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlisdadgenilebis me-2 punqtiT, moqalaqes mis mier dakavebuli sacxovrebelisaxli (bina) sakuTrebaSi gadaecema mxolod ojaxis yvela srulwlovaniwevris TanxmobiT, amave dadgenilebis me-5 punqtiT ki dadginda, romsacxovrebeli saxli (bina) usasyidlod gadaecema saqarTvelosrespublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebic am sacxovrebeli saxlis (binis)damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi arian. aRniSnulinormebis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, privatizebul binebze sakuTrebisufleba mieca yvela im pirs, romelsac binis privatizebis droisaTvissacxovrebel farTobze ufleba mopovebuli hqonda. amasTan, dadgenilebismeore punqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxmoba gamoxatavs mxolod binis erTerTidamqiraveblis mesakuTred aRricxvaze Tanxmobas da ara sakuTrebisuflebaze uaris Tqmas. aRniSnuli dadgenilebiT saxelmwifom sakuTrebisufleba mianiWa binis yvela damqiravebels da Tu am ukanasknelsdadgenili wesiT uari ar ganucxadebia sakuTrebaze, igi binis mesakuTreswarmoadgens, miuxedavad imisa, aris Tu ara igi privatizebisxelSekrulebis mxare, Tu piri privatizebis periodSi amowerili aryofila sadavo farTidan, aseve, ar yofila cnobili farTze59


uflebadakargul pirad, Sesabamisad, igi cnobil iqna sadavo binismesakuTred.saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebis usasyidlo privatizebiT,marTalia, saxelmwifo aRniSnul qonebas usasyidlod gadascemsmoqalaqes, magram es urTierToba ar aris samoqalaqo kodeqsiT dadgeniliCuqebis saxelSekrulebo urTierTobis identuri. saqarTvelosrespublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis #107dadgenilebis me-5 punqtis Tanaxmad, am dadgenilebis safuZvelzeganxorcielebuli privatizebisas sacxovrebeli saxli (bina) usasyidlodgadaecemodaT saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, romlebic am sacxovrebelisaxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebi iyvnen.amdenad, saxelmwifom rogorc damqiravebels, ise misi ojaxis wevrebsmisca saSualeba, gamxdariyvnen binis mesakuTreebi, amitom samarTlebrivadqonebaze ufleba mopovebuli aqvs ara marto im pirs, romlis saxelzecganxorcielebulia privatizeba, aramed imasac, vinc privatizebisdroisaTvis damqiravebeli an misi ojaxis wevri iyo, anu aRniSnulinormatiuli aqti ar ayenebs sacxovrebeli saxlis (binis) arc erTdamqiravebels an mis ojaxis wevrs priviligirebul mdgomareobaSi.gansaxilveli normatiuli aqtis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebeli saxlis (binis)damqiraveblebi an misi ojaxis wevrebi gamoTqvamen nebas, Tavisikonstituciuri uflebis realizaciis mizniT sakuTrebaSi miiRonsacxovrebeli saxli (bina), romelic maT gadacemuli hqondaTsargeblobaSi.`saqarTvelos ssr sabinao kodeqsis” me-60 muxlis pirveli abzacisTanaxmad, saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi sabinao fondis saxlebSisacxovrebeli sadgomis qiravnobis xelSekruleba ideba werilobiTsacxovrebeli sadgomis orderis safuZvelze gamqiravebels _ sabinaosaeqspluatacioorganizaciisa da damqiravebels _ moqalaqes Soris,romlis saxelzec gacemulia orderi. amave kodeqsis 62-e muxlispirveli abzacis pirveli winadadebis Tanaxmad, aseve gansazRvrulia impirTa ufleba-valdebulebebi, romlebic damqiraveblis ojaxis wevrebiarian da masTan erTad cxovroben. miuxedavad imisa, rom maT ara aqvTdadebuli sacxovrebeli sadgomis qiravnobis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba, isinisargebloben yvela uflebiT da ekisrebaT sacxovrebeli sadgomisqiravnobis xelSekrulebidan gamomdinare yvela movaleoba . amave abzacisme-2 winadadebis Tanaxmad, ojaxis srulwlovan wevrebs damqiravebelTan60


erTad ekisrebaT solidaruli qonebrivi pasuxismgebloba aRniSnulixelSekrulebidan gamomdinare valdebulebebisaTvis.sakasacio palatam ganmarta, rom saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTakabinetis 1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis #107 dadgenilebiT ganisazRvraufleba, romlis realizaciis faqtobriv safuZvels warmoadgens,`saqarTvelos ssr sabinao kodeqsis” Tanaxmad, sacxovrebeli sadgomiTsargeblobis faqti, rac aseve danarCen damqiraveblebsac gaaCniaT. amasTan,gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom sargeblobis ufleba, erT SemTxvevaSi,warmoiSoba werilobiTi xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, xolo sxvaSemTxvevaSi _ damqiravebelTan mcxovrebi ojaxis wevrobis safuZvelze.ojaxis wevrebs gaaCniaT yvela is ufleba, romliTac sargeblobsdamqiravebeli. amrigad, saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis1992 wlis 1 Tebervlis #107 dadgenilebiT miniWebuli uflebisrealizacia vrceldeba damqiravebelTan erTad mcxovreb yvela ojaxiswevrze da, miuxedavad imisa, rom sakuTrebis ufleba maTi TanxmobiTSeiZleba aRiricxos erT-erT damqiravebelze, saerTo uflebebTan erTadmaT ekisrebaT sargeblobidan gamomdinare mesakuTris yvela valdebuleba.aRniSnuli debuleba aseve daculia dadgenilebis me-5 punqtis pirveliabzaciT, romlis Tanaxmad, sacxovrebeli saxli (bina) usasyidlodgadaecemaT saqarTvelos respublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebic amsacxovrebeli saxlis (binis) damqiraveblebi an damqiraveblis ojaxiswevrebi arian.amdenad, sakasacio palata ganmartavs Semdegs: is faqti, rom sadavosacxovrebel binaze sakuTrebis ufleba registrirebulia erTdamqiravebelze, ar niSnavs imas, rom masTan mcxovrebma ojaxis wevrebmauari ganacxades sakuTrebis uflebis mopovebaze. am SemTxvevaSigasaTvaliswinebelia, rom privatizebis ganxorcielebaze yvela ojaxiswevris nebis arseboba (rac davis sagans ar warmoadgens) gulisxmobssakuTrebis uflebis mopovebas yvela ojaxis wevris mier, miuxedavadimisa, rom sakuTrebis ufleba SeiZleba registrirebul iqnes mxoloderT-erT damqiravebelze.amrigad, mxolod erT-erTi damqiraveblis saxelze (sxva ojaxis wevrebisarsebobis SemTxvevaSi) privatizebis xelSekrulebis safuZvelzesakuTrebis registraciis faqti ar niSnavs sakuTrebis uflebisgasxvisebas mxolod masze.61


am SemTxvevaSi sakuTrebis institutisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebivrceldeba yvela damqiravebelze, anu is damqiravebeli, romlis saxelzecregistrirebulia sakuTrebis ufleba, ver gamoiyenebs am sakuTrebisuflebas danarCen ojaxis wevrebTan mimarTebiT ise, rogorc imSemTxvevaSi, Tu aRniSnuli sakuTrebis ufleba gasxvisebuli iqnebodamxolod masze.yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, sacxovrebeli saxlisusasyidlod gadacemis xelSekrulebiT danarCen ojaxis wevrebswarmoeSobaT ufleba sajaro reestrSi daaregistriron (Sesabamis wilisgaTvaliswinebiT) sakuTrebis ufleba. (aRniSnuli sakiTxi asevedaregulirebuli iyo im dros moqmedi saqarTvelos uzenaesisasamarTlos plenumis 1996 wlis 2 aprilis # 1 dadgenilebis me-2punqtiT, romlis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos ministrTa kabinetis 1994 wlis5 agvistos #520 dadgenilebam gaauqma binebis privatizebisaTvis ojaxissrulwlovani wevrebis Tanxmobis aucilebloba. miuxedavad amisa,privatizebul binebze sakuTrebis ufleba aqvs yvela im pirs, romelsacsacxovrebel farTobze ufleba mopovebuli aqvs binis privatizebissafuZvelze)amrigad, erT-erTi damqiraveblis mier farTis privatizebis Sedegad Tavissaxelze sakuTrebis uflebis registraciis faqti ar gamoricxavsdanarCeni ojaxis wevrebis sasargeblod am uflebis SeZenis faqts, radganam uflebis registraciiT (anu SeZenis institutiT gaTvaliswinebuliwesebis realizaciiT) man uzrunvelyo sakuTrebis ufleba, rac manmoipova yvela ojaxis wevris sasargeblod. aRniSnuli sakiTxisTaviseburebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSoba arSeiZleba daukavSirdes mxolod sajaro reestris instituts. konkretulSemTxvevaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom danarCenma damqiraveblebma moipovesTavisi uflebis sajaro reestrSi registraciis ufleba.62


CuqebasaqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 524 muxli.cnebaCuqebis xelSekrulebiT mCuqebeli usasyidlod gadascemsdasaCuqrebuls qonebas sakuTrebad misi TanxmobiT.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 529 muxliCuqebis gauqmeba dasaCuqrebulis umadurobis gamo1. Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes, Tu dasaCuqrebuli mZime Seuracxyofasmiayenebs an did umadurobas gamoiCens mCuqeblis an misi axlo naTesavismimarT.2. Tu Cuqeba gauqmdeba, maSin gaCuqebuli qoneba SeiZleba gamoTxoviliqnes mCuqeblis mier.3. Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg, racmCuqebeli Seityobs im garemoebis Sesaxeb, romelic mas Cuqebis gauqmebisuflebas aZlevs.magaliTi 1Cuqebis xelSekrulebiT a-m saCuqrad gadasca b-s bina. CuqebisxelSekrulebas safuZvlad daedo a-sa da b-s Soris dadebuli zepiriSeTanxmeba imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom aRniSnuli binis sanacvlod b mTelisicocxlis manZilze mouvlida a-s. a-s gardacvalebis Semdeg b-swinaaRmdeg sarCeli aRZra g-m (g iyo a-s axlo naTesavi) da moiTxovaCuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmeba im motiviT, rom b-m a-s mimarT didiumaduroba gamoiCina da mZime Seuracxyofa miayena. sasamarTlom ardaakmayofila g-s moTxovna da miuTiTa, rom Cuqebis xelSekrulebisgauqmebis ufleba gaaCnia mxolod xelSekrulebis monawile mxareebs‚radgan Cuqebis gauqmeba mxolod maSin SeiZleba‚ Tu dasaCuqrebuli mZimeSeuracxyofas miayenebs an didi umadurobas gamoiCens gamCuqeblis an misiaxlo naTesavis mimarT‚ xolo ra SeiZleba CaiTvalos Seuracxyofad da63


umadurobad‚ amis gansazRvra mxolod mCuqebels SeuZlia. aqedangamomdinare‚ saapelacio palatam miiCnia‚ rom aRniSnuli muxlissafuZvelze mosarCeleebs Cuqebis gauqmebis moTxovnis ufleba ara aqvT.magaliTi 2a-m sarCeli aRZra b-s mimarT da moiTxova 1996 wels dadebuli binisCuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmeba, im motiviT, rom b, binis dauflebisSemdeg did umadurobas iCenda a-s mimarT da ar patronobda umweomdgomareobaSi myof a-s. pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi saqmisganxilvis dros, a-s gardacvalebis gamo, sasamarTlom daniSna misiuflebamonacvle _ g, romelmac dazustebuli sasarCelo gancxadebiTCuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmeba moiTxova rogorc TvalTmaqcurigarigebis, vinaidan aRniSnuli garigeba dadebuli iyo samidReSio rCenisuzrunvelsayofad. sasamarTlom dazustebuli sasarCelo gancxadeba armiiRo, vinaidan igi davis safuZvlis Secvlad miiCnia. sasamarTlomCuqebis xelSekrulebis baTilobis sakiTxi moawesriga samoqalaqosamarTlis kodeqsiT (1967w.), romelic dasaCuqrebulis umadurobis gamoxelSekrulebis baTilobas ar icnobs da ara samoqalaqo kodeqsiT(1997w.).komentari:529-e muxlis pirvel nawilSi mocemulia safuZveli, romelis arsebobaacilebelia Cuqebis gauqmebisaTvis. esaa mCuqeblis an misi axlonaTesavisadmi dasaCuqrebulis mier mZime Seuracxyofis miyeneba an didiumadurobis gamoCena. Tu vis gaaCnia Cuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmebismoTxovnis ufleba, aRniSnulze naTlad metyvelebs rogorc kanoniTgaTvaliswinebuli wesebi, aseve, saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos mierdamkvidrebuli praqtika. qarTuli samoqalaqo kanonmdebloba CuqebisxelSekrulebis gauqmebis moTxovnis uflebas mxolod mCuqebels aniWebs.Tu dasaCuqrebuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis kanonier ZalaSi SesvlisSemdeg Caidens ganzrax qmedebas, romlis Sedegadac SeuZlebeli xdebagadawyvetilebis aRsruleba da naCuqari nivTis amoReba (nivTis gasxviseba,ganadgureba, moxmareba da a.S.) misi Rirebuleba SeiZleba amoRebul iqnes64


dasaCuqrebulisagan usafuZvlo gamdidrebis Sedegad warmoSobilivaldebulebiTi urTierTobebis momwesrigebeli normebis Sesabamisad, anusasamarTlo gadawyveytilebis kanonier ZalaSi Sesvlis SemdegdasaCuqrebulis zemoaRniSnuli qmedeba ganixileba rogorc usafuZvlogamdidreba, radganac mesakuTris uflebamosilebis realizaciissamarTlebrivi safuZveli dasaCuqrebuls ukve aRar gaaCnda. rac Seexebaarabraleul, anu gaufrTxilebel qmedebebs dasaCuqrebulis mxridan,romelTa Sedegadac SeuZlebelia naCuqrobis sagnis naturiT dabruneba,ver gaxdeba misgan sagnis Rirebulebis amoRebis safuZveli.Cuqebis xelSekrulebis zemoaRniSnul sakiTxebTan mimarTebiT sakasaciosasamarTlom ganmarta, rom mCuqeblis kanonismieri memkvidreebs sk-is529-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebiT Cuqebis gauqmebis moTxovnaar SeuZliaT. Cuqebis xelSekrulebis gauqmebis safuZvels miTiTebulinormiT warmoadgens dasaCuqrebulis mier mCuqeblis an misi axlonaTesavis mimarT didi umadurobis gamoCena an mZime Seuracxyofismiyeneba. aRniSnuli normis me-2 nawiliT‚ Tu Cuqeba gauqmdeba‚ maSingaCuqebuli qoneba SeiZleba gamoTxovil iqnes mCuqeblis mier‚ amavenormis me-3 nawiliT ki Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes erTi wlis ganmavlobaSimas Semdeg‚ rac mCuqebeli Seityobs im garemoebis Sesaxeb‚ romelic masCuqebis gauqmebis uflebis uflebas uZlevs.zemoxsenebuli materialur-samarTlebrivi norma yvelaze naTlad asaxavssamarTlisa da zneobis normebis urTierTkavSirs‚ mCuqeblisagan qonebrivisikeTis usasyidlod miRebis sanacvlod dasaCuqrebuls moeTxoveba mxoldzneobrivi normebis dacva. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi‚ Tuki dasaCuqrebulimZime Seuracxyofas miayenebs an umadurobas gamoiCens mCuqeblis an misiaxlo naTesavis mimarT‚ zneobriv faseulobaTa dacva xdeba CuqebisxelSekrulebis gauqmebiT‚ rasac Tan axlavs saTanado samarTlebriviSedegi – mCuqeblisaTvis gaCuqebuli nivTis sakuTrebaSi dabruneba. sk-is529-e muxlis Sinaarsidan aSkarad Cans‚ rom dasaCuqrebulis arazneobrivisaqcielis Semfasebeli TviTon mCuqebelia‚ razedac metyvelebs normaSiarsebuli gamonaTqvamebi: `qoneba SeiZleba gamoTxovili iqnes mCuqeblismier~‚ `Cuqeba SeiZleba gauqmdes erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi mas Semdeg‚ racmCuqebeli Seityobs im garemoebis Sesaxeb‚ romelic mas Cuqebis gauqmebisuflebas aZlevs~. Cuqebis moSlas iwvevs ara yovelgvari zneobissawinaaRmdego moqmedeba‚ aramed mZime Seuracxyofa da didi umaduroba.Tu ra saxis Seuracxyofaa pirisaTvis mZime an ras miiCnevs did65


umadurobad‚ es mxolod konkretuli subieqtis – mCuqeblis Sefasebissagans SeiZleba warmoadgendes.sk-is 529-e muxlis pirveli nawilis mixedviT‚ Cuqebis gauqmebissafuZvlad miCneulia‚ rogorc mCuqeblis‚ ise misi axlo naTesavis mimarTgamoCenili didi umaduroba da mZime Seuracxyofis miyeneba. am danawesisanalizi cxadyofs‚ rom axlo naTesavis mimarT dasaCuqrebulisarazneobrivi saqcieli mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iwvevs Cuqebis gauqmebas‚Tuki aseTi mCuqeblis mier iqneba moTxovnili‚ anu mCuqebeli misi axlonaTesavis mimarT dasaCuqrebulis zneobrivad gasakicx qmedebas imdenadunda iTavisebdes‚ rom TviTonve unda xdides sadavod mas dadasaCuqrebuls Soris arsebul valdebulebiT samarTlebriv urTierTobas.uZravi qonebis keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebebi saqarTvelosuzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtikaSiSinaarsiI. kanonmdeblobaII. doqtrinaIII. praqtika1. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis interpretacia2. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 159-e muxlis interpretacia(marTlzomieri da keTilsindisieri SemZenis gamijvna)3. keTilsindisierebis moqmedebis dro4. meuRleTa TanasakuTreba da uZravi qonebis keTilsindisieriSemZeni66


I. kanonmdeblobaqarTuli samoqalaqo kodeqsis Taviseburebas warmoadgenskeTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebrivi mdgomareobis detalurimowesrigeba. am mxriv igi Tanamedrove evropul kerZo samarTalTansrul harmonizaciaSia. mTavari sakiTxi am SemTxevevaSi qonebismesakuTrisa da keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesebis samarTlianibalansirebaa. samoqalaqo kodeqsi am sakiTxs wyvets ara martobrunvis konkretuli monawilis interesebidan gamomdinare, aramedTviT am brunvis simyarisa da stabilurobis interesebisgaTvalswinebiT.kanonmdebloba mesakuTrisa da keTilsindisieri SemZenis interesTakonfliqtis sakiTxs gansxvavebulad awesrigebs moZravi da uZraviqonebis brunvis SemTxvevaSi. amas Tavisi axsna moeZebneba, razedacqvemoT gveqneba saubari. amjerad, saWirod migvaCnia, moviSvelioT Tavadsakanonmdeblo normebi.aRniSnuli sakiTxis mowesrigeba dakavSirebuilia im fundamentalurinormis gamoyenebasTan, romelic Seexeba uZrav qonebaze sakuTrebiswarmoSobas. am kodeqsis 183-e muxlis pirvel punqtSi naTqvamia:,,uZravi nivTis SesaZenad aucilebelia garigebis werilobiTi formiTdadeba da SemZenis registracia sajaro reestrSi".uZravi qonebis SeZenis es wesi uzrunvelyofs keTilsindisieriESemZenis interesebis dacvas. aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebiT metadmniSvnelovania samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxli, norma, romeliccalsaxad miesadageba Tanamedrove evropuli samarTls. kerZod, ammuxlSi aRniSnulia: ,,SemZenis interesebidan gamomdinare, gamsxvisebeliiTvleba mesakuTred, Tu igi aseTad aris registrirebuli sajaroreestrSi, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca SemZenma icoda, romgamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre".keTilsindisieri SemZenis aseTi uflebrivi mdgomareobaganpirobebulia sajaro reestris specifikuri roliT samoqalaqobrunvaSi. kerZod, reestris monacemebs kanonmdebeli aprioruladutyuarobisa da sisrulis Tvisebas aniWebs. samoqalaqo kodeqsisa 312-e muxlis Tanaxmad:67


,,1. reestris monacemebis mimarT moqmedebs utyarobisa da sisrulisprezumfcia, e.i. reestris Canawerebi iTvleba swored, vidre ardamtkicdeba maTi uzustoba.2. im piris sasargeblod, romelic garigebis safuZvelze sxvapirisagan iZens romelime uflebas da es ufleba gamsxviseblissaxelze iyo reestrSi registrirebuli, reestris Canaweri iTvlebasworad, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca am Canaweris sawinaaRmdegodSetanilia saCivari, an SemZenma icoda, rom Canaweri uzustoa".amgvarad, roca saqme exeba uZrav qonebas, aq sajaro reestris (uflebisregistraciis faqtis) sandoobis prezumfcia moqmedebs, maSin, rocamoZravi nivTebis SemTxvevaSi mflobelis sandoobis varaudi arsebobs.mokled, orive SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs SesaZeni uflebis namdvilobisvaraudi. es kargad Cans samoqalaqo kodeqsis 158-e muxlidan,romliTac dadgenilia:1. ivaraudeba, rom nivTis mflobeli aris misi mesakuTre.2. es wesi ar moqmedebs im SemTxvevaSi, roca nivTze sakuTrebiTiurTierTobis xasiaTi vlindeba sajaro reestridan. sakuTrebisprezumfcia ar gamoiyeneba arc Zveli mflobeli mimarT, Tu man es nivTidakarga, mohpares an sxvagvarad gavida igi misi mflobelobidan.sakuTrebis prezumfcia moqmedebs Zveli mflobelis sasargeblod mxolodmisi mflobelobis periodSi.”aRsaniSnavia is, rom mocemuli sakiTxebi nawilobriv mowesrigebuliaspecialuri kanonmdeblobiTac. aq dasaxelebuli normebidan naTladCans, rom uZravi nivTis keTilsindisieri SeZena am qonebaze sakuTrebisSeZenis TaviseburebiTaa ganpirobebuli. mowesrigebis aseTi forma bevradwaagavs germanuli samarTlis danawesebs.II. doqtrinadoqtrinisaTvis amosavalia keTilsindiseri samoqalaqo brunva,rasac safuZvels uyris moqmedi samoqalaqo kodeqsi. brunviskeTilsindisiereba am brunvis monawileTa keTilsindisierebaa, es kigulisxmobs brunvis monawileebis sandoobas. aseTi urTierT68


damokidebuleba gamartivebuli da cocxali samoqalaqo brunvisaucilebeli winapirobaa. es sruliadac ar niSnavs urTierTobismonawileTa mier erTmaneTis mimarT TvaldaxuWul ndobas. igiaucileblad gulisxmobs windaxedulobis gonivrul masStabs,romlis ignorirebamac SeiZleba brunvis monawilearakeTilsindisier monawiled aqcios da dacvis miRma datovos.imdenad mniSvnelovania keTilsindisiereba samoqalaqo brunvisaTvis, romuflebisa da keTilsindisierebis, rogorc faseulobaTaurTierTdapirispirebis, SemTxvevaSi, zogjer keTilsindisierebaimarjvebs da Tavad xdeba uflebis wyaro. kanonmdebeli sxvagvaradverc moiqceva. saqme imaSia, rom calkeul SemTxvevebSikeTilsindisierebisadmi prioritetis miniWebiT kanonmdebeli icavsTavad samoqalaqo brunvas rogorc faseulobas da am gziT brunvismonawileTa pativsadeb interesebs.samoqalaqo brunvis mniSvnelovani Tavisebureba is aris, rom yovelimxare im tvirTis matarebeli SeiZleba iyos, romlis zidvac masSeuZlia. roca mtkicdeba, rom igi uZluria zidos es tvirTi,pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxic ixsneba.Cven mier moyvanil normebSi erTmaneTis pirispir dganan mesakuTreda keTilsindisieri SemZeni. rogorc ukve iTqva, maTi mdgomareobaarsebiTad gansxavebulia moZravi da uZravi nivTebis SeZenisas.samoqalaqo kodeqsis 186-e muxlidan gamomdinare, moZrav qonebazesakuTrebis SeZena xdeba misi gadacemiT. aq iseTi sinamdvileyalibdeba, rodesac erTmaneTis pirispir dganan nivTis mesakuTre damisi SemZeni. maT Soris ar dgas sxva iseTi piri, romelic, uxeSadrom vTqvaT, Tavis Tavze aiRebda raime pasuximsgeblobas. nivTisSemZenis bed-iRbali mTlianadaa damokidebuli gamsxviseblissamarTlebriv mdgomareobaze da sakuTar windaxedulobaze. Tugamsxvisebeli ar aRmoCndeba mesakuTre-SemZenis keTilsindisirebaver gaxdeba yovelTvis misi uflebis dacvis iaraRi.umeteswilad, aq sakuTreba imarjvebs keTilsindisirebaze da amisgamo orTabrZola mesakuTris sasargeblod mTavrdeba.sruliad sxva suraTi gvaqvs uZravi qonebis SeZenisas. aq ukvedapirispirebul mxareebs Soris dgas, uxeSad rom vTqvaT,,,arbitri", romelic pasuximgeblobis ZiriTad tvirTs Tavis Tavze69


iRebs. es ,,arbitri" sajaro reestria, romlis wyalobiTackeTilsindisiereba imarjvebs sakuTrebaze. is ZiriTadi tvirTi, romelicgamsxviseblis uflebamosilebis Sesamowmeblad ekisreboda SemZens,normatiulad sajaro reestris xelSia gadasuli.yovelive es erTgvarad amartivebs keTilsindisieri SemZenis tvirTs.rogorc moyvanili normebidan Cans, sajaro reestris monacemebismimarT moqmedebs utyuarobisa da sisrulis prezumfcia. sajaroreestris gareSe SemZens naklebad xelewifeba, Seamowmosgamsxviseblis uflebrivi mdgomareoba. aqedan gamomdinare, misiwindaxedulobis farglebic Sesabamisad viwroa.marTalia, kanonmdebeli uSvebs imis SesaZleblobas, rom SemZenmaSeiZleba icodes, rom ,,gamsxvisebeli ar iyo mesakuTre", magram misigamorkveva erTob Znelia. Tuki sakuTrebis uflebas fetiSisturadmivudgebiT, cxadia, gagviWirdeba im sinamdvilisadmi Segueba, rodesacmasze imarjvebs keTilsindiseri SemZeni. amis aRqma, marTlac,Znelia iseT pirobebSi, roca erTmaneTis pirispir dganan mesakuTreda SemZeni. erTi SexedviT, aRniSnuli norma adamianSi TiTqos badebsusamarTlobis gancdas: roca gamsxvisebeli mesame piria, romlissaxelzedac arasworad aRiricxa sakuTreba sajaro reestrSi, ratomunda daiCagros mesakuTre? gana is, risi SeZenis safuZvelicxarveziania, SeiZleba sabolood SeZenilad CaiTvalos? gana SeZenisobieqturi safuZveli ar aris am SeZenis namdvilobis safuZvelida ara pirTa subieqturi neba? Tumca, aq marto subieqturi nebakeTilsindisierebaar arsebobs, aqvea xarveziani obieqturi neba sajaroreestrisa. mokled, es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac subieqturi nebaasworebs obieqturis nakls, e. i. Tuki SemZeni keTilsindisieria,sajaro reestris xarvezianobac iCrdileba da igi verafriT SvelisuflebawarTmeul mesakuTres. warmovidginoT aseTi magaliTi:mesakuTre xangrZlivi mivlinebiT wavida ucxo qveyanaSi da sakuTaribina droebiT sargeblobaSi dautova axlo naTesavs. am ukanasknelmayalbi dokumentebis meSveobiT miaRwia imas, rom sajaro reestrSiaRiricxa am binis mesakuTred da igi gaasxvisa pirze, romelic amfaqtis mimarT iyo keTilsindisieri.moqmedi kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, Zalianac rom ecados binisdabrunebas misi namdvili mesakuTre, verafers gaxdeba. qoneba70


keTilsindisier SemZens darCeba sakuTrebaSi. dava unda gadawydesmis sasargeblod. magram ra Sedegebi moyveba sawinaaRmdegos daSvebisSemTxvevaSi. yvelaze mZime Sedegi iqneba samoqalaqo brunvisSeferxeba da misadmi undoblobis gaCena. radgan SemZeni ar iqnebadaculi misi keTilisindisierebis SemTxvevaSic, cxadia, moiklebsuZravi qonebis SeZenis interesi. ufro garkveviT rom vTqvaT, moiSlebasamoqalaqo brunvis stabiluroba da SeZenil uflebebs saeWvoobisdaRi daesmeba. kidev ufro dazustebiT _ eWqveS dadgeba samoqalqobrunvis usafrTxoeba, romelic, rogorc faseuloba, am brunvismonawileTa uflebebis garantiaa.sajaro reestris arseboba keTilsindisier SemZens aTavisuflebsmometebuli pasuxismgeblobisa da riskisagan.praqtikaSi xSiria iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac uZrav qonebas asxvisebspiri, romelic sajaro reestrSi registrirebuli ar aris mesakuTred.magaliTad m. n.-m gayalbebuli mindobilobis safuZvelze SeiZinasacxovrebeli bina. aseT SemTxvevaSi SemZeni ar CaiTvleba keTilsindisierSemZenad, radgan piri, romlisaganac man SeiZina bina, sajaro reestrSiregistrirebuli ar iyo mesakuTred da mas marTebda ufro metiyuradReba da sifrTxile, vidre pirs, romelic uSualod sajaroreestrSi msakuTred registrirebuli gamsxvisebelisagan iZens qonebas.mocemul SemTxvevaSi sajaro reestrSi fiqsirebuli mesakuTris nebagamovlenili ar aris da aseT dros garigeba miCneuli unda iqnesbaTilad. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT erTmniSnelovnad SeiZlebadavaskvnaT, rom qonebis SeZenis keTilsindisiereba maSin arsebobs,rodesac nivTis gamsxvisebeli sajaro reestrSi registrirebuliamesakuTred da aseve SemZeni keTilsindisieria am faqtis mimarT.aRniSnulisagan gansxvavebuli msjeloba ewinaaRmdegeba samoqalaqokodeqsis 185-e muxlis debulebebs da ugulvebelyofs am normaSimiTiTebul mesakuTred yofnis prezumfciis cnebas. ra Tqma unda,aRniSnuli ar SeiZleba gavrceldes im SemTxvevebze, rodesac mesakuTreda gamsxvisebeli SeTanxmebulad moqmedeben, sxvisi qonebis xelSi CagdebismizniT.71


III. praqtika1. saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis interpretaciauZravi qonebis keTilsindisieri SemZenis uflebis dacvis Sesaxebsakmaod vrceli sasamarTlo praqtika dagrovda. sasamarTloebiZiriTadad sworad iyeneben samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxls.uzenaesi sasamarTlo ki aRniSnuli muxlis gamoyenebis principulgaremoebebsac xazgasmiT gamoyofs. ase, magaliTad, 2006 wlis 9 martisganCinebaSi (#as-980-1243-05) sasamarTlom calke gamoyo normaprincipi:,,uZravi nivTis gamsxviseblis mesakuTred miCnevisaTvissakmaris safuZvels warmoadgens SemZenisaTvis, rom gamsxvisebelimesakuTred registrirebuli iyos sajaro reestrSi". aRniSnulidangamonaklisad miiCneva SemTxveva, rodesac SemZenma icis, rom sajaroreestrSi registrirebuli gamsxvisebeli ar aris mesakuTre. amasTanmimarTebiT sasamarTlo adgens, rom aRniSnuli normiT dawesebuliSemZenis keTilsindisierebis dadgenisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris mxolodsajaro reestris monacemebis gaTvaliswineba, vinaidan mocemulSemTxvevaSi arsebiTad mniSvnelovania sakiTxia mesakuTris vinaobisadmiSemZenis subieqturi damokidebuleba (icoda Tu ar icoda).Sesabamisad, SemZenis interesebis maregulirebeli normisgamoyenebisas unda Semowmdes rogorc sajaro reestris monacemebi,aseve _ utyuarad unda dadgindes, rom SemZenma ar icoda qonebissxva mesakuTris Taobaze".rac Seexeba keTilsindisierebis axsnas, sasamarTloebi ZiriTadadSemoifarglebian konkretuli SemTxvevebis analiziT. vinaidankeTilsindisierebas afuZnebs SemZenis subieqturi damokidebulebagarkveuli faqtebisadmi, sasamarTlos gansakuTrebuli sifrTxilemarTebs misi Sefasebisas. SemZens ar SeiZleba moeTxovos iseTigaremoebebis codna, romelic aRemateba (scildeba) misiSesaZleblobis farglebs. keTilsindisierebis Sefasebisas mTavaria,SemZenis mier faqtebis gacnobierebis SesaZlebloba da ara Tavadinteresi am faqtebisadmi, anu Sefasebis sagania aRniSnuli faqtebiscodna da ara mizanmimarTuli codna.Seswavlili praqtika mowmobs, rom 185-e muxlis interpretacia xdebasamoqalaqo kodeqsis im normebTan organul kavSirSi, romlebic misTvis72


safuZvelsa da gasaRebs warmoadgens. kerZod, samoqalaqo kodeqsis 183-e,312-e da sxva muxlebTan erTad.2. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 159-e muxlis interpretacia (marTlzomieri dakeTilsindisieri SemZenis gamijvna)sasamarTlom kargad unda gamoarkvios, uZravi qonebis SemZenimarTlzomieri SemZenia Tu keTilsindisieri. SeuZlebeliaerTdroulad piri iyos marTlzomieri SemZenic dakeTilsindisieric. samwuxarod, praqtika icnobs aseTdamokidebulebasac _ raSi unda iyos ,,braleuli" samoqalaqokodeqsis 159-e muxlis pirveli winadadeba, romlis Tanaxmadac,,keTilsindisieria mflobeli, romelic nivTs marTlzomieradflobs". saqme imaSia, rom keTilsindisieri mflobelobis sakiTximxolod maSin dgeba, roca mflobeloba aramarTlzomieria.amitomac, roca dadgenilia, rom mflobeloba marTlzomieria,uflebis dasabuTebis safuZvlad keTilsindisierebaze miniSnebasruliad zedmeti da uadgiloa.sakasacio sasamarTlos 2005 wlis 19 maisis ganCinebaSi (#as-1355-1481-04) sadavo urTierTobis aseTi suraTia: m. g. iZens vinme i. b-saganuZrav qonebas (miwis nakveTebsa da saxls), am ukansaknels ki es qonebaSeuZenia s. s-sagan. vinaidan s. s. ar aTavisufldeba m. g-s mier SeZenilbinas, man sarCeliT mimarTa raionul sasamarTlos da aRidgina maszepirdapiri mflobeloba. s. s. Tavis mxriv Tvlida, rom aRniSnuli qonebismesakuTre kvlav TviTona iyo, radganac i. b-m mas motyuebis gziTwaarTva es qoneba sakuTrebaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, igi mosarCele m. g-ssakuTrebas eWvis qveS ayenebda. saqmis ganxilvisas ar dadginda s. s-sagani. b-ze aRniSnuli qonebis sakuTrebaSi gadacemis aramarTlzomiereba,rac TavisTavad ueWvels xdis m. g-s mier qonebis SeZenismarTlzomierebas. aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom yuradReba undamiaqcios am garemoebas da ara qonebis SeZenis keTililsindisierebisfaqts.73


3. keTilsindisierebis moqmedebis drosakasacio sasamarTlom 2005 wlis 16 seqtembers ganCinebaSi (3as-409-756-05) 185-e muxlis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT aseTidebuleba daafiqsira: ,,keTilsindisierebis faqti unda arsebobdesnivTis gadacemamde". uZravi qonebis SeZenasTan dakavSirebiTkeTilsindisiereba 185-e muxliT gaTvalsiwinebul Sedegebs iwvevsmxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca es xdeba sakuTrebis uflebis sajaroreestrSi registraciamde. registraciis Semdgomdroindelisinamdvile, kerZod, is, rom pirma gaigo qonebis SeZenisaramarTlzomierebisDSesaxeb, samarTlebrivad umniSvneloa. qonebisSeZenis Semdeg, piri xdeba misi marTlzomieri mflobeli da amdenad,SeZenis samarTlebrivi buneba ucvleli rCeba. amitomacaa, rom, TukiSemdgom am pirisagan SeiZens vinme uZrav qonebas, mas saqme eqnebamarTlzomier mflobelTan.mokled, SeZenis aRiarebis momentidan asparezidan qreba am SeZenismimarT subieqturi damokidebuleba.4. meuRleTa TanaskuTreba da keTilsindisieri SemZenisuflebrivi mdgomareobasasamarTlo praqtika erTob mdidaria meuRleTa TanasakuTrebiskeTilsindisieri SeZenis SemTxvevebiT. sakasacio sasamarTlom 2005wlis erT-erT ganCinebaSi (#3a/932-02) daafiqsira pozicia,romelic vfiqrobT, rom sworad warmoaCens meuRleTa saerToqonebaze sakuTrebis warmoSobis moments.sakasacio palatam xazi gausva garemoebas, rom uZrav qonebazesakuTrebis ufleba warmoiSoba sajaro reestrSi registraciis gziTda amis ZiriTadi mizania SemZenis interesebis dacva. kerZod,meuRleTa TanasakuTrebasTan mimarTebiT aRniSna: ,,... SemZenisinteresebidan gamomdinare, meuRleTa qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi erTadSeZenil samoqalaqo kodeqsis 1158-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul uZravqonebaze (TanasakuTrebaze) meuRleTa sakuTrebis ufleba warmoiSobamxolod sajaro reestrSi orive maTganis registraciis Semdeg.74


winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mesame pirebis mimarT reestris Canawerebi iTvlebasworad".aqedan ukve cxadi xdeba, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxlis isdebuleba, rom ,,meuRleTa mier qorwinebis ganmavlobaSi SeZeniliqoneba warmoadgens maT saerTo qonebas (TanasakuTrebas)" ar undaganimartos martooden sityva-sityviTi mniSvnelobiT. aseTi qonebasaerTo sakuTrebad ganixileba uSualod meuRleTa Soris davis dros,xolo mesame pirTaTvis (Tundac TanasakuTrebaSi arsebuli qonebisSeZenis SemTxvevaSi) aRniSnuli qoneba TanasakuTrebad CaiTvleba mxolodorive meuRlis uflebis sajaro reestrSi registraciis SemTxvevaSi. amkonkretul SemTxvevaSi, kasatorma misive nebiT xelidan gauSvaSesaZlebloba, sajaro reestrSi aRricxuliyo rogorc TanamesakuTre.mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom palatam gansazRvra samoqalaqo kodeqsis158-e da 1160-e muxlebis adgili samoqalaqo normebisurTierTmimarTebis meqanizmSi. kerZod, Tu doqtrinasa da nawilobrivpraqtikaSi gavrcelebuli iyo azri, rom 158-e muxli 1160-esTanmimarTebiT zogad normas warmoadgenda, palatis mosazrebiT, oriveSemTxvevaSi specialur normebTan gvaqvs saqme. aRniSnuli metyvelebssakiTxis mowesrigebis sagnobriv gansxvavebaze. kerZod, ganCinebisTanaxmad, ,,samoqalaqo kodeqsis 185-e muxli iZleva keTilsindisierSemZenis interesebis dacvis samarTlebriv garantiebs, xolo 1160-emuxli awesebs TanamesakuTre meuRlis interesebis dacvis iuridiulmeqanizms". palata Tvlis, rom am SemTxvevaSi keTilsindisieri SemZenisinteresebs unda mieniWos prioriteti, vinaidan TanamesakuTre meuRlemaraferi iRona, rom sakuTrebis ufleba sajaro reestrSidaeregistrirebina.bunebrivia, keTilisindisieri SemZenis interesebis dacvis sakiTximaSinac dadgeba, roca TanamesakuTre meuRlisagan malulad moxdebaerT-erTi meuRlis saxelze mTeli sakuTrebis registracia. migvaCnia,rom verc es SemTxveva ver gaxdeba keTilsindisieri SemZenisuflebis uaryofis safuZveli.75


ekomendaciebi adminitraciuli samarTlis sakiTxebze* * *saqarTvelos uzenaes sasamarTloSi administraciul-samarTlebrivsakiTxebze mosamarTleTa Sexvedra gaimarTa 2010 wlis 17 aprils, risSemdegac Camoyalibda Semdegi rekomendaciebi:I.socialuri davebis ganxilvisaTvis aqtualuria kanonis droSi moqmedebissakiTxi, kerZod, im normatiuli aqtebis ukuqceviTi Zalis sakiTxi,romlebic auaresebs piris mdgomareobas (mag., amcirebs pensiis odenobas).mosamarTleebma aRniSnes, rom moqalaqeebi, romlebic aseTi normatiuliaqtis miRebamde sargeblobdnen garkveuli privilegiebiT, Tvlian, romSeRavaTebis gamauqmebeli axali normatiuli aqti ar vrceldeba maTze daaxali sakanonmdeblo regulacia vrceldeba mxolod am aqtis ZalaSiSesvlis Semdeg warmoSobil samarTalurTierTobaze. aRniSnulidangamomdinare, sasamarTlo praqtikisaTvis mniSvnelovania im sakiTxisgarkveva, aqvs Tu ara ukuqceviTi Zala axal SemzRudav normatiul aqtsim pirebis mimarT, romlebic socialur sferoSi axali normatiuliaqtis miRebamde sargeblodnen SeRavaTebiT da privilegiebiT.azri Sejerda Semdegze: Tu magaliTad umaRlesma sakanonmdeblo organomaxali kanoniT Seamcira im pensiis odenoba, rac Zveli kanoniT iyogansazRvruli, am SemTxvevaSi arasworia aseTi Semcirebis miCneva kanonisnamdvil ukuZalad. miuxedavad imisa, rom pensiis winandeli odenobisSemcirebiT piris mdgomareoba uaresdeba, axali kanoniT socialuriuzrunvelyofis moculobis SezRudva samarTlebrivad aris ara axalikanonisTvis namdvili ukuZalis miniWeba, aramed _ Sesabamisi socialuriuflebis legaluri transformacia. saqarTvelos konstituciis 42-emuxlis me-5 punqtSi ganmtkicebulia kanonis ukuZalis principi damiTiTebulia, rom aravin agebs pasuxs im qmedebisaTvis, romelic misiCadenis dros samarTaldarRvevad ar iTvleboda, xolo kanons, Tu is aramsubuqebs an ar auqmebs pasuxismgeblobas, ukuZala ara aqvs. aRniSnuliprincipi organuladaa dakavSirebuli iuridiul pasuxismgeblobasTan,gamoiyeneba masTan erToblivad da ar moicavs socialuri dacvisgarantiebis uzrunvelyofis sakiTxs. ,,normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb"saqarTvelos kanonis 47-e muxlis me-2 punqtis Tanaxmad, normatiul76


aqts, romelic adgens an amZimebs pasuxismgeblobas, ukuZala ara aqvs.aRniSnuli normac uSualod Seexeba iuridiul pasuxismgeblobas.aRsaniSnavia, rom ar momxdara kanonisaTvis namdvili ukuZalis miniWeba,vinaidan ar gvxvdeba warsulSi momxdari da warsulSive dasrulebulifaqtobrivi urTierTobebi (e.w. namdvili _ retroaqtiuli ukuZala).swored aseT SemTxvevas gulisxmobs ,,normatiuli aqtebis Sesaxeb"kanonis 47-e muxlis 1-li punqti, romlis Tanaxmad, normatiul aqtsukuZala aqvs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es pirdapir aris dadgenili amnormatiuli aqtiT. mocemul SemTxvevaSi axali kanoni zemoqmedebskanonis miRebamde warmoSobili samarTalurTierTobebis momavalSiganviTarebaze. kanoni cvlis samarTalurTierTobis monawileTa uflebamovaleobebskanonis ZalaSi Sesvlis momentidan. kanonis amgvari moqmedebamisi sayovelTaobis gamovlenaa da ar aris damokidebuli sakanonmdebloaqtSi misi moqmedebis wesis aRniSvnaze.sabolood mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen imaze, rom mocemul SemTxvevaSiaxali kanoniT piris mdgomareobis gauareseba (mag., pensiis Semcireba)SeuZlebelia samarTlebrivad gauTanabrdes iuridiuli pasuxismgeblobisdamZimebas. mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom axali kanoni ar moqmedebs Zvelikanonis safuZvelze warmoSobil urTierTobebze, romlebic ardasrulebula da kvlav grZeldeba, ar vrceldeba sajaro samarTlissferoze. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebeli iqneboda Tundacsagadasaxado-samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis sferoSi gadasaxadis odenobisgazrda, rac udavod gaauaresebs gadasaxadis gadamxdeli pirismdgomareobas, magram, miuxedavad amisa, mainc vrceldeba manamde ukveformirebul samarTalurTierTobebze. miT umetes, rom socialuriuzrunvelyofa ar aris iuridiuli pasuxismgeblobis saxe.II.interess agreTve iwvevs sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenadaa SesaZlebeliim moTxovnis dakmayofileba, romlis sakanonmdeblo safuZveli moTxovniswayenebis momentisaTvis gauqmebulia. ase, mag., Tu pirs samsaxuridandaTxovnis dros moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT ekuTvnoda gasasvlelidaxmarebis miReba, romelic masze ar gaica, xolo sarCelis wardgenismomentisaTvis sakanonmdeblo cvlilebis Sedegad gasasvleli daxmarebisgacema kanonmdeblobiT aRar aris gaTvaliswinebuli, unda dakmayofildes77


Tu ara aseTi sarCeli da ra saxis sarCeli unda iqnes aRZruli aseTSemTxvevaSi?msjelobis Sedegad mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen imaze, rom sasamarTlomunda daadginos daxmarebis gacemis Sesaxeb mosarCelis (ganmcxadeblis)administraciuli organosaTvis (sasamarTlosaTvis) mimarTvis momenti,kerZod, moaxdina Tu ara mosarCelem uflebis realizeba normismoqmedebis dros, radgan normis moqmedebis periodSi uflebis realizebawarmoadgens daxmarebis moTxovnis dakmayofilebis safuZvels. sarCelissaxesTan dakavSirebiT gamoiTqva mosazrebebi da sabolood azri SejerdaSemdegze:Tu piri iTxovs garkveuli Tanxebis anazRaurebas maSin, rodesac normamoqmedia, mizanSewonilia aRiZras mikuTvnebiTi sarCeli, xolo, Tu igiiTxovs iseTi moTxovnis dakmayofilebas, romlis sakanonmdeblosafuZveli moTxovnis wayenebis momentisaTvis gauqmebulia, pirma kinormis moqmedebis dros moaxdina Tavisi uflebis realizebaadministraciuli organosaTvis mimarTvis gziT, maSin mosarCelemumjobesia aRZras aRiarebiTi sarCeli da moiTxovos im uflebis aRiareba,romelic mas gaaCnda normis moqmedebis dros.III.zogierT SemTxvevaSi davas iwvevs socialuri kategoriis saqmezesasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis sakiTxi. ase, magaliTad, imSemTxvevaSi, Tu pensia pirs daniSnuli aqvs sasamarTlogadawyvetilebiT, unda gagrZeldes Tu ara sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebissafuZvelze daniSnuli sapensio Tanxis gadaxda, Tuki is sakanonmdebloaqti, romlis safuZvelzec aris gamotanili sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba,gauqmda. unda gauqmdes Tu ara axali sakanonmdeblo aqtis miRebis gamoTanxebis gadaxdis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba,romliTac pirs mieniWa sapensio Tanxis miRebis ufleba da ra wesiT?mosamarTleebma gaixsenes sasamarTlo praqtikaSi gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi,rodesac im sakanonmdeblo aqtis gauqmebisas, romlis safuZvelzec iyogamotanili sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba, mxareebi axlad aRmoCenilgaremoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebis ganaxlebas iTxovdnen. mosamarTleebma78


miuTiTes saqarTvelos samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 423-e muxlze,romlis mixedviTac kanonier ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetileba SeiZlebagasaCivrdes axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebisganaxlebis moTxovniT, Tu: a) aRmoCndeba, rom dokumenti, romelsacgadawyvetileba emyareba, yalbia; b) dadgenilia mowmis Segnebulad cruCveneba, eqspertis Segnebulad yalbi daskvna, Segnebulad arasworiTargmani, rasac mohyva ukanono an dausabuTebeli gadawyvetilebis miReba;g) dadgenilia am saqmeze mxareTa da maT warmomadgenelTa danaSaulebriviqmedeba an mosamarTlis danaSaulebrivi qmedeba; d) sasamarTlo ganaCeni,gadawyvetileba, ganCineba an sxva organos dadgenileba, romelicsafuZvlad daedo am gadawyvetilebas, gauqmda; e) mxare warudgenssasamarTlos kanonier ZalaSi Sesul gadawyvetilebas, romelicgamotanilia imave sarCelis mimarT; v) mxarisaTvis cnobili gaxda iseTigaremoebebi da mtkicebulebebi, romlebic, adre rom yofiliyowardgenili sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvis dros, gamoiwvevda misTvisxelsayreli gadawyvetilebis gamotanas.sabolood, diskusiis Sedegad azri Sejerda imaze, rom aseTi SemTxvevaar warmoadgens axlad aRmoCenil garemoebaTa gamo saqmis warmoebisganaxlebis safuZvels. mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen, rom aseT drossasamarTlo gadawyvetileba izRudeba droiT da misi gauqmebadauSvebelia. administraciulma organom axali kanonis safuZvelze Tavadunda Seuwyvitos pirs pensiis gacema da swored es uari unda iqnesgasaCivrebuli sasamarTloSi, ris Semdegac sasamarTlos SeuZliaimsjelos masze.IV.a) im SemTxvevaSi, Tu pirs administraciuli organos braliTarasworad daeniSna gazrdili pensia, romelsac is garkveuli droisganmavlobaSi iRebda, aqvs Tu ara administracias ufleba, moiTxovossxvaobis dabruneba? unda dakmayofildes Tu ara administraciis aseTimoTxovna pensionerisadmi?b)rogor unda gadawydes sakiTxi, Tu gazrdili pensia pirs daeniSnapiris braliT, mag., araswori monacemebis administraciisaTvis wardgenisgamo?79


mosamarTleebma miuTiTes saqarTvelos zogadi administraciuli kodeqsis60 1 muxlis me-5 nawilze, romlis Tanaxmad, dainteresebuli mxariskanonieri ndoba arsebobs im SemTxvevaSi, Tu man administraciulsamarTlebriviaqtis safuZvelze ganaxorciela iuridiuli mniSvnelobismqone moqmedeba da ukanono administraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtis baTiladcnobiT mas miadgeba ziani. kanonieri ndoba ar arsebobs, Tu massafuZvlad udevs dainteresebuli mxaris ukanono qmedeba.a) pirvel sakiTxze gamoiTqva mosazrebebi da azri Sejerda imaze, romaseT dros amosavali wertili unda iyos kanonieri ndoba, kerZod, amSemTxvevaSi arsebobs piris kanonieri ndoba im individualuriadministraciul-samarTlebrivi aqtisadmi, romliTac mas gazrdili pensiadaeniSna, aRniSnuli aqti ki warmoadgens aRmWurvel administraciulsamarTlebrivaqts. amis gamo ar SeiZleba is sxvaoba, romelicadministraciuli organos braliT arasworad daeniSna pirs, dabrunebuliqnes, Tumca mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen, rom SemdgomSi gazrdili pensiisgacema aRar unda ganxorcieldes.b) meore SemTxvevasTan dakavSirebiT mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen, rom aseTdros, dainteresebuli piris ukanono qmedebis gamo, ar SeiZlebaarsebobdes kanonieri ndoba da gamomdinare aqedan, pirma unda daabrunossxvaoba.V.moqmedi kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs samsaxurebrivi movaleobisSesrulebisas mosamsaxuris gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi misi ojaxisaTvisfuladi kompensaciis miRebis SesaZleblobas. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiTinteress iwvevs sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda iqnes gagebulisamsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesruleba unda iyos Tu ara dakavSirebulipiris gardacvaleba uSualod samsaxurebrivi movaleobis SesrulebasTan,Tu kompensaciis gacemisaTvis sakmarisia piris TviT samsaxurSigardacvalebis faqti? Tu kompensacia unda gaices piris samsaxurebrivimovaleobis SesrulebasTan dakavSirebiT gardacvalebis gamo, rogorunda dadgindes mizezobrivi kavSiri samsaxurebrivi movaleobisSesrulebasa da gardacvalebas Soris (mag., TaTbiris Semdeg pirisinfarqtiT gardacvalebis SemTxvevaSi sakmarisi iqneba Tu ara80


mizezobrivi kavSiris dasadgenad im garemoebis dadgena, rom TaTbirzemuSaks mouxda xelmZRvanelTan sityvieri konfliqti)?azri Sejerda imaze, rom aseT dros aucilebelia mizezobrivi kavSirisarseboba, agreTve, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom umetes SemTxvevaSi,SeuZlebelia imis Sefaseba, ramdenad absoluturia mizezobrivi kavSiri.mosamarTleebis azriT, miuxedavad imisa, rom umetes SemTxvevaSimizezobrivi kavSiris absoluturoba ver iqneba dadgenili, aseT drosmainc unda gaices kompensacia. mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen, rom sakmarisiar aris mxolod piris samsaxurSi gardacvalebis faqti, kompensaciisgacemisaTvis aucilebelia mizezobrivi kavSiris dadgena samsaxurebrivimovaleobis SesrulebasTan da gardacvalebis faqtTan, ar aqvsmniSvneloba es kavSiri absoluturi iqneba Tu ara. mosamarTleebiSeTanxmdnen imaze, rom mxolod im faqtis garkveva, hqonda Tu ara muSaksxelmZRvanelTan Selaparakeba, sakmarisi ar aris mizezobrivi kavSirisdasadgenad.VI.moqmedi kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs administraciis valdebulebas,uzrunvelyos zianis anazRaureba samsaxurebrivi movaleobisSesrulebasTan dakavSirebiT muSakis janmrTelobisaTvis vnebis miyenebisgamo. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, interess iwvevs sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb,Tu ramdenad farTod aris SesaZlebeli samsaxurebrivi movaleobisganmarteba, ramdenad moqmedebs misaRebi kompensaciis odenobazedazaralebulis gaufrTxilebloba.azri Sejerda imaze, rom muSakis mier sxeulis dazianebis miRebausafrTxoebis, eqspluataciis wesebis darRvevisas, qmnis anazRaurebismiRebis safuZvels. amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi: Tudazaralebulis gaufrTxileblobam xeli Seuwyo zianis warmoSobas,dazaralebulis bralis xarisxis Sesabamisad, zianis anazRaureba SeiZlebaSemcirdes, xolo Sereuli pasuxismgeblobis xarisxis gansazRvrasasamarTlos Sesafasebelia. piris samsaxurSi arafxizel mdgomareobaSigamocxadebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqtic, rom ziani aranazRaurdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi arafxizel mdgomareobaSi yofnisgamo miadgapirs.81


VII.saproceso kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs SeRavaTebs im SemTxvevaSi, Tusadavo sakiTxi saxelmwifo socialuri dacvis sakiTxs exeba (mag.saxelmwifo baJisagan gaTavisufleba). aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT sadavoxdeba sakiTxTa is wre, romlebic socialur sakiTxTa rigsganekuTvnebian. ra kriteriumebiT unda gaimijnos socialur davaTakategoria sxva davebisagan? SesaZlebelia Tu ara socialur davaTa rigsganekuTvnos iseTi davebi, romlebic Seexeba mag. binidan gamosaxlebas,restitucias?msjelobis Sedegad mosamarTleebi SeTanxmdnen imaze, rom dava, romelicdakavSirebulia socialuri uflebis realizaciasTan, ganxilul undaiqnes rogorc socialuri dacvis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT aRZruli dava.Sesabamisad, unda ganisazRvros, konkretul SemTxvevaSi ramdenaddakavSirebulia dava socialuri uflebis realizaciasTan da amis SemdegmiCneul iqnes igi socialur davad. mosamarTleebma agreTve moiyvanesmagaliTi da aRniSnes, rom SromiTi uflebebi saqarTveloskonstituciiTa da saerTaSoriso konvenciebiT socialur-ekonomikuruflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs miekuTvneba. saqarTvelos konstituciis 30-eda 32-e muxlebi adgens, rom Sroma Tavisufalia da saxelmwifo icavssaqarTvelos moqalaqeTa SromiT uflebebs rogorc qveynis SigniT, isesazRvargareT. saxelmwifo xels uwyobs umuSevrad darCenilsaqarTvelos moqalaqes dasaqmebaSi. evropis socialuri qartia aRiarebsadamianis uflebas, gamoikvebos Tavi SromiT, romelsac irCevs sakuTarinebiT; yovel mSromels ufleba aqvs, hqondes samarTliani samuSao; yovelmSromels ufleba aqvs miiRos samarTliani gasamrjelo (qartiis me-2nawili, me-2, me-3 da me-4 muxlebi). adamianTaTvis Sromis samarTliani daxelSemwyobi pirobebis Seqmnas aRiareben ekonomikuri, socialuri dakulturuli uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis monawile qveynebi,maT Soris, saqarTveloc.82


VIII.mosamarTleebma wamoWres sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda moxdesmiwis gadasaxadis daricxvis wesi da gadaxdevineba, e.i. miwis gadasaxadisgadauxdelobis SemTxvevaSi ra droidan iTvleba sagadasaxadovaldebuleba Seusruleblad da ra droidan unda moxdes sauravisdaricxva? mosamarTleebi erTmniSvnelovnad SeTanxmdnen imaze, romgadasaxadis gadamxdelisaTvis miwis gadasaxadis gadaxdis valdebulebada, Sesabamisad, sauravis gadaxdis valdebulebac warmoiSvebasagadasaxado organosagan Sesabamisi Setyobinebis miRebis momentidan. esganpirobebulia imiT, rom SeiZleba piri uars ar ambobdes da Tanaxmaiyos miwis gadasaxadis gadaxdaze, magram man ar icodes, Tu rodis, sadda ra raodenobiT unda gadaixados gadasaxadi. rodesac pirssagadasaxado organodan miuva Setyobineba gadasaxadis gadaxdis drois,adgilisa da gadasaxadis raodenobis Sesaxeb, swored am momentidanwarmoeSveba mas gadasaxadis gadaxdis valdebuleba da, Sesabamisad, ammomentidan daiwyeba gadasaxadis gadauxdelobisaTvis sauravis daricxvac.83

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