kari 5. biomravalferovneba da biologiuri ... - momxmarebeli.ge

momxmarebeli.ge

kari 5. biomravalferovneba da biologiuri ... - momxmarebeli.ge

kari 5. biomravalferovneba da biologiuri resursebismarTvaTavi 14. biomravalferovneba14.1 SesavalisaqarTvelo, rogorc kavkasiis ekoregionis nawili, warmoadgensbiomravalferovnebis erT-erT `cxel wertils~. (amJamad Conservation Internationalismier gamoyofilia 34 `cxeli wertili~, romlebic gamoirCeviangansakuTrebuli biomravalferovnebiT, romelic amasTanave aris mniSvnelovanisafrTxis winaSe). kavkasiis ekoregioni, agreTve, aris WWF-is miergansazRvruli erT-erTi globaluri mniSvnelobis ekoregioni, romelicxasiaTdeba saxeobrivi mravalferovnebiT, endemizmis maRali doniT,evoluciuri procesebisa da florisa da faunis istoriuli ganviTarebisTaviseburebebiT, mcenareulobis tipebis mravalferovnebiTa da biomebiT,romlebic iSviaTia globalur doneze.saqarTveloSi biomravalferovnebis dacvisa da SenarCunebis umTavresisaSualebaa daculi teritoriebis sistemis ganviTareba. `daculiteritoriebis sistemis Sesaxeb~ kanonis (1996) Sesabamisad saqarTveloSimimdinareobs sxvadasxva reJimis (IUCN-is I-VI kategoriebis Sesabamisi) daculiteritoriebiT agebuli sistemis Camoyalibeba, gansxvavebiT manamde arsebulimidgomisagan, romelic mxolod gancalkevebuli da mkacrad daculinakrZalebis Seqmnas iTvaliswinebda. reJimis Sesabamisad sxvadasxvakategoriis dacul teritoriebSi resursmoxmareba mkacradaa SezRuduli ansruliadaa akrZaluli.safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebis dacvisa da SenarCunebisaTvis samarTlebrivnormebs gansazRvravs saqarTvelos kanoni `wiTeli nusxisa~ da `wiTeliwignis~ Sesaxeb (2003). aRniSnuli kanonis moTxovnis Sesabamisad 2005-2006wlebSi saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiasTan arsebulma gadaSenebissafrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebis komisiam saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuliflorisa da faunis saxeobaTa mdgomareoba Seafasa IUCN-is kriteriumebis dakategoriebis mixedviT da Seadgina saqarTvelos axali `wiTeli nusxa~,romelic damtkicda saqarTvelos prezidentis 2006 wlis 2 maisis #303brZanebulebiT. `wiTeli nusxisa~ da `wiTeli wignis~ Sesaxeb saqarTveloskanonis Tanaxmad sruliad ikrZaleba saqarTvelos `wiTel nusxaSi~ Setanilimcenareebisa da cxovelebis mopoveba sameurneo mizniT. maTi mopoveba daiSvebamxolod calkeul gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi, magaliTad samecnieromiznebisTvis, aRsadgenad, gadarCenisa da gankurnebisaTvis.biologiuri resursebiT sargeblobisas an sxva saqmianobis ganxorcielebisasbiomravalferovnebisaTvis zianis miyenebis Tavidan acilebis/Semcirebi mizniTsaqarTveloSi moqmedebs Semdegi meqanizmebi:• biologiuri resursebiT sargeblobis wesebi, romlebic gansazRvruliasxvadasxva normatiuli aqtebiT, agreTve, resursebiT sargeblobissalicenzio da sanebarTvo pirobebiT;• biologiuri resursebiT sargeblobis moculobis SezRudva zRvruladmosapovebeli odenobebis (kvotis) farglebSi,• garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba da garemoze zemoqmedebis nebarTvasxvadasxva saqmianobebisTvis;


• garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontroli, rac moicavs garemosdacviTikanonmdeblobis Sesrulebis monitorings da misi dacvis kontrols, maTSoris, garemosdacviTi nebarTvebisa da licenziebis pirobebisSesrulebisa da bunebaTsargeblobis wesebis dacvis kontrols, amsferoSi samarTaldarRvevaTa gamovlenas, prevencias da aRkveTas.• biomravalferovnebisaTvis miyenebuli zianisaTvis pasuxismgeblobisa dazianis anazRaurebis sistema.saqarTveloSi licenzirebas eqvemdebareba TevzWera, xe-tyis Wra, samonadireomeurneobebis Seqmna, zogierTi saxeobis aramerqnuli resursis mopoveba.nadiroba daiSveba mxolod samonadireo meurneobebSi, garda gadamfrenifrinvelebisa. saqarTveloSi gansazRvrulia nadirobisa da TevzWerisaTvisdaSvebuli saxeobebi, vadebi, adgilebi da iaraRebi.2. arsebuli mdgomareoba2.1 saxeobebisaqarTvelos flora erT-erTi umdidresia zomieri klimatis qveynebs Soris.saqarTvelos floris SemadgenlobaSi aRricxulia 4130 WurWlovani mcenare,xavsebis 812 saxeoba, liqenebis 800-ze meti da sokoebis 7000-mde saxeoba.saqarTvelos Sida wlebSi aRwerilia wyalmcenareTa 2605 taqsoni (Tumca esmonacemi srulad ar asaxavs saqarTvelos wyalmcenareebis, liqenebisa dasokoebis mravalferovnebas).saqarTvelos floris simdidris maCvenelia endemizmis maRali done.saqarTvelos floris daaxloebiT 21% - 900-mde saxeoba endemuria. maT Soris600-mde saxeoba (mTeli saxeobebis 14,2%) kavkasiis endemia; 300 saxeobamde(mTeli saxeobebis 9,0%) – uSualod saqarTvelos endemia. saqarTvelosa dakavkasiis floris SemadgenlobaSi 16 endemuri gvaria: Alboviodoxa, Woronowia,Chymsydia, Trigonocaryum, Symphyoloma, Pseudobetckea, Charesia, Mandenovai, Sredinskaya,Grossheimia, Cladocheta, Pseudovesicaria, Gadellia, Agasyllis, Paederotella, da Kemulariella.saqarTvelos floris 2000-mde saxeobas gaaCnia pirdapiri ekonomikuriRirebuleba, gamoiyeneba ra merqnad, saTbobad, sakvebad (xili, Txili),safuraJed da cxovelTa sakvebad, samkurnalod, saRebrebad da eTer-zeTebismisaRebad. saqarTvelo aris kulturul mcenareTa warmoSobis dasavleT aziiscentris nawili, romelic miCneulia qeris, xorblis, parkosnebis, vazisa daxilis mravali jiSis warmoSobis centrad. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuliakulturuli jiSebis (gansakuTrebiT xorblebis, parkosnebisa da vazis) mravaliadgilobrivi jiSi, variacia da veluri naTesavi.saqarTveloSi aRwerilia faunis 16 054 saxeoba, maTgan 758 saxeoba miekuTvnebaqordianebs. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli ZuZumwovrebis 19 (maT SorisdasavleTkavkasiuri da aRmosavleTkavkasiuri jixvebi, kavkasiuri Tagvana,qluxoris Tagvana, yazbegis Tagvana da sxvebi) frinvelebis – 3 (kavkasiuriroWo, kavkasiuri SurTxi, kavkasiuri yarana) reptiliebis - 15 da amfibiebis - 3saxeoba aris kavkasiis endemi. saqarTvelos endemia mxolod 1 xerxemlianisaxeoba - aWaruli xvliki (Darevskia mixta). uxerxemloTa Soris yvelaze didimravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva mwerebis (Insecta) klasi (gamovlenilia 11 471saxeoba).saqarTvelos `wiTel nusxaSi~ Setanilia xerxemlian cxovelTa 91 da merqnianmcenareTa 56 saxeoba. savaraudod 2010 wlis bolosTvis dasruldeba


aramerqnuli mcenareebis saxeobaTa statusebis Sefaseba IUCN-is kriteriumebisada kategoriebis mixedviT, ris safuZvelzec moxdeba maTi Setana saqarTvelos`wiTel nusxaSi~. saqarTvelos xerxemlianTa faunis 44 saxeoba safrTxeSiaglobaluri masStabiTac da Setanilia IUCN-is wiTel nusxaSi, rogorcmowyvladi (VU) an ufro maRali kategoriis mqone taqsoni.saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli saxeobebis, maT Soris safrTxis winaSe myofisaxeobebis raodenoba taqsonomiuri jgufebis mixedviT warmodgenilia pirvelcxrilSi.cxrili 1. mcenareTa da cxovelTa saxeobebisa da safrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobebisraodenobebi taqsonomiuri jgufebis mixedviTtaqsonomiurijgufisaxeobaTaraodenobamcenareebiwyalmcenareebi 2605sokoebi 7000liqenebi 800xavsebi 812WurWlovanimcenareebiIUCN-iswiTelnusxaSi VUda ufromaRalikategoriiTSetanilisaxeobebisraodenobasaqarTvelos `wiTel nusxaSi~Setanili saxeobebis raodenoba(IUCN-is kategoriebis mixedviT)RE CR EN VU4130 - 2 18 36cxovelebiuxerxemloebi 15 761 6 2 8 32Tevzebi 188 10 - 1 6 7amfibiebi 13 1 - - 1 1reptiliebi 54 11 - 1 2 8frinvelebi 390 14 2 9 24ZuZumwovrebi 111 8 4 5 6 182.2 ekosistemebi da habitatebireliefis sirTule da arsebiTad gansxvavebuli klimaturi pirobebiganapirobeben saqarTvelos landSaftebisa da ekosistemebis mravalferovnebas.saqarTvelos ZiriTadi biomebia: tyeebi, mtknari wylebi da Waobebi, zRva dasanapiro, maRali mTebi, naxevradudabnoebi da stepebi. tyiT dafaruliasaqarTvelos teritoriis 39,9%. endemuri da reliqturi saxeobebiT mdidarifoTlovani da wiwvovani tyeebi qveynis namdvili simdidrea.saxeobebis mravalferovnebiTa da endemizmis maRali doniT gansakuTrebiTgamorCeulia kolxeTis refugiumi, dasavleT kavkasionis kirqvianebisa damaRalmTis mcenareuli kompleqsebi.saqarTveloSi habitatebis amJamad arsebuli klasificireba ar TanxvdebaevropaSi miRebul sistemas da ar aris unificirebuli erovnul doneze, racaris erT-erTi xelisSemSleli mizezi habitatebis mdgomareobis Sesaxebinformaciis xelmisawvdomobisaTvis da maTi konservaciis uzrunvelyofisaTvis.garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro GTZ-Tan TanamSromlobiTamJamad amzadebs saqarTvelos habitatebis aRweras natura 2000-is ganmartebiTsaxelmZRvanelos mixedviT (Habitat classification of Georgia according to Natura 2000Interpretation Manual for the EU).


tyis ekosistemebityis ekosistemebs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvT saqarTveloSibiomravalferovnebis konservaciisaTvis. tyiT dafarulia qveynis teritoriis39,9%. saqarTvelos tyeebis 97% bunebrivia. maTi didi nawili (98%) mTis tyeebswarmoadgens da gaaCnia wyalmaregulirebeli, niadagis damcveli, klimatismastabilizebeli funqciebi, amasTanave warmoadgens mniSvnelovanadgilsamyofels mcenareTa da cxovelTa mravali reliqturi, endemuri dasafrTxis winaSe myofi saxeobisaTvis. saqarTveloSi jer kidev SemorCeniliaTiTqmis xeluxlebeli tyis koromebi, romlebsac gaaCniaT udidesikonservaciuli Rirebuleba.tyis ZiriTadad gavrcelebuli tipebia _ foTlovani, wiwvovani,subalpuri meCxeri da tanbrecili, ariduli meCxeri da Walis tyeebi. foTlovantyeebs ukavia tyiT dafaruli farTobebis 81%, xolo wiwvovan tyeebsSesabamisad, - 19%. saxeobebis mixedviT tyis fondi Semdegnairadaawarmodgenili: wiflnarebi (46,6%). muxnarebi (10,6%), rcxilnarebi (8,8%),soWnarebi (7%), murynarebi (5,5%), naZvnarebi (4,5%), fiWvnarebi (4%), wablnarebi(3,2)%).tyeebis saxeobrivi Semadgenlobis gamosaxva diagramis saxiTamJamad daculi teritoriebis farglebSi moqceulia tyiT dafarulifarTobebis daaxloebiT 10%. xolo daculi teritoriebis gareT darCenilWalis tyeebsa da tyis subalpur zolSi moqmedebs dacvis gansakuTrebulireJimi.tyis ekosistemebisaTvis ZiriTadi safrTxeebia aramdgradityiTsargebloba, tyis mavneblebis gavrceleba da xanZrebi. jerjerobiT ar arisCatarebuli tyeebis inventarizacia an gamokvleva sateliuri imijebisa da GISteqnologiebis gamoyenebiT, romelic mogvcemda erovnul doneze tyeebismdgomareobis cvlilebis zust suraTs.mtknari wylis ekosistemebimtknari wylis ekosistemebi moicaven tbebs, mdinareebs, Waobebs, xelovnurwyalsacavebs da warmoadgenen saqarTvelos landSaftebis tipiur komponents.kolxeTis dablobze, Savi zRvis piras mdebare daWaobebuli murynarityeebi da unikaluri torfiani Waobebi, paliastomis tbasTan erTad Setaniliaramsaris konvenciis saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis Warbteniani teritoriebisnusxaSi. am ekosistemebis dacvasa da SenarCunebas uzrunvelyofs kolxeTiserovnuli parki, agreTve qobuleTis nakrZali da aRkveTili, romelic moicavszRvispira torfnarebs. aRniSnuli torfiani Waobebi gansakuTrebiTgamoirCevian unikaluri floristuli SemadgenlobiT, endemuri da reliqturisaxeobebis simravliT. kolxeTis dablobis Warbteniani ekosistemebiumniSvnelovanesi habitatebia gadamfreni frinvelebisaTvis. aqregistrirebulia frinvelTa 300-mde saxeoba, maT Soris saqarTvelos `wiTelnusxaSi~ Setanili, agreTve, globalur doneze mowyvladi saxeobebi (qoCoravarxvi, TeTri yaryati, Savi yaryati, TeTrTava ixvi, beqobis arwivi, gavazi,mcire kirkita da sxvebi). gazafxuli-Semodgomis migraciis dros 27 saxeobismtacebeli frinvelis asobiT individi gaivlis q. baTumis siaxlovesarsebul mtacebel frinvelTa samigracio gzis e.w.“boTlis yelSi”.samxreT saqarTveloSi, javaxeTis platoze mdebare tbebi (xanCali,madatafa, buRdaSeni) aseve warmoadgenen umniSvnelovanes habitatebs gadamfrenifrinvelebisaTvis.saqarTvelos mtknar wylebSi gavrcelebulia Tevzebis 80-ze meti saxeoba.1991 wlidan dRemde TiTqmis ar Catarebula kvlevebi saqarTvelos Sidawyalsatevebis iqtiofaunis, maT Soris endemuri formebis mdgomareobisSefasebisaTvis (garda zuTxisebrTa da Savi zRvis oragulisa). Sesabamisad araris gansazRvruli maTi umravlesobis konservaciuli statusi.


saqarTveloSi ar Catarebula mtknari wylis ekosistemebis inventarizaciada ekologiuri mdgomareobis Sefaseba. mtknari wylis ekosistemebis nawilimodificirebulia wylis donis regulaciisa da drenaJis Sedegad. wylisdabinZureba, aralegaluri TevzWera, hidroteqnikuri nagebobebi da Tevzisinvaziuri saxeobebis gavrceleba warmoadgenen ZiriTad safrTxeebs mtknariwylebis iqtiofaunisaTvis. gadamfreni frinvelebisaTvis mniSvnelovanisafrTxea wylis ekosistemebis modificireba da brakonieroba.maRali mTis ekosistemebimaRalmTad pirobiTad miRebulia absoluturi simaRleebi 1800 m-s z.dda zeviT. maRalmTaSi erTiandeba subalpuri, alpuri, subnivaluri danivaluri ekosistemebi. maRali mTis ZiriTadi habitatebia buCqnarebi,subalpuri maRalbalaxeuloba da farTofoTlovani mdeloebi, alpurimdeloebi, alpuri xalebi, kldisa da naSalebis mcenareuloba. maRalmTismcenareuloba metad mravalferovania, rac ganpirobebulia, pirvel rigSi,kavkasiis mTebis evropisa da aziis Sesayarze mdebareobiT, klimatiskontrastulobiT, reliefis Zlieri danawevrebiT da sxva faqtorebiT.alpuri mdeloebi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba saZovrebad. intensiuri Zovebisgamo gauaresebulia mcenareuli safaris mdgomareoba da Secvliliasaxeobrivi Semadgenloba, rac iwvevs alpuri mdeloebis produqtiulobisSemcirebas. niadagis zeda fena ziandeba eroziuli procesebis, mewyerebisa dazvavebis gamo. erT-erT safrTxed ganixileba, agreTve, samkurnalomiznebisTvis mcenareebis intensiuri Segroveba.maRali mTis ekosistemebi warmodgenilia TuSeTis, lagodexis,yazbegis, borjom-xaragaulis dacul teritoriebSi.ariduli da semiariduli ekosistemebiariduli da semiariduli ekosistemebi ZiriTadad gvxvdeba saqarTvelossamxreT-aRmosavleT nawilSi, saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanismomijnave teritoriebze. aq warmodgenilia udabnosa da naxevrad udabnostipis mcenareuloba, stepi, ariduli meCxeri anu naTeli tye, Sibliaki,friganoiduli mcenareuloba, kldeTa qserofitebi, halofitebis dajgufebebi,ivris Walis tugaiseburi tye.stepebi ZiriTadad zamTris saZovrebad gamoiyeneba. amJamad pirutyviTsaZovrebis gadatvirTvasa da Zovebis xangrZlivobis vadebis ugulebelyofisgamo, bevrgan stepis fitocenozuri struqtura Zlier darRveulia, rac iwvevsbalaxnaris saxeobrivi gaRaribeba. ariduli meCxeri tyeebi, romlebic warsulSifarTod iyo gavrcelebuli, amJamad pirvandeli saxiT SemorCenilia mxolodvaSlovanis saxelmwifo nakrZalSi. md. ioris Camonadenis daregulirebisa datyis Wris gamo mniSvnelovnadaa Semcirebuli ivris unikaluri, tugais tipisWalis tyis farTobic.biomravalferovnebiT gamorCeuli da saqarTvelosTvis iSviaTi aridulida semiariduli ekosistemebis konservaciis mizniT 2003 wels daarsdavaSlovanis erovnuli parki (24 610 ha) da gafarTovda vaSlovanis nakrZali(10 143 ha).Savi zRvaSav zRvaSi mobinadre Tevzebis 184 saxeobidan saqarTvelos wylebSiregistrirebulia 110 saxeoba. Sav zRvaSi gvxvdeba delfinebis 3 saxeoba(Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Phocoena phocoena). maTgan zRvis Rori (Phocoenaphocoena) da afalina (Tursiops truncatus) Setanilia saqarTvelos wiTel nusxaSi,zRvis Rori aris globalurad mowyvladi saxeoba da Setanilia IUCN-is wiTelnusxaSi. samive maTgani daculia bonis konvenciiT cxovelTa migrirebadisaxeobebis Sesaxeb. Savi zRvis sanapiro wylebi da mdinareTa SesarTavebi,gansakuTrebiT md. rionis SesarTavi aris zuTxisebrTa mniSvnelovani habitati.


aq gvxvdeba zuTxebis 6 saxeoba (foronji, foreji, taraRana, rusuli zuTxi,kolxuri zuTxi, sparsuli zuTxi, svia) yvela maTgani Setanilia saqarTvelos`wiTel nusxaSi~. maT Soris foronji (Acipense sturio) aris globaluradgadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe da Setanilia IUCN-is wiTel nusxaSi.Savi zRvis saqarTvelos akvatoriis yvelaze faseuli bunebrivihabitatebi Sedis kolxeTis erovnuli parkis farglebSi da imyofebagansakuTrebuli dacvis reJimis qveS. kolxeTis erovnuli parki moicavs 15 742ha sazRvao akvatorias (mkacri da marTvadi dacvis zonebi), romelic arisdelfinebisa da zuTxisebrTa mniSvnelovani habitati.2.3 daculi teritoriebi2009 wlisaTvis saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebis sistema Sedgeba Semdegidaculi teritoriebisagan:erovnulikategoriaSesabamisoba raodenoba farTobi SefardebaIUCN-isqveynis mTliankategoriebTanteritoriasTanI 14 141 534,11 ha 2 %saxelmwifonakrZalierovnuli parki II 8 258 437,1 ha 3,7%bunebis Zegli III 14 314,8 haaRkveTili IV 12 61 158 ha 0,88%daculiV 2 34 510 ha 0,5%landSaftisul 495 954,01 ha 7,11 %2005 wlis Semdgom saqarTveloSi daarsda Semdegi axali daculi teritoriebi:- mtiralas erovnuli parki _ 15 806 ha;- Tbilisis erovnuli parki _ 22 425 ha, romlis SemadgenlobaSic Sevidasaguramos saxelmwifo nakrZali (5359ha);- imereTis mRvimeebis daculi teritoriebi - romlis SemadgelobaSia 11 bunebisZegli, maTgan 9 karstuli mRvime (jerjerobiT dauzustebeli farTobebiT).gafarTovda Semdegi daculi teritoriebi:- babaneuris nakrZali – 92,1 ha-iT;- iltos aRkveTili _ 1698 ha-iT;- kolxeTis erovnuli parki – 1034,4 ha-iT.2007 wels daculi teritoriebis statusis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kanonis miRebiTkategoria Seecvala zogierT manamde arsebul dacul teritorias, ganisazRvraqcia-tabawyuris, neZvisa da TeTrobis aRkveTilebis farTobebi, ajameTisnakrZalis safuZvelze Seiqmna ajameTis aRkveTili, romlis farTobi gaizarda269 ha-iT.saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebis sia warmodgenilia cxrilSi ????.cxrili ??. saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebi 2010 wlis mdgomareobiT# daculi teritoria farTobi (ha) 1 daarsebis welinakrZalebi1 lagodexi 22 295 19122 TuSeTi 10 858,2 19803 babaneuri 862.1 19604 bawara 2 985.96 19351 farTobebi miTiTebulia kanonebis mixedviT;


5 vaSlovani 10 143 19356 liaxvi 2 6 388 19777 mariamjvari 1 040 19358 saTaflia 354 19359 borjomi 14 820.6 192910 biWvinTa-miusera 3 3 645 1966biWvinTa 165 1926liZava 1 296 1960miusera 2 184 194611 riwa 4 16 289 194612 fsxu-gumisTa 5 40 819 1978fsxu 27 334 1978gumisTa 13 400 1978skurCa 85 194613 kintriSi 10 703 195914 qobuleTi 331.25 1998sul 141 534,11erovnuli parkebi1 borjom-xaragauli 61 234.84 19952 kolxeTi 45 447.4 6 19983 TuSeTi 71 482 20034 vaSlovani 24 610.06 20035 mtirala 15 806 20066 Tbilisi 24 327.8 19467 algeTi 7 6 822 19658 yazbegi 8 8 707 1976sul 258 437,1bunebis Zeglebi 91 alaznis Wala 204.4 20032 taxti-Tefa 9.7 20033 arwivis xeoba 100.7 20034 yumisTavis mRvime 20075 TeTri mRvime 20076 xomulis mRvime 20077 cucxvaTis mRvime 20078 navenaxevis mRvime 20079 nagarevis mRvime 200710 iazonis mRvime 200711 sakaJiis mRvime 200712 wyalwiTelas xeoba 200713 okaces kanioni 20072 2008 wlis agvistos Semdeg teritoria ar aris daculi teritoriebis saagentos realurmflobelobaSi, mdebareobs de-iure saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis mflobelobaSi myof teritoriaze,sadac de-faqto saxelmwifo kontroli ver xorcieldeba.3 teritoria ar aris daculi teritoriebis saagentos realur mflobelobaSi, mdebareobs deiuresaqarTvelos iurisdiqciis mflobelobaSi myof teritoriaze, sadac de-faqto saxelmwifokontroli ver xorcieldeba. nakrZali Sedgeba sami gancalkevebuli damoukidebeli ubnisagan,romlebic sxvadasxva dros Camoyalibda.4 teritoria ar aris daculi teritoriebis saagentos realur mflobelobaSi, mdebareobs dejuresaqarTvelos iurisdiqciis mflobelobaSi myof teritoriaze, sadac de-faqto saxelmwifokontroli ver xorcieldeba.5 teritoria ar aris daculi teritoriebis saagentos realur mflobelobaSi, mdebareobs dejuresaqarTvelos iurisdiqciis mflobelobaSi myof teritoriaze, sadac de-faqto saxelmwifokontroli ver xorcieldeba. nakrZali Sedgeba sami gancalkevebuli damoukidebeli ubnisagan,romlebic sxvadasxva dros Camoyalibda.6 maT Soris: xmeleTi 29 704.4, zRvis akvatoria 15 743.7 algeTis erovnuli parki Seiqmna (2007 w) yofili algeTis nakrZalis adgilas.8 yazbegis erovnuli parki Seiqmna (2007 w) yazbegis nakrZalis adgilas.9 bunebis Zeglebis farTobebi (garda aRniSnuli samisa) dasadgenia.


14 okaces CanCqeri 2007sul 314,8aRkveTilebi1 gardabani 3 484 19572 yoruRi 2 068 19653 iori 1 336 19654 WaWuna 5 200 19655 kacoburi 295 19646 qcia-tabawyuri 22 000 10 19957 neZvi 8 992 19958 TeTrobi 3 100 11 19959 qobuleTi 438.75 199810 ilto 6 971 200311 lagodexi 2 156 200312 ajameTi 12 5 117 1946sul 61 158daculi landSaftebi1 TuSeTis daculi landSafti 31 320 20032 kintriSis daculi landSafti 3 190 2007sul 34 510mravalmxrivi gamoyenebisteritoriebi 13axmeta 2003lagodexi 2003vaSlovani 2003kolxeTi 1999qobuleTi 1999dagegmvisa da Seqmnis procesSia ramdenime axali daculi teritoria. maT Soris:javaxeTis zeganze, fSav-xevsureTSi da maWaxelas xeobaSi. dagegmilia yazbegisada algeTis erovnuli parkebis, mariamjvaris nakrZalisa da qcia-tabawyurisaRkveTilis gafarToeba.mimdinareobs bunebis Zeglebis konservaciis xelSemwyobi proeqti, romlisfarglebSi dagegmilia 40-mde obieqtis Sefaseba maTTvis bunebis Zeglisstatusis miniWebisaTvis, Sesabamisi monacemTa bazis Seqmna, bunebis ZeglebisSerCevis kriteriumebis dadgena da samarTlebrivi garemos gaumjobeseba bunebisZeglebis efeqturi marTvisaTvis.2005-2009 wlebSi daculi teritoriebis sistemis ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebiTmiRweuli mniSvnelovani Sedegebia:• saqarTveloSi axali daculi teritoriebis Seqmnisa da arsebulebisgafarToebis Sedegad daculi teritoriebis (IUCN-is kategoriebi I-V)farTobi gaizarda 64 889,01 ha–iT da arsebobs daculi teritoriebisfarTobis Semdgomi zrdis mkafio tendecia;.• sistemur doneze daculi teritoriebis marTvis gaumjobeseba daoptimizacia mimdinare instituciuri reformis Sedegad.• mniSvnelovnad gaizarda daculi teritoriebis saxelmwifo dafinanseba.mimdinareobs muSaoba daculi teritoriebis finansuri mdgradobis10 teritoria ar aris daculi teritoriebis saagentos realur mflobelobaSi.11 teritoria ar aris daculi teritoriebis saagentos realur mflobelobaSi.12 ajameTis aRkveTili Seiqmna (2007 w) yofili ajameTis nakrZalis teritoriaze.13 ar momxdara am daculi teritoriebis identifikacia da farTobebis gansazRvra


uzrunvelsayofad. moziduli iqna axali finansuri resursebi daculiteritoriebis sistemis Semdgomi ganviTarebisTvis;• arsebuli erovnuli parkebis menejmentis gaumjobeseba, rasac xelsuwyobs Sesabamisi aRWurva, turistuli da administraciuliinfrastruqturis ganviTareba, administraciis TanamSromelTatreningebi.• sazogadoebasTan urTierTobisa da saganmanaTleblo saqmianobisgaumjobeseba.amJamad menejmentis gegmebi gaaCnia mxolod bawarasa da babaneuris nakrZalebs,kolxeTis erovnul parks, qobuleTis nakrZalsa da aRkveTils. anu arsebuli 14nakrZalidan – sams, arsebuli 8 erovnuli parkidan – erTs da arsebuli 12aRkveTilidan – erTs. sxva daculi teritoriebi imarTeba droebiTiregulirebis wesebis mixedviT (damtkicebulia garemos dacvisa da bunebriviresursebis ministris brZanebiT 2008 wels) da yovelwliuri marTvis gegmebissaSualebiT.2.4. biomravalferovnebis dacvis erovnuli gegmasaqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis dacvis strategia da moqmedebaTa gegmadamtkicda saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2005 wlis 19 Tebervlis #27 dadgenilebiT.NBSAP-iT ganisazRvra qveynis biomravalferovnebis dacvisa da gonivruligamoyenebis strategia 10 wlisaTvis da konkretuli qmedebebi xuTwlianiperiodisaTvis. Semdgomi 5 wlisaTvis ganzraxulia moqmedebaTa axali gegmisSemuSaveba konkretuli situaciisa da am droisaTvis miRweuli SedegebisgaTvaliswinebiT.saqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis dacvis strategiasa da samoqmedo gegmaSiqveynisBbiomravalferovnebis mdgomareobis, problemebisa da masze moqmedisafrTxeebis gaTvaliswinebiT gamoyofili iqna Semdegi aTi ZiriTadi sakiTxi:daculi teritoriebi; saxeobebi da habitatebi; agrobiomravalferovneba;nadiroba da meTevzeoba; biomravalferovnebis monitoringi; biousafrTxoeba;garemosdacviTi ganaTleba, sazogadoebrivi cnobiereba da sazogadoebismonawileoba; finansur-ekonomikuri programa; mdgradi satyeo meurneoba;sakanonmdeblo aspeqtebi. NBSAP-iT gansazRvrulia 140 qmedeba dasaxulimiznebis misaRwevad. NBSAP-is ganxorcielebaSi samTavrobo struqturebis gardamonawileobas iReben arasamTavrobo organizaciebi da samecniero-kvleviTidawesebulebebi. gegmiT gaTvaliswinebul RonisZiebaTa Sesrulebaskoordinacias uwevs garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministro.NBSAP_is ganxorcielebaSi ZiriTadi miRwevebia:o daculi teritoriebis sistemis Semdgomi ganviTareba;o saqarTvelos `wiTeli nusxis~ Sedgena IUCN-is kriteriumebis dakategoriebis mixedviT ganxorcielebuli Sefasebebis safuZvelze;o safrTxis winaSe myofi zogierTi saxeobebisa da saxeobaTa jgufebisTviskonservaciis menejmentis gegmebis momzadeba da qmedebebisganxorcielebis dawyeba;o biomravalferovnebis monitoringis erovnuli sistemis Camoyalibebisdawyeba;o saqarTvelos floris endemuri, gadaSenebis piras myofi saxeobebisa dakulturuli jiSebis ex-situ da on-farm konservacia;o biologiuri resursebis mdgradi marTvisaTvis samarTlebrivi dainstituciuri garemos gaumjobeseba.


o saqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis resurs-centris Seqmna(www.chm.moe.gov.ge)3. ZiriTadi gamowvevebibiomravalferovnebis kargvis ZiriTadi gamomwvevi mizezebia habitatebisganadgureba da resursebis Warbi mopoveba, ris gamoc gamo mcenareTa dacxovelTa mravali saxeoba saqarTveloSi gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSeaRmoCnda. msxvili ZuZumwovrebis populaciebi, dReisaTvis, imdenad savalalomdgomareobaSi arian, rom maTi statusis gaumjobeseba mxolod specifikurikonservaciuli qmedebebiT iqneba SesaZlebeli. maTgan gansakuTrebiTprioritetulia keTilSobili iremi, niamori, qurciki da mura daTvi. gasulsaukuneSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze sruliad gadaSenda qurciki da niamorissamxreTi (TrialeTis qedis) populacia, erTeuli individebis saxiT SemorCajiqi, zoliani afTari, mkveTrad Semcirda keTilSobili irmis ricxovneba(SemorCenilia mxolod sami mcirericxovani populacia dacul teritoriebSi).gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis Semdgom aRniSneba aRmosavleTkavkasiuri jixvis(Capra cylindricornis) ricxovnebis Semcireba 20%-iT, xolo dasavleTkavkasiurijixvisa (Capra caucasica) 50%-iT, ZiriTaTad brakonierobis gamo. Savi zRvissaqarTvelos akvatoriaSi gasuli saukunis dasawyisidan dRemde zuTxisebrTaricxovneba minimum 37-jeraa Semcirebuli, satofe mdinareebzehidroeqleqtrosadgurebis mSeneblobisa da qviSa-xreSis mopovebis, agreTvewylis dabinZurebis gamo.faunis saxeobebTan dakavSirebul problemebis sailustraciod qvemoT cxrilSimoyvanilia cvlileba gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe myofi xerxemlianisaxeobebis jamuri raodenobebSi 80-iani wlebidan 2006 wlamde.taqsoni/weli 1982 2006mtknari wylis Tevzebi 1 7amfibiebi 4 2reptiliebi 6 11frinvelebi 33 37ZuZumwovrebi 21 35sul 65 92mimdinareobs RonisZiebebi qurcikis populaciis aRsadgenad vaSlovaniserovnul parkSi da niamoris populaciis aRsadgenad borjom-xaraguliserovnul parkSi. momzadebulia konservaciis menejmentis gegmebi Semdegisaxeobebisa da saxeobaTa jgufebisaTvis: jixvi, jiqi, xelfrTianebi, mura daTvi,kavkasiuri roWo, wyalmcuravi da menapire frinvelebi, beqobis arwivi, mcirekirkita zuTxisebrTa ojaxi. magram, saWiro finansuri resursebis ararsebobisgamo dawyebulia konservaciis menejmentis gegmebiT gaTvaliswinebuli mxolodramdenime RonisZiebis ganxorcieleba.saqarTveloSi, iseve, rogorc evropis mraval qveyanaSi ekonomikurma aqtivobebmagansakuTrebuli ziani miayena Walis tyeebs, romelic aris saqarTveloslandSafturi mravalferovnebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani komponenti,biologiuri koridori da cxovelTa mravali saxeobis TavSesafari. dReisaTvisWalis tyeebis mxolod calkeuli fragmentebia SemorCenili. miuxedavad imisa,rom tardeba garkveuli qmedebebi Wiaurisa da ivris Walebis aRdgenisaTvis,aucilebelia alaznisa da ivris Walebis tyeebis aRdgenis kompleqsuriRonisZiebebis dasaxva da ganxorcieleba.


mniSvnelovan ganaxlebas saWiroebs saqarTvelos biomravalferovnebis dacvisstrategia da samoqmedo gegma. dokumentis damtkicebidan (2005 weli) dRemdeqveyanaSi radikalurad Seicvala situacia rogorc politikuri, ise socioekonomikuriTvalsazrisiT, ramac cxadia dokumentis relevanturobasa daefeqturobaze garkveuli zegavlena moaxdina. am periodSi gaCnda axaligamowvevebi da sruliad axali SesaZleblobebi, rac srulad unda iyosgaTvaliswinebuli ganaxlebuli dokumentis Camoyalibebisas.monacemTa Segrovebis, Senaxvisa da analizis Tanamedrove da efeqturimeqanizmebis ararsebobis gamo garTulebulia saxeobaTa da habitatebismdgomareobaSi cvlilebebis efeqturi gansazRvra, agreTve,biomravalferovnebisaTvis arsebuli safrTxeebis zegavlenis masStabebisSefaseba, rac Tavis mxriv mniSvnelovnad arTulebs biomravalferovnebisrealuri mdgomareobisa da tendeciebis Sefasebas. Sesabamisad ar arsebobssakmarisi informacia da mkafio safuZveli biomravalferovnebis konservaciissferoSi efeqturi da fokusirebuli gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad.saqarTveloSi amJamad mimdinareobs biomravalferovnebis monitoringiserovnuli sistemis Camoyalibebis procesi (www.biomonitoring.moe.gov.ge), raSicgaremos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mxardaWeras uwevsgermaniis teqnikuri TanamSromlobis sazogadoeba (GTZ). axlaxan dasruldabiomravalferovnebis monitoringis erovnuli indikatorebis SerCeva. amJamadmimdinareobs calkeuli indikatorebis mixedviT monacemTa Segrovebisa daanalizis meTodebis SemuSaveba.miuxedavad imisa, rom bolo droindeli tendenciebi miuTiTeben xe-tyisresursebis ukanono mopovebis Semcirebaze, merqnisa da saTbobi SeSis damzadebamainc rCeba erT-erT safrTxed biomravalferovnebisaTvis. saSeSe merqani jerkidev aris zogierTi soflisa da patara qalaqis energiis umTavresi wyaro.jer kidev dabalia sazogadoebis informirebulobisa da cnobierebis donebiomravalferovnebis pirdapir Tu arapirdapir Rirebulebebze da Sesabamisadmisi dacvisa da SenarCunebis mniSvnelobaze.2009 wels saqarTvelos mier ratificirebuli iqna biousafrTxoebis kartaxenasoqmi. amJamad, dainteresebuli mxareebis monawileobiT mimdinareobs SesabamisisamarTlebrivi normebisa da administraciuli procedurebis SemuSavebagenmodificirebuli organizmebis transasazRvrp gdaadgilebisa da maTigamoyenebis kontrolis uzrunvelsayofad. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom qveynisSesaZleblobebi gmo-sTan dakavSirebuli riskebis marTvaSi Zalian SezRudulia.klimatis cvlilebis konvenciisadmi meore erovnuli Setyobinebis momzadebisprocesSi ganxorcielebulma Sefasebebma aCvena, rom saqarTvelos sanapirozonaSi yvelaze mowyvlad seqtors warmoadgens mdinareebis rionisa da Woroxisdeltebi, md. rionis qvemo dineba (kaSxali-samtrediis monakveTi). rogorcSefasebam aCvena zRvis donis awevas mniSvnelovani negatiuri gavlena aqvskolxeTis erovnul parkze da kerZod paliastomis tbaze. 1927-2006 wlebSitbaSi wylis temperaturam 0.7 0 C-iT moimata, ramac sxva faqtorebTan erTadgamoiwvia tbis ekosistemis mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi. miuxedavad imisa, romklimatis cvlilebis Sedegad warmoqmnil erTerT safrTxed ganixilebauaryofiTi zegavlena sarewao Tevzebis zogierT saxeobasa da mTlianadmeTevzeobis seqtorze, Sesabamisi saadaptacio RonisZiebebi jerjerobiT araris gansazRvruli.saqarTvelos aridul da semiaridul zonaSi klimatis cvlilebisuaryofiTi zegavlena vlindeba gaudabnoebis procesebis ganviTarebasa da miwis


degradaciis gaZlierebaSi. qarsafari zolebis reabilitacia miCneulia erT-erTaucileblad gasatarebel RonisZiebad, raSic saqarTvelos mniSvnelovanmxardaWeras uwevs germaniis garemos, bunebis konservaciisa da radiaciuliusafrTxoebis saministro (BMU) da germaniis teqnikuri Tanamromlobissazogadoeba (GTZ) proeqtis `degradirebuli landSaftebis klimatiscvlilebis mimarT mdgradi reabilitacia saqarTveloSi~ (``Climate TolerantRehabilitation of Degraded Landscapes, Georgia``) farglebSi.qvemo svaneTSi klimatis cvlilebisadmi saadaptacio RonisZiebebadgansazRvrulia tyeebis yvelaze dazianebuli ubnebis reabilitacia da sworimenejmenti; tyis, rogorc mewyerSemakavebeli ekosistemis funqciebis aRdgenaSesabamis ubnebSi; prevenciuli RonisZiebebis paketis momzadeba adgilobrivityeebis dasacavad mavne mwerebisagan.

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