socialuri usafrTxoebis eTnikuri aspeqtebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi

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socialuri usafrTxoebis eTnikuri aspeqtebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi

aTaSorisi urTierTobaTa problemebi, Tavisisakmaod mravalferovani speqtriT.daZabuli mdgomareobaa berZenTa (walkisraioni) kuTvnil saxlebTan dakavSirebiT. mravalicarieli saxli ukanonod iqna dakavebuli ekomigrantebismier. Seusaxlebeli Senoba-nagebobebisumravlesoba ukve ngrevis pirzea misuli daupatronobis Sedegad faqtiurad ganadgurebuliasacxovrebeli fondi. ver xerxdeba am sakiTxissamarTlebrivi mxaris mowesrigebac, ramac daZabulobagazarda. problema dRis wesrigSi didi xaniadgas, magram misi gadaWris gzebi dResac ar arisrealizebuli. es wminda socialuri sakiTxieTnikur problemad iqca.aranakleb sirTules qmnis regionSi arsebulijgufebis religiuri orientacia. regionSi gaCndaaxali seqtebi da aratradiciuli religiuriorganizaciebi, romelTaTvisac damaxasiaTebeliagamorCeulobis principi, rac ganapirobebs koleqtiuriidenturobis Camoyalibebas. es ki saSualebasaZlevs maT momavlis SiSebi daTrgunon, xdebasocialuri uZlurebis kompensireba. maTi miznebizogjer upirispirdeba saxelmwifos interesebs.miuxedavad imisa, rom saerTaSoriso samarTliTaRiarebulia religiuri aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba,sazogadoebis SigniT Cndeba daZabulobiskerebi, romlebic saxelmwifos sayrden RirebulebaTasistemebs uqmnis safrTxes.religiurma aqtiurobam zog regionSi daZabulobagamoiwvia sakulto ZeglebTan dakavSirebiT,rac qristianuli da muslimuri mrwamsis urTierTdapirispirebaSigadaizarda.regionSi Tavs iCens polieTnikuri sazogadoebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli mTeli rigi problemebi _regionis dacarieleba, stagnacia, gaucxoeba, soflismeurneobisa da infrastruqturis moSla, migracia,enobrivi barieri, sainformacio vakuumi, yofiTi,socialuri da ekonomikuri pirobebi, ganaTleba,nacionalizmi, Sovinizmi, kulturis krizisi, cxovrebisdabali done da saxelmwifosagan naklebi yuradReba.aRniSnuli maxasiaTeblebi rTul garemosqmnis saxelmwifoSi mimdinare reformebis warmatebiTganxorcielebisaTvis.proeqtis amocana gulisxmobda proeqtSidasaxuli saboloo miznis misaRwevad, mTeli rigisakiTxebis kvlevas, risTvisac pirvel rigSiaucilebeli iyo Segveswavla:1. eTnikuri Semadgenloba, Sida da gare migraciebi,maTi gamomwvevi mizezebi;2. eTnikur jgufTa materialuri da sulierikultura, socialuri yofa, meurneobis tradiciuliformebi, samiwaTmoqmedo procesebi, dasaxlebistipebi, miwaTsargeblobis wesi da sxva sameurneokontaqtebi, romlebic ganapirobeben dasaxlebaTasicocxlisunarobas;3. intereTnikuri kontaqtebi, kulturuli gansxvavebebi,spontanuri da organizebuli winaaRmdegobebi,Rirebulebebi, komunikacia da urTierTmoqmedebissaerTo veli, qcevis wesebi, stereotipebi,romlebic warmarTaven intereTnikur socialurdapirispirebebs;4. ekologiuri perspeqtivebi: eTnikuri jgufebisda ekomigrantebis (aWarlebi, svanebi) adaptacia,resursebis xelSi CagdebisTvis konkurencia. eTnoekologiuriazrovnebis gamovlena;5. erovnuli umciresobis eTnofsiqologiurispecifika, eTnikuri daZabulobis fsiqologiuriwanamZRvrebi;12 13


6. orientacia saxelmwifos mimarT, polieTnikursazogadoebaSi realurad dominirebulijgufis gamovlenisa da misi rolis gansazRvrisaTvis.aRniSnuli sakiTxebis SeswavliT SesaZlebeligaxdeba proeqtis Semdgomi amocanebis ganxorcieleba,rac gulisxmobs:1. polieTnikur regionSi mcxovreb eTnikurjgufTa urTierTdamokidebulebis specifikis Seswavlas.gansxvavebuli eTnikuri da konfensiuri jgufebisurTierTobis tradiciuli formebis, yofisada kulturis rolis dadgenas am jgufebs SorismSvidobiani urTierTobis SenarCunebis saqmeSi;2. eTnikur jgufTa ganwyobebis, eTnikur autoda heterostereotipebis, socialuri distanciisada socialuri qcevis TaviseburebaTa gamokvlevas;3. dominanturi sazogadoebis politikur dakulturul cxovrebaSi erovnul umciresobaTaadgilis gamovlenas da intereTnikuri stabilurida dabalansebuli urTierTobebis maregulirebeliaspeqtebis Seswavlas;4. safrTxis realurad Tu potenciuradarsebobisa Tu ar arsebobis pirobebSi adamianis,jgufis, sazogadoebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelmyofilokaluri institutebis gamovlenas. es kigulisxmobs rogorc socialuri sistemis _ garemos,warmoebis, fizikuri da ekonomikuri, ise eTnokulturuliusafrTxoebis meqanizmebis Seswavlas;5. Tanamedrove eTnikur procesebTan erTadmimdinare yofisa da kulturis rigi sakiTxebisaxleburad dasmas, erovnuli umciresobis integraciisxarisxis gamokvlevas da samoqalaqo sazogadoebisCamoyalibebis SesaZlo variantebis gansazRvras.aRniSnuli sakiTxebis Seswavla drouladgamoavlens sazogadoebis realur yofiT mdgomareobas,mis msoflmxedvelobas, SesaZlo konfliqtebs,Sida da gare mtrulad ganwyobil Zalebs daam Zalebis zemoqmedebis zonebs, rac proeqtissaboloo miznis realizaciis winapirobaa.proeqtis mizania socialuri usafrTxoebiseTnikuri aspeqtebis gamovleniTa da demokratizaciisprocesSi eTnikuri umciresobis integrirebissakiTxis safuZvliani SeswavliT samoqalaqosazogadoebis CamoyalibebisaTvis xelis Sewyoba.sxvadasxva eTnikuri segmentebis daaxloebismeqanizmebis gamomuSaveba, rac Seqmnis erovnulsaxelmwifoebriviintegraciis pirobas.jgufTaSorisi loialobis, saerTo identobisada integraciis politikis SesamuSaveblad Teoriulibazis Seqmna.qarTul saxelmwifoebriv organizmSi mosaxleobisintegraciis xarisxis determinantTagamovlena.demokratiuli saxelmwifos CamoyalibebisprocesSi erovnuli umciresobebis pozitiuriintegraciis uzrunvelyofa da usafrTxoebis garantiebisZieba.kulturul faseulobaTa dauzianeblad daumtkivneulod demokratiuli struqturebisdanergva.praqtikuli mniSvneloba _ warmodgenilproeqtSi, qvemo qarTlis regionis polieTnikurisazogadoebis Seswavla, TavisTavad ukavSirdebasoflad Zireuli cvlilebebisa da readaptaciissakiTxs. mecnieruli analizi xels Seuwyobs erTismxriv saxelmwifoebrivi struqturebis amoqmedebasam regionis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayoflad dameores mxriv _ polieTnikuri sazogadoebis TviTregulaciisaTvisufro gaazrebuli da mizanmimar-Tuli xasiaTis miniWebas.14 15


usafrTxoeba _ Tavdacvis regulirebis Sidatradiciuli elementebis (saerTo dResaswaulebi,saerTo salocavebi, tradiciuli meurneobisformebis reanimacia, adaTobrivi samarTlis normebi,mezobel saxelmwifoebTan kulturuli urTier-Tobebis tradiciebi da sxv.), eTnologiuri Seswavlamogvcems yofiTi da politikuri Sedegebis TanamedroveobaSi,gamoyenebisa da daZabulobis regulirebissaSualebas, rac xels Seuwyobs qveynis ganvi-Tarebasa da, rac mTavaria, mis stabilur mdgomareobas.proeqti xels Seuwyobs kulturaTa ukonfliqtodurTierTSeRwevasa da eTnikur umciresobaTaSoris urTierTobis mSvidobian marTvas.proeqtSi monawile mecnierebs rekomendaciisada praqtikuli saqmianobis didi gamocdilebagaaCniaT. maT mier, eqstremalur pirobebSi, Catarebuliqna masStaburi samuSaoebi iseT regionebSi,rogoricaa javaxeTi da pankisis xeoba.proeqtSi monawileobdnen eTnologebi dafsiqologebi, radganac zemoT Camovlili sakiTxebiskvleva ZiriTadad am rakursSi mimdinareobda.Cveni eTnologebis mizania yovelive SeviswavloTtradiciuli kulturis prizmiT. rogorccnobilia, tradicia, maqs veberiseuli gagebiT,daiyvaneboda tradiciuli da racionaluri kategoriebisdapirispirebaze. tradicia, wesi da Cveulebaganixileboda, rogorc sazogadoebis ganviTarebisdamabrkolebeli ram. tradicia ganixileboda rogorcmodernizmis opozicia da uaryofiT rakursSi iyowarmodgenili. da marTlac, am TvalTaxedviT modernizaciisprocesi yovelTvis asustebs da gandevnistradicias. tradicia ganixileboda, rogorcmomakvdavi movlena, romelsac ar SeuZlia realuradwinaaRmdegoba gauwios Tanamedrove cxovrebis wess,an iarsebos masTan erTad. kulturis tradiciulmovlenebs afasebdnen, rogor rudiments, romelicunda gaqres modernizaciis procesSi. magram aseTidamokidebuleba Seicvala me-20 saukunis 60-ianwlebSi ara mecnieri Teoretikosebis mier, aramedmecnieri praqtikosebis (eTnografebis) mier. maTiazriT tradiciuli sazogadoebis modernizaciaZalian rTuli da mtkivneuli procesia, da iZulebiTmamodernizaciam, SeiZleba gamoiwvios damangrevelireaqcia, rac pirovnul identurobaze moaxdensgavlenas. amis Semdeg daiwyo samarTliani kritikaimisa, rom tradiciuli sazogadoeba aris statikuri,rac iyo modernizaciis Teoriis aqsioma. dRes CvenssazogadoebaSi igive xdeba. umetesi nawili araprofesionalebisamodernizaciis, an ufro Tanamedroveobismcdari gagebiT udgebian saxelmwifoSigatarebul reformebs. maTi TvalTaxedva ufrome-XX-e saukunis 60-ianelebamde Sexedulebaseyrdnoba, sadac tradicia viTomdac ewinaaRmdegebaTanamedroveobas da aqedan gamomdinare mimarTavenZalismier reformebs, tradiciuli azrovnebisa damentalitetis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, rasacfaqtiurad damangreveli Zala aqvs da ara aRmSeneblobiTi.es momenti ar unda aurioT sazogadoebismier reformebis sirTuleebis procesTan. Cineli,romelic wyevlas ugzavnis Tavis mters ambobs:“gecxovros reformebis periodSi”. es wyevlakargad gaiTavisa saqarTvelos xalxma da ai ukve20 welia am ~wyevlasTan~ erTad cxovrobs, magramverasdros ver gaiTavisebs im mcdar Sexedulebas,rom Cven odesme gavxdebiT tradicia waSlilisazogadoeba. es imitom, rom simarTle swored imaSia,rom tradicia da Tanamedroveoba aris ara sapiris-16 17


foebrivi eTikis krizisi; tolerantoba da socialuridistancia. daskvnis magier.l a v r e n t i j a n i a S v i l i, proeqtis menejeri_ jgufTaSorisi sazRvrebi da interkulturulidialogi qvemo qarTlSi: eTnopolitikuri situacia,eTnikuroba da kultura; integraciis Tu dezintegraciispersperqtiva; tradiciuli kulturistransformaciis Taviseburebani; daskvna.guldam Ciqovani _ qvemo qarTlis istoriul–geografiuli mimoxilva: mosaxleoba, toponimika,dasaxlebis struqtura, administraciuli dayofa.n a T i a j a l a b a Z e _ akulturaciis TaviseburebanipolieTnikur sazogadoebaSi: akulturaciicTeoriuli safuZvlebi; ekomigrantebi, adaptaciada konfliqti; ena, ganaTleba; qorwineba; religia;interpersonaluri urTierTobebi, kulturulikodebis gadarTva; daskvna.mayvala xarSilaZe _ qvemo qarTlismosaxleobis socialur-fsiqologiuri analizi.lia meliqiSvili, lavrenti janiaSvili,lali mRebriSv ili _ religiuri orientaciapolieTnikur sazogadoebaSi.m z i a w e r e T e l i _ interkulturuliganaTleba, rogorc polieTnikuri sazogadoebisusafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis erT-erTi meqanizmi.wignSi SexvdebiT tradiciuli kulturiselementebis, istoriuli Tu Tanamedrove faqtebis,savele masalis gameorebas. amas SecdomaSi nuCagviTvliT. es muSaobis specifikiTaa gamowveulida TiToeul avtors Tavisi naazrevis interpretaciisaTvisaqvs motanili.l i a m e l i q i S v i l iliteratura:1. konfliqturi situaciebi polieTnikursazogadoebaSi, proeqtis avtori da wignisredaqtori l. meliqiSvili, Tb., 1998.2. meliqiSvili l., tradiciuli kulturisroli axali sazogadoebis CamoyalibebaSi(konfliqti da socialuri ganwyoba javaxeTispolieTnikur sazogadoebaSi), sadoqtoro disertacia,Tb., 2001.3. S u b i T i Z e b. usafrTxoeba da eTnikurikulturis adaptaciis unari axal socialur _kulturul garemosTan, wignSi: pankisis krizisi.proeqtis avtori da wignis redaqtori l.meliqiSvili, Tb., 2002.4. Дробижева Л. М. Социально-культурная дистанциякак фактор межэтнических отношений. В книге: Идентичностьи конфликт в постсоветских государствах//под. ред. М.Б.Олкотт, В.А. Тишкова и А. Малашенко. М. 1997, с. 44-63;5. Д р о б и ж е в а Л. М. Социальная и культурная дистанции:Опыт многонациональной России // Институт этнологиии антропологии РАН; Авт. проекта и отв. ред. Л. М. ДробижеваМ.: Институт социологии, 1998.6. Д у б о в а Н. А., Лебедева Н. М., Адаптация русскихсторожилов в Азербайджане, СЭ, №5, 1989.7. Идентичность и конфликт в постсоветских государствах//под.ред. М.Б. Олкотт, В.А. Тишкова и А. Малашенко.М., 1997.8. К у з н е ц о в И.М. Адаптивность этнических культури этнокультурные типы самоопределения личности, СЭ, №1,1988.9. Ш а л а е в В. Л., Этносы как открытые и закрытыесистемы, Этнический вестник, 2(8), М., 1995.22 23


10. B a r t h F. Introduction//Ethnic groups and boundaries:the social organizations of culture Difference/Ed. by F. Barth.Universitetsforlaget, Oslo, 1969.11. C h e n L.C., Human Security: Concept and Approaches//Common Security in Asia: New Concepts of Human Security,Tokyo, 1995.12. Eriksen T.H., Ethniciti and Nationalism, London, 1993.13. Grosby S., Territoriality: the Transcendental, PrimordialFeature of Modern Societies//Nationalism, v I, pt 2., 1995.14. M a n u e r a G., Preventing armed conflict in Europelessons from recent experience, Chaillot Papers, 15/16, June, Paris,1994.15. Mear sheimer J. J., Back to the Future: Instability inEurope after the Cold War//intern security, ,,vol. 15 #1, 1990,16. R o t h s h i l d E., What is Security? 1995.17. S t a v e n h a g e n R., The Ethnic Question (Conflicts,Developmenr and Human Rights), The Unnited NationsUniversity, 1990.18. S h e n f i e l d D. Stephen, Armed Conflict in EasternEurope and the Formed Soviet Union, 1991.qvemo qarTlis istoriul –geografiuli mimoxilvaproeqti _ `socialuri usafrTxoebis eTnikuriaspeqtebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi (eTnoumciresobada samoqalaqo sazogadoeba)” sakvlev sakiTxTaaqtualobiT, mravlmxrivobiT, miznebisa da amocanebisganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebeli da zustad mignebulimuSaobis meTodebiT, siaxleebiT TanadroulobismoTxovnebs misadagebuli Sedegebis realurbazas Seqmnis. kvleva Catarda saqarTvelos erT-erTumniSvnelovanes, urTulesi istoriuli warsulismqone regionSi _ qvemo qarTlSi, romlis dRevandelobacaranaklebi problemebiTaa datvirTuli _mravaleTnikuri, mravalkonfesiuri, xSirad urTierTdapirispirebuli,ekonomikurad SeWirvebuli mosaxleobiTada rac mTavaria, dominanti eris _ qarTvelebisSedarebiTi simciriT ganpirobebuli.proeqtSi monawile mecnierTa mier adgilzegamovlenili, dafiqsirebuli, gaanalizebuli masalisgaTaviseba da gageba rigiTi mkiTxvelisTvis gaZneldeba,Tu misTvis garkveuli ar iqneba konkretuladra geografiul garemoSi da ra istoriuli movlenebiszemoqmedebis pirobebSi viTardeboda esa Tuis istoriuli an Tanamedrove faqti. amdenad, aucilebeliamokled SevexoT sakvlevi regionis _ qvemoqarTlis istoriul geografias.`. . . qarTul istoriografiaSi SemuSavebulidefiniciiT, istoriuli geografiis, rogorc samecnierodisci plinis ZiriTad Sinaarss ama Tu imsazogadoebis Sida teritoriuli struqturisa daam ukanasknelis droTa viTarebaSi evoluciis kvlevaSeadgens” (musxeliSvili, 1986: 168).sakvlevi regioni qvemo qarTli, istoriuli mxareaRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, erTi nawili qarTlisa,24 25


CrdiloeTidan, dasavleTidan da samxreTidan Semosaz-Rvruli iyo TrialeTis, javaxeTis da bambak-erevnisqedebiT; aRmosavleTidan mas garekaxeTis ferdobebida awindeli azerbaijanis mSrali stepebi emijneboda(d. berZeniSvili, 1979: 7; qse, 10, 1986). qvemo qarTlisprovincias straboni uwodebs `gogarenes”. am eTnotoponimSiZveli qarTuli tomis `gogarebis”, `gugarebis”saxelia aRbeWdili da igi bolo dromde SemorCeniliiyo sof. gogaranis saxelwodebaSi, mtkvar-araqsiswyalgamyofis ZirSi (musxeliSvili, 2001; berZeniSvili,2005: 427).`qvemo qarTli”, ufro msxvili istoriulgeografiulierTeulis _ `qarTlis” nawilia. termin`qarTlis” etimologias mecnierebi ukavSirebenqarTvelTa satomo saxels (`qarTi _ qarTu”), andasavlur metyvelebaSi SemorCenil `qarTa”-s, racaRniSnavs SemoRobil adgils; aqedanvea nawarmoebigalavani, nageboba, cixe-simagre. g. meliqiSvili wers:`saxel `qarTlSi” Zireuli `qarTa” _ `qarTi” sityvaunda iyos. Tavdapirvelad, . . . es termini qarTlismefeTa uZvelesi rezidenciis, didi galavanSemovlebulicixe-simagris saxeli iyo. zogi monacemiimaze metyvelebs, rom es sityva warmoSobiT sworedamgvari gamagrebuli, SemozRuduli adgilis zogadisaxeli unda yofiliyo. amaze miuTiTebs isic, rom`qarTi” megrulSi `pirutyvis sazafxulo sadgoms”,dauxurav SemozRudul adgils, `o-qarT” ki `sabosleadgils” niSnavs. es sityva aris agreTve enisdasavlur kiloebSi (imerulSi, gurulSi), sadac masaqvs mniSvneloba: `moRobili saqonlis samwyvdevad,baki”. dasavleT saqarTveloSi damowmebul am zogadsaxels `qarTlis saxels ukavSireben, radgan`qarTlSi”, . . . ~akropolisSi”, qalaqis, cixe-simagris,galavanSemovlebuli adgilis mniSvneloba igulisxmeba,misi semantikuri siaxlove dasavlur qarTul`qarTa”-sTan, rac SemozRudul adgils niSnavs,aSkaraa” (saqarTvelos istoriis, 1970: 427-428; gvasalia,1983: 28).istoriuli tradiciiT qveynis saxelwodeba`qarTli” (da misgan warmoebuli `saqarTvelo”)momdinareobs im mTis saxelisgan, sadac, XI saukunisistorikosis leonti mrovelis mixedviT, daemkvidraqarTvelTa legendaruli mamamTavari qarTlosi: `eseqarTlos movida pirvelad adgilsa mas, sada SeerTvisaragvi mtkuarsa, da ganvida mTasa mas zeda, romelsaewodebis armazi. da pirvelad Seqmna simagreni maszeda, da iSena mun zeda saxli, da uwoda mTasa massaxeli Tavisa TÂsisa qarTli. da vidre aRmarTebamdemun-zeda kerpi armazisi, erqua mTasa mas qarTli, damis gamo ewoda yovelsa qarTlsa qarTli, xunaniTganvidre zRuamde sperisa” (qc, I, 1955, 8).`qarTli” gora qalaq `qarTlad” iqca (mcxeTa);agaraebis da ubnebis princi pze `didi qarTli” (didimcxeTa) Seiqmna. naqulbaqevidan cixedid _ savanisxev-bargiyariamde, zemo avWalidan xerkamde (CaTvliT),muxran-nastagisiT (berZeniSvili, 1975: 208; gvasalia,1983: 28). (qarTlosis pirvelsacxovrisi mTa _ Semdgomidrois armazi _ axlandeli mcxeTis raioni).`qarTli”, anu `mTa qarTli” qarTlis tomisgansaxlebis uZvelesi centria, SemdgomSi qarTlis(iberiis) mefeTa rezidencia. ~mTa qarTlis” politikurimniSvnelobis zrda ganapiroba xelsayrelmageografiulma mdebareobam da ekonomikurmadawinaurebam (aq gadioda mniSvnelovani gzebi sxvadasxvamxarisken). varaudoben, rom gvianbrinjaosadrerkinisxanaSi saxelma `qarTl”-ma zogadimniSvneloba SeiZina (qse, 10, 1986).qarTli eTnikur-geografiulad or mxaresmoicavda: `qvena sofels, rac Seesabameba `qvemoqarTls” da `zena sofels” _ `Sida qarTls”.26 27


mogvianebiT gaCnda istoriul-geografiuli termini`zemo qarTli” _ mesxeTis aRsaniSnavad (qse, 3, 1978).Zv. w. III s. dasawyisSi qarTlis hegemonobiTCamoyalibda adreklasobrivi saxelmwifo (centriT_mcxeTa). qarTlis (iberiis) samefos politikuri daeTnokulturuli difuzia SeimCneva kavkasiis mTianeTSi,kolxeTis aRmosavleT provinciebSi, albaneTisdasavleT mxareebSi. Sua saukuneebSi feodalururTierTobaTa ganviTarebasTan erTad kidev ufrogaizarda qarTlis kulturuli da politikurigavlena momijnave da ufro daSorebul regionebze.gaCnda axali istoriuli kategoria `saqarTvelo”.d. musxeliSvili adre gamoTqmul mosazrebaTagaTvaliswinebiT (iv. javaxiSvili, s. janaSia, n. berZeniSvili,g. meliqiSvili), qarTuli werilobiTiwyaroebis, toponimiis, materialuri kulturisZeglebis analizis safuZvelze... daaskvnis, rom`istoriul termins `qarTveli” (mx. r.), ~qarTvelni”(mr. r) hqonda samgvari mniSvneloba: 1. uZvelesiviwroeTnikuri _ qarTlis, saqarTvelos Suagulismkvidri; 2. momdevno eTnopolitikuri mniSvneloba_ZiriTadi macxovrebeli aRmosavlur-qarTuli, adreklasobriviqarTlis (iberiis) samefoSi; 3. X saukuneSidamowmebuli kulturul-politikuri mniSvneloba,roca `qarTvelad” iwodeba yvela, vinc eTnikuriwarmomavlobis miuxedavad, aRiarebda qarTul qristianulmarTlmadideblur rwmenas, organulad iyonaziarebi qarTul feodalur urTierTobebs daiRvwoda gaerTianebuli feodaluri saqarTvelossamefos kulturulsa Tu politikur sarbielze.faqtobrivad es saerTo-erovnuli mniSvneloba amterminma dRevandlamde Semoinaxa (musxeliSvili, 1993;berZeniSvili, 2005.: 415-416).`qarTlis” teritoriis garkveul nawilebadgamoyofaSi, gansazRvraSi didi mniSvneloba eniWebamd. mtkvars. ~qveynis ZiriTadi ZarRvi _ mtkvris xeoba_SW _NmimarTulebisaa, xolo misi Senakadebi TiTqmisperpendikularulad uerTdebian mas orive mxridan_marjvena mxris Senakadebi ufro grZeli mdinareebiada gacilebiT wyaluxvi, vidre marcxena” _ wersd. berZeniSvili (berZeniSvili, 1995: 7).istoriuli qarTli geografiuli mdebareobisada umTavresi mdinaris _ mtkvrisa da misi Senakadebisauzis mixedviT danawilebuli iyo zemo, Sua da qvemoqarTlad (gvasalia, 1983: 22; qcx, I, 1955: 24). s. janaSiaaRniSnavs, rom qarTlis dayofaze sruli cnobebiar gvaqvs, magram qarTlis erTi Semadgeneli nawilTagani_ Sida (Sina) qarTli mkafiod aris gansazRvrulileonti mrovelis mier, avtori Crd. sazRvars araRniSnavs, radgan igi gulisxmobs erTiani qarTlisCrd. sazRvars _ kavkasions. dasavleTi sazRvrisxazad suramis qedia nagulisxmevi, romelsac maSin,sxvadasxva nawilSi, Rado da lixi ewodeboda. dasavleTisxazze miuTiTebs tasiskari, romelic borjomisxeobaSi mdebare punqtia, samxreTis sazRvrad naCvenebiafaravnis tba, aRmosavleTis sasazRvro xazimdinare aragvze da Tbilisze gadioda `Sida (Sina)”qarTls emTxveva `zena soflis” cnebis geografiulimniSvneloba. termini `sofeli” ufro adrindelia _igi gvxvdeba Zvel wyaroebSi, xolo qarTuli feodalizmisklasikur xanaSi igi sruliad qreba da XIs-Si mas cvlis termini `qveyana~, rac s. janaSiassityvebiT, ~damajereblad aCvena iv. javaxiSvilma”(janaSia, 1952: 284-289).vaxuSti bagrationis rukebze (XVIII s. I naxevari)qvemo qarTlis Semdegi mxareebia naCvenebi: algeTi,dbanis xevi, TrialeTi, skvireTi, taSiri, somxiTi, qciisxrami, zurtaketi (yara-bulaxi), yaiyuli (aboci), yaraia,berduji, romlis SemadgenlobaSi iyo lore dabambaki. rac Seexeba loWinis xevis midamoebs,28 29


vaxuStis usaxelod aqvs rukaze datanili. dasaxelebulmxareTagan lore-taSiri, bambaki da yaiyuliamJamad Sedis somxeTis respublikaSi. i. lorTqifaniZesmiaCnda, rom loWinis xevs unda ewodos mtkvrisgaRma mxare, xolo lore gaerTianebuli unda iqnestaSirSi. k. xaraZem da i. qarTveliSvilma, romlTacSeiswavles es sakiTxebs, gaiziares mosazrebaloWinis xevis Sesaxeb, xolo lore calke gamoyves,radganac XVIII s-Si igi calke administraciulerTeuls warmoadgenda, romlis Sesaxeb SemorCeniliastatistikuri monacemebi (xaraZe, qarTveliSvili, 1979:106).rogorc cnobilia, warsulis mravali movlenaTavis droze kartografiuli Semecnebis gareSerCeboda, rac didi danaklisi iyo, radgan warsuliskartografiuli asaxva TavisTavad warmoadgensmecnieruli interesis sagans da amave dros Tanamedrovekartografiuli asaxvis mecnieruli SefasebisaswarsulTan Sedarebis saWiroebac dgeba.istoriul wyaroebSi, sabuTebsa da aRwerebSimocemuli cnobebi saSualebas iZleva aRdgesistoriul-kartografiuli saxe. aqedan gamomdinare,k. xaraZis da i. qarTveliSvilis mecadineobiTSesaZlebeli gaxda XVIII s-is I meoTxedis qvemoqarTlis mosaxleobis retrospeqtuli (laT. ~retro”da ~speqto” _ ~ukan vuyureb”) kartografireba, e. i.warsulisaken mimarTuli, warsulis ganxilvisadmimiZRvnili; Zveli Tematuri rukebis aRdgenas arakartografiuliwyaroebis gziT da amgvarad Sedgenilistoriul rukas retrospeqtuli kartografireba hqvia(xaraZe, qarTveliSvili, 1979: 105-106).mosaxleobis retrospeqtuli kartografirebisSeswavlisaTvis aucilebelia dadgindes sakvleviteritoriis administraciuli sazRvrebi, rac Tavis-Tavad metad saWiro codnas iZleva ama Tu im mxaris(am SemTxvevaSi qvemo qarTlis) farglebSi gaerTianebuliteritoriuli erTeulebis Sesaxeb. k. xaraZemda i. qarTveliSvilma 1721 wlis statistikuri masala(miuxedavad imisa, rom mas ruka ar axlavs) gaixadesretrospeqtuli kartografiuli kvlevis sagnad;amasTan, daeyrdnen a. aslanikaSvilis erT-erT Sromas,romelic exeba XVI s-is Turqul statistikurmasalas (`gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari”),gamoiyenes vaxtang VI-is `dasturlamali” (1707-1709ww.), vaxuStis `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa” (1745 w.),misive `saqarTvelos atlasi” (1745 w.), gasulisaukunisa da Tanamedrove msxvil masStabiani rukebi,i. lorTqifaniZis Sromebi da daadgines qvemo qarTlismTliani da masSi Semavali zogi mxaris sazRvrebi.sakvlevi teritoriis sazRvrebis rukaze gamosaxvisaTvisgamoiyenes 1 : 200 000 masStabis rukebi, sadacsazRvrebi ZiriTadad bunebriv mijnebze gaatares(wyalgamyofi, mdinare da sxv.) (xaraZe, qarTveliSvili,1979: 106-107).`XVIII s-is I meoTxedis qvemo qarTlisa da masSiSemavali mxareebis sazRvrebis gavlebis Semdegmoxerxda kartografiuli gamosaxulebis miReba1 : 200 000 masStabiT. miRebuli rukidan Cans, romqvemo qarTli moicavs saqarTvelos Semdeg administraciulraionebs: bolnisis, gardabnis, dmanisis,TeTriwyaros, marneulisa da walkis; umniSvnelonawili gadadis bogdanovkis, borjomisa da sagarejosraionebis teritoriaze; garda amisa, mcire nawiligadadis somxeTis Crdilo raionebisa da azerbaijanis(yazaxis r-nis) teritoriebze. miRebul rukazegamosaxulia istoriul-geografiuli provinciis _qvemo qarTlis da misi Semadgeneli nawilebis(mxareebis): 1. sazRvrebi; 2. hidrografiuli qseli _mTavari mdinareebi da tbebi; 3. qvemo qarTlis msxvilidasaxlebuli punqtebi; Catarebuli samuSaos Sedegad30 31


gaizoma yoveli administraciuli danayofis farTobi.mTeli qvemo qarTlis farTobi Seadgens 12670 km 2 -s.masalis simciris gamo mizanSewonilad ar CaiTvalabambak-berdujisa da yaraias mxareebis kvleva. maTigamoklebiT mTeli qvemo qarTlis farTobi Seadgens8750 km 2 , anu mTeli qvemo qarTlis 69%-s. mxareebsSoris yvelaze didi teritoria eWira TrialeTs _1550 km 2 , algeTs _ 1280 km 2 , somxiTs _ 1250 km 2 , Semdegyaiyulis_ 1000 km 2 , taSirs _ 950 km 2 , dbanis xevs _ 860km 2 , qciis xrams _ 720 km 2 , zurtakets _ 410 km 2 , mtkvrisgaRma mxares _ 290 km 2 , lores _ 230 km 2 , skvireTs _210 km 2 . gamokvleulia mosaxleobis ganlageba, dasaxlebulpunqtTa raodenoba (868), komlTa raodenoba(13237), yovel 10 km 2 -ze, 1 km 2 -ze, dasaxlebul punqtTasimWidrove da sxv. (xaraZe, qarTveliSvili, 1979:107).qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze arsebobda oriprivincia _ gardabani da gaCiani, romlebic xunanisada samSvildis saerisTavoebs warmoadgendnen. V s-isSua wlebSi ixsenieba pitiaxSi arSuSa, romelic`mTavrobs” (wyaroebis gamoTqmaa) qvemo qarTlisgarkveul teritoriaze. erTi periodi qarTvelTapitiaxSs mTeli qvemo qarTli eqvemdebareboda, radgan,erTi cnobiT, pitiaxSi `hmTavrobda TrialeTs, taSirsada abocs” (janaSia, 1952: 226, 283).VIII-X ss-Si qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze SeiqmnaTbilisis saamiro, kldekaris saerisTavo da taSir-Zoragetis samefo. ganviTarebuli feodalizmis xanissaqarTvelos istoriaSi, mis politikur Tu ekonomikurcxovrebaSi axali ZaliT Semodis Cveni qveynissamxreT mTianeTis zegani: taSiri, zurtaketi, javaxeTi,TrialeTi. IX s-is II naxevarSi argveTelma li paritbaRvaSma daipyro `queyanani TrialeTisani, aRagocixe kldekarisa da ipatrona daviT bagratis-Ze”.kldekaris saerisTavom iarseba ori saukune (berZeniSvili,2005: 53).XII-XIII ss-Si qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze iyogagisa da loris qarTuli sasazRvro saerisTavoebi.monRolebis, jalaledinisa da Temur-lengisSemosevebis (XIII-XV ss.) Semdeg saqarTvelom dakargaxunanis saerisTavo da saxelmwifo sazRvarma qciamtkvrisSesayarze md. debedaze gadmoinacvla.XV-XVII ss-Si qvemo qarTlSi Seiqmna saTavadoebi:sabaraTiano, saorbelo da sxv. amave saukuneebSiTurqmanuli tomebisa da iranelTa, xolo XVIII s.Crdilo kavkasiis tomebis gamudmebuli Tavdasxmisada TareSis periodebia, ramac, qveynis ngreva-awiokebasTanerTad, sruliad Secvala demografiuli suraTi,razedac qvemoT iqneba saubari (qse, 10, 1986).qvemo qarTli imTavidan mezobeli Tu Soreulimtrebis SemosevaTa asparezs warmoadgenda, rasactragikuli Sedegi hqonda: teritoriebis mitaceba(SemdgomSi dabruneba an samudamod dakargva),SiSianobisas qarTuli mosaxleobis sakuTari nebiTsxva kuTxeebSi gaxizvna, an mtris mier xalxisZaladobrivi ayra-gasaxleba, maT sacxovrebelzeucxotomelTa damkvidreba.Zv.w. II-I ss CrdiloeTiT somxeTis gaZlierebisas,md. araqsze arsebulma sasazRvro xazma gacilebiTufro CrdiloeTiT gadmoiwia. Zv.w. I s-Si saqarTveloromaelebma (pompeusi) dalaSqra. VI s-Si iberiaSisparseTma mefoba gaauqma da uzenaesi gamgeobac xelSiCaigdo. am periodSi gavlenis sferod bizantiassaqarTvelos dasavleTi nawili ergo, xolov sparseTsaRmosavleTi. VII s-Si pirvelad Semovidnen `...muhamedismoZRvrebiT aRfrTovanebuli arabTa laSqari”,romelTac qarTlSi X s-mde ibatones. XI s-is II nax._ XII s-is daswyisi Turq-selCukTa Semosevis xanaa,xolo XIII-XIV ss. _ monRolTa TareSisa. 1225 wlidanjalal-ed-dinis maoxrebeli Semosevebi 5 welsgagrZelda, mis sikvdilamde (javaxiSvili, 1979;32 33


asaTiani, 2004). XV s II naxevarSi saqarTvelosTurqmanTa mbrZanebeli uzun-hasani Semoesia (mas iranisnaxevaric epyra). 1482 w. samcxes Seesia TurqmanTameTauri iayub-yaeni, 1487 w. Turqmanebma daikaves qvemoqarTli (1490 w. mefe konstantinem gandevna isini).XV s-dan saqarTvelos daumezoblda dasavleTismxridan Turq-osmalebis saxelmwifo (trapizonisdapyrobis Semdeg). axali ubedurebebi daatyda TavssaqarTvelos XVI-XVII ss-ebSi _ gaZlierebulma daagresiulma yizilbaSurma sefianTa iranma daiwyolaSqrobebi mTeli XVI-XVII ss. manZilze (asaTiani,2004). yvelafer amas Tan erTvoda e.w. ~lekianoba~ _Crdilo kavkasiel tomTa Semosevebi.1795 w. sparselTa Semosevam aRa-mahmad-xanismeTaurobiT kidev erTxel umZimesi dartyma da didimsxverpli miayena mTel qarTl-kaxeTs. qvemo qarTlismosaxleobis nawili kvlav iZulebiT gadavida angiaxizna mtrisgan ufro dacul mTian mxareSi (v. jao-Svili, 1984: 26-27. 31, 54).yovelive Tqmulis gamo, qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobatovebda Tavis samosaxlos da ufro usafrTxoadgilebisken (mTianeTi da sxv.) miemarTeboda, maTsamosaxlos ki ucxotomelebi ikavebdnen. cnobilia,rom XV s-dan daiwyo momTabare Turqmanuli tomebis(eli) Camosaxleba. XVII s-Si iranis Sahma abas I-madebedis xeobaSi borCalus momTabare tomi Camoasaxla(axla azerbaijanelebad wodebulni) (berZeni-Svili, 2005: 421). XVIII s-Si Crdilo kavkasielifeodalebis gamudmebuli Tavdasxmebis gamo qvemoqarTli mkvidri mosaxleobisagan icleboda. gausaZlisimdgomareobis gamo erekle II ruseTTan dadebulixelSekrulebiT_ 1783 w. traqtatiT _ mSvidobisdamyarebas Seecada, magram 1801 w. saqarTveloSi samefogauqmda da ruseTis mmarTveloba damyarda. ruseT-TurqeTis omebis Sedegad saqarTveloSi axalimigrantebis Semodinebam (somxebi, berZnebi), ruseTismier sxvadasxva kontigentis Camosaxlebam (baltiispirelebi,germanelebi, rusi seqtantebi da sxva) ufrometi siWrele warmoSva mosaxleobaSi.qvemo qarTlis demografiulma procesebmaudidesi cvlilebebi ganicada im umZimesi politikurida socialur-ekonomikuri viTarebis gamo, romelSicgamoiara saqarTvelom mTeli Tavisi istoriis manZilze,gansakuTrebiT ki XIII s-is II meoTxedidan moyolebuliaseuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi (gareSe mtrebisgamanadgurebeli Semosevebi, qveynis politikuridaqucmaceba, feodaluri xanisTvis damaxasiaTebeliSinaomebi, Jamianoba da sxv.). yovelive es katastrofuladcvlida demografiul suraTs, amcirebda erisZiriTad mwarmoeblur Zalas da xSirad yofnaaryofniswinaSe ayenebda qarTvel xalxs. amitomaciyo, rom `. . . odesRac milionobiT mcxovrebidan XVIIIsaukunisaTvis ukve Seviwrovebul sazRvrebSi moqceulsaqarTvelos ramdenjerme naklebi mosaxleobaSemorCa” (jaoSvili, 1984: 29). mkvlevarTa miTiTebiT,arsebobs utyuari sabuTi imisa, rom, daviT aRmaSeneblisepoqidan moyolebuli, saqarTvelos mosaxleobaaRiricxeboda sxvadasxva garemoebebTan dakav-SirebiT, magram es masala ver gadaurCa Sua saukuneebismZime viTarebas da dRes mecnierebis gankargulebaSiaXVI saukunis aRweris masalebi (igulisxmeba`gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari”), daXVII-XVIII ss. saqarTvelos calkeul istoriulgeografiulprovinciebSi Catarebuli mosaxleobisaRricxvis zogierTi monacemi (jaoSvili, 1984: 15).mag., xalxis aRwera dasturdeba 1689 w. erekle I-is(nazaralixanis) mier gacemuli sabuTidan. qarTlissamefos 4 sadroSos TiToeul sardals mefisbrZanebiT evaleboda Svid weliwadSi erTxel aReweraTavisi sadroSos mosaxleoba. vaxtang VI-is dastur-34 35


lamaliTac dakanonebuli iyo am princi piT aRwera.miuxedavad amisa, Cvenamde ar mouRwevia qarTlissamefos mosaxleobis aRweris met-naklebad sruldavTrebs. gansakuTrebiT mdidari monacemebia moRweuliqvemo qarTlis Sesaxeb, romlis didi nawili `mewinavesadroSos” warmoadgenda. am mxaris aRwera 1721 w.vaxtang VI-is brZanebiT SeusrulebiaT vaxuStibagrationsa da mdivan-mwignobar givi TumaniSvils(xaraZe, qarTveliSvili. 1979: 105; v. jaoSvili, 1984: 21-22). aRwera or ZiriTad mizans isaxavda: laSqarSigasayvanTa aRnusxvas da gadamxdeli mosaxleobisraodenobis dadgenas. xolo is komli, sadac mxolodqvrivi qali da mcirewlovanebi iyvnen, siaSi gamotovebuliiyo. aseTi ojaxebi imdroindel saqarTveloSi,gansakuTrebiT ki qvemo qarTlSi, romelic mudmivadganicdida mtris Semosevas da awiokebas, mravladiyo. amdenad, mosaxleobis ricxovnobis zusti monacemebiam masalebiT ver dadgindeba. aRweris davTarSimotanili cnobebidan Cans, rom maSindel qvemoqarTlSi mosaxleoba metad SeTxelebuli iyo _mcxovrebTa didi nawili mterTan brZolas Seewira,nawili sxva adgilebSi gadaixvewa. bevr sofelSinaCvenebia ayrili komlebi. yvelaze did soflebSicki mxolod ramdenime aTeuli komli SemorCeniliyo,aRsaniSnavia, rom 1721 w. aRweriT TrialeTis, sabara-Tianos da qvemo qarTlis sxva soflebSi umetesadqarTuli mosaxleobaa moxseniebuli. asi wlis Semdegki TrialeTis mxolod erT sofelSi _ rexaSi SemorCnenqarTvelebi. sxva soflebi daicala _ mosaxleobisnawili mters Seewira, nawili xiznebad Seekedlasxva mxareebs (jaoSvili, 1984: 24-25).dRemde mikvleul demografiul masalebs SoriserT-erTi mniSvnelovani wyaro, romelic warmodgenasgviqmnis XVIII s-is II naxevris qarTl-kaxeTis samefosmosaxleobis Sesaxeb, aris 1770 w. 5 aprilis demografiulinusxa (aRmoaCina al. cagarelma 1881 w. ruseTissagareo saqmeTa saministros arqivSi). nusxaSi Setanilicifrobrivi monacemebi erekle II-is sasaxlis karzespecialurad SeukrebiaT da gadauciaT ruseTisxelisuflebis rwmunebul anton mouravovisTvis(igive TarxniSvili). am nusxaSi komlebis raodenobaaRnusxulia samefoSi Semavali istoriuli provinciebismixedviT, cal-calke qalaqis, soflis mkvidrTa,erovnebis, aRmsareblobis CvenebiT. rogorc zemoTiTqva, qvemo qarTlis sadroSoSi, romelic mtrismudmiv Semosevebs ganicdida, mosaxleoba imdenadSemcirebuli iyo, rom 1770 wlis nusxaSi saerTodaRar aris naCvenebi am mxaris mosaxleoba. TrialeTi,somxiTi, sabaraTiano, yaiyuli, taSiri moxseniebuliarogorc aoxrebuli adgilebi; gaukacrielebulanadre cnobili qalaqebi _ dmanisi, samSvilde. mxolodsomxiTisa da sabaraTianos Sesaxeb aris naTqvami,rom 40 an 100 komlidan erTi an ori aris darCenilida isic erTmaneTTan Sexiznuli.miuxedavad zemoT naTqvamisa, sxva wyaroebzedayrdnobiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 1770-ian wlebSiqvemo qarTli mTlianad ar iqneboda daclili.giuldenStedtis cnobiT, md. qciis qvemo welisgaswvriv soflebSi, romlebic mogzaurma 1772 welsmoinaxula, Temurhasanlud wodebuli TaTrebis 500ojaxs ucxovria. igi adasturebs, rom soflebisumetesoba aoxrebulia, rom adre yaraiaSi cxovrobda10 aTasi ojaxi, romelTagan bevri nadir-Sahma sparseTSigadaasaxla. giuldenStedtisve cnobiT, xalxmravalisoflebi yofila md. Sulavris xeobaSi, _kerZod, sof. SulaverSi, daaxloebiT 100 saxliyofila. misive miTiTebiT, provincia `somxiTi” (md.maSaverasa da misi marjvena Senakadebis xeobebi)mTlianad daclili iyo. Zveli soflebis gapartaxebisSemdeg warmoqmnilan soflebi md. algeTis qvemo36 37


dinebis gaswvriv (sadac ukve somxebi da TaTrebidasaxldnen _ axali marneuli, giaur arxi da sxv.).avtoris aRwerilobidan kargad Cans, rom Tanamedroveqvemo qarTlis soflebSi 1770-ian wlebidan bevriaxalmosaxle damkvidrebula _ ZiriTadad TaTrebida somxebi. marto qcia-xramis da debedas SesarTavismidamoebSi 2000 ojaxi cxovrobda (giuldenStedtismog., I, 1962: 69, 79, 83, 243; jaoSvili, 1984: 33).rogorc zemoT iTqva, saqarTvelos da, kerZod,qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobis erovnuli Semadgenlobakidev ufro mravalferovani gaxda ruseTis mmarTvelobisdroidan.amrigad, saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleTiprovinciebis tragikuli istoriuli xvedris gamoaoxrebul-gaukacrielebul teritoriaze garedanmosuli araqarTveli tomebis, xalxebis warmomadgenlebisaxldebodnen uZvelesi droidan (es procesiXX s-is CaTvliT grZeldeboda da, vfiqrobT, grZeldebadRevandlamde _ ukve sxva viTarebasa da pirobebSi).amis Sedegia is, rom qvemo qarTli (iseve, rogorcmTeli saqarTvelo) mosaxleobis siWreliT, mravalerovnulikontigentiT gamoirCeoda (asea dResac).g. maisuraZis sityvebi rom moviSvelioT,`eTnikuri siWrele feodalur saqarTvelos jerkidev antikuri xanidan Semohyva da misi istoriisTanamgzavr elementad iqca, ris gamoc demografiuliprocesebis regulireba da ucxoeTnikur mosaxleobasTandamokidebulebis gansazRvra yovelTvisaqtiuri problema iyo qarTuli saxelmwifos saSinaopolitikaSi” (maisuraZe, 1999: 212).* * *qvemo qarTli gamorCeuli mxarea rogorcistoriuli movlenebis urTulesi peri petiebiT(xSirad tragikuliT), aseve udidesi SemoqmedebiTienergiiT, umdidresi materialuri kulturiT, rasacadasturebs mis teritoriaze mopovebuli umdidresiarqeologiuri monapovari da Cveni winaprebis mierSeqmnili miwiszeda xuroTmoZRvruli Zeglebi.neoloTis, adre brinjaosa da Sua brinjaosxanis qvemo qarTlis Zeglebi msoflio kulturulisaganZuris erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawilia: adresamiwaTmoqmedokulturis Zeglebi _ Sulaveri-aruxlosti pis goranomosaxlerebi, mtkvar-araqsis kulturisZeglebi, TrialeTis kulturis Zeglebi. TrialeTiskultura ganekuTvneba ekonomikurad dawinaurebulmesaqonle-miwaTmoqmed tomebs; es kultura mtkvararaqsiskulturis memkvidrea (qse, 4, 1979; lorTqifaniZe,2002).arqiteqturuli Zeglebi mTeli qvemo qarTlis(isev, rogorc saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebis) masStabiTmravalricxovania. mxolod ramdenime magaliTsmovitanT TvalsaCinoebisaTvis.I-IV ss. xuroTmoZRvruli Zeglebi saqarTveloSimcire raodenobiTaa moRweuli. imdroindel saqarTveloSimimdinareobda sacxovrebel da safortifikacionagebobaTa mSenebloba. qvemo qarTlSi ukeTaaSemonaxuli saeklesio xuroTmoZRvruli Zeglebi Vs-dan. isini monumentur saxes iRebs. aRsaniSnaviabazilikuri ti pis bolnisis sioni (478 _ 493 ww.),Tavis adreuli periodis qarTuli asomTavrulireliefuri warwerebiT. saqarTveloSi SemuSavdabazilikis gansakuTrebuli tipi _ sameklesiani: qvemobolnisisa da dmanisis eklesiebi (V-VI ss.). VI s-dan saqarTveloSi vrceldeba gumbaTovani eklesiebi.aRsaniSnavia samSvildis sioni (VIII s.) (lomouri.38 39


1986: 92, 106, 111, 144). mniSvnelovani nagebobebia:TrialeTis sof. SepiakSi mdebare 3 eklesia (X-XIss-is mijnaze aSenebuli _ wm. ioane naTlismcemlissaxelobis), sof. sanTis Zveli darbazuli ti piseklesia (XI-XII ss-sa); md. debedis Sua welzearsebuli qarTuli monasteri _ axtala. 3 axalieklesia Cans mis kompleqsSi _ wm. giorgis, wm. samebisda RvTismSoblis. hujabi _ samonastro kompleqsimarneuls r-nis md. foladuris saTaveebSi, sof.cxnaris (qciis xeobaSi) eklesia XVIII s. Sua wlebisa.iqve iyo qvajvari, sasaflao, cixe (berZeniSvili, 2005:65, 67, 191).gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia sof. beSTaSeniswarsuli _ aq erT sofelSi ramdenime eklesia idga.axlac kargad aris Semonaxuli wm. giorgis sax.eklesia (Sua sofelSi) _ X-XI ss-is warwerebiT;iqvea wm. nikolozis sax. eklesia (XI-XII ss-is) dakidev ramdenime patara eklesia (wm. panteleimonis,wm. mariamis da sxv.). gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa is,rom fiqsirdeba saojaxo mniSvnelobis samlocveloebi_ uflisgan raime niSnis miRebis Semdeg (mag.sizmarSi) an wina Taobebis mier Cadenili codvisgamosyidvis surviliT RvTismoSiSebi agebdnen mcirezomis samlocveloebs sakuTar ezoSi (Ciqovani, 2008_2010). Sendeba eklesiebi sxva soflebSic _ mag., sof.oliangiSi wm. mariamis saxelobis eklesia.materialuri kulturis Zeglebis simravliTgamoirCeoda q. walka. adre aq 6 eklesia idga.umetesoba daSlilia da gatanili saSen masalad, anZlieraa gadakeTebuli XIX s. II naxevarSi aq CamosaxlebuliberZnebis mier. eklesiebs Soris aRsaniSnaviaeZanis VI s. sameklesiiani bazilika, romlis Suanavis aRm. sarkmlis qveS iyo ornamentiani stelaeqvs striqoniani warweriT (mospobilia XIX s. IInaxevarSi); meore eklesia ki X saukunes miekuTvneba(d. berZeniSvili, 2005).qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobaqvemo qarTlis umdidresi kulturuli memkvidreobaSeqmna am teritoriaze mcxovrbma qarTulmamosaxleobam. magram am aRmSeneblobiTi energiisritmi xSirad irRveoda istoriuli bedukuRmarTobisSedegad, miT umetes im pirobebSi, rodesac mravalikuTxe icleboda adgilobrivi mosaxleobisagan damisi Canacvleba xdeboda sruliad ucxo migrantebiT.saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleT provinciebisgaukacrielebul adgilebSi saxldebodnen garedanmosuli Turqulenovani tomebi.qvemo qarTlSi migrantTa masiurad Camosaxlebamdec(XV s.) gacilebiT adre dafuZnebulan ucxotomelebi.c. kaxianis mier dmanisis sasaflaos teritoriazearsebuli epigrafikuli Zeglebis SeswavlisSedegebis mixedviT Cans, rom dmanisSi muslimanurimosaxleoba adridanve arsebobda; maT simravlezemiuTiTebs is, rom dmanisis muslimanTa sasaflaosteritoria gacilebiT vrcelia, vidre _ qristianuli.arabuli epigrafikuli Zeglebi gacilebiT metidaiZebna, vidre qarTuli (an somxuri); es afiqrebinebsmkvlevars, rom aq XIII-XIV ss. muslimanuri mosaxleobasWarbobda qristianuls (kaxiani, 1962: 8, 31).XV s-dan daiwyo momTabare Turqmanuli tomebis_elis Camosaxleba qvemo qarTlSi, romelTa STamomavlebicarian dRevandeli azerbaijanelebi.azerbaijanelebi. (TviTwodeba azerbaijanlilar)_ Turqulenovani mosaxleoba (maTi enamiekuTvneba alTaur enaTa ojaxis Turqul jgufs).amJamad mosaxleoben samxreT kavkasiis aRmosavleTnawilSi _ azerbaijanis respublikaSi. maT formirebaSiadgilobriv, albanur, eTnikur substratTanerTad mniSvnelovani monawileoba miiRo mosulmairanulma da Turqulenovanma, gansakuTrebiT oRuzurmada selCukurma elementebma (eTnosebi, 2008: 128).40 41


qvemo qarTlSi mcxovreb azerbaijanelebSiigulisxmeba Turqulenovani mosaxleoba, romelTawinaprebi aq sxvadasxva dros mosuli dampyroblebisdanatovaria, romelTac 1926 wlis aRweriT azerbaijanelebiewodaT.1800_1832 ww. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis erovnulistruqturis monacemebSi miTiTebulia `TaTar-Turqi”_1800 w. _ 30 aTasi, 1832 w. _ 27 aTasi; sabWoTa periodismosaxleobis pirvel aRweraSi (1926 w. da Semdgom) kiazerbaijanelebad (jaoSvili, 1984: 79, 139). am drosmaTi ricxovnoba udrida 143351 (mTeli mosaxleobis5,4%, 1939 w. monacemebiT _ 187621 (5,63%). SemdgomSi,azerbaijanulma mosaxleobam swrafi tempiT iwyomateba, rac bunebrivi matebiT iyo ganpirobebuli darogorc zemoT iTqva, amJamad 224606-s udris maTiricxvi. umetesoba cxovrobs bolnisis, dmanisis,gardabnisa da marneulis r-nebis soflebSi, aseveraionul centrebSi. mcire raodenobiT mosaxleobenTeTriwyarosa da walkis raionebSi.Turqmanuli modgmis tomebis (qarTuli wyaroebiTTaTarTa) Camosaxleba qvemo qarTlSi XV s-dandaiwyo. maT moixsenieben rogorc elis, rac TurquladniSnavs toms, xalxs. es iyo mejoge, momTabare xalxi,romelTa damkvidrebis cda qvemo qarTlsa da kaxeTSi(XV-XVIII s.s.) dakavSirebuli iyo selCukebis, monRolebis,Turqmanebis SemosevebTan. XI s-dan isinibrZoliT ikaveben aziisa da amierkavkasiis teritorias(qse, 4, 1979). adreul Sua saukuneebSi Turqulenovanitomebis saqarTveloSi Semosvlisa dadamkvidrebis Sesaxeb cnobebi ar moipoveba, magrammezobel somxeTsaa da albaneTSi maTi moZraobamecnierTa azriT, mianiSnebs, rom msgavs procesebssaqarTveloSic unda hqonoda adgili (eTnosebi 2008:128).TurqTa pirveli Semosvla saqarTveloSi ukav-Sirdeba `did Turqobas”, rodesac aq damkvidrdnenkidec. rogorc zemoT iTqva, amierkavkasiaSi TurqselCukebiXI s-is 30-ian wlebSi gamoCndnen (giorgiII mefobis dros _ 1072-1089). mas Semdeg yovel welsmodiodnen da aqve saxldebodnen (lorTqifaniZe, 1979;jukaSvili, 1995: 19).`qarTlis cxovrebaSi” aRwerilia am periodisumZimesi viTareba: `ara iyo maT JamTa Sina Tesva damka. mooxrda qveyana da tyed gadaiqca da nacvladkacTa maT Jamsa mxecni da nadirni velisani damkvidrnenmas Sina da iyo Wiri mouTmeneli yovelTa zedamkvidrTa queyanisaTa” (qc., I, Tb., 1939: 320).daviT aRmaSenebelma (1089-1125) maSin ixsna qveyanadaRupvisagan _ Turqebi gayara qveynidan (lorTqifaniZe,1979: 239; jukaSvili, 1995: 21 l. janiaSvili,2008: 128-129).XIII s. dasawyisSi TaTar-monRolebma dai pyresqvemo qarTli da saqarTvelos aRmosavleT TemebSimonRolTa Camosaxlebis ramdenime faqtia dadasturebuli(jukaSvili, 1995: 21). Temur-lengma (1370-1405)kavkasielTa gamuslimebis mizniT `elni mahmadianni”daasaxla CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, xolo qarTvel mefeski aukrZala aq mcxovrebi muslimebis Seviwroeba.Turqmanuli modgmis tomebis saqarTveloSiCamosaxleba da damkvidreba XVII s-mde fragmentulxasiaTs atarebda, XVII s-dan ki, sefianTa dinastiisSahebis mizanmimarTul politikad iqca. Sah-abas I-isgegma qarTuli qristianuli samefoebis saxelmwifoebriobisda qarTuli feodaluri miwaTmflobelobismospobas da Semdgom amisa, `gurjistanis”saxanoebad gadaqcevas iTvaliswinebda. Sahabasmamefe giorgis saCuqari mosTxova teritoriissaxiT, qarTlis samefos debedis xeoba CamoaWra daiq saxano Seqmna, romelic garkveul periodSi bambaksacmoicavda, anu md. debedis saTavis mTian mxares da iqborCalos muslimi tomebi Camoasaxla. am dromdesaqarTvelos teritoriaze toponimi borCalo arsad42 43


Cans (saqarTvelos istoriis 1973: 226; berZeniSvili,2005: 179). am etapze gadmosaxlebulebi TavdapirveladqurdvaWris xevSi _ axlandeli md. debedas qvemoweli _ cxovrobdnen, Semdeg ki, qvemo qarTlis sxvamxareebSic gadavidnen, kerZod, md. mtkvris gaRmamxareze. Sah-abas I-ma did masebad Caasaxla eli mismier gaJletili da iranSi gadasaxlebuli kaxelebismiwa-wyalze. XVIII s-Si elis migracia TbilissmimarTulebiT izrdeboda; miuxedavad farTobisSedarebiT simcirisa, qvemo qarTli, mosaxleobissimWidroviT gamoirCeva (xaraZe, qarTveliSvili, 1979:111-112).XVIII s-Si Turqmenuli tomebis CamosaxlebagrZeldeba qarTl-kaxeTSi; isini dRevandeli gardabnisada marneulis teritoriaze afuZneben soflebs: qesalo,yafanaxCi, ilmazlu, nazarlu, safarlu. am periodSielebma gaafarToves maTTvis miCenili teritoriada axali miwebi daikaves _ somxiTSi Sulaveramdemividnen. nasibus tomma dmanisis xeobaSi SeaRwia,qcia-xramis xeoba daikava da md. mtkvris gaRma mxareSililoebisa da yaraiis mdidari saZovrebi aiTvisaelis CamosaxlebiT qarTul feodalur sazogadoebaSifexs ikidebda naxevrad patriarqaluri,naxevrad feodaluri wyobis, eTnikurad ucxo socialuriZala, romlis CamorCenili ekonomikuri bazasafuZvels aclida saqarTvelos miwaTmoqmedi meurneobisintensiur dargebs da gadagvarebiT emuqrebodaadgilobriv socialur-politikur wyobas. elisdamkvidrebisa da qristianuli samefoebis `gurjistanis”saxanoebad gadaqcevis gegma 1625 w. martyofisajanyebam CaSala, romelsac g. saakaZe meTaurobda,xolo Sah-abas II-is dros Turqmanuli tomebisCasaxlebis cda _ kaxeTis ajanyebam. XVII s-is II naxevridankaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi mejoge-momTabareTada mkvidri mosaxleobis Tanafardoba ukanasknelTasasargeblod Seicvala (gabaSvili, 1958; qse, 4, 1979).elis mosaxleoba adgilobriv feodalur urTier-TobaTa garemocvaSi moeqca. saqarTveloSi SemuSavda`elis debuleba”, romelic Sevida dasturlamalSi.elis mosaxleobis, romelsac ekava somxiTi, algeTisada dmanisis xeobebi, socialuri struqtura iranSimcxovrebi yizilbaSuri tomebis momTabaruli organizaciisSesabamisi iyo. qarTlSi isini gansaxlebulniiyvnen saxelmwifo, samefo da safeodalo miwebze.fiskaluri da samxedro miznebiT saqarTvelosxelisufleba 3 weliwadSi erTxel atarebda elisaRweras (qarTlis samefos aRwera tardeboda 7 weliwadSierTxel). mefe adgenda saxelmwifo gadasaxadebs,kacTa gaTarxnebas _ ymis gaTavisuflebas da sxv. XVIIIs-dan ukve SesamCnevi gaxda elis mkvidr binadrulcxovrebaze gadasvlis tendencia _ maTi sameurneoda socialuri mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi ufroswrafad ganviTarda, vidre mis monaTesave iransa daanatoliis Turqmanul tomebSi (gabaSvili, 1958; qse,4, 1979; qarTuli, 1986).Camosaxlebis pirvel xanebSi Tu iranis SahsemorCilebodnen Turqmanebi, yizilbaSebis gandevnisSemdeg, isinic qarTul feodalur sistemas Seerwynen.yovelive Tqmulis gamo, qvemo qarTli daicalamosaxleobisagan (sabaraTaSvilo, somxiTi, orbelianTamamuli). qarTvelebi gaixiznen zemo qarTlSi, mTianeTSi.gaukacrielda miwebi; amis gamo erekle II-mTavisi nebiT Caasaxla sparselebisgan Seviwroebuli250 Turqmanuli ojaxi qvemo qarTlSi da Seqmnasoflebi: muRanlo, yizilhajlo, yafanaxCi (dRevandelimarneulis r-ni).momTabare elebi ver eguebodnen mkvidr cxovrebasda xSiri iyo masobrivi gaqceva maTTvis ufro SesaguebelgaremoSi. erevnis saxanosa da yara-suze gadasaxlebulborCaloelTa 175 ojaxi erekle II-m ukandaabruna. aseve daabruna samcxidan gaqcevis mcdelobisasyaiyulis Tuqrmanebi da daasaxla (1756 w.)44 45


soRanluRSi; daabruna mefem yarabaRsa da naxCevanSigadasaxlebulebic. iyo sxva SemTxvevebic (eTnosebi,2009: 130).qvemo qarTlSi sabaraTianos mosaxleobis udidesnawils momTabare Taraqamebi Seadgendnen. sworedqvemo qarTlidan gadasaxldnen Taraqamebi XIX s. InaxevarSi javaxeTSi _ axalqalaqis mxareSi (berZeni-Svili, 2005: 270, 351).`dasturlamalSi” elis 76 Tabunia miTiTebuli(`Tabuni”_arabulad gundi, jgufi adamianebisa),(qarTuli enis, 1986) _ e. i. elis SigniT calkeuligaerTianebebi: algeTSi _ 3; qciis xeobaSi _ 6; md.mtkvris gaRma mxares _ 13; somxiTSi _ 5; dmanisisxeobaSi _ 1. i. qarTveliSvilma da k. xaraZem 76punqtis adgilmdebareobidan daadgines 8 dasaxlebulipunqtis adgili mxareebis mixedviT (xaraZe,qarTveliSvili, 1979). elebi marneulis r-Si mdebarenajbadinamde gansaxldnen. es aris sasazRvro teritoriada amJamad Turqmanuli warmoSobis elebiWarboben aq macxovreblebSi. vaxuSti bagrationisakuTriv marneulSi ar asaxelebs elis mosaxleobas.yularad wodebuli elebi cxovrobdnen md.qciisa da Sulavriswylis SesarTavTan (dResacarsebobs sof. yulari, ufro zustad, amJamad 2sofelia _ qvemo yulari da zemo yulari, racTavdapirveli sof. yularis mosaxleobis gamravlebisSedegia _ gaerTianebulni arian yularisadministraciul erTeulSi _ g. C.). elebiT iyodasaxlebuli md. mtkvrisa da algeTis SesarTaviiaRlujis mTamde (eTnosebi, 2009, 132).1801 w. ruseTis mier aRmosavleT saqarTvelosmierTebis Semdeg, rusuli mmarTveloba didyuradRebas aqcevda momTabare elebis adgilzedamagrebas da XIX s. damdegs maT moxSirebul gaqcevagadasaxlebaswinare samSobloSi aRkveTda da ukanabrunebda. garda amisa, mTavrobam neba darToadgilobriv mmarTvelobas ukan mieRoT wasulebi.1824 w. SamSadiluSi damkvidrdnen yarabaRsa daerevanSi adre gaqceuli elebi (eTnosebi, 2008: 132).zog SemTxvevaSi mezobeli azerbaijanidanCamosaxlebulan migrantebi. mag., sof. javSanianis(bolnisis r-ni) mosaxleobis winaprebi azerbaijanidanmosulan, Tan moutaniaT adrindeli samosaxlossaxelwodeba _ abdalo da qarTuli toponimi_javSaniani _ SeucvliaT (bolo wlebSi qarTulisaxelwodeba kvlav aRudga sofels). aseve, sof.vaxtangisis mcxovrebTa nawili azerbaijanidangadmosaxlebula (Ciqovani, 2008 _ 1010).sakuTriv qvemo qarTlSic mimdinareobda Sidamigraciuliprocesebi. mag., walkis r-nSi arsebuliramdenime soflis (arjevan-sarvani, Tedisi, gedaqlari,minsazqendi) azerbaijanuli mosaxleoba marneulisr-nidan aris gadasaxlebuli; sof. axyulas mcxovrebni(marneulis r-ni), gardabnis r-nidan ariangadmosaxlebulni jer sof. ofreTSi, SemdegSi _ sof.axyulaSi. sof. sionSi Casaxlebuli azerbaijanelebicSidamigrantebi arian.amrigad, qvemo qarTlSi damkvidrebuli, azerbaijanelebadwodebuli Turqulenovani mosaxleobamigrantTa or nakads miekuTvneba _ 1. XV-XVIIIsakuneebis ganmavlobaSi iZulebiT CamosaxlebulTurqulenovan migrantebs, romlebmac didi fsiqologiurida fizikuri datvirTva gadaitanes, sanamsruliad axal garemos Seeguebodnen da 2. axalgaremos Seguebuli (azerbaijansa Tu qvemo qarTlSi),cxovrebis pirobebis gaumjobesebis mizniT erTiadgilidan meoreze gadasul migrantebs.46 47


somxebi. erT-erTi yvelaze Zveli da axlobelimezobeli da migrantic Cvens miwaze somexi iyo(TviTwodeba _ hai).qvemo qarTlSi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSicxovrobdnen da cxovroben somxebi. mosaxleobis2002 w. aRweriT qvemo qarTlSi sul 497530 adamianicxovrobs, maT Soris 31777 somexi. aqedan qvemoqarTlis mxaris administraciul centrSi _ q. rusTavSimosaxleobs 2809 somexi, bolnisis r-nSi _ 4316,gardabnis r-nSi 1060, dmanisis r-nSi _ 147, marneulisr-nSi _ 9329, TeTriwyaros r-Sni _ 2632, walkis r-nSi_ 11484.guram maisuraZis dakvirvebiT, somxuri mosaxleobiskvali saqarTveloSi adrefeodaluri xanisdasawyisidanve SeimCneva, ZiriTadad _ sazRvrispiraraionebSi, sadac Sereuli mosaxleobis arsebobasganapirobebda politikuri sazRvrebis gadaadgileba.migraciuli talRebis amoZraveba somxeTidan dakavSirebuliiyo did imperiaTa Sejaxebisa da nomadTalaSqrobebis gzaze mdebare somxeTis aoxrebasTan_ mosaxleobis ltolvilad qcevasTan.somexTa gamoCena saqarTveloSi yovelTvisarabebis, Turq-selCukebis, monRolebis, Turqmanebis,yizilbaSebis, osmalebis da sxvaTa Semosevebisperiodebs emTxveva (maisuraZe, 1999: 219).g. maisuraZis mixedviT, Tu rodis moxda saqarTveloSisomexTa pirveli Camosaxleba, arc qarTulida arc somxuri wyaroebi pasuxis gacemis saSualebasar iZleva. mxolod SesaZlebelia konkretuladmoixazos qarTlis samefos is provinciebi, sadacZvelTaganve SeiZleboda damkvidrebuliyo somxurimosaxleoba. aseTebia saqarTvelos sazRvrispirasamxreTi regionebi _ taSiri, aboci, wunda, kola-artani,tao, basiani da sxv. am teritoriebis umetesi nawilileonti mrovelis cnobiT _ qarTlis pirveli mefisfarnavazis samflobeloSi Sedioda.somxuri mosaxleobis pirveli fena saqarTveloSiZv. w. II saukunis damdegs gaCnda, rodesacselevkiduri siriis mefis, antioq III-is, sardlebmaartaqserqsem da zariadrma somxuri saxelmwifoebiSeqmnes da mezoblad mdebare qarTuli miwebis xarjzeganavrces (saqarTvelos. . . t. I, 1970: 465-466).adreul periodSi saqarTvelos somxeTisgan md.araqsi hyofda, romlis CrdiloeTiT mdebare raionebiiberiam dakarga somxeTis mefis tigran II-is dros.adre Sua saukuneebis dasawyisSi somxeTis CrdiloaRmosavleTsazRvarTan Seiqmna mcire teritoriismqone sanapiro samTavro, e. w. ~gugarqis sapitiaxSo”,romelic qvemo qarTlis mniSvnelovan teritoriasmoicavda (farnavaziseuli samSvildisa da xunaxissaerisTavoebi). cxadia, amas mohveboda somxurimosaxleobis Semosvlac (maisuraZe, 1999: 13-15).IX s-is bolodan qvemo qarTlSi batondebiansomexi bagratunebi; am dros, pirvelyovlisa, debedisxeoba aRmoCnda maT xelSi, magram XI s-Si bagratunebisbatonobas qvemo qarTlSi bolo moeRo, Tumca xeobises nawili erT xans isev maT SerCaT (berZeniSvili,2005: 197). aqedan moyolebuli qarTul-somxuri urTier-Tobebi sxvadasxva epoqasa da droSi nairgvaradviTardeboda (eTnosebi, 2008; 104).saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi qristianuli sarwmunoebissaxelmwifo rangSi ayvanam gaamyara am qveynebsSoris kavSirurTierTobani da mosaxleobis moZraoba.qarTvel-somexTa narev mosaxleobas wyaroebi feodalurxanaSic qarTlis samxreT TemebSi afiqsireben.V s. somxuri mosaxleobis aq yofna dasturdebaSuSanikis moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebuli cnobebiT:qarTlis sapitiaxSoSi, kerZod, samTavros rezidenciacurtavSi, SuSaniks somxuri mRvdelmsaxureba SemouRia,rac somxuri mosaxleobis aq arsebobaze miuTiTebs.somxebi qarTvelebTan erTad VI s-is 60-iani wlebisTvistaSirsa da ZoroforSi, VII s-is damdegisTvis48 49


taSirSi cxovrobdnen. isini aq saxlobdnen soflebad,calkeul ubnebad, qarTvelTa Soris gabneuliciqnebodnen. somxuri mosaxleobis ganlagebis amgvarisuraTi qvemo qarTlSi, pirvel rigSi, curtavSi,n. (laSa) janaSias azriT, unda yofiliyo V-VII ss.ganmavlobaSi (janaSia, 1988: 62; maisuraZe, 1999: 21-24).VII s-Si qarTvel-somexTa Soris, saeklesioganxeTqilebis Semdeg, rodesac saqarTvelom qalkedonuri,anu `bizantiuri” qristianoba _ diofizituri,somxeTma ki _ antiqalkedonuri _ monofiziturimiiRo, dapirispireba iqamde mivida, rom somexTakaTalikosma moTxovna wauyena somxur mrevls, anmieRoT monofizitoba, an daetovebinaT somxeTi. amisSedegad, somxebis is nawili, romelmac uari Tqvamrwamsis Secvlaze, saqarTveloSi (qv. qarTlSi)gadmosaxlda (eTnosebi 2008: 104).somxeTSi arabTa Semosevebis Semdeg ltolvilisomxebi kvlav saqarTveloSi eZebdnen TavSesafars.IX s-is Sua wlebSi somexTa axali jgufebisgamoCena Cvens teritoriaze SesaZloa, dakavSirebuliiyo buRa-Turqis meTaurobiT Catarebul sadamsjelomoqmdebebTan, rodesac 30000 somexi gauwyvetiaT.gansakuTrebiT X s-is bolo meoTxedSi Seiqmnasomxuri mosaxleobisTvis xelsayreli pirobebi qvemoqarTlSi, rodesac aq Camoyalibda taSir-Zoragetis,anu igive lore-taSiris mcire somxuri samefokvirikian bagratunTa meTaurobiT. dmanisi, samSvilde,lore da qvemo qarTlis sxva umniSvnelovanesiqalaqebi didi xniT somxur konfesiur da politikurgaremocvaSi moeqca, rasac, bunebrivia, somxurieTnikuri elementis momravleba da gamyareba undagamoewvia. qarTuli da somxuri mosaxleobis TanafardobazewyaroebSi konkretuli cnobebi ar aris, magramguram maisuraZis gamokvleviT, cnobili zogadipolitikuri movlenebis mixedviT, safiqrebelia, romkvirikianTa batonobis dros mosaxleobis umravle-soba mainc qarTuli unda yofiliyo (somxuri mosaxleoba,ZiriTadad, Zoroforisa da tavuSis xevSiWarbobda). amrigad, X-XI ss-Tvis saqarTvelos sxvanawilebTan SedarebiT, somxuri mosaxleoba yvelazeWarbad qvemo qarTlSi unda yofiliyo (maisuraZe,1999: 57-58; berZeniSvili, 1979: 105).XIV sakuneSi monRolTagan darbeuli yarselisomxebisa da 1319 w. anisSi momxdari miwisZvrisSedegad ayrili mosaxleoba qarTlSi gadmosaxlda.XIII-XIV ss. monRolTagan umZimes mdgomareobaSiimyofeboda saqarTveloc. XV s. s-is damdegisaTvisTurqmanebma gaanadgures somxeTi _ ltolvilebikvlav saqarTvelos moadgnen. XV-XVI ss. somxurimosaxleobis raodenoba izrdeba, gansakuTrebiT,sazRvrispira raionebSi da q. TbilisSi. somxurimaterialuri Zeglebic Sesabamisad momravldaqarTlSi. XVII s-Si osmaleTi da sefianTa iraniibrZoda somxeTisTvis _ maT 1639 w. gaiyves somxeTiaRmosavleT da dasavleT nawilebad. ltolvilisomxebi midian emigraciaSi msoflio masStabiT(maisuraZe, 1999: 60-62).yvela zemoT naxsenebi dampyrobeli saqarTvelosmaoxrebelic iyo, ris Sedegadac gaukacrieldasoflebi, qalaqebi, ganadgurda meurneoba, sarewebi,xidebi da sxva. saWiro gaxda maTi ageba-aRdgena.gaizarda muSaxelze moTxovnileba. amitom XVIIIsaukunis meore naxevridan saqarTvelos xelisuflebamSemoiyvana imierkavkasiis mTianeTidan osebi,lekebi, Cerqezebi, agreTve berZnebi, somxebi, elisTaTrebi (maisuraZe, 1999: 95-112).qarTuli kanonmdeblobiT mTeli rigi SeRavaTebiiyo dawesebuli axalmosaxleTa dasamagreblad. qvemoqarTlSi ukve momravlda somxuri toponimebi: kirakozassofeli, vasakas sofeli, akofas sofeli,manvelas sofeli, sevageRci, karmirqari, wahkar dasxv. (berZeniSvili, 1964: 238; maisuraZe, 1999; 112).50 51


somxebi araTu Tavis nebiT, ZaldatanebiTac kimohyavda xelisuflebas. mag., erekle II-m erevanzelaSqrobisas 8 sofeli ahyara da saqarTvelos soflebsada qalaqebSi Caasaxla. maT mimarT did yurad-Rebas iCenda adgilobrivi xelisufleba, metic, zogjermTel soflebs swiravdnen somexTa mTavar sasulieroorganizacias _ eCmiaZins, mag., 1657 w. rostom mefesmisTvis Seuwiravs sofeli naxiduri, romeliceCmiaZinis sakaTalikoso wignSi Setanili sabuTiT`didi xnis aoxrebuli yofila da axla CvenganaSenebulia”-o. wyaroebis mowmobiT, qarTvel xelisufalTawyalobiT eCmiaZini qarTlsa da kaxeTSi flobdasoflebs, zvrebs, baRebs, saxnav-saTes farTobebs.vaxuSti bagrationis geografiis mixedviT, somxebisaxlobdnen qvemo qarTlSi _ qcia-berdujis midamoebSi,taSirSi, abocSi.1770 w. erekle II-is mier ruseTis rezidentebisaTvisgacemuli demografiuli cnobiT qarTlSisaxlobda 500 komli somexi, kaxeTSi _ 450; Sesabamisad,qarTlSi qarTveli marTlmadidebeli qristiani mosaxleobaiTvlida 4000 komls, e. i. somxebi maTi 1/8nawili yofila (kaxeTSi somxebi 1/16 Seadgendnen).amave cnobiT, somexi ufro mravalricxovani iyo qvemoqarTlSi, magram is aq mahmadianur mosaxleobas Sorisiyo gafantuli (maisuraZe, 1999: 113 _ 115).vaxuSti batoniSvilis istoriul-geografiulixasiaTis naSromSi somxuri elementis saqarTveloSifunqcionirebis sakiTxebs mniSvnelovani adgiliukavia. marTalia, vaxuSti mxolod zogad cnobebsgvawvdis saqarTveloSi somxur dasaxlebaTa simWidrovezeda konkretul cifrebs ar Seicavs, magrammisi aRweriloba obieqtur suraTs mainc iZlevasomxuri mosaxleobis gavrcelebis areebsa daqarTvelebTan mis raodenobriv TanafardobasTandakavSirebiT: `debedidam bolnisis dasavlis mciremTamde da qciis mdinaridam lelvar-loqis mTamdeuwodeben aw somxiTs, Zuelad ars saerisTonixunanisa... am adgilTa Sina mosaxleni arian sarwmunoebiTsomexni da mciredad qarTlis sarwmunoebisa”;. . . ~taSirs msaxlobelni arian sarwmunoebiTsomexni”; dmanisis xevis aRwerisas SeniSnavs:~sarwmunoebiT umetesni qarTvelni”-o (qarTlis, 1973:312 _ 313).vaxuSti somxuri mosaxleobis wils saqarTvelossaerTo demografiul struqturaSi qveynismxareebis mixedviT sxvadasxva niSniT gansazRvravs_qvemo qarTlisTvis aseTi niSania religiuri momenti(`sarwmunoebiT somexni”, ~sarwmunoebiT qarTvelni”),Sida qarTlisTvis eTnikuri kuTvnilebaa xazgasmuli(somexi, uria, qarTveli...), sxva mxareebisTvis ki (samcxesaaTabago,javaxeTi, imereTi, guria, _ socialuri niSani(~uriani vaWarni”, ~warCinebulni mahmadianni”).g. maisuraZis gamokvleviT, somxuri da qarTulisarwmunoebis mimdevarTa Tanafardobis safuZvelzesomxiTsa da taSirSi somexTa xvedriTi wilisgansazRvra sruliad bunebrivia, radgan am regionSisaukuneTa manZilze yvelaze mkafiod igrZnobodasomex-qarTvelTa qveynebis eklesiebis metoqeobissimwvave da amitom mosaxleobis ganmasxvavebel niSnadkonfesia gamodioda. somxeTTan siaxlove, somxurireligiuri kerebis simZlavre vaxuStis drosacganapirobebda qvemo qarTlSi monofizitTa simravles.g. maisuraZis azriT, gamoricxuli ar aris aq qarTveliglexobis nawili somxuri gavlenis qveS moqceuliyo.amitomac, somxiTsa da taSirSi somex-qarTvelTaraodenobis eTnikuri niSniT gamoTvla gaZneldeboda.(maisuraZe, 1999: 121).XVIII s-is meore naxevarSi grZeldeboda somexTaCasaxleba qvemo qarTlSi. somexma meliqebma_ abovmada mejnunma erekle II-es saqarTveloSi dasaxlebisnebarTva Txoves, rac mefem daakmayofila da maT52 53


sofeli bolnisi misca da kolpis gzis dacvadaavala; maTi ymebic aq daasaxla (eTnosebi, 2008:105); v. veliCkos mixedviT, erekle II-is mefobisas,yarabaReli meliqebi mejnuni da abo, TavianTiymebiTurT qvemo qarTlSi dasaxldnen da Sulaverisdasaxleba Seqmnes. swored am meliqebma uRalatesmefe erekles, romelnic 1795 w. aRa-mahmad-xanis jarsTbilisSi SemouZRvnen. mterma Tbilisi miwasTangaaswora. v. veliCkos cnobiT, es faqti erovnebiTsomexma generalma s. o. qiSmiSovma aRiara (Величко,1904).XVIII s-is dasasrulisTvis demografiuli viTarebaukve Zalismieri meTodebiT icvleboda. yarabaRissomexi meliqebi ruseTis imperators sTxovdnen, mieRoisini qveSevrdomobaSi da Tan dasZendnen, Tu es vermoxerxdeba, maSin qarTvelTa mefes ubrZaneT, romsacxovreblad mogvces Tavisi samefos dausaxlebeliadgili, romelic Zvelad gugarqad iwodeboda, axla ki_ yazaxad da loris mxareebamde vrceldeba. gegmaSiara marto yarabaReli somxebis qvemo qarTlSi Casaxlebaiyo, aramed, kavkasiasa da sazRvargareT mcxovrebisomxebis Tavmoyra da `mcire somxeTis” Seqmna. meliqebiimperators werdnen: `es qveyana mTiania, magram bunebrivida wiaRiseuliT _ oqro-vercxliT, spilenZiT, tyviiT,tyiT _ mdidari, Cveni eri gamravldeba. zogi ivaWrebs,zogi miwas daamuSavebs, aaSenebs qarxnebs da Tqvensargebels mogcemTo~. giorgi XII iZulebuli gamxdarapeterburgSi miRebuli gadawyvetileba Seesrulebina_ meliq freidunma miiRo borCalos erTi nawili, meliqjemSudma _ lore, yvela Tavis miwiT, mxolod mefisgarkveuli pirobiT _ maT SeeZloT dasaxleba-moxmareba,`Tu ara da ise samefo iyo, ara hqonda xelmwifebagayidvisa~ (maisuraZe, 1999: 121, 124). avtonomiuri `mciresomxeTis” Seqmna ver ganxorcielda, maT danapirebicver Seasrules, radgan Raribebi iyvnen, TiToeulsmxolod 100 qveSevrdomi hyavda. amrigad, qvemoqarTlis saerTo demografiuli suraTi ver Seicvala(maisuraZe, 1999: 126 _ 128).magram yvelaferi win iyo _ qarTuli samefosgauqmebisa da rusuli mmarTvelobis damyarebisTanave,rusuli koloniuri politikis Sedegad mosaxleobisorganizebulma migraciam agresiis saxe miiRo, racgadagvarebiT daemuqra Cvens qveyanas, riskenac miiswrafodaimperiuli ruseTi.1804 w. generalma cicianovma qvemo qarTlSierevnis saxanodan 2000 adamiani Camoasaxla. manamdeaq 5000-mde somexi cxovrobda. XIX s-is 20-iani wlebisbolos iranidan da TurqeTidan mravalricxovanisomexi migranti Camoasaxla caristulma mmarTvelobam.iraneli somxebi qvemo qarTlSi daasaxles,TurqeTidan _ samcxe-javaxeTSi.1828-1829 wlebSi ruseT-TurqeTs Soris dadebuliadrianopolis sazavo xelSekrulebis ZaliT rusebmasaomari operaciebis dros dakavebuli TurqeTisteritoriis didi nawili datoves. iq mcxovrebisomxebi rusebs iaraRiT uWerdnen mxars; amitom isiniruseTis imperiis teritoriaze gadavidnen TavisgadarCenis mizniT (xelSekruleba iTvaliswinebdamosaxleobis survils, erTi qveynidan meoreSigadasuliyo daubrkoleblad).1828-1829 ww. TurqeTis Crdilo vilaieTebisqristianuli mosaxleobis didi masa _ somxebi,berZnebi, qarTvelebi ruseTis xelisuflebam amierkavkasiisteritoriaze Camoasaxla. somxebi mefisxelisuflebam saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSiCaasaxla: samcxe-javaxeTSi (5000 ojaxi) (eTnosebi,2008: 105) da qvemo qarTlSi _ walkis raionSi.Camosaxleba sam etapad ganxorcielda: 1829 w. seqtemberSigumiSxanidan gadmovida 28 ojaxi, madenidan _32 ojaxi, maT SeuerTdaT baiburTsa da yarsSimcxovrebi _ 85 ojaxi. meore jgufi gadmosaxlda54 55


erzrumis safaSodan, kegis sanjayidan, sof. baSkevidan.mesame jgufi migrantebisa saxldeboda qarTvelebisaganmitovebul nasoflarebSi.1829-31 w.w. walkaSi 1050 ojaxi Casaxlda (ojaxzesaSualod 5 wevri igulisxmeboda). daaxloebiT 2000somexi da 5000 berZeni Casaxlda walkis da TeTriwyarosraionis teritoriaze (jaoSvili, 1984: 80).walkis r-nSi 1829-31 ww. sul 642 ojaxi dasaxlda31 sofelSi _ aqedan 13 sofeli dasaxlda somxebiT(Л. Пашаева. 1992: 12-14, 49-56, 60-68). TurqeTidan somexTamigracia saqarTveloSi mTeli XIX s-is manZilzegrZeldeboda (1877-1889 ww. ruseT-TurqeTis omisSemdeg, 1895-96 ww, TurqeTSi somxebis devnis Sedegad).XIX s. 60-iani wlebisTvis somxebi Tbilisis guberniis267 dasaxlebul punqtSi cxovrobdnen. qvemo qarTlSimd. debeda-Caisa da yazaxis mazras Soris mdebareveli mTlianad somxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. ZiriTadadsomxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli md. debedas auzi dalores veli (maT garda, am teritoriebze iyo qarTuli,berZnuli, rusuli soflebic) (ix. qvemoT).md. debedis ukidures samxreT-dasavleTiTqarTuli mosaxleoba TiTqmis ar Cans. md. maSaverasada qciis zemo weli, romelic yaflaniSvilebsekuTvnoda, gapartaxebuli yofila. aq somxur mosaxleobaSi,mcire raodenobiT, qarTvelebic saxlobdnen(eTnosebi, 2008: 106).berZnebi. qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobis didnawils erovnebiT berZnebi warmoadgendnen (TviTwodebaelinos).berZenTa mcire jgufi aRmosavleT anatoliidanjer kidev 1763 wels Camoasaxla mefe erekle II-msaqarTveloSi, rodesac axtalis spilenZis, tyviis,vercxlisa da oqros sabadoebis dasamuSavebladanatoliidan moiwvia am saqmis mcodne berZeni ostatebi(daaxloebiT 800 ojaxi) da daasaxla axtalismidamoebSi _ sof. misxanSi. aRa-mahmad-xanis Semosevisdros, Semdeg ki epidemiisa da SimSilobis periodSi,berZnebis ZiriTadi masa daiRupa. gadarCenilebmamiatoves qarxnebi da xeli mihyves miwis damuSavebas.mravali maTgani dasaxlda mtrisagan darbeul sof.ofreTSi (marneulis r-ni).berZenTa calkeuli jgufebi qvemo qarTlSidasaxldnen 1806-1807 ww. TeTriwyaros r-nSi: 120 ojaxisof. iragaSi; 1813 w. 32 berZnul ojaxs gadaecasaxazino miwa TeTriwyaros dacarielebul sof. winwyaroSi(Пашаева, 1992: 12-14, 49-56, 60-68; eTnosebi 2008:12-14; 149-150).1829-30 ww. ruseT-TurqeTis omSi TurqeTidamarcxda da adrianopolis sazavo xelSekrulebiTTurqeTis Crdilo-aRmosavleT vilaieTebidan qristianulimosaxleobis didi masa _ somxebi, berZnebida qarTvelebic Camosaxlda qvemo qarTlSi. eseTnikuri jgufebi sxvadasxva garemoebebis gamoaRmoCndnen TurqeTis sazRvrebSi: Turqebis mierdapyrobili bizantiis imperiis eTnikuri danatovari_berZnebi, mTeli TurqeTis teritoriaze iyvnen gafantulni,xolo somxebi da qarTvelebi TurqeTis Crd.vilaieTebSi aRmoCndnen Turqebis mier maTive istoriulisamSoblos provinciebis dapyrobis Sedegad.bizantiis dacemis Semdeg, yvela muslimaniiTvleboda osmanad, yvela marTlmadidebeli ganixi-56 57


leboda, rogorc `berZnuli Temi”. am `Temma”, romelSicSedioda aTobiT sxvadasxva warmomavlobis xalxi,eTnikuri TviTSegneba Secvala religiuriT. amitomsxvadasxva enaze molaparakeni iTvlebodnen qristianebad.giorgi Citaias azriT, maTSi mniSvnelovanprocents Seadgendnen qarTvelebi, kerZod, lazebi(Читая, 1948: 179; Пашаева, 1971: 475-486).TurqeTidan ltolvilni, ZiriTadad, walkis r-nSiCasaxldnen. Camosaxleba 3 etapad ganxorcielda:I jgufi _ 1829 w. seqtemberSi giumiSxanidan wamovida28 ojaxi, madenidan _ 32 ojaxi, baiburTidan dayarsidan 25 ojaxi (sul 85 ojaxi). adgilze Cavidnen1830 w. gazafxulze. es nakadi miwaTmoqmedTaganSedgeboda. isini miwebiT kargad uzrunvelyves. axal-Camosulebi dasaxldnen walkasa da mangliss Soris,beSTaSenSi, anu keCetSi. es sofeli pirvelia, romelicmigrantebma daasaxles, rac daadastura l. faSaevasmier Sekrebilma eTnografiulma masalam.berZenTa II jgufi gadmosaxlda erzrumis safa-Sodan, sof. baSkevidan. dasaxldnen dangreul qarTulnasaxlar axalSenSi, romelsac uwodes baSkev-kendigi.III jgufi gadmosaxlda erzrumis safaSos sxvadasxvasanjayebidan 1830 w. mais-ivnisSi; dasaxldnenwalkis teritoriaze _ nasoflarebSi.IV jgufs Seadgenda 10 qarTuli ojaxi ardaganissanjayidan, sof. velidan (1831 w.) _ dasaxldnen sof.rexaSi.enobrivi niSniT berZnebi iyofodnen berZnulenovanad,anu elinofonebad da Turqulenovanurumebad. pirvelni metyvelebdnen berZnulis ponturdialeqtze, romlis formireba VI-VII ss. moxda.berZnulad termini `ponto” niSnavs zRvas, aseve _zRvispirs da qveyanasac. antikuri tradiciiT igigamoiyeneboda garkveuli teritoriis gansasazRvrad_Savi zRvis samxreT-aRmosavleT sanapiroze, sadacZv. w. VI s. berZnebma daaarses soflebi: trapezundi,kerasoni, amisosi. am teritorias, herodotedan moyolebuli,wyaroebSi moxseniebuli ponti ewodeba da iqelinebTan erTad qarTvelebic cxovrobdnen dasaubrobdnen pontur dialeqtze.walkis raionSi pontur dialeqtze, e. i. berZnulad,saubroben soflebis: sanTas, neoxarabas, gumbaTisda tarsonis mcxovreblebi.walkis raionis berZenTa ZiriTadi masa maincTurqulenovani urumebia. isini saubroben Turqulienis aRmosavlur anatoliur dialeqtze (Пашаева, 1988:156).termini `urumi~ warmoiSva laTinuri fuZidan`roma” (Roma), rac niSnavs aRmosavleT romis imperiisqveSevrdoms, anu masSi igulisxmebian Turqebis mierdapyrobili bizantiuri provinciebis mcxovrebni,miuxedavad maTi eTnikuri warmoSobisa (Пашаева, 1992:17-18, 60).urumebi walkis raionis Semdeg soflebSicxovroben: xadiki, gunia-yala, Taqilisa, ediqilisa,jinisi, avranlo, xando, beSTaSeni, baiburTi, baSkovi,livadi, yarakomi, olianka da sxv.dmanisis r-nSi _ pontur dialeqtze mosaubreberZnebi gamosulni arian yarsis soflebidan da aqcxovroben soflebSi: sakire, gora; urumebi cxovrobensof. sarkineTSi, ganaxlebaSi, velispirSi.TeTriwyaros raionis sof. winwyaroSi cxovrobenurumebi; elinofonebi (pontur dialeqtzemosaubre berZnebi) cxovroben soflebSi: ivanovka,patara da didi iraga, jigraSeni, vizirovka, aleqseevka.marneulis r-nSi _ sof. ofreTSi cxovrobenberZnulad molaparake (elinofoni) migrantebi.saarqivo monacemebze dayrdnobiT dadginda, rom5000-mde berZeni Camosaxlda 1829-1839 ww. dRevandeliwalkisa da TeTriwyaros raionebis teritoriebze(v. jaoSvili, 1984, 80).58 59


eTnologma lamara faSaevam kvlevis Sedegaddaazusta, rom 1813-29 ww. TurqeTidan walkis r-Si100 ojaxi dasaxlda; 1829-1831 ww. walkis r-Si dasaxlda1050 ojaxi, aqedan berZeni _ 642 ojaxi, xolo danarCenisomexi; aqedan _ 523 ojaxi miwaTmoqmedi, 88 _ moqalaqe,27 _ sasuliero piri. sul 31 sofelSi dasaxlebuliiyo 1119 ojaxi. aqedan 18 sofelSi damkvidrdnenberZnebi, 13-Si _ somxebi.migrantebi saxldebodnen Zvel nasoflarebSi.elinofonebis ZiriTadi masa saqarTveloSi XIXs-is 50-80-ian wlebSi dasaxlda, romlebic TurqeTSicxovrobdnen santes, siurmenes, kromas, xofas, rizesda sxva olqebSi.soflebis _ gorasa da sakires mcxovrebni ZiriTadadyarsis olqis soflebidan iyvnen gadmosulebi(Пашаева, 1992: 17-18, 52-54; eTnosebi 2008: 154).germanelebi (TviTwodeba _ doiCe) saqarTveloSi,kerZod, qvemo qarTlSi cxovrobdnen 1943 wlamde.sabWoTa kavSir-germaniis omis dros isini, rogorcarasaimedoni gaasaxles Sua aziasa da cimbirSi.Cvens qveyanaSi germanelTa Camosaxleba 1817-1819ww. ermolovis mmarTvelobis dros ganxorcielda,rac, mkvlevarTa miTiTebiT, politikur-ekonomikurmaviTarebam da napoleonis omebma ganapiroba. aRsaniSnavia,protestantuli religiuri jgufis roli am sakiTxSi.maTi erTi nawili aRiarebda `hiliazms” _ meoredmosvlis, msoflio warRvnisa da `aTaswlovani samefos”Seqmnis Sesaxeb moZRvrebas. maTi survili iyo, ammovlenas araratis mTasTan Sexvedrodnen. erT-erTijgufis warmomadgenlebi 1815 w. StutgartSi myofaleqsandre I-s Sexvdnen, Txoves da miiRes kidecTanxmoba amierkavkasiaSi gadmosaxlebaze. 1817 wlidanramdenime partiad dayofili germaneli kolonistebiamierkavkasiisken daiZrnen. 1819 w. bolosTvis maT 8kolonia Seqmnes saqarTveloSi: sarTiWalaSi _ petersdorfi,TbilisSi _ kukiaze, kaxeTis gzatkecilze _marienfeldi. dRevandeli qvemo qarTlis mxareSi _TeTriwyaros r-nis sof. asureTis teritoriaze _elizabettali, didubeSi (axlandeli samtrediisquCis midamoSi) _ aleqsandersdorfi. borCalosmazraSi _ dRevandeli bolnisis teritoriaze dasaxlebasuwodes katarinenfeldi, Semdeg ewoda luqsemburgi.walkis maxloblad aleqsandershilfi da sxv.1848 wlamde es dasaxlebebi moixseniebodnen, rogorc`saqarTvelos germanuli koloniebi”, 1848 wlidan _rogorc `amierkavkasiis germanuli koloniebi” (eTnosebi,2008: 258-259).qvemo qarTlis mxaris gardabnis r-is axlandelsof. ambarTafas ewodeboda traubentali (saxeliSeecvala 1943 w. 31.8), sof. axalSens ewodebodagofnustali (31.8. 1943 w-mde), sof. ruisbolos _gruntali (31.8. 1943 w-mde).marneulis r-nis sof. Tamariss ewodebodatraubenbergi (8.2. 1944 w-mde), dmanisis r-nis dRevandelsof. ifnars _ valdheimi (5. 8. 1943 w-mde), daba bolniss_luqsemburgi (3. 4. 1943 w-mde) (saqarTvelos ssradministraciul, 1966).germanel kolonistTa saqarTveloSi Camosaxlebagermaniidan da ruseTidan mTeli XIX s-isganmavlobaSi grZeldeboda. xelisufleba maT exmareboda:ufasod uSenebda saxlebs, aZlevda fulssaqonlisa da Sromis iaraRebis SesaZenad. yovelojaxs eZleoda 35 desetina savarguli _ saxnav-saTesi,sabaRe, savenaxe nakveTebi. maT gankargulebaSi iyosaZovrebi, tyeebi, saTibebi. maT exmareboda adgilobrivimosaxleobac.kolonistebi uflebebiT Tavisufal glexebsuTanabrdebodnen, magram ukeTes mdgomareobaSi iyvnen.maT bevri ram iswavles da gadaiRes adgilobrivimcxovreblebisagan _ vazis movla, qarTuli guTnis,kevris gamoyeneba _ da miaRwies ekonomikur warmatebas(eTnosebi, 2008: 260-266).60 61


saqarTvelos erovnul struqturaSi germanelebisraodenoba iyo: 1865 w. _ 4,2 aTasi; 1886 w. _ 5,5aTasi, 1897 w. _ 7,4 aTasi (v. jaoSvili, 1984: 112).sabWour periodSi _ 1930-iani wlebidan, germanelebsCamoarTves dadgenil normaze meti miwa, koleqtivizaciismowinaaRmdegeni daapatimres. germanelebisnawilma germaniaSi wasvla gadawyvita. 1941 wels,germaniasTan omis dawyebis Semdeg, maT mtris iarliyimiakres da saqarTvelodan 24000-mde germaneligaasaxles Sua aziasa da cimbirSi. gadasaxlebulTaSoris iyvnen qvemo qarTlis germanelebic.amJamad qvemo qarTlis dasaxlebul punqtebSigermanelTa saxlebi (orsarTuliani, e.w. goTuristilis mansardiani), kvlav gamoirCeva sxva nagebobebisagan.maTSi qarTvelebi cxovroben. erT-erTojaxSi Cveni stumrobisas maspinZlad iq dagvxvda`kolonistTa” STamomavali _ qarTveli qali. boloxanebSi Camodian bolniseli germanelebis STamomavlebi,romelTac didi pativiscemiT iReben germanelTayofil saxlebSi Casaxlebuli qarTuli ojaxebi.rusebi. qvemo qarTlSi (iseve, rogorc saqarTvelossxva kuTxeebSi) mravlad cxovrobdnen rusebi.maT Camosaxlebas saqarTveloSi sxvadasxva mizezebiganapirobebda. rusebi mcire raodenobiT me-18 s-is70-ian wlebSi damkvidrdnen Cvens qveyanaSi. 1772 w.ivlisSi general suxotinis mier ruseTis samxedrokorpusis saqarTvelodan gayvanis procesSi misganCamorCenil dezertirTa nawili TbilisSi darCenilada xelosanTa rigebs Serevia. XVIII s-is germanelimogzauris iakob rainegsis cnobiT, bambakis qedebsada nayofier velebze cxovrobda xalxi, romelicTavs kazakTa STamomavlad Tvlida da amitomac maTidasaxlebis adgils uwodebdnen yazaxs. es adgiliborCalosgan (dRevandeli marneuli) md. xramiTgamoiyofoda (eTnosebi, 2008: 233).rusebis Camosaxleba saqarTveloSi XIX s.dasawyisidanve daiwyo, rodesac ruseTma 1801 w.aRmosavleT saqarTvelo miierTa. amis Semdeg ruseTiskolonialuri politikis mTavari sazrunavi gaxdasamxreTis sazRvrebis dacvisa da qarTveli xalxiserovnuli daumorCileblobis aRkveTis mizniT adgilzesaimedo Zalebis damkvidreba. jer mTavarmarTebelmapavle cicianovma daiwyo samxedroebis Camosaxleba.kazakTa regularuli polkebi idgnen aRmosavleTsaqarTvelos sxvadasxva punqtebSi, maT Soris _ qvemoqarTlSi. jer TbilisSi da rig sxva qalaqebSiganlagdnen samxedro nawilebi, SemdegSi _ periferiebSic,mag., sof. manglisSi. dasawyisSi ZiriTadadsamxedro pirebi ganagebdnen administraciul dawesebulebebs,SemdgomSi Seiqmna samoqalaqo mmarTvelobarusuli personaliT. XIX s. mTel manZilze da XXs-is dasawyisSi sxvadasxva gzebiT xdeboda rusebis,ukrainelebis, belorusebisa da sxva erovnebaTawarmomadgenlebis damkvidreba Cvens qveyanaSi.samxedro da samoqalaqo moxeleebi ZiriTadadqalaqebSi dasaxldnen. rusi jariskacebi, romlebicxangrZlivi drois manZilze ixdidnen savaldebulosamsaxurs, demobilizaciis Semdeg, xelisuflebisSors gamiznuli CanafiqriT, adgilze rCebodnensacxovreblad. maT ufleba eZleodaT ojaxebi SeeqmnaTda samxedro nawilis axlos maTTvis gamoyofilmiwaze damkvidrebuliyvnen. aseTi dasaxlebebi Tanda-Tan soflebad iqceodnen, mag., ulianovka _ qvemoqarTlSi; rusebi damkvidrdnen manglisSi, TeTrwyaroSi,walkaSi, gardabanSi da sxv. (jaoSvili, 1984:229-230; eTnosebi 2008: 224).didi raodenobiT rusi Camosaxlda saqarTveloSime-19 saukunis 40-iani wlebidan. rogorccnobilia, mefis ruseTis xelisuflebis 1837 wlisbrZanebulebiT, 1841 wlidan ganxorcielda rusiseqtantebis (duxoborebi, skobcebi, malaknebi da sxv.)62 63


gasaxleba ruseTidan. maT Soris yvelaze mravalricxovaniiyo duxoborTa seqta. maTi umetesobajavaxeTSi daasaxles (8 sofeli), nawili _ qvemoqarTlSi, axlandel q. dmanissa da sof. vakeSi.1846-1852 ww. duxoborTa 136 ojaxma Tavadorbelianisagan miwa ijariT aiRo _ 20 wliT. maTiseqtis warmomadgenelTa ukanaskneli jgufi 1875 w.Camosaxlda; 1886 wlisTvis saqarTveloSi 6,6 aTasirusi duxobori cxovrobda (konfliqturi, 1998;eTnosebi, 2008: 229 _ 231).dmaniseli duxoborebis ramdenime aTeuli ojaxiXX s-is 90-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi mimdinarepolitikuri movlenebis Semdeg ruseTSi gadasaxlda.Cveni informatorebis TqmiT, marTalia, isini “erovnulimoZraobis” dros wavidnen aqedan, magram aravisuTqvams maTTvis `wadiTo”. katia bludova azustebs:`me yovelTvis vmuSaobdi, aravis gavugdivar, axla kiaravis vWirdebi”. q. dmanisSi amJamad 9-10 ojaxiadarCenili, daaxloebiT 30-mde moxuci (an xnieri)adamiani. 2002 wlis administraciul-teritoriuliaRweris monacemebiT dmanisis mTeli mosaxleobis(28034) raodenobidan mxolod 0,3%-ia rusi mosaxle,maT Soris _ duxoborebi. Cveni _ eTnologebismuSaobis Sedegebma aCvena, rom dmanisis raionis(munici paliteti) rusebis umravlesoba adgilobrivTacolebia, romelnic integrirebulni arianqmrebis garemoSi, xolo maTi Svilebi ruseTSicxovroben da ukan dabrunebas ar fiqroben.saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002 w. aRweris SedegebismixedviT qvemo qarTlSi sul 6464 rusiaRiricxeba; aqedan rusTavSi cxovrobs 3563, dmanisisr-nSi _ 156, marneulis r-nSi _ 523, TeTriwyaros r-nSi_ 689, walkis r-nSi _ 125. calkeul sofelSi maTiricxovnoba ase gamoiyureba:1. bolnisis r-nis sof. foladaurSi mosaxleobis16%-s Seadgenen rusebi (495 suli); umetesi nawilicxovrobs q. bolnisSi.2. gardabnis r-nis mTeli mosaxleobis (114358)0,7% Seadgenen rusebi; maTi mcirericxovnobis gamo,sofelTa mosaxleobis aRweris SedegebSi miTiTebulniar arian. ZiriTadi nawili rusebisa q. gardabanSicxovrobs.3. aseve ar aris rusebis raodenoba miTiTebulidmanisis raionis soflebis mixedviT. aRniSnulia,rom dmanisis r-nis mTeli mosaxleobis (28034) 0,3%rusebia.4. TeTriwyaros r-nSi mTeli mosaxleobis (25354)0,5% rusia. sofelTa mixedviT aRweris SedegebSi,mxolod sof. algeTSia miTiTebuli rusebis raodenoba_ soflis mTeli mosaxleobis (256 kaci) 25%.5. marneulis r-nis mTeli mosaxleobidan (118221)rusia 523 adamiani. sofelTagan aq ofreTSia dafiqsirebulirusebi _ soflis mosaxleobis (158) 8%.agreTve SulaverSi _ mTeli mosaxleobis (1787) 23%rusia.6. walkis r-nSi _ 20888 kacidan 125 rusia. sofel-Tagan mxolod axalikSi cxovroben rusebi _ soflismosaxleobis 112 kacidan 14%.zemoT motanili masalidan Cans, rom rusebisZiriTadi nawili cxovrobs q. rusTavSi da raionulcentrebSi. soflebSi umetesad, erTeulebia miTiTebuli.2008-2010 ww. miTiTebul raionebSi Cvens mierSekrebili eTnografiuli masalis mixedviT Cans, romsoflebSi mcxovrebi rusebi ZiriTadad adgilobrivTameuRleebia (Ciqovani, 2008_2010).ukrainelebi. zemoT miTiTebul periodebSi igivemeTodebiT moxda ukrainelebis Casaxleba saqarTveloSi,kerZod, qvemo qarTlSi. maTi raodenoba didiar iyo, amitom mosaxleobis 2002 w. aRweris masalebSicalkeuli raionuli (munici paluri) centrisa da64 65


soflis ukrainuli mosaxleobis ricxovnoba ar arismiTiTebuli (rogorc es aris sxva erovnebebTandakavSirebiT). cnobarSi motanilia qvemo qarTlSimosaxle ukrainelTa saerTo raodenoba zogadad _527; aqedan, rusTavSi cxovrobs 395, bolnisis r-nSi _14, gardabnis r-nSi _ 69, dmanisis r-nSi _ 7, marneulisr-nSi _ 29, TeTriwyaros r-nSi _ 14, walkis r-nSi _ 3(saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002, II, 2003) (Tumc, dReisaTvismaTi realuri ricxvi gacilebiT naklebia).osebi. qvemo qarTlSi mosaxleoben osebi(TviTwodeba _ ironi), romelTa winaprebi _ alanebisaxlobdnen Crdilo kavkasiis centralur velebze,xolo SemdegSi, monRolTa Semosevebis Sedegad (XIIIs-dan) iZulebulni gaxdnen, daetovebinaT aRniSnuliteritoria da damkvidrebuliyvnen CrdiloeT kavkasiismaRalmTianeTis xeobebSi.XVII-XVIII ss-dan ukve ikaveben qedis samxreTferdobebs, kerZod, saqarTvelos teritorias _ didida patara liaxvis, qsnis, aragvis, jejoris xeobebsada sxva teritoriebs Sida qarTlSi.XVII s-dan osebi ikaveben dasavleT saqarTveloserT-erT istoriul-eTnografiul kuTxes _kudaros, xolo XIX s-is bolodan da XX s-isdasawyisidan saxldebian zemo imereTSi (md. yvirilassaTaveebi) da zemo raWaSi (mdinarebis WanWaxis,Reburas, sontarulis zemo welSi).osebi TandaTan mkvidrdebian aRmosavleTsaqarTvelos barSi. 1922 wlis 20 aprils SeiqmnasabWouri e. w. samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqi.osTa migracia sabWoTa periodSi grZeldebodasaqarTvelos sxvadasxva qalaqebisa da kuTxeebisaken.Sesabamisad, osTa ricxovnoba izrdeboda avt. olqisgareT (1926-1979 wlebSi), gansakuTrebiT Tbilissa dagorSi. didi raodenobiT osi Casaxlda qvemo qarTlissamrewvelo-administraciul centrSi _ rusTavSi,sadac 1979 w. cxovrobda 4500 osi. ramdenime patarasofeli daafuZnes Sida qarTlidan migrirebulmaosebma qvemo qarTlSi _ TeTriwyaros r-nSi (jaoSvili,1984: 225-226).saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002 wlis aRwerisSedegebis mixedviT qvemo qarTlis mTeli mosaxleobidan(497530) osia _ 2184; aqedan, rusTavSi mTelimosaxleobidan (116384) cxovrobs 1410 osi, bolnisisr-nSi _ 80, gardabnis r-nSi _ 412, dmanisis r-nSi _ 12,marneulis r-nSi _ 47, TeTriwyaros r-nSi _ 205, walkisr-nSi _ 18 (saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002, I, 2003, 116).qvemo qarTlis soflis mosaxleobis ricxovnobaudris 311025, romelic dasaxlebulia 348sofelSi. 2002 wlis aRweris mixedviT gardabnisraionis mTeli mosaxleobis (114348) 0,4% osia _ 412kaci. magram sofelTa siaSi, sadac miTiTebuliayoveli soflis erovnuli Semadgenloba da raodenoba,osebi ar arian moxseniebulni; aseve ar arismoxseniebuli osebis arc dasaxlebis adgili, arczogadad ricxovnoba (bolnisis, dmanisis, marneulisda walkis raionis sofelTa siebSi), maSin rodesac,TeTriwyaros raionis mosaxleobaze meti osi _ 412miTiTebulia gardabnis raionSi da rodesac TeTriwyarosr-is sof. vakeSi mosaxle 10 kacidan 20%osia (saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002, II, 2003, 210).TeTriwyaros raionis 82 soflidan 5 sofelSiaosuri mosaxleoba miTiTebuli: 1. aleqseevkaSi(iragis Temi), romlis mTeli mosaxleobis _ 105 kacis15%-s Seadgenen osebi (cxovroben qarTvelebTan daberZnebTan erTad) da 2. sof. arxotis (SexvetilasTemi) 20 mosaxlis 90%-ia osebi (qarTvelebTan erTad);3. imave Temis sof. WinWrianis 29 mosaxlidan osia72% (qarTvelebTan erTad); 4. sof. gudarexis (CxikvTasTemi) 20 mosaxlidan 20%-ia osi; 5. sof. vakis (CxikvTasTemi) 10 mosaxlidan 17% osia (qarTvelebTan erTad).66 67


osebis umetesoba, rogorc Cvens mier SekrebilieTnografiuli masalebidan irkveva, raionul centrebSi(bolnisi, dmanisi, gardabani, marneuli, TeTriwyaro,walka) cxovrobdnen. soflebi dRes osebisgandaclilia.2008 wlis seqtemberSi eTnografiul eqspediciaSiyofnisas, Cven movinaxuleT TeTriwyarosramdenime sofeli, maT Soris sof. WivWavi, sadacekomigranti svanebi cxovroben. rogorc maTgangavigeT, 1986-1987 ww. maTi soflis mimdebare xevisgaRma, sof. zemo axalSenSi osebis 25 ojaxi, sof.ifnarSi ki _ 30 ojaxi cxovrobda. qeleSbi xabulianisTqmiT, ~rusma mefem ~perestroika” rom daiwyo (gulisxmobsm. gorbaCovs _ g. C.), Tan `zviadistoba” romdaiwyo, osebi q. cxinvalSi da Crd. oseTis q. orjonikiZeSigadasaxldnen. zemo axalSenSi osebis saxlebidaSlilia, sof. ifnarSi _ gayiduli. aq aWarelTa 3ojaxi Casaxlda, aqve cxovrobs erTi qarTveli(megreli) qali _ osis nacolari da sxva qarTvelebi.mTavrobam osebis kuTvnili miwebi gagviyo Cven (e. i.WivWavel svanebs) da sof. samRereTSi mcxovrebaWarlebs _ `es mxare Tqven, es _ Tqveno” da CvenvamuSavebT am miwebs. dava ar yofila da arc iqneba.yvelaferi normaluradaa” (Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010).mosaxleobis 2002 wlis aRweris SedegebismixedviT, TeTriwyaros r-is WivWavis Temis sof. zemoaxalSenSi mosaxleoba aRar aris (Sesabamis grafaSiCawerilia _ 0), xolo sof. ifnarSi _ qarTvelebis 18ojaxia miTiTebuli (saqarTvelos mosaxleobis, II,2003: 210).Cveni masalebis mixedviT, osTa sxva soflebidanacmravali osia migrirebuli CrdiloeT oseTSi.2008-2010 ww. qvemo qarTlis raionuli centrebidanacgasaxlda mravali osuri ojaxi. q. bolnisSimcxovrebi qarTvelebis informaciiT, ~qalaqSimravlad cxovrobdnen osebi. umetesoba q. orjoni-kiZeSi wavida. Cveni xalxic (anu, qarTvelebi _ g. C.)bevrs aSavebda. zurab qarqusaSvili gulnatkeni iyo,~Cemma klaselebmac ki scemes mamaCemio”. ~bolnisidanundodaT osebis gayra. aq osuri soflebi ar yofila,q. bolnisSi ki bevri osuri ojaxi iyo. axlac ariandarCenilebi da is zurabi Camodis naTesavebTan;TeTriwyaros r-Si osebi kidec daayaCaRes _ saqonelsarTmevdnen. axla siwynarea, aravis ar erCian” (Ciqovani,2008 _ 2010).amrigad, mosaxleobis 2002 wlis aRweris monacemebiqvemo qarTlSi mosaxle osebis Sesaxeb 2009-2010 ww. koreqtirebas moiTxovs.qurTebi. qvemo qarTlSi mcire raodenobiTmosaxleoben iezidebi (qurTebi). qurTebi (TviTwodebaqurdi, kurmanji) wina aziis uZvelesi xalxia;cxovroben iranSi, TurqeTSi, eraySi, siriaSi _ maTsacxovrebel teritorias ewodeba qurTistani. maTiena ganekuTvneba iranuli enebis dasavlur Stos.aRmsareblobiT ZiriTadad sunitebi arian, mcirenawili _ Siitebi, iezidebi, ali-ilahebi da sxva.rogorc cnobilia, 1514 w. qurTistani gainawilesiranma da TurqeTma; pirveli msoflio omis (1914-1918 ww.), Semdeg gaiyo 4 saxelmwifos (TurqeTi, irani,erayi, siria) Soris.1918 w. 3 martis brest-litovskis sazavo xelSekrulebiTmcire aziis aRmosavleTSi ruseTis yvelamonapovari TurqeTs gadaeca. am ukanasknelis teritoriazemcxovrebi im qurTebis devna daiwyo, romlebicruseTs uWerdnen mxars. ltolvili qurTebis Ziri-Tadma nawilma saqarTvelos moaSura (eTnosebi 2008:162-165). swored am periods, XIX s-is pirvel meoTxeds,ukavSireben qarTveli mecnierebi qurTebis saqarTveloSidamkvidrebas (jaoSvili, 1984: 234). Tumca,calkeuli qurTuli tomebis warmomadgenlebisgamoCenas saqarTveloSi, kerZod, mesxeTSi, XVIsaukuneSic hqonia adgili. XIX s-is 80-ani wlebis68 69


meore naxevarSi Tbilisis guberniis axalqalaqis,axalcixisa da borCalos mazrebSi 3000 qurTi,quTaisis guberniaSi _ aWaraSi _ 839 cxovrobda.qurTebis umetesi nawili damkvidrda TbilisSida Caeba komunalur meurneobaSi. isini cxovrobenagreTve kaxeTSi (TelavSi), aWaraSi. Sromoben savaWroda komunalur warmoebaSi; mravali qurTi ewafebaganaTlebas da moRvaweobs samecniero da kulturulsferoSi (eTnosebi, 2008; jaoSvili, 1984; 234).qurTebis religia ezidizmia, romelic maTiTviTmyofadobis SenarCunebaSi gadamwyvet rolsTamaSobs. magram sirTule imaSia, rom saqarTvelosqurTul mosaxleobasa da inteligenciaSi dRemdever Camoyalibda saerTo azri imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogormoixsenion eziduri religiis mimdevari qurTebi _qurTebad Tu iezidebad. am sakiTxze grZeldebamsjeloba. amis Sedegia is, rom mosaxleobis aRwerissxvadasxva etapze gansxvavebul formulirebebsvxvdebiT; isini xan qurTebad arian moxseniebulni,xan _ iezidebad. 1926 wlis mosaxleobis aRwerismixedviT qurTebi da iezidebi cal-calke, erTamne-Tisgan gamijnulad aRiricxebodnen _ sul 10217qurTi da 22652 iezidi cxovrobda saqarTveloSi.1939 w. aRweris Semdeg iezidebi qurTebTan erTadaRiricxebodnen da maTi raodenoba udrida 1939 w. _12 915, 1959 w. _ 16 212 qurTi, 1970 w. _ 20 690, 1979 w. _25 688, 1989 w _ 33 331 qurTi. 2002 wlis mosaxleobisaRwerisas iezidTa tradiciebis centris `nazibunis”moTxovniT qurTebi calkea aRricxuli, iezidebi _calke. pirvelTa raodenoba saqarTveloSi udris2514, iezidebisa _ 18329 suls (saqarTvelos mosaxleobis2002, I, 2003, gv. 110; saqarTvelos mosaxleobis,2004, 56; eTnosebi, 2008, 172).rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, qurTebi XIX s-is 80-iani wlebis bolos cxovrobdnen qvemo qarTlSic(borCalos mazra).XX saukunis I meoTxedidan moyolebuli isiniaRiricxebian, magram calkeuli kuTxeebis mixedviTar aris dazustebuli monacemebi.saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002 w. aRweris SedegebisadmimiZRvnil cnobarSi (2003 w. t. I) raionebismixedviT monacemebi (cxrili 20) aseTia: qvemoqarTlis erovnebaTa mixedviT gardabnis r-nSi _ 162iezidi cxovrobs, marneulis r-nSi _ 6 iezidi, walkisr-nSi _ 2. rusTavSi _ 293 (dmanisis, bolnisisa daTeTriwyaros r-nebSi ar arian iezidebi).2003 w. amave cnobaris II tomSi qvemo qarTlisraionebis sofelTa siebia mocemuli. qvemo qarTlisarc erT sofelSi iezidebi ar arian miTiTebulni,qurTi ki _ mxolod TeTriwyaros sof. algeTSifigurirebs _ soflis mTeli mosaxleobidan (256kaci) 16% qurTia. amrigad, Tu saqmeSi Cauxedaviadamiani endo erT-erT cnobars, sruliad Seusabamomonacemebs miiRebs, miT umetes, rom raionebiscalkeuli punqtebis mosaxleobis ricxovnobis nawilSimxolod erovnebaTa procentuli raodenoba dacalkeul sofelTa mosaxleobis raodenobaa miTiTebuli.iqve, arc raionuli centrebis, arc sakrebuloTacentrebis mosaxleobis raodenoba calke ar arisdazustebuli.afxazebi, qistebi, boSebi. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis2002 wlis aRweris Sedegebis mixedviT, qvemoqarTlSi mcire raodenobiT mosaxleoben afxazebi.mTeli mosaxleobidan (497530) aq maTi ricxovnobaudris 183-s; aqedan, q. rusTavSi cxovrobs 44 afxazi,bolnisis r-nSi _ 35, gardabnis r-nSi _ 48, dmanisisr-nSi _ 9, marneulis r-nSi _ 29, TeTriwyaros r-nSi _16, walkis r-nSi _ 2; sofelTa siebSi maTze araferiamiTiTebuli. savaraudod, afxazebi, q. rusTavis garda,cxovroben raionul centrebSi.2002 wlis mosaxleobis aRweriT qvemo qarTlSifiqsirebulia 22 qisti: q. rusTavSi _ 15 kaci;70 71


gardabnis r-nSi _ 6, marneulis r-nSi _ 1; danarCen 4raionSi qistebi ar cxovroben.qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze mcxovrebi boSebioficialur monacemebSi ar arian miTiTebulni.mTxrobelTa (soflebis javaxis, TamaraSenis,gamarjvebis da sxv.) gadmocemiT, XX s-is 40-ian wlebSidmanisis teritoriaze `cignebi” (boSebi) momTabareobdnen.amJamad boSebi cxovroben sof. TamaraSenSi(marneulis raioni) da sof. gamarjvebis teritoriaze(gardabnis r-ni).q a r T v e l e b iqvemo qarTlSi qarTvelebis mateba XVIII s-isbolodan iwyeba (ufro metad XIX s-dan, rodesacruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi moqceul saqarTveloSiucxotomelTa TareSi Sewyda). Cvens mier SekrebilieTnografiuli masalebiT irkveva, rom aRniSnulperiodSi qvemo qarTlSi saqarTvelos sxvadasxvakuTxidan sakuTari nebiT gadmosaxlebuli ojaxebimkvidrdebian. amis magaliTad gamodgeba giorgioqriaSvilis ojaxis istoria: dmanisis raionis sof.javaxis (yofili bija) 1935 w. dabadebuli mcxovrebisgiorgi oqriaSvilis (dediT menTeSaSvili) gadmocemiT,misi winaprebi javaxeTis axalqalaqis r-is sof.gogaSenSi (varZiis axlos) cxovrobdnen. papismonaTxrobiT gaugia, rom aRa-mahmad-xanis Semosevismere (rodesac qvemo qarTli mosaxleobisgandaclila) bevri gadasula qvemo qarTlSi. mTxroblissityvebiT, ~Cveni xalxi mTis xalxi iyo da ~zeiTwasulan” _ dmanisisaken _ maRlobi adgilisken. sof.javaxis mopirdapire mxares adgils ~xazinagora”hqvia _ iqamde rom misulan, xedaven, batonebi modian.imaT gamoukiTxavT Cveni ambavi. batonebs uTqvamT:`zeiT rom axvalT sof. yaramSaa (axlandel sof.ganTiads erqva), iq gauxvevT da sof. mija rom aris,Cveni miwaa, iq dasaxldiTo”. es moxda Cemi papis papisdros. Cemi papa ki, 1903 w. (`erToba” rom iyo, maSin)TaTrebma mokles sof. araxlosTan (gaZarcvis mizniT,TbilisSi savaWrod mimavali). sof. mijaSi mosulebssofelSi mosaxle qarTveli aduaSvilebi, cixela-Svilebi daxvedrian (SemdgomSi Casaxlebulan yandia-Svilebi, javaxiSvilebi _ esenic javaxeTidan gadmosulebi~(Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010).sabWoTa saqarTvelos droindel qvemo qarTlSi_araqarTul garemoSi qarTvelebis dasaxlebis procesiXX s-is 40-iani wlebidan daiwyo, rasac im periodSixeli Seuwyo garkveulma viTarebam: sabWoTa kavSirgermaniisomis dros qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebigermanelebi, “rogorc arasaimedoni”, cimbirsa da SuaaziaSi gadaasaxles. maT datoves orsarTuliani,mansardiani saxlebi, produqtebiT, RviniT savsekasrebiT, saqonliT da sxv. gamoTavisuflebulisasoflo-sameurneo savargulebis aTvisebis aucilebloba,saqarTvelos mraval kuTxeSi mosaxleobismatebis Sedegad miwis farTobebis deficiti, aucilebelsxdida axali iniciativebi ganxorcielebuliyosaqarTveloSi da, kerZod, qvemo qarTlSi.bolnisis r-nis germanelTagan gamoTavisuflebulsaxl-karSi xelisuflebam Seasaxla qarTvelebi_ imerlebi da leCxumlebi (Cxaridan, Terjolidan),raWvelebi (qluxoris r-nis sof. Teberdidan).raWvelebma im periodSi daaarses sof. raWisubani(bolnisis r-ni).qarTvelebis (kerZod, imerlebis) Casaxleba qvemoqarTlis marneulis r-nSi ganxorcielda 1949-1954 ww.aq migrantebis dasasaxleblad specialurad gamoiyoTavisufali teritoria. xelisufleba organizaciasukeTebda adgilis SerCevas, mSeneblobas, migrantTaadgilze mowyobas, dasaqmebasa da sxva mraval Tanmdev72 73


sakiTxs. am procesSi CarTul migrantebs kargadaxsovT axal samosaxloze damkvidrebis yvela detali:gamoyofili teritoria moinaxules migrantTa warmomadgenlebma.gaTvaliswinebuli iyo ori soflisgaSeneba. gegmiuri dasaxleba erTi ZiriTadi, farTo(samanqane) quCis gaswvriv or mxriv CarigebulisaxlebiT iyo warmodgenili. irgvliv miwebi `sicxisganiyo gadamwvari, mere Cven avayvaveT” _ igonebeninformatorebi. saxlebi _ `patara qoxebi, ori oTaxiT,did STabeWdilebas ver axdenda, magram momavlisimedi gvqonda”. Camosaxleba etapobrivad iyo dagegmili.Camosuli migrantebis erTi nawili ukve mzasaxlebSi binavdeboda, mSenebloba ki grZeldebodaSemdegi jgufebisaTvis. damkvidrebis pirveli wlebimraval sirTulesTan iyo dakavSirebuli, rasacmaSindeli mTavroba didi gulisyuriT ekideboda. 83wlis mTxrobeli aleqsi samxaraZe, romelic 1954 w.Camosaxlda xaSuris r-nis sof. CorCanidan igonebs,rom xelisuflebis romelime warmomadgeneli TbilisidanyoveldRe Camodioda, TviT cekas pirvelimdivani vasil mJavanaZe da uSiSroebis ministri didyuradRebas aqcevdnen axali soflebis aSenebamowesrigebasda migrantTa yvela moTxovnas iTvaliswinebdnen.axalmosaxleebma yvelaferi, rac gaaCndaT(aveji, sursaTi, saqoneli da sxv.), Camoitanes axaladgilas da rodesac mowesrigdnen da momagrdnen,kolmeurneobaSi gaerTiandnen. mTxrobelTa TqmiT, ~aqZalian kargi miwaa, oRond morwyva sWirdeba, maSinarxebi gayvanili da moqmedi iyo, rac mTavaria, wyali_ ufaso. gavaSeneT baRebi, venaxebi, bostani. mereaviSeneT axali saxlebi (2-sarTuliani kapitaluriSenobebi) da gavmravldiT~. dRevandeli mdgomareobiT_ umuSevrobiT, usaxsrobiT, wylis maRali gadasaxadiTda sxva mravali problemiT, mosaxleobaukmayofiloa.imerlebisTvis gaSenebuli ori soflidan erTswereTeli ewoda, meores _ orjonikiZe. gasakviria,rom saxeli orjonikiZe sofels SerCa 2010 w-mde,vidre `marneulis municipalitetis administraciulierTeulebis (Temebi) da misi teritoriuli organoebisSeqmnis Sesaxeb” 2010 wlis 9 marts miRebuli#3/2 dadgenilebiT sof. orjonikiZes uwodes sof.saimerlo. 2002 w. mosaxleobis aRweris cnobarSisof. wereTelSi 2206 kaci cxovrobda (informatorebismixedviT _ 700-dea darCenili), sof. saimerloSi(Zv. orjonikiZe) _ 1470.migraciuli procesebis meore etapi qvemo qarTlSidaiwyo XX s. 80-iani wlebidan. saqarTvelos sxvadasxvakuTxidan (aWara, svaneTi) mosaxleobis masStaburigadmosaxleba qvemo qarTlSi ukavSirdeba stiqiurmovlenebs. dasavleT saqarTveloSi wyaldidobebis,mewyrebis, zvavebis, miwisZvris Sedegad dazaralebuli,usaxlkarod darCenili an didi saSiSroebis pirobebSimyofTa Svela, axali samosaxlos SerCeva aucilebelida gardauvali gaxda. garda amisa, aWaris mTianeTSi(da saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSic) mosaxleobisricxovnobis matebis Sedegad warmoqmnilma miwisfarTobebis deficitma ojaxebi umZimes mdgomareobaSiCaagdo. mravalsuliani ojaxebis (Zmebis,biZaSvilebis STamomavlebis_ monagris) gayra-gayofaar xerxdeboda. amitom sabWoTa saqarTvelos xelisuflebamgegmiuri Casaxleba ganaxorciela qvemoqarTlis dmanisis, bolnisis, marneulis, walkis, TeTriwyarosraionebSi. erT SemTxvevaSi, Tavisufal teritoriazewindawin Sendeboda saxlebi migrantebisTvis,meore SemTxvevaSi xdeboda gamoTavisuflebulisaxlebis Sesyidva xelisuflebis mier da gadacemaCamosaxlebulisTvis.1986-1987 ww. gansakuTrebulad tragikuliaRmoCnda zemo svaneTis mestiis r-nis Wuberis Temisada qvemo svaneTis lentexis r-nis Coluris Temi-74 75


saTvis: wyaldidobam da mewyerma gamoiwvia rogorcadamianTa msxverpli, aseve _ mravali ojaxis usaxlkaroddarCena. geologebis mier lentexis r-nissaSiSi zonebis Seswavlis Semdgom mxolod aTiodeojaxi gaiyvanes usafrTxo adgilas, danarCenebiTeTriwyaros r-is (qvemo qarTlis) sof. WivWavisteritoriaze daasaxles. mTxrobelTa gadmocemiT,es adgili triali mindori iyo. aq svani ekomigrantebisTvisaigo 100 orsarTuliani saxli. CamosaxlebulTapirveli nakadi ukve damTavrebul, garemontebulsaxlebSi Sesaxlda. 80-iani wlebis dasasrulsada 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, saqarTveloSiSeqmnili politikuri viTarebidan gamomdinare(erovnuli moZraoba, saqarTvelos damoukideblobisTvisbrZola, erovnuli mTavroba, putCi, mTavrobiscvla da sxv.), mSeneblobas yuradReba moaklda dameore etapze CamosaxlebulT TiTqmis daumTavrebeli,Seuminavi fanjrebiT Caabares saxlebi.axalgaSenebul sofels saxelwodeba ar gaaCnda.migranti svanebis gadmocemiT, saxeli maT SeurCies:`Cveni soflisken rom Semodixar, ager ivanovkisamosaxvevi da sasadiloc romaa, im adgils WivWavierqva. iqve tyeSi namosaxlaric Cans da saxlebisnangrevebicaa SemorCenili _ etyoba, warsulSi esiyo sof. WivWavi. Cvenc, mTelma sofelma, Cvensdasaxlebas WivWavi davarqviT, aqauri, Zveli soflissaxeli; aba, laSxeTs xom ar davarqmevdiT?” (Ciqovani,2008 _ 2010).toponimTa Serqmevis praqtikaSi xSirad xdebamosulTa mier maTi adreuli samosaxlos saxelwodebebisaxal samosaxloze garkveuli punqtisTvisSerqmeva. magram TeTriwyaros raionis sof. WivWavSiCamosaxlebulma svanebma axal sacxovriss, beduku-RmarTobis Sedegad gadaSenebuli soflis _ WivWavis,saxelwodeba aRudgines. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnaviis aris, rom soflis adgilis dedas pativi miages,rac Semdeg qmedebaSi gamoixata: qelesbi xabulianis(76 wlis _ 2008 w.) TqmiT, is pirveli iyo, vincsvaneTidan marto Camovida momavali dasaxlebisadgilis sanaxavad. mSenebloba mimdinareobda da aqvedarajad dauwyia muSaoba _ cxovrobda muSebisTvisgankuTvnil vagonSi. ~televizia movida~ _ gviyvebaigi _ ~miTxres: Sen xalxs uTxari, rom aqaurobamogewona da wamodiT-Tqo, rava ar momewoneboda,svaneTTan SedarebiT. iseT adgilas vcxovrobdiT _waleka wyalma yvelaferi didTovlobis mere, romdadna. ojaxebi gaaubedura wyalma, Senobebi ingreodada wyalSi vardeboda. CamovsaxldiT da kmayofilivarT. aq nasaxlarebi iyo maRal, lamaz adgilze, iqSindebi xarobda. adgili gavasufTave, gavTibe. mereavaSene qviT oTxkuTxedi patara nageboba _ eklesiasveZaxdiT. iq davasveneT xati da jvari. davdiodiTaRdgomas, agreTve, ~xatareSobas”. aq vloculobT, purimigvaqvs. es salocavi saxabulianosia _ Cven avaSeneT”(Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010). garkveuli xnis Semdeg, sof.WivWavSi eklesia aSenda.amJamad sof. WivWavSi dgas 75 saxli, maTSi kicxovrobs 120 ojaxi (ganayofi Zmebis) _ xabulianebi,gasvianebi, onianebi, zurabianebi, xvistanebi, pirvelebi,gabulianebi (lentexis r-nidan _ anu qvemo svaneTidanCamosaxlebulebi).ekomigrantebis erT-erTi masStaburi gegmiuriCasaxleba qvemo qarTlis dmanisis r-nSic ganxorcielda;1987 w. wyaldidobisa da mewyeris miermiyenebuli didi zianisa da zaralis Semdeg mestiisr-nis Wuberis Temis mosaxleoba q. dmanisis mimdebareTavisufal teritoriaze specialurad maTTvis agebulorsarTulian saxlebSi dabinavda. dasaxleba _urTierTperpendikularuli farTo quCebis gaswvrivCarigebuli saxlebi mimdebare sakarmidamo nakveTebiT_q. dmanisis uSualo gagrZelebas warmoadgens da mas`svanebis dasaxlebas” uwodeben.76 77


mestiis r-nidan gadmosaxlebulebs SemdgomSisxva kuTxeebidan wamosuli svanebic Seematnen. mag.,gudauTis r-nis sof. oTxaridan qarTul-afxazurdapirispirebas gamoridebuli niJaraZeebis ojaxmaaq saxli SeiZina (rogorc gadmogvces, am saxlSiaravin iyo Sesaxlebuli) (Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010).axali samosaxlos maxloblad, maRal gorakze,svanebma sasaflaosTvis teritoria Semoakaves damis centrSi wm. giorgis saxelobis patara eklesiaaages. soflebis _ latalisa da eceris wm. giorgiseklesiebis qvebic wamoiRes da aq daabrZanes. svane-Tidan wamoRebul eklesiis qvas svanurad uwodeben~miCa nawi (li)”-s. eklesias svanuri koSkis msgavsidaboloeba aqvs, romelsac aqaurma svanebma ~eklesiisgumbaTi” uwodes; xolo svanuri koSki eklesiisgverdiT dgas. mraval saflavzec patara svanurikoSkia agebuli. SemdgomSi, rodesac qvemo qarTlismravali sofeli moviareT, vnaxeT rom, sadac ki svanebiarian Casaxlebulni, im teritoriis Sesasvlelsa TumisadgomebTan, yvelgan svanuri koSkia aRmarTuli.aseve, yvelgan, saflavebze patara koSkebi dgas,micvalebulis saxelze dasanTebi sanTlebisTvisgankuTvnili niSebiT. es yvelaferi imaze mianiSnebs,rom svanebs sulierad ar miutovebiaT mama-papaTasamyofi _ svaneTi. svanebis ganmartebiT, ~sasaflaozekoSkis ageba maTi tradiciuli wesi ar yofila~ _es axal viTarebaSi Tavis damkvidrebis cdaa. Cven,~saflavze nagebobis aSenebis wesi megrelebisgangadmoviReT, samegrelo CvenTan (e. i. svaneTTan _ g. C.)axlosaa; imaT saflavebze oTaxebic ki aris aSenebulisuraTebiT, xatebiT, sanTlebiT, saWmelsasmeliTacki. svanuri saflavis koSkis niSSimxolod wyali dgas _ mwyurvali dalevs. svaniWirisufali qali arasodes ar kioda warsulSi,TavSekavebuli iyo. axla daiwyes Cvenma qalebmackivili _ esec megrelebidan gadaiRes” (Ciqovani, 2008_2010).gasuli saukunis 80-ian ww. aWarelTa didijgufis gegmiuri Casaxleba ganxorcielda TeTriwyarosr-nis sof. samRereTSi, sadac maT daxvdaTqarTvelebi, somxebi, ~TaTrebi” (azerbaijanelebi).migrantebma specialurad maTTvis aSenebuli saxlebidaikaves; gvian Camosulebma ki somxeTsa da ruseTSigadasaxlebuli somxebisgan SeiZines saxlebi. amaveperiodSi, saxelmwifos gegmiuri programis farglebSi,xulos r-nis sof. dioknisidan gadmosuliaWarlebi unda Casaxlebuliyvnen javaxeTis aspinZisr-nSi, magram garkveuli winaaRmdegobis (somxebismxridan) gamo, nawilma arCia TeTriwyarosa da walkisraionebSi damkvidreba (mag., maT miekuTvnebian TeTriwyarosraionis sof. ifnarSi mcxovrebi aWaruliojaxebi. saxli da sakarmidamo nakveTi maT adgilobrivebisganSeisyides).1991 w. kvlav didi ubedureba daatyda dasavleTsaqarTvelos _ miwisZvrebma, wyaldidobebma Tumewyrebma mraval regionSi mosaxleobis saxl-karida savargulebi gaanadgura. ase moxda raWaSi, imereTSi,leCxumSi, svaneTSi (imereTSi md. yvirilas xeobaSimdebare osebiT dasaxlebuli sofeli xaxieTi gadmowolilmamTam mTlianad STanTqa. misgan aRaraferidarCenila). saSuri iyo dazaralebuli mosaxleobisdabinaveba. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirobebSimigraciuli procesebis axali talRis azvirTebas,axali realobac ganapirobebda: 1. istoriul samSobloSidabrunebis msurvelTaTvis gaadvilda qveynidangasvla; 2. ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebismizniT aTasobiT qarTvelma Tu araqarTvelma miaSuramsoflios xuTive kontinents. gansakuTrebiT berZenTadidi nakadi daiZra istoriuli samSoblosaken (walkisda sxva raionebidan), rusma seqtantma duxoborebma78 79


useTisken ibrunes piri _ gamoTavisuflda mravalisaxli, romelTa nawilic merab kostavas fondmaSeiZina qarTuli ojaxebisaTvis.1991 w. aWareli ekomigrantebis organizebuliCasaxlebis cda iyo javaxeTSi, kerZod, ninowmindisraionSi. magram adgilze mcxovrebma somxebma iseTiaqtiuri winaaRmdegoba gauwies am aqcias, rom umravlesobamdatova iqauroba; nawilma samcxis soflebs,nawilma ki _ walkisa da TeTriwyaros raionebsmiaSura. javaxeTSi damkvidreba aWarelTa mxoloderTma jgufma SeZlo da dResac myarad saxlobensof. spasovkaSi.aRniSnuli movlenebis Sedegad, xulosa da qedisraionebidan javaxeTSi gadmosaxlebuli aWarlebisnawili TeTriwyarosa da walkis raionebSi aRmoCnda.saxelmwifos ZalisxmeviT, 1998 w. aWarlebiCasaxldnen walkis r-is soflebSi xandosa dagumbaTSi. mTxrobelTa gadmocemiT, ~ori wlismanZilze aqac gawev-gamoweva iyo aWarlebsa da yizilqilisasada gumbaTSi darCenil somxebs Soris, isiniwinaaRmdegni iyvnen Cveni aq dasaxlebisa, magram ukanver dagvaxevines” (Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010).2003 w. walkis r-nis sof. Si piakSi Caasaxleszvavebis Sedegad dazaralebuli xulos raionisRorjomis Temis soflebidan wamosuli aWarlebis30 ojaxi, sofel beSTaSenSi _ 20 ojaxi, sofeljinisSi _ 120 ojaxi (120 saxli, romelSic ojaxebismeti raodenoba cxovrobs). aWaris Suaxevis r-nissof. Walidan wamosulebi Caasaxles walkis r-nissof. yara-yomSi _ 70 ojaxi, maT garda aq svanebia _7 ojaxi, berZnebi _ 3, azerbaijanelebi _ 2. sof.gunia-yalaSi _ ramdenime aWaruli ojaxia. sof.qariaqSi _ 72 ojaxi (5 berZ. ojaxia, ramdenime _svanuri).2006 w. xulos raionis sof. mekeiZeebidan (RorjomisTemi) aWarlebi gadasaxldnen walkis r-nis sof.xadikSi. maT aq adre Casaxlebuli aWarlebi daxvdnen.amJamad sul 80 aWaruli ojaxi cxovrobs. nawilmaiyida saxli, nawilma pirobiT daikava saxl-kari(moTxovnisTanave unda dacalon bina).1998 w. migraciuli procesebi grZeldebodasvaneTidanac (rogorc aRvniSneT, am wels javaxeTSiCasuli svanebi somxebma ar SeuSves). zemo svaneTissoflebidan latalidan da eceridan ltolvilniCasaxldnen sof. xadikSi (adre aq 11 svanur ojaxsucxovria). am sofelSi 22 svanuri ojaxi dabinavda:jorguani, kviciani, Tamliani da sxv. nawili berZnebmagarkveuli pirobebiT SeuSves saxlSi (pirvelivemoTxovnisTanave daclidnen saxls, an nel-nelagadaixdidnen safasurs, berZenTa ojaxis wevrebissaflavebs mouvlidnen da a. S.). migrantTa nawiliTviTneburadac Sedioda saxlSi (rodesac adgilzearavin xvdeboda) im imediT, rom mepatronis gamoCenisTanaveSeTanxmdebodnen.2003 w. svanebi Casaxldnen walkis r-nis sof.gunia-yalaSi, qariaqSi, beSTaSenSi.svanebi dasaxldnen gardabnis r-nis sof.lemSvenieraSi, marneulis r-nis s. sionis maxlobladaq maT 20 aSenebuli saxli daxvdaT (2009 w. 3-Si aravincxovrobda). eklesia aaSenes svanebma.rogorc zemoT motanili masalidan Cans, gasulisaukunis 40-50-ian wlebSi ganxorcielebuli gegmiuriCasaxlebebi qvemo qarTlSi organizebulad damigrantebis axalmosaxleobasTan dakavSirebuliyvela moTxovnis gaTvaliswinebiT xdeboda. aseve,dagegmili proeqtis mixedviT ganxorcielda ekomigrantebisCasaxleba da mowyoba 80-ian wlebSic (sofebiwereTeli, orjonikiZe, WivWavi da sxv.). 1991 wlidanmoyolebuli dRemde, saqarTvelo didi sirTuleebiswinaSe aRmoCnda (damoukideblobisaTvis brZola,samoqalaqo omi, putCi, separatistuli moZraobebiafxazeTsa da e. w. samxreT oseTSi, ekonomikuri sidux-80 81


Wire, aTasobiT ltolvili, aTiaTasobiT qarTvelisemigrireba ucxoeTSi, umuSevroba, 2008 w. agvistosruseT-saqarTvelos omi da sxva mravali problema),rasac ekologiuri katastrofebi daemata. Sedegad,migraciuli procesebis marTva garTulda, magramaxalmosaxleTa gulistkivils xSir SemTxvevaSi iwvevsmaTdami usulgulo da usamarTlo damokidebulebaxelisuflebisa da adgilobrivi administraciismxridan.Tavdapirvelad svanebisa da aWarlebis Casaxlebaqvemo qarTlSi organizebulad xdeboda_xelisufleba Tavis Tavze iRebda transportirebis,saxlebiTa da miwis nakveTebiT uzrunvelyofisxarjebs; saberZneTSi berZnebis masiuri emigrirebisSemdeg mTavrobam ekomigrantebisTvis SeiZina maTisaxlebi. pirvel etapze berZnebi nebayoflobiT iafadyiddnen saxlebs. amdenad, CamosaxlebulTa adreulijgufebi (90-iani wlebisa) dakmayofilda sacxovrebliT.ukanasknel wlebSi, rodesac saberZneTSi gamgzavrebulebiiq damkvidrdnen, ekonomikurad momagrdnen;amave dros, 2005 w. saqarTvelos xelisuflebam ormagimoqalaqeobis kanoni miiRo, saxlebi da sakarmidamonakveTebi wasulebs kerZo sakuTrebaSi daukanondaT,berZnebma gadaifiqres saxlebis gayidva (rogorcCans, momavalSi gaZvirebis molodiniT), an gaaormagesgamosasyidi fasi. xelisuflebam an SeaCera sacxovreblebisSesyidva, an naxevari fasi gadaixada imimediT, rom axalmosaxleebi TviTon daamatebdnenTanxas. xelisuflebisagan daimedebuli da gulmocemuliekomigrantebi qvemo qarTlis sxvadasxvaraionSi an ukve Camosulebi iyvnen, an moemarTebodnenaWarisa da svaneTis maRalmTianeTidan.2008 wlisaTvis CamosaxlebulTa mxolod 8-10%miiRo saxelmwifos mier Sesyiduli saxlebi_dabinavda 80-100 ojaxi. informatorTa miTiTebiT ki,aWaridan migrirebuli 2500-3000-mde ojaxia walkisr-nSi (daaxl. 6000 suli), svaneTidan _ 300 ojaxi.umravlesobisTvis saxelmwifos mier gamoyofili 2700dolari sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda saxlis Sesasyidadda vinc SeZlo danarCeni 2500-2700-2800 dolaris Sovna,didis vai-vaglaxiT gaistumra vali (gayides Camoyvanilisaqoneli da avejic ki). ise, rom, xelisuflebismier Sepirebuls _ ojaxze TiTo Zroxas gaCuqebTo,sakuTaric ar SerCaT.aWaris mTianeTSi umiwobiT gatanjuli adamianebi,ukve walkis r-nSi Camosulebi, zog SemTxvevaSi,saerTod, quCaSi aRmoCndnen. zogma axlobelTanSeafara ojaxi, nawilma (da sakmaod didma raodenobam)moaxerxa berZnebTan SeTanxmeba (an piradad, Tu jerkidev adgilze cxovrobdnen isini, an naTesavmezoblebissaSualebiT). pirobebis Tanaxmad, Sesaxlebulinawil-nawil ixdida Tanxas da asrulebdaberZnis saTxovars _ miexedaT maTi gardacvlilinaTesavebis saflavebisTvis (aseTi Txovna xSiri iyo).meore saxis SeTanxmeba iTvaliswinebda Semdegs:berZnis saxl-kariT, saxlSi arsebuli yvela danatovariTqarTveli migranti isargeblebda, mouvlida,magram berZeni mepatronis pirvelive moTxovnisTanavesaxls ukan daubrunebda. aseTi SeTanxmebac mravaljerSemdgara, magram am SemTxvevaSi didia sadardebeli_ `uvli miwas (saxlis mepatronis kuTvnils),anoyiereb, ixarjebi da rom aRar SegrCes, raRa azriaqvs? magram, kaci imediT cxovrobs) iqneb Seisyido”_ gveubneba informatori (Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010).82 83


qvemo qarTlis toponimikazemoT araerTxel iTqva, rom mravali saukunismanZilze dampyrobelTa mier qvemo qarTlSi ganxorcielebulmaomebma adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobisnawili amowyvita, nawili ki aiyara da saqarTvelossxvadasxva kuTxeebSi (umetesad, mTianeTSi)gadasaxlda. qarTvelTa samkvidroze ucxotomelebidasaxldnen, ramac aramarto sruliad Secvala ammxaris demografiuli struqtura, aramed mTlianadamoZirkva qarTuli toponimika, anu Cveni mravalsaukunovaniistoriis metyveli sabuTi. rogorcn. berZeniSvili SeniSnavda, ‘miwiszeda, Tu wiaRiseulmaterialur xasiaTis naSTebs garda Cven winaSeaauracxeli masala, romelic Tavisi xarisxiT odnavadacar Camouvardeba sxva rigis wyaroebs. es arisadgilTa saxelebi (toponimika). mraval kuTxeSi essaxelebi gamqrala mosaxleobis amowyvetis gamo,toponimikuri tradiciac gawyvetila, da qveyanadamunjebula, sxvagan kidev axali da ucxo saxelebigaCenila, magram isic ki, rasac Cvenamde Zvelidroidanve mouRwevia, amourwyveli masalaa, _ metyvelida utyuari~ (berZeniSvili n, 1964: 358). didi mecnierises sityvebi zustad miesadageba qvemo qarTlSi SeqmnilviTarebas.sxvadasxva eTnikuri warmomavlobis mixedviTmosaxleobis gansaxlebis suraTi amJamindeli qvemoqarTlis mxaris 6 administraciul erTeulSi asegamoiyureba: dmanisis, bolnisis, gardabnis, marneulisraionebis (municipalitetebis) teritoriaze Warbobdada axlac mosaxleobis umravlesobas Seadgenenazerbaijanelebi (anu Turqulenovani elebisa daSemdgomSi azerbaijanis respublikidan 1926 w-dangadmosaxlebulTa STamomavlebi). rogorc zemoTiTqva, migrantTa Camosaxlebis istoriasTan dakavSirebiT,aRniSnul teritoriaze mravlad dasaxldnensomxebi, romlebmac damoukidebeli soflebic Seqmnes.aqve XIX-XX saukuneebSi Casaxldnen germanelebi,rusebi da sxva mravali erovnebis warmomadgenlebi.qarTveloba aq sanTliT saZebari gaxda.qvemo qarTlis istoriul mxareTa Sorisyvelaze ufro gaucxoebuli mxare mosaxleobiT,toponimiiT iyo TrialeTi (berZeniSvili d., 2005: 330),sadac me-19 s-is I mesamedSi saerTod aRaravin cxovrobda,vidre mefis ruseTis xelisuflebis mier 1829-1830 ww. ar Camoasaxlebdnen TurqeTis erzrumisolqidan somxebsa da berZnebs.Camosaxlebulma migrantebma sruliad Secvalesadgilobrivi toponimika. qarTul soflebsa daSemorCenil saxl-karSi Sesaxlebulebma, umetesSemTxvevaSi, dasaxlebebs Searqves TavianTi Zvelisacxovreblebis saxelebi. meore SemTxvevaSi,adgilobrivi toponimi mosulebma Tavis smenasa daenobriv Taviseburebebs moarges da qarTuli toponimiise daamaxinjes, rom mis amocnobas specialuri kvlevadasWirda. am saqmeSi didi wvlili s. jiqias miuZRvis,romelmac aRadgina Zveli, mkvidri qarTuli saxelwodebebi,romlebic sxvadasxva enobriv koreqtivSiise gadasxvaferda, rom xSirad gaWirdeba misierovnuli saxeobis aRdgena. mag., s. jiqiam aRadginatoponimi sapitiaxSo, romelsac Semdeg migrantebigamoTqvamdnen rogorc sabudaxCo-s. mecnierma gaarkviawalkis r-is sof. gedaqlaris warmomavloba _ igikldekaris damaxinjebuli formaa (jiqia, 1958: 26;geografiul, 1965: 8). samwuxaroa is, rom dRes, rodesacqvemo qarTlis mravali Zveli toponimi aRdga,kldekari _ saqarTvelos istoriaSi cnobili saxelida adgili, kvlav gedaqlaris saxelwodebiT moixseniebawalkis r-is arjevan-sarvanis Temis sofelTasiaSi.toponimTa damaxinjebis, gardaqmnis mravalimagaliTidan kidev erTs moviyvanT: bolnisis r-is84 85


erT-erT nasoflars, sadac axla sazafxulo saZovrebia,adgilobrivi mosaxleoba uwodebs `sargina~-s. kobaxaraZis mier garkveulia, rom sargina igive sarkineTia.sof. sarkineTi axla dmanisis r-is sofelia (romelic1949 w-mde demirbulaxad iwodeboda _ g. C.) (xaraZe,1987: 238).axalmoSeneebi adgilobriv saxelwodebebszogierT SemTxvevaSi Taviseburad gaiazrebdnen,sakuTar enasTan msgavsebas miusadagebdnen. mag.,walkis r-is erT-erTi soflis aRmniSvneli saxelwodebabeSqenaSeni (romelic pirovnebis _ beSqenismier soflis SenebasTan _ dafuZnebasTanaa dakavSirebuliqarTuli tradiciiT) 1929 wels CamosaxlebuliTurqulenovani berZnebis meoxebiT, beSTaSenadiqca (beS _ Turq. _xuTia, TaS _ qva, aqedan `xuTiqva~, ufro zustad, beSqenaSeni, romelic mraval ZvelsabuTSia moxseniebuli), Turqulenovani mosaxleobismetyvelebaSi gamoiTqmis rogorc `beSTaS~, ~beSTa-Seni~ ki gaqarTulebuli formaa. k. xaraZis miTiTebiTdasaxlebuli punqti `beSTaS~ mdebareobda TurqeTiserzrumis vilaieTSi, saidanac movida aRniSnulimosaxleoba. `beSTaS~ xuT qvas, xuT kldes niSnavsda swori ar aris mosazreba, rom beSTaSeni beSqena-Senis damaxinjebuli formaa. ubralod saxelwodebebismimsgavsebasTan unda gvqondes saqme (xaraZe.Tb., 1972: 239). sxva SemTxvevaSi toponimebi iqmnebodagaregnuli niSnebis mixedviT. walkis r-nSi ediqilisadaeqva sofels, sadac 7 eklesia idga _ ediqilisa`7 eklesias aRniSnavs~, sof. Taqilisa _ niSnavs `erTeklesias (aq erTi bazilikis ti pis eklesiaa). wiTeliqviT nagebi eklesiis mixedviT sofels ewodayizilqilisa (romelic Semdeg daangries). Turquligeografiuli nomenklatura dRemdea SemorCeniliwalkis r-Si (Пашаева, 1977: 15, 87).qvemo qarTlis toponimikaze dausrulebladSeiZleba saubari, rac Sors wagviyvanda (am sakiTxebsCven ufro dawvrilebiT sxva dros SevexebiT). amjerad,sagangebod imas aRvniSnavT, rom XX s-is 30-iani wlebisdasawyisamde mTel qvemo qarTlSi (gansakuTrebiT,walkis r-nSi) qarTuli toponimis moZiebas didiZalisxmeva sWirdeboda. TiTo-orola magaliTi suraTsver cvlida. migrantTa mier qarTuli toponimebisadmiaseTi ubodiSo damokidebulebis mimarT yvelaCvenganis gulistkivili devi berZeniSvilma asegamoxata: `saocaria qvemo qarTlis soflebisistoriuli xvedri; viRas ar `uRvawia~ am upatrononasoflarebis mosaTxrelad~ (berZeniSvili d., 2005:59). es sityvebi mecnierma s. kirovisis (dRevandelisof. ifnari _ dmanisis r-ni) ZeglTa da toponimTakvlevis Sedegebs moayola. aRniSnuli sofeli md.yarabulaRis marjvena napirze mdebareobs s. saWidan(saja) 4-5 km-Si. aq arsebuli XI saukunis Zvelieklesiidan amJamad mxolod lodebiRaa darCenili_swored maTze SemorCenili ornamentebis, qvis svetzearsebuli da imave svetis meore mxareze 1929 w.gakeTebuli germanul-rusuli warweridan Cans, romaq Camosaxlebuli kolonisti germanelebisgansofels valdhaimi Serqmevia. 1929 w. amave rionSimcxovreb berZen qvis mTlelebs umuSaviaT, warweraSiTavianTi saxelebic ukvdavuyviaT. d. berZeni-Svils daudgenia, rom aRniSnul sofelSi germanelebisdamkvidrebamde TaTrebs ucxovriaT da maSinoromaSeni rqmevia; SemdgomSi TaTrebi aqedan odnavaRmosavleTiT mdebare qarTul nasoflarSi gadasaxlebulanda pirvelsacxovrisis saxeli _ oromaSeniSeurqmeviaT. amrigad, dRes es saxelwodeba sul sxvasofels ekuTvnis, rasac adasturebs 1905 w. xuTversianirukac, romelzec sof. baxCalaris samxreTdasavleTiTaRniSnulia `oromaSeni~, xolo samxreTaRmosavleTiTki _ `TaTrebis oromaSeni~ (berZeni-Svili, 2005: 59-60). amrigad, qarTuli soflis saxelwodebaoromaSeni Secvala erT SemTxvevaSi `TaTre-86 87


is oromaSenma~, meore SemTxvevaSi _ germanulmavaldhaimma. sabWoTa kavSir-germaniis omis drosgermanelebis Sua aziasa da cimbirSi gasaxlebisSemdeg sofels saxeli gadaerqva da ewoda kirovisi(1943 w. 5 agvistos). am bolo wlebSi sof. kirovissewoda ifnari.germanelTa mraval sxva dasaxlebas germanulitoponimi (qarTuli nasaxlarisTvis Serqmeuli),rusebisgan dasaxlebuls _ rusuli (da a. S.) cvlidada qarTuli, istoriuli tradiciuli toponimebidaviwyebas eZleoda.ase grZeldeboda XX s-is 20-iani wlebis bolomde.1931 wlidan sabWoTa saqarTvelos pirobebSi viTarebaSeicvala _ saqarTveloSi daiwyo toponimTa gadarqmevisaxali talRa. amjerad es ukavSirdeboda jersabWoTa kavSiris mesveurTa ambiciebs _ istoriul,adgilobriv saxelwodebebs cvlida sabWoTa kavSirisxelisufalTa gvar-saxelebi: mag., 1931 w. q. cxinvalsewoda q. staliniri, d. gegeWkori ewoda (1936 w. 19.3)sof. martvils, maxaraZe _ q. ozurgeTs (1934 w. 28.6)da sxv.rac Seexeba qvemo qarTls, aq 1932 wlidan daiwyodasaxlebebisaTvis maSin arsebuli saxelwodebebisSecvla, magram ara qarTulis, erovnulis gaTvaliswinebiT_ mag., sof. karatapas yaraia uwodes, sof.sarvans _ borCalo da sxv. rodesac sabWoTa kavSirgermaniisomis dros germanelebi gaasaxles cimbirsada Sua aziaSi, maTi dasaxlebebis germanuli saxelwodebebiSeicvala adrindeli, adgilobrivi toponimebiT(ix. qvemoT).1940-iani wlebis bolodan da gansakuTrebiT50-iani wlebidan daiwyo qarTuli istoriuli saxelwodebebisaRdgena. maTi CamonaTvali qvemoT arismoyvanili.qvemo qarTlis dasaxlebuli punqtebisTvissaxelwodebis Secvla daiwyo 1932 wlidan.1932 w. 22.12 barmaqsizs ewoda walka;1932 w. 22.12 karatapas ewoda yaraia (gardabnisr-ni);1932 w. 13.2 sarvans ewoda borCalo (marneulisr-ni);1932 w. 28.2 Sulavers ewoda Saumiani (marneulisr-ni);1942 w. 7.4 iakublos ewoda Capaevka (walkis r-ni);1943 w. 31.8 gofnustals ewoda axalSeni(gardabnis r-ni);1943 w. 5.8 valdheims ewoda kirovisi (dmanisisr-ni);1943 w. 3. 4. luqsemburgs ewoda bolnisi1944 w. 19.10 aRbulaRs ewoda TeTriwyaro;1944 w. traubenbergs ewoda Tamarisi (marneulisr-ni);1944 w. 31.8 traubentals ewoda ambartafa(gardabnis r-ni);1947 w. 18.3 baSkiCeTs ewoda dmanisi;1947 w. 18.3 borCalos ewoda marneuli;1947 w. 19.4 RorisTavs ewoda gudarexi (TeTriwyarosr-ni);1947 w. 18.3 yaraias ewoda gardabani (gardabnisr-ni);1948 w. gruntals ewoda ruisbolo (gardabnisr-ni);1949 w. 12.7 ambarlos ewoda ganaxleba (dmanisisr-ni);1949 w. 12.7 armuTlos ewoda pantiani (dmanisir-ni);1949 w. 12.7 busukalas ewoda qariani (dmanisisr-ni);1949 w. 12.7 gorunjuks ewoda maSavera (dmanisisr-ni);88 89


1949 w. 12.7 demurbulaxs ewoda sarkineTi(dmanisis r-ni);1949 w. 12.7 kaSkaTalas ewoda sakire (dmanisisr-ni);1949 w. 12.7 mamuTlos ewoda mTisZiri (dmanisisr-ni);1949 w. 12.7 mamlosofels ewoda mamula (dmanisisr-ni);1949 w. 12.7 mijas ewoda javaxi (dmanisis r-ni);1949 w. 12.7 qarTvelebis kaklians ewoda kakliani(dmanisis r-ni);1949 w. 12.7 qeivanbulgasons ewoda velispiri(dmanisis r-ni);1949 w. 12.7 yaraqliss ewoda vake (dmanisis r-ni);1949 w. 12.7 jaraiori ewoda gora (dmanisis r-ni);1951 w. 19.11 boRazqasans ewoda tyispiri (dmanisisr-ni);1951 w. 6. 9 CaTaxs ewoda foladauri (bolnisisr-ni);1953 w. 13.5 priuts ewoda orbeTi (TeTriwyarosr-ni);1955 w. 31.8 tatianovkas ewoda kalinino (gardabnisr-ni);1957 w. 30.9 budionovka-voroSilovkas ewodaalgeTi (TeTriwyaros r-ni);1957 w. 26.10 molotovos ewoda TrialeTi(walkis r-ni);1959 w. 3. 8 giaurarxs ewoda algeTi (marneulisr-ni);(saqarTvelos administraciul, 1966).1949-1954 w. w. marneulis r-nis Tavisufal teritoriazeori sofeli dafuZnda (imerlebi Caasaxles),romelTagan erTs ewoda wereTeli, meores _ orjonikiZe.gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebis bolodan dRemdebolnisis r-nSi dasaxlebul Semdeg punqtebs SeecvalaTsaxelwodebebi (an warmoiSva axali dasaxlebebi_ gaCnda axali toponimebi).bolnisis r-nis teritoriaze: yofil winwyalasjer uwodebdnen siskalas (araqarTvelTa gamoTqmiT),Semdeg oficialurad ewoda balaxauri.yof. qvemo gulavers ewoda geta;yof. demurlos (yof. qarTul xaxalajvars) _xaxalajvari;yof. migirlos _ vanaTi;yof. zemo qoSaqilisi _ zemo arqevania axla;yof. saralari _ zvareTi;yof. yaradaSi _ iwri;yof. saraClo _ mamxutia;yof. taStiyulari _ muxrana;yof. asmalari _ mwyneTi;yof. araxlo _ naxiduri;yof. yaraTiqani _ sabereTia;yof. imirasani _ savaneTiayof. safarlo _ samtredo;yof. faraxlo _ talaveri;yof. patara muRanlo _ farizia;yof. CaTaxi _ foladauri;yof. musofriani _ focxveriani;yof. qvemo qoSaqilisi _ qvemo arqevani;yof. qvemo gulaveri _ geta;yof. sarkineTi _ injaoRli _ Semdeg Suabolnisi;yof. qolagiri _ curtavi;yof. araqeli _ ZeZvnariani;yof. qoCulo _ Wapala;yof. ki pirjiki _ WreSi;yof. patara axmedlo _ xataveTi;yof. xatissofeli _ wiTelsofeli _ Semdegisev s. xatisofeli;90 91


yof. demurlo _ xaxaljvaria;yof. asanxojalo _ xidisyuria;yof. abdalo _ javSaniani.(saqarTvelos geografiuli, 2009).aseve, 1970-iani wlebidan gardabnis r-Si Secvlilitoponimebia:yof. axali ulianovka _ vaxtanisi (da aravaxtangisi _ 2009 w. orTografiuli leqsikoni);lemSveniera _ 1990-ian wlebSi svanebis mierdasaxlebuli sofelia;mzianeTi _ axali sofelia 1980-iani wlebidan;yof. sacxenhesi _ 1972 wlidan saakaZea;yof. leninisi _ qviSiani _ 1990-iani wlebidan.1970-iani wlebidan dmanisis raionSi Secvlilitoponimebi:yof. muRanlo _ guguTi;yof. irganCai _ s. irgani;yof. valdheimi _ kirovisi _ ifnari;yof. laklaSeni (d. berZeniSvilis mixedviTlaklakaSeni) _ amJamindeli sof. safarlo (aseveamiTiTebuli 1950-ian-2002 w.);dmanisis r-nis mravali toponimi Seicvala 1930-1950-ian wlebSi (ix. zemoT)TeTriwyaros raionSi dasaxlebuli punqtebisTvisaxali saxelwodebebiT Zveli toponimebis Secvla(an aRdgena) daiwyo gasuli saukunis 40-iani wlebidan:Zveli adgilobrivi toponimi algeTi komunistebmaSecvales saxelwodebiT budionovka-voroSilovka_ 1957 w. mas kvlav daubrunes Zveli saxeli _ algeTi.yof. s. RorisTavi _ 1947 w. 19.4-dan gudarexia.TeTriwyaro _ SemdegSi aRbulaRi _ 1940 w. 19.10-dankvlav daba TeTriwyaroa.yof. s. priuti _ s. orbeTia _ 1953 w. 13.5-dan.yof. s. WivWavi _ axali, svanebis mier aRdgenilisofelia gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolos.rogorc vxedavT TeTriwyaros raionSi 1940-50-ian wlebSi aRdgenili toponimebis raodenoba mcirea,radgan, rogorc Cans, umetesoba Zveli saxelwodebaa(an axali dasaxlebebis qarTuli saxelwodebebia).marneulis raionSi 1930-1950-ian wlebSi aRdgenilitoponimebis (ix. zemoT) Semdgom Secvlilisaxelwodebebia:yof. axyulari amJamad s. axyulaa;yof. mamai _ SemdgomSi kirovkaa;yof. orjonikiZe _ 1959-Si dafuZnebuli sofelia,romelic 2010 wlidan iwodeba saimerlod;yof. patara axmedlo _ axla xataveTia.marneulis r-ni ZiriTadad azerbaijanelebiTaris dasaxlebuli da mravali toponimi SenarCunebulia.(1930-1950 ww. Secvlili toponimebi ix. zemoT).walkis raionSi toponimTa cvlilebebi asegamoiyureba:yof. avranlos warsulSi Tezi ewodeboda;yof. farexa _ amJamindeli aSkala;yof. abano _ axaliki;yof. zemo axalSeni axlandeli baSqoi;yof. kldekari _ migrantTa gamoTqmiT axlaiwodeba rogorc gedaqlari;yof. Taq-qilisa _ gunia-yalaa amJamad;yof. sabatea _ daraqoi;yof. Tamalaxaraba _ axlandeli s. Tazaxaraba;yof. gvelfarexa _ kuSCi;yof. minqendi _ minsazqendi;yof. uwylo _ sanTa;yof. axalSeni iyo _ qariaqi;yof. eZena sofeli _ Si piaki.qvemo qarTlis toponimikis Seswavla istoriuleTnografiulida, cxadia, lingvisturi kuTxiTmomavalSic gagrZeldeba.92 93


qvemo qarTlis dasaxlebis struqturaqvemo qarTlis mxaris dasaxlebis formaze(topografiaze) dakvirvebam da literaturis gacnobamaCvena, rom qarTvelTa dasaxlebisa da SemdgomSi maTnasaxlarebze damkvidrebuli araqarTvelebis dasaxlebisforma erTgvari iyo (anu xevispiruli _ morwyvisaucileblobiT ganpirobebuli) qvemo qarTlis umetesnawilSi, TrialeTis zeganze metad gaSlili danaklebad xevispiruli, radgan aq morwyvis aucileblobanaklebi iyo). mTian adgilebSi mravlad iyomTis ferdobebze Sefenili, an mTis ZirebSi arsebulisoflebi; mosulTa yofa-cxovrebiTi moTxovnilebebiimave gamocdilebas daefuZna, rasac garemos misadagebuliempiriuli codna karnaxobda qarTvels da racmzamzareulad miiRes migrantebma. cnobilia, rom isiniqarTvelebisagan mitovebul nasoflarebsa da saxlkarSiSesaxldnen, amdenad, dasaxlebis forma Zvels(qarTuls) inarCunebda. mxolod mosaxleobis kontingentiicvleboda; ucxotomelebi erT SemTxvevaSiqarTvelebTan erTad, Sereulad cxovrobdnen (iq, sadacSemorCenili iyo qarTveloba). es, umetesad somexTaCamosaxlebis pirvel etaps, anu mravali saukuniswinandel viTarebas exeba. SemdgomSi isini sakuTardasaxlebebs afuZneben, gansakuTrebiT me-19 s-is mTelmanZilze (ix. zemoT _ somexTa Camosaxleba).mahmadiani elebi qarTvelebis gaJletisa dagandevnis xarjze isakuTrebdnen teritorias. maTidasaxlebebi eTnikuri niSniT gamoirCeoda. Sereulimosaxleoba _ qarTul-azerbaijanuli, somxurazerbaijanuli,aseve berZnebTan erTad _ gviandelimovlenaa _ XIX s. II naxevridan XX s.s. CaTvliT.gasul saukuneSi yarabaRis gamo azerbaijan-somxeTisdapirispirebam, cxadia, asaxva hpova azerbaijanelsomexTaganwyobaze, magram Ria dapirispirebas qvemoqarTlSi (da saerTod, saqarTveloSi) adgili arhqonia. erTi kia, bolo aTwleulSi garemigraciuliprocesebis gaZlierebis sxvadasxva mizezTa SoriserT-erTi azerbaijanuli mosaxleobis simravlispirobebSi, somxebisaTvis Seqmnili fsiqologiuridiskomfortia. amitomac, somxuri mosaxleobisricxovnoba klebulobs qvemo qarTlSi, miT umetesbolnisis r-nis azerbaijanelebiT dasaxlebulsoflebSi; iq sadac XIX s-Si somxuri soflebidafuZnda, dRes mxolod 2 sofelia somxuri _ kianeTida bolnisi. somxuri sofeli ar aris gardabnisada dmanisis raionebSi, arc sxvebTan erTad Sereuli.somxuri soflebia TeTriwyaros r-nSi: daReTi, xoloumetesoba mosaxleobisa somexia sof. did durnukSi.marneulis r-nSi somxebi cxovroben daba SaumianSi,axqerfSi, budionovkaSi, yirmizqendSi, norgiuRSi,gulbaRSi, xojorniSi azerbaijanelebTan erTad(Tumca bolo wlebSi maTi didi raodenoba wasulaam soflebidan). walkis r-nSi somxuri soflebia:aSkala, burnaSeTi, daraqoi, daSbaSi, aiazmi, nardevani,ozni, oliangi, yizilqilisa, winwyaro, xaCkoi,Tazaxaraba (2002 w. aRweris monacemebiT dRes somexTaraodenoba Semcirebulia).berZnebi cxovroben: mcire raodenobiT gardabnisr-nis sof. saakaZeSi (qarTvelebTan erTad); dmanisisr-nis sof. sakireSi (qarTvelebTan erTad). TeTriwyarosr-nis d. manglisSi, soflebSi patara da didiraga, aleqseevka, ivanovka, jigraSeni, abelTani,qosalari (qarTvelebTan erTad); marneulis r-nissof. ofreTSi (qarTvelebTan erTad); walkis r-SiberZnuli soflebia beSTaSeni, qariaqi, gunia-yala,ediqilisa, Tiqilisa, jinisi (2002 wlis oficialurimonacemebi). sinamdvileSi, berZnebis maqsimaluriumravlesoba gadasaxlebulia saberZneTSi.qvemo qarTlis danarCeni soflebis mcxovrebniqarTvelebi da azerbaijanelebia _ calke soflebadda Sereuladac. aqa-iq, mcire raodenobiTaa sxva94 95


erovnebis warmomadgenlebi (rusebi, osebi). amrigad,saqarTveloSi Camosaxlebuli ucxo erovnebis xalximosaxleobis kontingents cvlida, magram dasaxlebisforma ZiriTadad rCeboda (gamonakliss warmoadgendagermanuli dasaxleba_ ix. qvemoT).rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, migrantebi qarTvelebissaxl-kars iTvisebdnen adgilobrivTagan daclilnasoflarebSi.samecniero literaturidan cnobilia, rom mTelqarTlSi gavrcelebuli yofila (aseve, samcxejavaxeTSi)`miwur-baniani da erdoian-gvirgviniani”,anu `darbazuli ti pis” saxlebi, romlebic erT WerqveSaerTianebda did darbazs, sacxovrebels da sxvasaTavsebs _ gomurs (bosels), sabZels, Cardaxs dasxv. `darbazi” konusuri an gumbaTovani saxuraviTmTavrdeboda da erdodan (WerSi datovebuli Riobi)naTdeboda. aseTi saxlebi XIX s. mravlad aRuweriaTucxoelebs TbilisSic. mag., a. haqsthauzens, a. negris,m. mediCs da sxv. (Ciqovani. 1967). i. pantiuxovs XIX s.80-ian ww. Semouvlia Sida da qvemo qarTli, TviTZveli “dumanisi”-c, sadac jer kidev yofila Semor-Cenili darbazuli saxlebi (Пантюхов, 1896; Ciqovani,1967, 50). ~erdoian-gvirgviniani” saxlebi (`darbazuli,igive `erTobis saxlebi”) specialuri kvlevis sagnadgaixada T. Ciqovanma, magram mas dmanisisa da bolnisisraionebis am ti pis saxlebi ara aqvs aRwerili (Ciqovani,1967). i. partiuxovs Zvel “dumanisSi” daufiqsirebia,aRuweria da auzomia erdoian-gvirgviniani saxlebi,romlebic kompleqsur xasiaTs atarebda: darbazi (40-70 kv.m-sa), erT WerqveS gaerTianebuli sabZeli, boselida sxva daniSnulebis saTavsebi (И. Пантюхов, 1896).rogorc iTqva, ~darbazul” saxlebs ~erTobissaxlsac” uwodebdnen, radgan masSi ramdenime TaobiTwarmodgenili didi ojaxebi cxovrobdnen.dmanisisa da bolnisis raionebSi 2009 w. CvenimuSaobis dros, informatorebis umetesoba verafersigonebda `erdoian-gvirgvinian”, `darbazul” saxlebze.isini gvarwmunebdnen, rom am saxelwodebis saxlzearaferi gaugiaT da arc unaxavT. mxolod ramdenimeasakovanma mTxrobelma gaixsena `ubralod brtyelbanianimiwuri saxlis” arseboba. sof. javaxSi(dmanisis r-ni) mcxovrebma giorgi oqriaSvilma (dab.1935 w.) moigona, rom mis bavSvobaSi ramdenime aseTisaxli mdgara maT sofelSi. erT-erTi _ misi papis _saba oqriaSvilis miwurbaniani erToTaxiani nagebobaaSenebuli iyo qviT, zemoT, saxuravze miwa eyara;~saxli” dabali yofila; ~im erT oTaxSi buxarihqondaT; ojaxis yvela wevri erTad cxovrobda. winaivanic ar hqoniaT. es saxli idga soflis qvemonawilSi _ wm. giorgis sax. eklesiasTan” (Ciqovani,2008 _ 2010). amave soflis erTma mcxovrebma eTnologebiwagviyvana soflidan 2-3 km-is moSorebiT nasoflarisadgilze, sadac, rogorc mas axsovda, yvelasaxli brtyelbaniani da erdoiani yofila; ~xvreliqonda saxuravSi, saidanac naTdeboda saxli da boliciqidan gadioda” _ gvixsnida mTxrobeli (Ciqovani,2008 _ 2010).motanili masalis dasturad gamodgeba istoriis,eTnografiisa da arqeologiis institutis kavkasiiseTnografiis ganyofilebis 1966 w. zafxulSi dmanisisr-nSi Catarebuli eqspediciis muSaobisas Cven miermopovebuli eTnografiuli masalebi soflebidan:gomareTi, maSavera, bezaqlo, mamula, didi dmanisi,ukangori, taStiyulari, tanZia, qveSi. nagebobebisSesaxeb masala mogvawodes: artem marqarovma (90wlis), sergo svimoniSvilma (86 wlis) da sxva 50-65wlis mTxroblebma. yovel maTgans TviTonve ucxovriamiwurbanian (Tumca, erdo-gvirgvinians ver igonebdnen)saxlSi da dawvrilebiTac aRweren mas: ~erTi didioTaxi iyo. zogjer win derefanic hqonda (zogierTma~darbazic” uwoda _ g. C.). adamiani da saqonelierTad cxovrobda _ “oTaxi orad iyo gayofili _96 97


wina nawilSi adamianebi cxovrobdnen, meore, ukananawilSi saqoneli idga. oRond oTaxs ki araferiyofda, arc kedeli yofila, arc araferi. pirvelinaxevris orive mxares taxtebi iyo mTel sigrZeze _4 an 6 fexze dayrdnobili. ojaxis yvela wevri (Cven18 viyaviT _ ramdenime Zmis ojaxi) erTad wvebodataxtze; ufrosebi buxris axlos iwvnen, Semdeg _ufros-uncrosobiT. logini sul matylis gvqonda,baliSebi _ aucileblad batis bumbulisa (aseaaxlac). baliSebs jer miTeli hqonda gadakruli _`amerikas” eZaxdnen, zemodan ki _ feradi, Wreli CiTispirebi ekra” _ gviyveboda 65 wlis varsenika engibarovadmanisis r-nis sof. vardisubnidan. zogierTis TqmiT,~did sibinZureSi vcxovrobdiT da axla gvikvirs,amas rogor veguebodiT”. iyo saxlebi, romelsacsaqonlis samyofis gverdiT, saxlis kedelTan, winaivani hqonda miSenebuli. Tanamedrove saxuravianisaxli iSviaTobas warmoadgenda. liza aslamaZisgadmocemiT (58 wlis) mis sofel mamulaSi mxoloderTi saxli yofila orferda saxuraviani, danar-Cenebi _ miwur-baniani. igives adasturebdnen sxvamTxroblebic (Ciqovani, 1966).zemoT aRwerili miwur-baniani saxlebi gavrcelebuliiyo bolnisis raionSic. dmanisisa da bolnisisr-nis sacxovrebel nagebobebs Soris undagamoiyos me-19 s-Si Casaxlebuli germanelebis saxlebi,romlebic dResac axdenen STabeWdilebas. dRevandelq. bolnisSi (germanelebis mier saxeldebul luqsemburgSi),agreTve, dmanisis r-nis sof. ofreTSi(germanelebis mier wodebul valdhaimSi, SemdgomSikirovisSi) dgas germanelTa mier agebuli orsarTuliani,mansardiani saxlebi, sardafebiTa da sxvadasxvasaxis saTavsebiT (marnebis CaTvliT). amJamad maTSiqarTvelebi cxovroben.me-20 s-is 50-iani wlebidan qvemo qarTlSi sxvaviTarebaa. dmanisis r-nis sof. javaxis mcxovrebis_giorgi oqriaSvilis xatovani TqmiT, ~mere da mere,sabWoTa kavSir-germaniis omis Semdeg, rogorc tyviarom isrolo, ise wamovida axali saxlebis mSenebloba”.marTlac, Zveli, brtyelsaxuraviani, miwurbanianisaxlebi vertikaluri dagegmarebis qanobiansaxuravianmada aivnianma an beletaJis ti pis saxlebmaSecvales. mTxroblebi amas kolmeurneobebis, SemdgomSi_ sabWoTa meurneobebis, mravali sawarmos,saxelosnoebisa da sxva organizaciebis arsebobiTada mosaxleobis samuSao adgilebis uzrunvelyofiTxsnian. aqve amateben, rom gasuli saukunis bolodanmoyolebuli _ rodesac gauqmda sabWoTa kolmeurneobebida meurneobebi, gaCanagda sawarmo-saxelosnoebida datacebul iqna maTSi arsebuli inventari, manqanadanadgarebi,erTeul pirovnebaTa xelSi gadavida miwisdidi farTobebi, mosaxleobis maqsimaluri umetesobasamuSaos gareSe darCa. moSlilia infrastruqtura.~saxlis mSenebloba ki ara, saWmlis fuli aRara aqvsxalxs, Zalian gviWirs” _ amateben mTxroblebi.Tumca, isic unda iTqvas, rom qvemo qarTlidansxva qveynebSi wasuli mosaxleobis nawili, rogorcCans, ekonomikurad gaZlierda da aqac abandeben fuls_ amis Tqmis saSualebas gvaZlevs qvemo qarTlissxvadasxva sofelSi SemCneuli didi gansxvavebaZalian xelmokle ojaxebsa da mdidrebs Soris. mag.,did STabeWdilebas axdens sof. vaxtagisSi axalagebulisasaxlis ti pis nagebobebi, maRali galavniTSemosazRvruli ezoebi, ucxouri manqanebi da sxv.Suaxnis kacis _ daTo selimaSvilis gadmocemiT,sof. baliWis Tavdapirveli _ zemo baliWis mosaxleobadabal, miwur saxlebSi cxovrobda. mTxrobeliigonebs: ~me kargad maxsovs, miwis pirze TixiTaSenebuli saxlebi (zogierTi aivniani) idga (somxebiaivans eZaxian karapans. aq am sityvas ar viyenebT).1910 w. mosaxleoba rom gamravlda, saxelmwifomojaxebs miwebi dauriga axlandeli samanqano gzis98 99


gaswvriv da maSin Camosaxlda sofeli dabla. bevrsauSenebia mere orsarTuliani saxli” (Ciqovani, 2008 _2010).erdoian-gvirgviniani saxlebi farTod iyo gavrcelebuliTrialeTis vakeze, anu walkis velze(axlandeli walkis r-ni), romelic z. d. 1400-1500 m-zemdebareobs da xasiaTdeba mkacri haviT. aRniSnulitipis saxlebi siTbos inaxavs. ojaxis gamravlebisSemdeg, axali ganayofebis sacxovrebeli nagebobebigverdidan miuSendeboda Tavdapirvel sacxovrebels.isini erTmaneTSi gasasvlelebiT iyvnen dakavSirebulni;amdenad, yalibdeboda patronimiuli ubani,romelic Tavisebur, calke dasaxelebas, ubanswarmoadgenda. XIX s-is 30-ian wlebSi walkis r-SiCamosaxlebuli berZnebi, somxebi (garda rusebisa) _yvela, miwurbanian-gvirgvinian saxlebSi cxovrobda(Ciqovani, 1967, 6-7, 47-58, 88-90).1950 w. marneulis raionSi imereTidan Camosaxlebulisof. wereTlis mcxovreblebi gviambobdnen,Tu ra gakvirveba gamoiwvia maTSi am raionis maSindelmanagebobebma _ miwis saxuravianma da miwaSiTiTqmis 2 metris siRrmeSi Cadgmulma oroTaxianmaazerbaijanelTa saxlebma (Ciqovani, 2008 _ 2010).qarTuli mosaxleobis darad, Camosaxlebulisomexi Tu azerbaijaneli migrantisTvis axlobelida nacnobi iyo aRwerili ti pis nagebobebi, radganerdoian-gvirgviniani, miwur-baniani saxlebis gavrcelebismTavari areali amierkavkasiaa _ somxeTi,azerbaijani, saqarTvelo (T. Ciqovani, 1967).qviT myarad nagebi, kapitaluri, xSirad orsarTuliani,dRevandeli STambeWdavi nagebobebi (gansakuTrebiTberZnebisa) sabWoTa periodSia agebuli.aRsaniSnavia berZen-somexTa Camosaxlebis Semdegeklesiebis masiuri mSenebloba. walkis r-nis soflebisRirsSesaniSnaobas warmoadgens wyaroebisirgvliv agebuli Senobebi _ TviT wyaros gamosasv-lelis mopirkeTebuli nawili da mis gagrZelebazeqviTve nagebi wylis bagebi saqonlisTvis.qvemo qarTlis soflebSi sxvadasxva maniSneblebismixedviT gamoiyofoda ubnebi: zemo, qvemo _geografiuli mdebareobis mixedviT, wyalTan mimar-TebiT _ gaRma-gamoRma, mcxovrebTa gvarebis mixedviT:mag., yandiaSvilebis ubani, CeCelaanT (CeCelaSvilebis)ubani, oqriaSvilebis ubani da sxv. (sof. javaxi,dmanisis r-ni). zog SemTxvevaSi calkeul ubanSicgamoiyofa mosaxleTa jgufi, romelic gvaris SigniT,romelime winapris saxels atarebs, mag., javaxSioqriaSvilebTan gamoiyofa erTi mamis (winapris) _sosikas STamomavalTa ojaxebis jgufi _ sosikaani,katunas STamomavlebi _ katunaani da sxva. aseveakuTxeebsa da soflebSi; maT SeiZleba vuwodoT I, IIda a. S. rigis patronimiuli jgufebi.aseTive viTarebaa qvemo qarTlis sxva kuTxeeb-Sic. mag., walkis r-nis sof. CivTqilisaSi dafiqsirdasoflis nawili, ubani, romlis saxelwodebac eponimsukavSirdeba _ ~ZimZilan TaRa”, anu ~ZimZimaanT ubani”;ZimZima iyo gvarad grigorianebis papa _ igi am teritoriazecxovrobda. amJamad misi STamomavlebi saxlobenam ubanSi. aqve aris toponimad qceuli adgilissaxelwodeba _ ~gracuem mailam,” rac niSnavs _~mRvdlis adgili, ubani”. aq ucxovria mRvdel(tertera) daniel petrosians.did soflebSi fiqsirdeba farTo centraluriquCebi mag., sof. beSTaSenis (walkis r-ni) centraluriquCa sabWoTa periodSi leninis saxels atarebda,amJamad giorgi nikolozis Ze iakubovis saxelobisaa_ igi qarTul-afxazuri omis dros moxalised wasulaqarTvelebTan erTad da daRupula.dasaxlebis topografiul sqemaSi Sedis rogorcdasaxlebuli teritoria, aseve misi moxmarebisarealSi Semavali savargulebi _ saTibebi, saZovrebi,saxnavebi, tyeebi.100 101


administraciul-teritoriuli dayofasabWoTa xelisuflebis droindel saqarTveloSimosaxleobis ukanaskneli aRwera ganxorcielda1989 wels.saqarTvelos mosaxleobis pirveli erovnulisayovelTao aRwera Catarda 2002 w., romlis Sedegebigamoqveynda 2003 w. da 2004 w. (saqarTvelos mosaxleobis,I, II, 2003; saqarTvelos mosaxleobis, 2004).1989 wlis Semdgom periodSi mniSvnelovnadSeicvala qveynis administraciul-teritoriulimowyoba: gauqmda yofili samxreT oseTis avtonomiuriolqi (Semdeg kvlav aRdga). saqarTvelo faqtobrivaddaiyo msxvil administraciul-teritoriulerTeulebad.2002 w. mosaxleobis sayovelTao aRwera CatardasaqarTvelos centraluri xelisuflebis iurisdiqciaSiim droisaTvis myof (kontrolirebad) teritoriaze_ e. i. afxazeTisa da yofili e. w. ~samxreToseTis ao”-s arakontrolirebadi teritoriebisgamoklebiT.saqarTvelos msxvili teritoriuli erTeulebi(mxareebi) 2002 wlis aRweris periodisTvis iyo:Tbilisis meria, aWaris ar, guriis mxare, imereTismxare, kaxeTis mxare, mcxeTa-mTianeTis mxare, raWaleCxumisada qvemo svaneTis mxare, samegrelo-zemosvaneTis mxare, samcxe-javaxeTis mxare, Sida qarTlismxare, afxazeTis ar (kodoris xeoba) da qvemo qarTlismxare.Cveni Seswavlis regionSi _ qvemo qarTlSi,romlis samxareo centria q. rusTavi, 6 raioni(municipaliteti) moiazreba: bolnisis, gardabnis,dmanisis, TeTriwyaros, marneulisa da walkis. regionSi7 qalaqia: rusTavi (gansakuTrebuli statusiT _samxareo centri da yovel raionSi TiTo qalaqi _saraiono centrebi: bolnisi, gardabani, dmanisi,TeTriwyaro, marneuli da walka. 6-ve raionSi 8 dabaiyo: Tamarisi, kazreTi - bolnisis r-nSi; didi lilo,kojori _ gardabnis r-nSi; manglisi _ TeTriwyarosr-nSi; Saumiani _ marneulis r-nSi; bediani, TrialeTi_walkis r-nSi.bolo wlebSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebisSedegad miTiTebul raionebSi administraciulteritoriulidayofa axal saxes iRebs, ris Sedegadacqvemo qarTlis mxaris 2002 w. administraciulteritoriulimowyobis monacemebSi dasazustebelia:yovel raionSi Secvlil sofelTa teritoriulimikuTvnebuloba (mravali sofeli Tbilisis meriisgamgeblobaSi gadavida, moxda raionTaSorisi ansakrebuloTaSorisi (munici palitetTa, gamgeobaTaSoris) Sida gadaadgilebebi, ramac ama Tu im msxvilierTeulis farTobis (administraciuli teritoriis)cvlilebebi gamoiwvia. Seicvala mosaxleobis erovnuliTu raodenobrivi maCveneblebi (2008 w. omisSedegad Camosaxlebuli ltolvilebis, ekomigrantebis,ekonomikuri mizezebiT migraciuli procesebisgazrdis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT da sxv.).aqedan gamomdinare, Cveni muSaobis periodSi 2002w. administraciul-teritoriuli dayofis monacemebsviyenebdiT orientirad, raTa Segvedarebina CvenisakuTari, adgilze mopovebuli masalisTvis (miRebulSedegebs Sesabamis adgilze da calkeul sakiTxTaganxilvisas viyenebdiT; magram saqme kvlav rTuldebodaaxal-axali saparlamento Tu adgilobrivi organoebisgadawyvetilebebiT).2005 w. 16 dekembris saqarTvelos parlamentismier `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb”miRebul organul kanonSi Setanili cvlilebebissafuZvelze administraciul-teritoriuli dayofiserTeuli _ raioni Seicvala munici palitetiT (racimas niSnavs, rom warmodgenil proeqtze muSaobisas102 103


adre moZiebuli masalebis gamoyenebisas unda CaswordesteqstSi terminebi da sxv.).cvlilebebi xSiria adgilobrivi organoebisgadawyvetilebebiTac: mag.: 2006 w. 6 dekembris #3/2dadgenileba `marneulis munici palitetis organoebisSeqmnis Sesaxeb” uqmdeba 2010 w. 9.3 #3/2dadgenilebis miRebis Sedegad, romelSic naTqvamia,rom `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb”saqarTvelos organuli kanonis 22-e muxlis pirvelipunqtis `z” qvepunqtisa da 38-e muxlis me-6 punqtisTanaxmad marneulis munici palitetSi Seiqmnas Semdegiadministraciuli erTeulebi (Temebi) da gam-geobisSesabamisi teritoriuli organoebi (da CamoTvlilia).rogorc cnobilia, saqarTvelos 2002 w. administraciul-teritoriulidayofis gamoqveynebuli Sedegebis(2003-2004 ww. cnobarebi) mixedviT, garkveuliadministraciul-teritoriuli erTeulebi _ raionebi_ gaerTianebuli iyo mxareebSi; mis SigniT arsebulicalkeuli raioni ki moicavda qalaqs, dabas (dabebs)da sasoflo Tu sadabo sakrebuloebs da sxv.ufro didi Tavsatexi da sirTule ukavSirdebaqvemo qarTlis toponimikas. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiTkvlevebi, ganmartebebi exeba ama Tu im toponims(an toponimTa jgufs) garkveul periodTan mimar-TebaSi, magram qveynis da am mxaris (qvemo qarTlis)administraciul-teritoriuli dayofis sxvadasxvawlebis monacemebi sakmaod gansxvavebulia. gasulisaukuneebisa da sabWoTa periodis administraciulidayofis cnobarebis Seswavlam gvaCvena, rom administraciulimowyobis yoveli calkeuli SemTxvevauamrav cvlilebebTan iyo dakavSirebuli _ ZveliqarTuli mowyobis wesTan erTad icvleboda qarTvelebisagandaclili qvemo qarTlis toponimika, akldebodada emateboda dasaxlebebi, icvleboda terminologia,soflebi dabebad, dabebi qalaqebad gardaiqmneboda,iqmneboda axali dasaxlebebi da sxv. sabWoTaperiodis cnobarebi (1926, 1939, 1959, 1966, 1979, 1989 ww.)da axali _ mosaxleobis pirveli erovnuli aRwerisada administraciul-teritoriuli dayofis masalebisSeswavlam aCvena, rom zemoT miTiTebul cvlilebebsemateboda is, rom calkeuli raionebidan erTmaneTSigadadioda _ miewereboda punqtebi (mag., Tbilisismeriis sazRvrebSi gaerTianda Tbilisis SemogarenSimdebare mravali dasaxlebuli punqti (ramac maTistatusi Secvala). mudmivi toponimikuri cvlilebebiTavgzas ubnevs sakiTxiT dainteresebul pirs. amasTan erTvis orTografiuli uzustobanic.qvemo qarTlis geografiuli saxelebis dasazustebladCven viyenebT `saqarTvelos geografiulisaxelebis orTografiuli leqsikonis” pirvel, 1987wlis gamocemas, qarTuli enciklopediis TerTmettomeuls,administraciul-teritoriuli dayofissxvadasxva wlebis cnobarebs, qarTveli mecnierebisgamokvlevebsa da sakuTar eTnografiul masalas.amjerad, Cven saSualeba gvaqvs `saqarTvelos geografiulisaxelebis orTografiuli leqsikonis” meore,2009 wlis gamocemaze dayrdnobiT, SevasworoT isuzustobani, rac mravlad gvxvdeboda zemoT miTi-Tebul gamocemebSi (maTSi ar igulisxmeba eTnografiulimasala). axali gamocemis orTografiulileqsikoni momzadda 1987 w. gamocemis safuZvelze.masSi gamoyenebulia saqarTvelos statistikissaxelmwifo departamentis mier 2002 w. gamocemuliadministraciul-teritoriuli dayofis cnobari, 2005da 2006 ww. dabeWdili saqarTvelos zogadgeografiulida politikur-administraciuli rukebi,samecniero literatura da sxv. 1987 wlis gamocemaSiSetanil toponimebs geografiuli, enobrivi TvalsazrisiTredaqcia gaukeTes cnobilma specialistebma.amjerad pirveli gamocemis calkeuli monakveTi(regionebis mixedviT) ganxilulia Tsu toponimikislaboratoriis mecnierTa mier. aseve, gamocema104 105


winaswar ganxiluli iqna enaTmecnierebis institutissamecniero sxdomaze, recenzirebulia amave institutisspecialistTa mier, gaTvaliswinebulia a. Ciqobavassax. enaTmecnierebisa da vaxuSti bagrationis sax.geografiis institutis, Tsu humanitarul mecnierebaTafakultetis TanamSromelTa SeniSvnebi (saqarTvelosgeografiuli, 2009: 5-11)saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002 wlis pirvelierovnuli sayovelTao aRweris ZiriTadi SedegebismixedviT, qvemo qarTlis mxare moicavs 6 raionis(2005 wlis 16 dekembers saqarTvelos parlamentismier `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb”miRebul organul kanonSi Setanilia cvlilebebi,ris safuZvelzec administraciuli dayofis erTeuli_ raioni Seicvala munici palitetiT (Semoklebuliforma _ `municip..~ aqve davamatebT Semdegs: vfiqrobT(aramarto Cven), did Secdomas ar davuSvebT, Tu wlebismanZilze Catarebuli kvleva-Ziebisas Cvens nawerebSigamoyenebul termins _ ~raioni” kvlav gamoviyenebT(~municipalitetis” nacvlad).qvemo qarTlis teritoria moicavs 6,5 aTas kv.km-s, xolo mxaris mosaxleobis ricxovnoba 2002 w.aRweriT sul udris 497530 (1979 w. aRweriT iyo 528468;1989 w. _ 608491). aqedan qalaqis mosaxleobaa 186505(1979 w. _ 215614; 1989 w. _ 271019); soflis mosaxleobaa_ 311025 (1979 w. _ 312854; 1989 w. _ 337472). rogorcvxedavT, 1989 w. mosaxleobis ricxovnobasTan SedarebiT,2002 w. aRweriT SesamCnevad Semcirebulia qvemoqarTlis mxaris mcxovrebTa ricxvi. 2008-2010 wlebSi,qvemo qarTlis eqvsive raionSi, eTnologTa muSaobisprocesSi, yuradReba eqceoda aRniSnul sakiTxebsac;gairkva, rom aRweris procesSi daSvebulia cdomilebebi.garda amisa, 2002-dan 2008-2010 ww-is garkveulipolitikur-ekonomikuri viTarebis gamo, qvemoqarTlis mosaxleoba tovebs saqarTvelos da mosax-leobis ricxovnobac klebulobs. am sakiTxebs CvenSesabamis TavebSi SevexebiT.mosaxleobis 2002 wlis aRweris SedegebismixedviT, qvemo qarTlis calkeuli raionis (municipalitetis)monacemebi ase gamoiyureba: qvemo qarTlissamxareo centris _ rusTavis mosaxleobis ricxovnobaudris _ 116175.bolnisis r-nis teritoria moicavs 804,0 kv. km-s;raionis mosaxleobis raodenoba udris 74301 suls(t. I, gv. 116; 74243 _ gv. 62); q. bolnisSi (es erTiqalaqia r-nSi) cxovrobs 17654 suli (1989 w. _ 24876).soflis mosaxleoba _ 56589, 1989 w. _ 57042 (2003 w.cnobaris t. I-is monacemiT, imave wlis II tomSi56651 sulia miTiTebuli).bolnisis raionSi, rogorc iTqva, 1 qalaqia _bolnisi, 45 sofeli da ori daba; r-nis mosaxleobis85% azerbaijanelia, 9,6% _ qarTvelia; 5% _ somexia;0,2% _ rusia; 0,1% _ berZenia. qarTvelebi Warboben 6sofelSi, azerbaijanelebi _ 37, somxebi _ 2 sofelSi(berZnuli sofeli aq ar aris).gardabnis r-nis teritoria _ 1304,1 kv. km; raionSisul 112886 suli cxovrobs (1989 w. _ 115140). q.gardabanSi cxovrobs 15956 suli (1989 w. 231337),soflis mosaxleobaa _ 98203; mosaxleobis 54,2%qarTvelia, 43,6% _ azerbaijaneli, 0,7% _ somexi, 0,7%_ rusi, 0,4% _ osi. oficialuri monacemebiT qarTvelebiWarboben 33 sofelSi, azerbaijanelebi 14-Si.raionSi _ 1 qalaqia (gardabani), 2 daba da 47sofelia.dmanisis r-nis teritoria moicavs 1198,8 kv. km-s.dmanisis raionSi 2002 w. mosaxleobis raodenobaudrida 28062 suls (1989 w. _ 52208), qalaq dmanisis _3441 suli (1989 w. _ 8650, soflis mosaxleoba I tomismonacemebiT 24621 suli (II tomis monacemebis mixedviT1989 w. _ 43558 suli).106 107


dmanisis r-is mosaxleobis 74,4% azerbaijanelia,24,2% _ qarTveli, 0,7% _ berZeni, 0,3% _ somexi, 0,2% _rusi.raionSi _ 1 qalaqia (dmanisi), sofeli _ 59.qarTveli Warbobs 16 sofelSi, azerbaijaneli_ 37 sofelSi, berZeni _ 3 sofelSi.TeTriwyaros raionis teritoria moicavs 1174,5kv. km-s. TeTriwyaros r-is mosaxleobis ricxovnobaa25039 (1989 w. iyo 36432); q. TeTrwyaroSi cxovrobs6764 suli (1989 w. _ 12705). soflis mosaxleobaa _18275 (I t. monacemebiT, II t. monacemiT _ 18561).raionis mosaxleobis 78,3% qarTvelia, 8,1% _azerbaijaneli, 6,1% _ somexi, 5,2 % _ berZeni, 0,5% _rusi.raionSi 1 qalaqia (TeTriwyaro), 1 daba, sofeli_ 82.erovnebiT qarTveli Warbobs raionis 58 sofelSi,azerbaijaneli _ 3 sofelSi, somexi _ 4-Si, osi _ 2-Si,berZeni 6 sofelSi.marneulis r-nis teritoria moicavs 935 kv. km-s;mosaxleobis ricxovnoba udris 117660 suls (1989 w._ 124332). qalaq marneulSi cxovrobs 23643 suli (1989w. _ 33602); soflis mosaxleobaa 94017 suli (1989 w._ 90730). soflis mosaxleobis raodenoba mxolodmarneulis raionSi gaizarda ukanasknel wlebSi.mosaxleobis 86,4% azerbaijanelia, 7,8% _qarTveli, 5,2% _ somexi, 0,2% _ rusi, 0,2% _ berZeni.marneulis raionSi 1 qalaqia (marneuli), 1 daba,72 _ sofeli; qarTvelebi Warboben 8 sofelSi,azerbaijanelebi _ 51 sofelSi, somxebi _ 11-Si, berZnebi_ 1 sofelSi.walkis raionis teritoria moicavs 1050,6 kv.km-s. 2002 w. monacemebiT raionSi sul 20022 sulicxovrobs (1989 w. _ 44187). q. walkaSi 2396 mosaxlea(1989 w. _ 10545); soflis mosaxleobis ricxovnoba I t.monacemebiT udris 17830 suls; II t. monacemebiT _18477 suls; (mosaxleobis aRweris orive tomi 2003w. aris gamocemuli). 1989 w. aRweriT soflismosaxleoba walkis r-nSi udrida 33642 suls.mosaxleobis 60,7% somexia; 17,2% _ berZeni; 10,5%_ azerbaijaneli; 10,6% qarTveli; 0,4% _ rusi.erovnebiT qarTveli Warbobs 7 sofelSi, azerbaijaneli_ 5 sofelSi, somexi _ 14 sofelSi, berZeni_ 15 sofelSi.aRsaniSnavia, rom 5000 da meti mosaxliT warmodgenilipunqti mTeli qvemo qarTlis mxareSi mxolod11 sofelia; 10 suliT da naklebiT _ 3 sofeli; darac mTavaria, oficialuri monacemebiT, mosaxleobis2002 wlis aRweris Sedegebis mixedviT, am mxareSi 15sofelia dausaxlebeli (anu daclili), 10 da naklebimosaxliT soflebic daclilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos.garda amisa, 2008-2010 ww. qvemo qarTlis eqvsive raionissoflebis fexiT movlis Semdeg, eTnologebi darwmundnenimaSi, rom mWidrod dasaxlebulad CaTvlilsoflebSic mosaxleoba Zalian aris Semcirebulida mravali saxl-kari da ezo-karmidamo mitovebulgamoketili.am viTarebaSi Zalian gasakviri da savalaloa,rom aTasobiT ltolvilTa (dasavlelaRmosavlel)gasaWiris mosmena gviwevs _ maTi saxlkariTdakmayofileba miyruebul adgilebSi ki ara,swored qvemo qarTlis noyieri miwis daumuSavebelteritoriaze iqneboda upriani.108 109


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39. C i q o v a n i g., 2008 _ 1010 w.w. qvemo qarTliseTnografiuli eqspediciis masalebi.40. x a r a Z e k., saqarTvelos Zveli toponimebiskvlevis aspeqtebi, onomastika, I, Tb., 1987.41. x a r a Z e k.., TrialeTis Zveli qarTuli toponimebi,~macne~, #2, Tb., 1972.42. x a r a Z e k., qarTveliSvili i., XVIII s-is ImeoTxedis qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobis retrospeqtulikartografireba, ~macne”, 4, 1979.43. j a v a x i S v i l i iv., qarTveli eris istoria,Txzulebani, t. I, Tb., 1979.44. j a n a S i a n. (laSa), SuSanikis wameba, Tb., 1988.45. j a n a S i a s., Sromebi, II, Tb., 1952.46. j a o S v i l i vax., saqarTvelos mosaxleoba XVIII-XX saukuneebSi, Tb., 1984.47. j i q i a s., gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTari,naw. III, Tb., 1958.48. j u k a S v i l i ir., azerbaijanulenovanimosaxleobis Camosaxleba qvemo qarTlSi, Tb., 1995.49. В е л и ч к о В. Л., Полное собрание публистическихсочинений, т. I, Санкт-Петербург. 1904. gamoqveynda gazeT ~raorao”-s#28, 18-24 ivnisi, 2005.50. П а н т ю х о в И. О пещерных и позднейших жилищах наКавказе, Тифлис, 1896.51. П а ш а е в а Л., Семья и семейный быт греков Цалкскогорайона, Тб., 1992.52. П а ш а е в а Л., Письменные источники о семейном бытегреков, Акты разделов, Кавказский этнографический сборник, Тб.,1988.53. П а ш а е в а Л.. Этнические процессы в Триалети, “macne”,I, Tb., 1977.54. Ч и т а я Г. С., Этнографические исследования в ГрузинскойССР, СЭ, №4, 1948.jgufTaSorisi sazRvrebi dainterkulturuli dialogi qvemo qarTlSieTnopolitikuri situacia qvemoqarTlSigasuli saukunis bolos momxdarma politikurmacvlilebebma msoflioSi Zlieri ryevebigamoiwvia. axali realoba axali epoqis, postmodernizmis,dasabamad iqca, ramac garkveulwilad Secvaladamokidebuleba istoriis cnebisadmi. komunisturiideologiis kraxis, liberaluri Rirebulebebisdamkvidrebisa da aqamde arsebul dapirispirebaTaSesustebis (zog SemTxvevaSi gaqrobis) gamo am epoqasistoriis dasasrulic ki uwodes. axal “erTpolarul”msoflioSi udavo lideri aSS gaxda. amerikaSikargad gaicnobieres, rom maTi hegemonoba damokidebuliaimaze, Tu ramdenad SeZlebs da ramden xansgagrZeldeba aSS-is dominireba evraziaze. “vincflobs evrazias, igi flobs samyaros” (z. bJezinski).konkurencia am mimarTulebiT mwvavdeba, rasac ematebaenergetikuli da sasursaTo problemebi da deficiturobiszrda. evrazia aris omebis safrTxis, suverenitetisZiebis, dominirebis mopovebis sivrce. amisgamoAaSS-i Camoyalibda evraziaze batonobis gansxvavebulipolitikur-ideologiuri Tezisebi: istoriisdasasruli (f. fukuiama); civilizaciaTa Sejaxeba(s. hantingtoni); axali msoflio wesrigi (j. buSimama);didi saWadrako dafa (z. bJezinski) (ramiSvili,2010). am geopolitikur gaTvlebSi kavkasiis regionsarc Tu saxarbielo roli hqonda miniWebuli.hanTingtonis Teoriis Tanaxmad, savaraudo iyokavSiri erTi mxriv, ruseTs, saqarTvelosa da somxeTs,rogorc qristianul qveynebs (hanTingtonisaTvisreligia civilizaciuri identurobis ZiriTadi112 113


ganmsazRvrelia), xolo, meore mxriv _ TurqeTs, irans,azerbaijansa da Crdilo kavkasiis musulman xalxebsSoris. es arasaxarbielo scenaria, romlis mixedviT,subregionuli TanamSromlobis yovelgvari mcdeloba,magaliTad, “mSvidobiani kavkasia” da evraziuliderefani, warumatebeli an droebiTi xasiaTisaa(macaberiZe, 2004: 26) sabednierod, amgvari prognozebijer-jerobiT ar marTldeba, amasTan XX saukunisbolos Seqmnili viTareba TandaTan icvleba. regionSiTurqeTis saxiT yalibdeba axali didi saerTaSoriso“moTamaSe”. TurqeTis premier-ministr erdoRanisviziti TeiranSi da iranul birTvul programasTandakavSirebiT ankaris iniciativebi aSkarad mianiSnebs,rom TurqeTi regionuli lideris rols irgebs.gaxSirda analitikuri statiebi imis Sesaxeb, romankara vaSingtonis kontrolidan gamodis. axalpirobebSi mosalodnelia, rom TurqeTi SeecadoskavkasiaSi mcxovreb Turqulenovani diasporebisgamoyenebas politikuri miznebisaTvis. am mimarTebiT,qvemo qarTli “saintereso” adgils warmoadgens,radgan Turqulenovani azerbaijanelebi procentuladaq mosaxleobis naxevarze mets Seadgenen.eTnikuri umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebuliqarTuli kuTxeebi yovelTvis iyo regionismeore didi saxelmwifos, ruseTis mesveurTa interesissagani. sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis bolo wlebSi ukveaSkara gaxda, rom saqarTveloze zemoqmedebis mTavariaraRad ruseTi swored erovnul umciresobebsairCevda. marTalia, qvemo qarTlSi Ria qmedebebisaganisini Tavs ikaveben, magram arapirdapiri berketebiT(Tundac samrewvelo obieqtebis SeZeniT an migrantebismeSveobiT), rusebi regionSi garkveul gavlenasinarCuneben. qvemo qarTli moqceulia aseve somxeTisada azerbaijanis yuradRebis arealSi, radgan aqkompaqturad cxovroben somxebi da azerbaijanelebi.eTnikuri mravalferovnebiT qvemo qarTlisaqarTveloSi gamorCeuli mxarea. gansxvavebulijgufebis Tanacxovrebisa da erTian kulturulpolitikurorganizmSi integraciis meqanizmebixangrZlivi istoriis manZilze iqmneboda da ixveweboda.sasazRvro regionebs gansakuTrebuli yuradRebaeqceoda. qarTveli mefeebi cdilobdnen, am zonismosaxleoba saxelmwifo politikis dasayrden ZaladeqciaT. amitom, erovnuli saxelmwifo institutebisarsebobis periodSi sazRvrispira raionebSi mcxovrebixalxi yovelTvis iyo samefo xelisuflebis zrunvisobieqti. (meliqiSvili, 1998: 44) ganviTarebis dRevandeletapze am istoriulma gamocdilebam praqtikulidaniSnulebac SeiZina, radgan socialuri, ekonomikurida politikuri xasiaTis Zvrebma sazogadoebaSidezintegraciuli impulsebi gaaZliera.1980-iani wlebis bolos, sabWoTa kavSirisdaSlis Semdeg, uzarmazar sivrceSi arsebuli myifewonasworoba mZafrma movlenebma daarRvia. kataklizmebsTan axlda mwvave politikuri da ekonomikurikrizisi, rasac zog adgilas eTnikuri dapirispirebacdaerTo. sxvadasxva Zalebi Seecadnen postsabWoTasivrceSi arsebuli eTnikuri mravalferovnebaTavianTi miznebisaTvis gamoeyenebinaT da amisaTviskonfliqtebis gaCaRebasac ar eridebodnen. warmoiqmnadapirispirebis ramdenime kera, intensiuri gaxdaiZulebiTi migraciebi, garkveulwilad SeicvalazogierTi regionis eTnodemografiuli struqtura.mas Semdeg, rac sabWoTa identurobas safuZveligamoecala, mravalma jgufma daiwyo axali identurobisZieba. adamianebs gaumZafrdaT sabWoTa pasportSidafiqsirebuli erovnuli kuTvnilebis grZnoba.XX saukunis bolos saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulisocial-ekonomikuri da samxedro-politikuriprocesebi mTlianad aisaxa demografiul situaciaze.2002 wlis mosaxleobis pirveli erovnuli sayovelTao114 115


aRweris SedegebiT dafiqsirda qveynis mosaxleobisraodenobis kleba. mosaxleobis kleba ZiriTadadiseTi faqtorebiT aixsneba, rogorebicaa: arakontrolirebaditeritoriis arseboba, dabali Sobadoba,sikvdilianobis maRali done, migraciis gaZliereba,agreTve saqarTvelodan qveynis teritoriaze ganlagebuliyofili sabWoTa kavSiris samxedro mosamsaxureebisada maTi ojaxebis wevrebis wasvla, romelTaumetesoba rusebi iyvnen. yovelive aman Sesabamisiasaxva hpova TiToeuli administraciul-teritoriulimxarisa da regionis mosaxleobis ricxovnebaSi.aRsaniSnavia, rom mosaxleobis kleba yvelazemetad qvemo qarTlis mxareSi aRiniSna (18,2 procentiT),xolo yvelaze naklebad - Sida qarTlis mxareSi(2,4 procentiT). iZulebiT adgilnacvalTa organizebuliCasaxlebis Sedegad, mosaxleobis ricxovnobagaizarda samegrelosa da zemo svaneTis mxareSi (9,7procentiT), maT Soris, qalaqad - 7,3 soflad - 11,4procentiT, Sida qarTlisa da imereTis mxareebSi ki_ soflis mosaxleoba, Sesabamisad, 7,8 da 5,1 procentiTgaizarda. mosaxleobis saerTo klebasTan erTad,aRwerebis Sua periodSi 706, 6 aTasi kaciT, anu 23,6procentiT Semcirda qalaqis mosaxleoba, soflismosaxleoba ki _ 322,7 aTasi kaciT, anu 13,4 procentiT.qveynis xuTi gansakuTrebuli mniSvne-lobis qalaqidan(Tbilisi, quTaisi, rusTavi, baTumi, foTi)mosaxleobis kleba yvelaze didi raodenobiT rus-TavSi (26, 8 procentiT) aRiniSna, xolo yvelazenaklebi _ foTSi - (6,9 procentiT) (mosaxleobisaRwera, 2002).zemoT motanili monacemebis mixedviT, sakvlevregionSi mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobis SemcirebaSeimCneva. es naklebad Seexo am mxaris eTnikurstruqturas (Tu ar CavTvliT berZnebisa da rusebisrepatriaciis aqtiur process). qvemo qarTlSi amJamadarsebuli demografiuli situacia ganpirobebuliaXX saukunis bolodan aq ganviTarebuli procesebiT.80-iani wlebis bolos qvemo qarTlSi araqarTulieTnikuri jgufebis (azerbaijanelebis, somxebis)politikuri gaaqtiureba SeimCneoda. marTalia, amprocess aSkara separatizmis an iridentizmis formaar miuRia, magram savele eTnografiuli masalidanCans, rom calkeuli pirebi ayenebdnen qvemo qarTlis(borCalos) avtonomiis sakiTxs. “_me mesame mdivnadvmuSaobdi da, ra Tqma unda, meti informacia mqonda.aq dapirispireba rom iyo, 88-Si ukve aqaurebi damarneulelebi gamodiodnen avtonomiis moTxovniT,rom es iyo borCalos mazra” G_ gviambobs dmanisismkvidri (janiaSvili, 2008-2010).specialur literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba,rom multieTnikur saxelmwifoebSi eTnikur umciresobaTakompaqturobas xSirad mivyavarT TviTmmarTvelobis(teritoriuli avtonomia) an sruli gamoyofismoTxovnebamde. es ganakuTrebiT exeba konkretulgeografiul arealebSi, sadac umciresobebi kompaqturadcxovroben. am regionebSi SesaZlebeliaseparatistuli saxelmwifos Seqmna; am dros teritoriulikontroli xdeba konfliqtis ZiriTadisakiTxi. im SemTxvevSi, rodesac eTnikuri jgufebisgansaxlebis arealebi nawilobriv gadafaravserTmaneTs, zemoxsenebuli moTxovnebis warmoSobisalbaToba mcirea da iSviaTad Cndeba aseTi pretenziebi.am dros ufro mniSvnelovania centralurxelisuflebaze kontrolis an gavlenis mopoveba.umciresobaTa jgufebis regionaluri koncentraciamniSvnelovani faqtoria. es didi masStabis eTnikurZaladobas ufro hgavs, vidre urbanul an didteritoriaze mimofantul umciresobebs (korneli,2004: 42-43).gasuli saukunis bolos qvemo qarTlis azerbaijanulmosaxleobaSi separatistuli tendenciebisarsebobas adasturebs sxva respodentic. daba116 117


kazreTSi mcxovrebi Cveni mTxrobeli (eTnikuradqarTveli) ixsenebs “_90-ian wlebSi iyo raRacgarTuleba. me TviTon viyavi erovnul moZraobaSida davrbodi droSebiT. SuRli iyo Cagdebuli, racimaTgan (azerbaijanelebidan) modioda, magram saidaniyo davalebuli? albaT, mezobeli qveynidan, ruse-Tidan. maSin omi iyo samaCabloSi, afxazeTSi da mesamefronti undodaT azerbaijanidan gaexsnaT. gansakuTrebiTaqtiuri iyvnen eqimebi, romlebic xalxs agitaciasuwevdnen. ZiriTadad Txoulobdnen _ marneulis,dmanisis da bolnisis, _ yofili borCalos avtonomias,magram es mere gaxmaurda. xalxi panikaSi Cavarda,azerbaijanelebi amaRam Tavs dagvesxmiano da daiwyomzadeba. Turme im sawylebs aqeT Cveni eSiniaT dasadRac tyeebs arian Sexiznuli. moxda gaugebroba.maSin gumbariZem Camoiyvana azerbaijanelebis premierministri Tu viRac, romelmac uTxra _ ras akeTebTxalxo, am xalxze ukeTesi saxlebi gaqvT da yvelaferi,rais avtonomia gindaT?! Cven ar SegiSvebT azerbaijanSiraime rom moxdes, iyaviT iq sadac xarTo. mereSerigda xalxi (janiaSvili, 2008-2010).saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis saxelmwifoebsSoris arsebulma kargma urTierTobebma gaaZnelasaqarTveloSi mcxovreb azerbaijanelebs Sorisnacionalizmis gaRvivebisaTvis raime saxis sagareomxardaWeris miReba. arc nacionali lideri gamoikveTamaT Soris. avtonomiuri regionebisagan gansxvavebiT,aq ar arsebobs erovnuli lideri. bolos undaaRiniSnos, rom eTnopolitikuri aqtiurobis dabalidonis, azerbaijanis mTavrobis rolisa da avtonomiisararsebobis gamo, saqarTveloSi azerbaijanelebiTdasaxlebul teritoriebze simSvide SenarCunda(korneli, 2004: 74-75).rigiTma adamianebma, rogorc wesi, arc ki icodnensaqmis viTareba da areul droSi ubralod sakuTariojaxisa da qonebis gadarCenas lamobdnen, rasacbolnisis erTi mkvidric adasturebs “aq dapirispirebaerTmaneTis ayoliebiT daiwyo, qarTvelebzeTavdasxmas apirebdnen, magram ar gamouvidaT. axlaerTmaneTTan kargad arian“ (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).svante korneli gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebisbolos qvemo qarTlSi Seqmnil daZabul situaciasufro informaciis naklebobiT xsnis _ igi ixsenebs“1990 wlis SemTxvevas, rodesac informaciis naklebobispirobebSi qarTvel nacionalistebs Soris gavrceldaxmebi, TiTqos saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi azerbaijanelebigamoyofas da azerbaijanTan SeerTebasapirebdnen. am axali informaciis miRebamde, qarTvelaraformalTa jgufma Sekriba momxreebi da moawyomarSi azerbaijanelebiT dasaxlebul teritoriebze.saqarTvelos xelisuflebam, vidre saqme sisxlis-Rvramde mividoda, moaxdina Tavisi poziciebis koordinaciaazerbaijanis saxalxo frontTan, gamoarkvia,rom azerbaijanelebs ar surdaT gamoyofa, da amrigadmoaxerxa situaciis ganmuxtva” (korneli, 2004: 74).xsenebuli avtori saqarTvelos azerbaijanulimosaxleobis mier avtonomiis moTxovnis uperspeqtivobasim faqtorTanac akavSirebs, rom maTTvisZneli iqneba sadavo teritoriis mkafiod Semosaz-Rvra. isini SedarebiT daqsaqsulad saxloben saqarTvelossamxreT da samxreT_aRmosavleT sazRvrebze.marTalia, azerbaijanelebi 70%-ian umravlesobaSiarian marneulis, bolnisis da dmanisis raionebSi,magram am regionebSi aseve saxloben qarTvelebi,somxebi da qurTebi. saqarTveloSi ar arsebobsmkafiod gansazRvruli azerbaijanuli teritoriada avtonomiis Seqmnis pirobebSi azerbaijanelebisTvisZneli iqneba SemosazRvron “maTi”teritoria (xazi Cemia, l. j.) (korneli, 2004: 76).zemoxsenebuli tendencia SeimCneva somxurmosaxleobaSic, gansakuTrebiT im soflebSi sadacisini kompaqturad cxovroben. somxuri warmomav-118 119


lobis mamakaci, romelic afiSirebs qarTvelebisadmisimpaTias (yovel SemTxvevaSi CvenTan, l.j.) ambobs _“momiteveT da aqaurma somxebma ar ician sad cxovroben.isini miiCneven, rom cxovroben walkaSi, magramwalka rom saqarTveloa amdens ar fiqroben. aq kacebiqalze uaresebi arian. gamovdivar da diliT sasaflaosmets verafers vxedav. miTxres qarTvelebisaTvisomobdi da qarTvelebma mogcen saxli, samsaxuri dayvelaferio (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 20100.qveynis calkeuli regionebis avtonomizaciisTema metad arapopularulia qarTvel mosaxleobaSi,rasac Tavisi obieqturi mizezebi gaaCnia.I. saxelmwifos yvelaze didi problemebi SeeqmnaeTnikuri niSniT Seqmnil avtonomiur erTeulebSi _afxazeTsa da e.w. samxreT oseTis avtonomiur olqSi.amdenad, sxva eTnikuri umciresobisTvis teritoriuliavtonomiis micema regionis gamoyofisaken gadadgmulpirveli nabijTan asocirdeba.II. avtonomiis miniWebam SeiZleba gazardos ameTnosis monaTesave saxelmwifodan intervenciisriski. amasTanave, avtonomia SeiZleba xelisSemwyobiki ar aRmoCndes eTnosTa Soris mSvidobis damyarebis-Tvis, aramed piriqiT, waaxalisos eTnikuri mobilizacia,gazardos swrafva gamoyofisaken da SeiaraRebulikonfliqtebisaken; aseve, erTi regionisaTvisavtonomiis micema SeiZleba aRqmul iqnes sxva eTnikurijgufebis diskriminaciad (korneli, 2004: 44).aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom avtonomizaciis xsenebulitendencia met-naklebad dResac arsebobs, Tumcamas kulturuli Seferiloba mieca. dmanisis raionSisof. kamarlos maxloblad saqarTvelodan emigrirebuliazerbaijanelebis mier 2008 wels Catarda“borCaloel TurqelTa kulturis dRe”.motanili masalidan irkveva rom qvemo qarTli,rogorc “erovnuli umciresobebiT” kompaqturaddasaxlebuli regioni, madezintegrirebeli proce-sebis da maSasadame, konfliqtis maRali riskismatarebelia. amis gamo, didi mniSvneloba eniWebasaxelmwifos mxridan prevenciuli RonisZiebebisgatarebas. SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas ori gansxvavebulistrategia: I. eTnikuri asimilacia, romelicmimdinareobs Sida eTnikuri identobis waSlis gziT(am dros ZiriTadi aqcenti keTdeba maTi eTnokulturuliTaviseburebebis radikalur transformaciaze);II. integraciuli procesis gaaqtiurebajgufTaSorisi solidarobis da tolerantobisgazrdis xarjze, rodesac saxelmwifo gamodisjgufTa TviTmyofadobis da kulturuli identobisdacvis garantad. pirveli strategia, rogorc wesi,damaxasiaTebelia totalitaruli saxelmwifos ti pisaTvisda SesaZlebelia, konfliqtis maprovocirebelfaqtorad iqces, radgan ewinaaRmdegeba eTnikurerTeulTa miswrafebas TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebisaTvis(Тишков, 2003: 48). ukanasknel xanebSi ganviTarebuliprocesebi mowmobs, rom qarTulma saxelmwifomgezi meore strategiaze aiRo. amrigad, eTnokulturulgaremos mecnieruli kvleva metad didmniSvnelobas iZens.qarTuli sazogadoebis konsolidacia da gansxvavebulijgufebis erTian saxelmwifo organizmSiintegracia moiTxovs, rom saxelmwifos eTnikuripolitika eyrdnobodes kargad gaazrebul da mecnieruladdasabuTebul programas. mniSvnelovani nabijigadaidga am mimarTulebiT, rodesac xelisuflebamqveynis ganviTarebis strategiul xazad aRiara araeTnikuri, aramed samoqalaqo identifikacia. aseTimidgomiT “qarTvelia” saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqe,miuxedavad misi warmomavlobisa. avtoqTonoba _aravtoqTonoba da tradiciuli kulturuli msgavseba_ gansxvavebebi gvevlineba mxolod iseTi funqciebismatareblad, rogoricaa _ SemecnebiTi (aRrmavebscodnas warsulis Sesaxeb), didaqtikuri (aswavlis120 121


dadebiTi da uaryofiTi magaliTebis saSualebiT),eTnokulturuli (aZlierebs adamianis mentalurkavSirs winaprebsa da tradiciul kulturasTan) damsoflaRqmiTi (TiToeuli adamianis, jgufis dasaerTod kacobriobis TviTSemecnebisaTvis iZlevasazrdos) (Шнилерман 2003: 12).XX saukunis bolos saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuliprocesebi gansxvavebul jgufebs Soris axleburiurTierTobebis Camoyalibebis perspeqtivebssaxavda. Tumca imTaviTve Canda movlenaTa ganviTarebissami ZiriTadi SesaZlebloba:I. eTnikuri jgufebis (e.w. umciresobebis) erTiansaxelmwifo organizmSi integracia;II. jgufTa Soris kulturuli gansxvavebebisgaRrmavebiT, maT Soris, arsebuli kulturulisazRvrebis kidev ufro ganmtkiceba;III. sruli separacia.eTnikuroba da kulturajgufebs Soris urTierTobisas, wina planzekulturuli maxasiaTeblebi iwevs da swored maTisaSualebiT cdiloben calkeuli movlenis axsnas.abu nimeris azriT, kultura SeiZleba ganvixiloTara rogorc koleqtiur doneze aRiarebulistatistikuri cnebebisa da movlenebis rigi, romelicmxolod “fsevdonaTesaur” organizmebs (tomi,eTnikuri jgufi an nacia) aerTianebs, aramed rogorcindividebis socializaciis kognitiuri procesi. igimoicavs sxva ti pis gaerTianebebsac, romlebic profesiulsaqmianobas, religias an Tundac regions ukavSirdeba(Abu-Nimer, 2001: 687). amasTan, SeiZleba kulturaze,rogorc garkveuli erTobis saerTo maxasiaTebelze,an maTi qcevis maregulirebelze visaubroT(Bagby 1957: 539). yvelaze gamokveTil gaerTianebas,romelic tradiciuli da yofiTi kulturiT xasiaT-deba, eTnikuri erToba warmoadgens da isini Cvenssakvlev regionSi pirobiTadDeTnikur jgufebadSeiZleba movixsenioT (azerbaijanelebi, berZnebi,somxebi, rusebi da a.S.). amasTanave, garkveuli TaviseburebebiTwarmoCindebian saxelmwifisa SemoqmedieTnosis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali eTnografiulijgufebi (qarTlelebi, aWarlebi, svanebi, imerlebi,raWvelebi da a.S.). calke SeiZleba gamoiyostradiciuli religiuri gaerTianebebi: qristianebi(marTlmadideblebi, monofizitebi, kaTolikebi),muslimanebi da sxva religiuri mimdinareobebi(konfesiebi, seqtebi).specialur literaturaSi termini “eTnikurijgufi” Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba im mosaxleobisaRsaniSnavad, romlebic:1. biologiuri TvalsazrisiT ZiriTadad TviTwarmoebadia;2. iziarebs formebis garegnul erTianobaSirealizebul kulturul Rirebulebebs;3. ayalibebs komunikaciisa da urTierTzemoqmedebisvels;4. ayalibebs jgufTan mikuTvnebis sxva msgavsikategoriebisagan gansxvavebul kategorias, identificirebadsmasSi Semavali an arSemavali adamianebisagan(Барт, 2006: 11).gvxvdeba sxvagvari definiciebic: “rasa_kultura_ena”, anda “sazogadoeba aris erToba, romelicuaryofs sxvebs an maT diskriminacias axdens” (Барт,2006: 11).tradiciul sazogadoebebSi jgufTa SorismniSvnelovan ganmasxvavebel faqtorad religiagvevlineba. swored am niSniT ganasxvaveben yofiTdoneze azerbaijanelebs. maT TiTqmis yvela jgufi“TaTrebad” (igulisxmeba muslimani, l.j.) moixseniebs.mosaxleobis umravlesoba ki muslimanuriaRmsareblobisaa. rogorc qvemo qarTlSi mopove-122 123


uli empiriuli masala aCvenebs, sakvlev regionSiTviTidenturobis mTavar faqtors swored religiawarmoadgens. islamuri garemo gansakuTrebulicnobilia radikalizmiT. islamis individualuri dakoleqtiuri realizaciisaTvis islamuri saxelmwifoaaucilebeli. magram qristianuli saxelmwifosqveSevrmdomad qceuli muslimani “dar ul-salamdan”e.i. (mSvidobis samyarodan) avtomaturadaRmoCndeba “dar ul-harb-ze” (omis samyaroSi). jerkidev 1484 w. muslimani RvTismetyveli al-vanharisi,acxadebda rom muslimanma amgvar SemTxvevaSi undaSeasrulos hijra (datovos aramuslimanTa teritoria),Tu amis fizikuri SesaZlebloba arsebobs. magram,amgvari gadawyvetilebis miReba xSirad SeuZlebeliiyo. amitom muftim, axmed ibn jumairma gamosca “fetva”,romelic nebas aZlevda morwmune muslimanebs, ecxovraTqristianebis dapyrobil teritoriaze. ukiduresSemTxvevaSi igi uSvebda formalurad islamze uarisTqmasac ki. im SemTxvevebSi ki, rodesac musulmansaiZulebdnen miuRebeli ram Caedina (eWama Rorisxorci, daelia Rvino, monawileoba mieRo wirvaSi daa.S.) Tavisi amgvari qmedebebisadmi distancireba massulSi unda gaekeTebina (Ланг, 1998: 125).saqarTveloSi mcxovreb azerbaijanelebs metnaklebadSegnebuli aqvT rom “es qristianuliqveyanaa” (ar-sarvaneli xojas naTqvami, l.j.). eskontingenti SedarebiT loialurad aris ganwyobilida TviT muslimanis gaqristianebasac ar aRiqvamentragediad_ muslimanis mier qristianobis miRebaSi,an piriqiT araferi araa cudi. yuranSic weriaqristianebs Cvenze win miuRiaT wigni da sufTadmiyveba, Cvenze orjer Zlieria. magram zogjer arisqristiani gadmodis Cven rwmenaSi an piriqiT. amasarc qristianebs uSlian, arc Cven vuSliT. TbilisSijuma meCeTSi iyvnen studentebi mosuli, karebTanidgnen da Sig ar Sediodnen. mkiTxes, SeiZleba ZiaSesvla? ratom ar SeiZleba Svilo, RmerTis saxlia.gina sinagoga iyos, gina salocavi iyos, gina meCeTiiyos _ eg aris RmerTis saxli. me, piriqiT, ufrogamexardeba eklesiaSi Tu Sedis kaci da loculobsimisgan cuds nu elodebi. piriqiT vinc ar Sedisimisgan modis cudi.…gina aviRoT musulmani, ebraeli,qristiani, Cven erTi gziT mivdivarT. misasvleliaris RmerTTan, Sen sxva gziT midixar, me sxva gziT.SeiZleba ufro Sori gza moviaro magram yvela mivaRmerTTan _ ambobs musulmani sasuliero piri(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010). muslimebi arc qristianiscolad SerTvas gaurbian, Tumca, arasaxarbielodiTvleba sxva konfesiis warmomadgenlisaTvis qalisgayoleba.pirveli faqtori, qristianul garemoSi moxvedrilimuslimanuri jgufis SemTxvevaSi, rasac gansakuTrebuliyuradReba eqceva _ esaa gansxvavebareligiaze dafuZnebul socialur institutebs Soris.socialuri institutebis kvlevisas gasaTvaliswinebeliais, Tu ra gavlenas axdens maTze, erTis mxriv,tradiciuli yofa, meores mxriv, fundamentalisturiqveynebidan Semosuli neoislamuri tendenciebi.konfesiur kuTvnilebasTan dakavSirebulicalkeuli terminebi, romlebic aseve gaugebariaaramuslimanisaTvis, uaryofiTi damokidebulebisprovocirebas axdens. mag., „Sahidi”, rac sityva-sityviT„rwmenis damcvels” niSnavs, msoflioSi ganviTarebuliteroristuli aqtebis fonze, eqstremistteroristisaRmniSvnel terminad iqca.muslimanuri religia ojaxis Seqmnis da miswevrTa urTierTobis reglamentirebis sakiTxebSigansakuTrebiT Rrmad iWreba. cnobili Siiti RvTismetyvelisaid mujaba ruqni musavi lari kargadgadmogvcems islamis damokidebulebas am institutismimarT: “ojaxi esaa Temi mikrokosmosSi, esaa fesvisaidanac xalxebi aRmocendebian, esaa sazogadoebis124 125


ZiriTadi erTeuli.. . rac ufro Zlieria misi sulierida moraluri Senoba, miT ufro saimedoa misisixaruli da bedniereba dRevandel sagangaSo,feTqebad, SfoTian atmosferoSi” (Мусави Лари, 1994:158-159). ojaxis sulier da moralur Zalad igulisxmebamuslimanuri samarTlis normebis, sunisa dayuranis moTxovnaTa ganuxreli Sesruleba. logikaam SemTxvevaSi naTelia _ umartivesi socialurierTeulis _ islamur garemoSi, ojaxis, SariaTisnormebze dafuZneba, aucilebeli pirobaa.berZnebi, ojaxis Seqmnisas religiur gansxvavebasmTavar dabrkolebad miiCneven (sof. beSTaSenSiazerbaijanelebTan qorwinebis 2-3 SemTxveva iyo),“_Tumca aseTi SemTxvevebi metad iSviaTi iyo, radganrwmenis ambavia. amitomaa, aWarlebs SedarebiT ZneladveguebiT, isini xom musulmanebi arian. Tumca drorom gaivlis, SeiZleba yvelaferi mowesrigdes, erTmaneTTanTxova _ gaTxoveba wavides. amitom, ukeTesiaqarTvelebi movidnen da icxovron. aWareli ki musulmania,Cveni rwmena ar emTxveva. am saqmes axalgazrdobaSedarebiT advilad uyurebs, moxucebi ki metadganicdian. amitom vambob, ar unda CaesaxlebinaT sxvarwmenis warmomadgeneli, aramed mxolod qristiani”(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2011).qarTveli mTxrobeli mxolod saubris dawyebidanmogvianebiT gamogvityda, rom azerbaijanelicoli hyavda “_me axla ra aris ici? rom giTxraSeiZleba SokSi Cavarde, me meuRle myavs TaTari, magramqristianuladaa monaTluli. dmaniselia, mamiTazerbaijaneli, dediT qarTveli. vidre SevirTavdi,monaTluli iyo, TviTon gaakeTa aseTi arCevani”(janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010). am SemTxvevaSi igi ucxoeTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenelTan saqorwinokavSiris gamarTlebas religiis erTobiT cdilobs(qristiania da dediT qarTveli). Tu calkeuljgufebs garkveuli maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT, mag.privilegiebis, komfortulobis, ekonomikuri Tupolitikuri perspeqtivis da a.S. ierarqiulad davalagebT,aRmoCndeba, rom arsebobs garkveuli raodenobaindividebisa, romlebsac socialuri kontaqtebissixSiridan gamomdinare axasiaTebT nawilobriviasimilacia da fsiqologiuri identifikacia dominirebadjgufTan. isini imyofebian marginalur situaciaSi,erTobaTa sazRvarze _ nawilobriv erT jgufs,nawilobriv ki _ meores miekuTvnebian. marginalisaseTi kavSirebi met-naklebad mis Sexedulebebze,cxovrebis stilze, TviTrefleqsiaze, karieraze,socialur statusze da a.S. aisaxeba. xdeba adamianiserTgvari pirovnuli gaoreba. amgvari dualizmiSeiZleba arc Tu ise dramatuli iyos, radgan adamiansSeuZlia gaaCndes araerTi sociokulturuli kavSiri,iyos uamravi socialuri jgufis wevri da sxvadasxvagvarsocialur funqcias asrulebdes (Сергеева,1998: 4).religias ukavSirebs azerbaijanelebTan saqorwinourTierTobebis SezRudvas TamarisSi mcxovrebisvani ekomigrantic “_azerbaijanelebTan saqorwinourTierTobebi ar gvaqvs, radgan religia ar gviwyobsxels, sifaTic sxvanairi aqvT. arc komunistebis drosmogvyavda. rac Seexeba naTlobas, me bolnisSi samimyavs monaTluli eklesiaSi. isini gamosuli xalxiiyvnen, deda akofaSvili hyavda gaqarTvelebuli somexi,mama aWareli. ise bevri inaTleba axla (janiaSvili,2008 _ 2010). cxadia, am SemTxvevaSi Cveni respodentireligias aniWebs gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas da igieTnikuri kuTvnilebis mTavar maidentificirebelfaqtorad miaCnia. CamoTvlili magaliTebi gviCvenebs,rom amJamadac xSiria religiuri da eTnikuri identobebisaRreva. mravali adamianisaTvis muslimani(azerbaijaneli, Turqi da TviT aWarelic ki) TaTaria;qarTveli ki mxolod _ marTlmadidebeli qristiania.126 127


adgan religia jgufTaSoris gadamwyvet ganmasxvavebladmiiCneva, qristianebSi (qarTvelebi, somxebi,berZnebi) ukmayofilebas iwvevs reislamizaciis procesida regionSi islamuri sasuliero dawesebulebebisaqtiuri mSenebloba. “_meCeTi aq axlomaxlo araa,ise marneulSi ki aaSenes. Cveni prezidenti dadis,magas xom sami rjuli aqvs. aqve TaTrebis sofelSiZveli eklesiaa, ramdenjer moviTxoveT restavraciagaekeTebinaT, magram ver mivaRwieT. eger gverdiTsofels “orsaydrebi” erqva da “koCa qilisa” (wyvilieklesia) daarqves, “araxlos” qarTuli saxeli hqonda(naxiduri, l.j.) da sxva saxeli daarqves. meCeTimarneulis garda aris sxvaganac. xalxi im donemdea,rom meCeTis aSenebas ver ewinaaRmdegeba. Cvens gverdiT,sof. alavarSi ara aqvT, magram aris ubralo TavSesayari.aWarlebi ar iTxoven meCeTs, imitom romzewolaa magaTze. axalgazrdobas vekiTxebiT pirjvarsiwer Tu ara da bevrjer ilanZRebian. zogi amitominaTleba, zogi ki arc iqiTaa arc aqeT. Cveni svanebivera varT axlos TaTrebTan, Tu ara, aqaurma qarTvelebmaazerbaijanulic ician. azerbaijanelebma axladaiwyes intensiurad qarTulis swavla. ise zogmamcireodeni svanuric ki iswavla (janiaSvili 2008 _2010).sof. beSTaSenSi berZenze gaTxovili qarTvelimTxrobeli ambobs: “me qarTveli var, meuRle myavsberZeni, me piradad aravin ar maviwroebs, magramberZnebze es svanebi da aWarlebi sxvanairad arianganwyobili. Sen sxvanairi kultura gaq, Sen sxvanairigageba gaqvso da Tavs uxerxulad grZnoben. axlaimasac amboben, Tqven qristianebi ara xarTo. pirvelisarwmunoeba (qristianoba, l.j.) amaTma (berZnebma)Tu ar miiRes, meoreebma mainc miiRes. Cems sofelSi,rexaSi, qarTvelebi ZvelTaganve cxovroben. aseveberZnebic _ valabanovebi, xristoforovebi da Zaankai urTierToba gvaqvs. naTesauri kavSirebic aqvTerTmaneTTan. Cven sofelSi qarTvelebs somexicolebic hyavT da piriqiT, qarTvelebic ariansomxebze gaTxovili da mSvenieri ojaxebi aqvT. sxvasoflebSi isic gamigia, rom berZenma svani SeirTo,magram aq ara.” respodentis naTqvamSi igrZnoba qmrisjgufTan solidarobis gamZafrebuli grZnoba. igipozitiuri maxasiaTeblebiT, rac berZnebs saxelmwifosdominant eTnosTan (qarTvelebTan) aqvs saerTo,afiSirebs (uZvelesi qristianebi arian). amasTan,Sefarulad Semoaqvs iq macxovrebeli sxva qarTulijgufebis negatiuri maxasiaTeblebi (intolerantoba)da cdilobs berZenze gaTxovebis motivirebas (Tavissoflis mosaxleobis berZnebTan axlo kavSiri,qristianoba da a.S.).individSi, romelic garkveul identificirebasaxdens gansxvavebul erTobebTan, kulturuli, fsiqologiurida inteleqtualuri gaurkvevloba mZafrdebaim SemTxvevaSi, Tu am jgufebs Soris Zlierdebamadezintegrirebeli tendenciebi. Tumca, e.w. Sinaganikulturuli konfliqti marginalisaTvis ordinalurimdgomareobaa da iwyeba maSin, rodesac individiSeityobs rom miekuTvneba specifikur jgufs (rasobrivi,religiuri, eTnikuri an sxva niSniT), romelicdominanti erTobis wevrTa TvalsazrisiT negatiurelfers atarebs. arsebobs movlenaTa SemdgomiganviTarebis ramdenime varianti: 1. pirovnebis asimilaciadominant jgufSi; 2. sakuTar jgufSi darCena;3. nawilobrivi Segueba mdgomareobasTan or jgufsSoris balansirebiT (Сергеева, 1998: 6).cnobilia, rom jgufis monoliTurobis ganmsaz-Rvrel erT-erT mTavar faqtorad tradiciuli yofada kultura gvevlineba. qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebjgufebSi gansxvaveba yofisa da kulturis mravalaspeqtSi fiqsirdeba. gansakuTrebiT iseT socialurinstitutebSi, rogoricaa: saojaxo da naTesauriurTierTobebi, saqorwino da samgloviaro ritualebi128 129


da a.S. wes-Cveulebebi da yofiTi Taviseburebebi,xSirad opoziciuri jgufis stereotipebis mrudesarkeSi airekleba. aseTi stereotipebi fiqsirdebareligiur da eTnikur jgufebSi. mag. qristianisdasaxasiaTeblad muslimi aRniSnavs Semdeg negatiurTvisebebs: spirtiani sasmelis moyvareoba, kanonisadmidaumorCilebloba, sizarmace, qurdoba da sxv.qristianebi ki muslimebs Semdeg uaryofiT Tvisebebsmiaweren: mravalcolianoba, mamaTmavloba, qalebisada axalgazrdebis uuflebo mdgomareoba, simxdale,sibinZure, qurdoba da a.S. uaryofiTi TvisebebiTqristianuli religiis warmomadgenlebic axasiaTebenerTmaneTs. is ki ara, calkeuli jgufisaTvis cnobiliameore jgufis wevrebis Sexedulebebi maT Sesaxeb.“Zroxebi myavda _ gviambobs somexi qali _ yvelsvakeTebdi gasayidad. erTi qali movida da Tqva uuu,somexio, sisufTave damiwuna! mere Cemi Svili gamomesarCla,ager naxeT xalxo dedaCemze sufTa qalssad naxavTo” (janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010).amasTan, TviTeuli jgufi sakuTar Tavs pozitiuriautostereoti pebiT axasiaTebs. socialuriTviTidentificirebisas sakuTari personisadmi pativiscemisgaRvivebas, pirovneba Tavisi jgufis mxoloddadebiTi niSnebiT daxasiaTebiT cdilobs.eTnikuri jgufebis maidentificirebel mniSvnelovanniSans salaparako ena warmoadgens. germanelinacionalistebi (i. fixte, Zmebi grimebi)miiCnevdnen, rom eTnikurobis mTavari gasaRebi erTianienaa, romelic xalxebs istoriasTan, miTologiasTanda teritoriasTan akavSirebs. samwevrovani kavSiri(ena, teritoria da miTologia//saerTo istoriuligamocdileba) e.w. nacionalizmis Teoriis ZiriTadsafuZvels warmoadgens. Tumca msoflioSi arsebobenmravalwevriani naciebi, mag. Sveicarielebi. asevewinaaRmdegobaSi modis xsenebuli paradigma imgaremoebasTan, rom gansxvavebuli naciebi mSob-liurad miiCneven espanurs, franguls an inglisurs.multieTnikur garemoSi adamianTa mravalmxrivi daintensiuri socialuri kavSirebi moiTxovs garkveulienobrivi situaciis formirebas, rac ukavSirdebasaxelmwifo enisa da e.w. “lingua franka”-s sakiTxs.kulturis elementebis transformireba mravalfaqtorzea damokidebuli da SeiZleba dakavSirebuliiyos rogorc sxva erTobis (sazogadoebis) zemoqmedebasTan,aseve atarebdes endogenur xasiaTsac.e. gelneris TvalsazrisiT, jgufis SigniTlingvisturi cvlilebebi SeiZleba swrafad ganxorcieldespolitikur mizezebTan dakavSirebulikoleqtiuri gadawyvetilebiT (Gellner, 1997: 2). amgvarigadawyvetilebis tipur magaliTs warmoadgens saxelmwifoenisa da “lingua franka”-s sakiTxi qvemo qarTlSi.XIX_XX saukuneebSi saxelmwifo enis da aseve “linguafranka”-s funqcias rusuli asrulebda. qvemo qarTlissomxurma, berZnulma da azerbaijanulma, sxva araqar-Tulma mosaxleobam qarTuli sustad, an saerTudar icoda. bolniseli azerbaijaneli ambobs “_adreqarTvelebs da berZnebs rusulad velaparakebodiT,saxelmwifos meTaurebmac rusuli icodnen. cekasmdivanic ki mxolod rusulad gamodioda. ai mag.,geidar alievma (azerbaijanis yofili prezidenti,l.j.), me arc ki megona, rom azerbaijanuli icoda(janiaSvili, 2008 _2010). amJamad maTTvis, vinc qarTuliar icis, gaZnelda ganaTlebis miReba, biznesi dasaxelmwifo struqturebSi muSaoba. amis gamo, dadgaqarTuli enis Seswavlis sakiTxi yvela eTnikurjgufSi.adgilobrivi qarTvelebi ufro pozitiuradarian ganwyobili im adamianebis mimarT, romlebicqarTulad laparakoben da miaCniaT, rom es mSvidobianiTanacxovrebis mTavari pirobaa “_vinc davrCiT,qarTveli iqneba, azerbaijaneli Tu somexi, yvelaerTmaneTs vicnobT. araqarTvelebic mSvenivrad130 131


laparakoben qarTulad (SeiZleba Cvenze kargadac)da amitomac erTmaneTTan kargad varT. iq sadacsoflebSi calke cxovroben, TavianTi enis metiaraferi ician. amitom, verafers akeTeben da surviliaqvT qarTuli iswavlon. azerbaijanuli icis qarTvelTanawilmac. vinc qarTuli ar icis maTTan ufrorusulad vsaubrobT. rusulad saubroben erTmaneTTansomxebi da azerbaijanelebic. rac SeexebaxaCensa da yafanaxCs es erTmaneTis mezobeli soflebiada iqaurma somxebma azerbaijanulic ki ician.ufrosma Taobam ufro icis sxvadasxva ena, axalgazrdebiki qarTulis swavlas cdiloben. aq arianaxalgazrdebi davuZaxeb da ver gaarCev qarTvelisagan.mere erovnebas Tu SeekiTxebi mixvdebi. ageraxla Tqveni TanamSromeli rom elaparakeba kiane-Teli somxis qalia da kargad laparakobs qarTulad.iqaurebma bevrma icis qarTuli” _ gveubneba dabakazreTSi mcxovrebi qarTveli (janiaSvili 2008 _2010).mosaxleobis TiTqmis yvela asakobriv jgufSi(gansakuTrebiT azerbaijanelTa Soris) SexvdebiTadamianebs, romlebic qarTuli enis Seswavlascdiloben. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom pirad urTier-TobaSi xSirad gamoTqvamen survils, gaizardosqarTuli enis saaTebi azerbaijanul skolebSi(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).analogiuri mdgomareobaa berZnul mosaxleobaSi.beSTaSenis mkvidri berZeni ambobs “_mepiradad ori Svili myavs, erTi qarTulzea (qarTulskolaSia, l.j.) da meore rusulze. Cemi gogos drosqarTuli ar iyo da imitom rusulze miviyvane.umetesobas kargad aqvs gacnobierebuli, rom saxelmwifoenis codna aucilebelia~.`_gamsaxurdias dros axalsofelidan movdiodimotocikliT. gzaze sami qarTveli svamda, uamravidaeliaT TiTqmis 100 boTli. gaaCere genacvale,gaaCere _ SemomTavazes dalieo, magram me uari vuTxari,motocikls vmarTavdi. erTma miTxra _ genacvaleoTxive mxares gza xsnili gaqvs, magram qarTuli Tuici? qarTuli unda icode. _me vuTxari ra Tqma unda,magram sad unda meswavla? bunebrivia adamianmapirvel rigSi unda icodes saxelmwifo ena da mereyvela, ramdensac iswavli Zalian kargia. magramsrulyofilad unda icode saxelmwifo ena. qarTuliscodnis gareSe versad ver waxval, mxolod saberZneTSi.saxelmwifo samsaxurSic ar migiReben, an Cobanigamoxval an Savi samuSao Zala (janiaSvili, 2008 _2010).adamianebi grZnoben, rom enobrivi barierimniSvnelovnad aferxebs maT integracias qarTulsaxelmwifoSi “_ki gveubnebian, ratom ar iciTqarTuli? saidan unda vicodeT, aq mxolod rusuliskola iyo. qarTulis erTi gakveTili tardebodakviraSi da maSinac maswavlebeli gveubneboda biWeboTqven wadiT iseirneT, gogonebi ki gakveTilzedarCneno. qarTuli, ase vTqvaT, arasavaldebulo,damatebiT gakveTilad iTvleboda” (janiaSvili, 2008_2010).Cveni respodentis qarTul _ berZnul ojaxSigazrdilma bavSvebma berZnuli arc ki ician “CemmaSvilebma berZnulic ar ician, magram saberZneTSihyavT mama, romelsac SeuZlia aswavlos. ise amsofelSi Zalian kargi situaciaa, me qarTveli dedavar da Cemma bavSvebma qarTuli kargad ician. Cemigogos klaselebi qarTulad ver saubroben da Cemigogo aswavlis. maswavlebelmac kargad icis qarTuli,profesiiT maswavlebeli ar aris ubralod qarTuliskola aqvs damTavrebuli. somexia, somexi ki aramegreli gogoa, magram somxebSi iyo gazrdili(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).132 133


espodentebi aRniSnaven, rom saxelmwifo enisswavlas marto survili ar yofnis, saWiroa saTanadopolitikuri neba, materialuri mxardaWera da Ronis-Ziebebis gatareba. “axla saxelmwifoc damnaSavea, romsawyal berZnebs ar daainteresa qarTulis swavla.ra Tqma unda, Cveni brali araa, rom qarTuli arviciT, saqarTvelo Cveni samSobloa, da qarTvelixalxi Cveni megobari, qristiani~. berZnebi diskomfortsganicdian, imis gamoc, rom calkeuli kulturuliniSnebiT mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdebian saberZneTSimcxovrebi Tanamemamuleebisagan. “Cveni ena ra Tqmaunda berZnuli ar aris, igi arc sufTa Turqulia,droTa ganmavlobaSi masSi Sevida rusuli, qarTuli,berZnulic darCa, sxva sityvebic. saberZneTSi es enara Tqma unda sul ar gadis, amitom moxucebs gansakuTrebiTuWirT” (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlis berZnebis salaparako ena TurqulTanaxlos dgas, amitom zogi qarTveli maT“TaTars” uwodebs, rac ukmayofilebis mizezi xdeba“_amaTi (berZnebis, l.j.) istoria aravin icis, TaTrebseZaxdnen da me amas piradad aravis ar vapatieb. aqaurimosaxleebi, ufro metad svanebi eZaxian. raxanTaTrulad laparakoben, Tavadac ar ician TavianTienis ambavi. eubnebian qarTvelebis miwaa da qarTvelebmaunda icxovrono (janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010).kulturuli sazRvrebis ganmtkicebaSi didrols TamaSobs istoriuli mexsiereba. amasTan,xalxSi arsebobs araformaluri miTiuri istoriulimexsiereba, erTis mxriv, da formaluri oficialuriistoria, meres mxriv. SeiZleba iTqvas, Tanamedrovesazogadoebis istoriuli mexsierebis erT-erTimTavari wyaro istoriuli teqstebi da saxelmZRvaneloebia(Toria, 2006: 28).erTis mxriv, msoflioSi dawyebuli multikulturizaciisada dekolonizaciis procesebi, meoremxriv, fundamentaluri politikuri cvlilebebiganapirobeben istoriis arsis gansxvavebul interpretaciebs:kulturologiur, socialur, istoriispolitikuri koncefciis warsulis narativebs, istoriisfsiqologiuri struqturebis aRdgenas da sxva.ise rom, istoriis problemaTa mkvlevrebi masobrivikulturis sferoSic ki SeiWren (Кукарцева, 2004: 31).istoriuli TemebiT spekulireba, warsulismiTologizacia, gansakuTrebul gavlenas axdenssazogadoebaze. eTnikur erTobaze zemoqmedebismizniT iqmneba istoriuli Temebis insinuaciazeCamoyalibebuli ideologia _ eTnocentrizmi. eTnocentrizmiopoziciuri jgufis tradiciuli kulturisnegatiur prizmaSi ganxilviT da sakuTari jgufiskulturis gandidebiT xasiaTdeba. am tendenciebmaarc Tu umniSvnelo gavlena iqonia XX_XXI ss-ismijnaze saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul tragikul movlenebSi.amrigad, kulturul-istoriuli realiebiiqcnen ara calkeuli jgufebis gaerTianebis, aramedmaTi gaTiSvisa da dapirispirebis saSualebad. aqedangamomdinare, udidesi pasuxismgebloba ekisrebaT immecnierebs, romlebic istoriisa da eTnologiissferoSi muSaoben. aratitularuli eTnikuri jgufebissaqarTveloSi damkvidrebisa da maTi tradiciulikulturis problemebis mkvlevari mTlianadunda iyos Tavisufali akviatebuli negatiuri stereotipebisagan.XX saukuneSi kavkasiis xalxebi moeqcnen ramdenimegansxvavebuli eTnocentristuli tendenciisgavlenis qveS, rasac gansazRvravda sabWoTa//rusuli,Turquli da adgilobrivi eTnoistoriuli koncefciebi.TiToeuli es koncefcia garkveul rolsTamaSobda calkeuli erTobebis eTnikuri identobisgansazRvrisas. gansakuTrebiT specifikuri mdgomareobaSeiqmna saqarTveloSi, sadac mravlad (xSiradkompaqturadac) cxovroben im eTnosTa (rusebi, somxebi,azerbaijanelebi) warmomadgenlebi, romelTa saxel-134 135


mwifoebSic xsenebuli koncefciebi popularobiTsargeblobdnen. istoriuli samSoblodan wamosuliideologiuri impulsebi am jgufebis sulier kulturasada eTnikur TviTSegnebaze didi rols Tama-Sobdnen.amis magaliTad SeiZleba CaiTvalos azerbaijanulistoriografiaSi (v. gukasiani, g. heibulaevi,a. iunusovi da a.S.) gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi, romTurqebi saqarTveloSi me-6 saukunidan wamyvanelements warmoadgenen; azerbaijanuli ena Camoyalibdaistoriulad maT kuTvnil qvemo qarTlSi;borCalo aris ara me-17 s-Si Semosuli Turqmanulitomisagan nawarmoebi saxeli, aramed uZvelesi yivCa-Ruri tomis bureviCebis aq cxovrebis damadasturebeli;giorgi meoris mefobisas saqarTveloSiTurq-selCukTa gamanadgurebeli Semoseva ~didiTurqoba~ sinamdvileSi aris saqarTvelos teritoriisim nawilis aRmniSvneli, sadac Turqebi iyvnenhegemonebi (gagebulia administraciul erTeulad);e. i. xdeba saqarTveloSi TurqTa cxovrebis istoriisaSkarad gayalbeba, rac qvemo qarTlis musliman mosaxleobaSiaseT interpretacias Rebulobs: `es miwa(qvemo qarTli) Tavidanve azerbaijanelebiT iyodasaxlebuli da irans ekuTvnoda. SemdgomSi iranisSahma saqarTvelos mefes saingiloSi gaucvala~(rogorc Cans, aq aisaxa Sah abas pirvelis mier qarTlismefisaTvis miwebis ~gacvla~). amrigad, ganmtkicebulirwmena azerbaijanelTa `avtoqTonobis~ SesaxebwarmoSobs ukmayofilebasa da dapirispirebas maTsada aq mosaxle sxva eTnikur jgufebs Soris (juka-Svili, 2000: 69).sakuTari modgmis xalxis politikuri upiratesoba,Tundac istoriis garkveul monakveTSi,TanamedroveobaSi garkveuli pretenziis safuZveliSeiZleba gaxdes. paraleli gavavloT afxazeTisTviTaRiarebuli respublikis de-faqto sagareosaqmeTa ministr sergei Sambas mier qarTuli telekompaniisTvismicemul interviuze, sadac man ganacxada,rom istoriulad afxazeTi ki ar Sedioda saqarTvelosSemadgenlobaSi, aramed saqarTvelo iyoafxazeTis nawili. es gancxadeba, garkveulwilad, imisilustracia SeiZleba iyos, rom eTnikuri konfliqtebisda konfliqturi identobebis Camoyalibebis erTerTimizezi eTnosis mier istoriis organizebis,zogadad, warsulis damaxsovrebisa da aRqmis Taviseburebaa(Toria, 2006: 25).saskolo istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebs uzarmazarimniSvneloba eniWeba. somexi erovnebis mTxrobeliambobs „_ maTSi (somxebSi, l.j.) isev paskeviCisistoria zis. miaCniaT, rom paskeviCma iyida maTTvises miwebi. am adamianebs yvelaferi aqvT, magram saqarTvelosar cnoben. damnaSavea ganaTlebis saministro.skolaSi ar unda iswavlebodes sxva qveynis istoria(ruseTis an somxeTis), sxva qveynis ena mSobliurenad. yvela somxuri sofeli asea, qarTuli aravinar icis. es dasaxlebebi rom moxda, svanebi daaWarlebi, vifiqre kargia Tqo. cota raRac enismixedviT Seicvala, magram istorias rac Seexeba,araferi. elita TbilisSi romaa fiqrobs, somxebiarian dauZinebeli mtrebio, magram yvela somexi xommteri ar aris. mtrebi ara varT me da garika metrastroeli,vinc dRemde vzivarT da sityvas velodebiT,magram arasdros ar vyvirivarT” (janiaSvili 2008 _2010).istoriuli warsuli aqtualuri gansakuTrebiTkonfliqtis dros xdeba. dapirispirebuli mxareebimas teritoriuli Tu sxva saxis politikuri pretenziebisdasakmayofileblad iyeneben. am dros istoriadamokidebuli xdeba politikur koniunqturaze.rogorc ingliseli mkvlevari p. berki aRniSnavs,istorikosebis Semoqmedeba sulac ar aris damaxsovrebisuwyinari aqti, is sxvebis mexsierebis Camoyali-136 137


ebis mcdelobaa (Toria, 2006: 25). gasuli saukunis80-iani wlebis bolos, rodesac qvemo qarTlSidaZabulobam piks miaRwia, xSiri iyo warsuliTspekulireba TiTqmis yvela jgufSi.gansxvavebuli warsulis, tradiciuli yofiTida sulieri kulturis da mentalitetis jgufebisTavmoyra erT regionSi TavisTavad gulisxmobsgarkveul dapirispirebas maT Soris. amasTan, bunebrivadmimdinareobs eTnikuri procesebi, rodesaccalkeuli pirebis anda mTeli jgufebis gadasvlaxdeba erTi erTobidan sxvaSi. vidre sruli asimilaciamoxdebodes isini imyofebian marginalur situaciaSi,ori erTobis sazRvarze raRac niSnebiT erT jgufsmiekuTvnebian, raRaciT ki sxvas. rogorc zemoT iTqva,marginalis aseTi kavSirebi met-naklebad aisaxebamis Sexedulebebze, cxovrebis stilze, TviTrefleqsiaze,karieraze, socialur statusze da a.S.xdeba adamianis erTgvari pirovnuli gaoreba. esprocesi qvemo qarTlSi xSirad istoriul konteqstSiganixileba da sakmaod mtkivneulad aRiqmeba erTismxriv e.w. “donori” jgufis da meores mxriv, mimRebijgufis mier.eTnikurobis gansazRvrisas SeiZleba gamoviyenoTtradiciuli (primordialuri), an inovaciurikonstruqciuli midgoma. primordialuri midgomisTanaxmad, eTnikuroba avtomaturad aRmocendeba iseTiobieqturi maxasiaTeblebis safuZvelze rogoricaa:ena, garegnuli fizikuri niSnebi, religia, tradiciulida yofiTi kulturis Taviseburebani. konstruqciulimidgomiT ki aqcenti keTdeba adamianebis mierarsebuli realobis aqtiur SemoqmedebiT interpretaciaze.am TvalsazrisiT, obieqtiuri maxasiaTeblebiwarmoadgenen mxolod interpretaciis nedleuls.erTi da igive obieqtur safuZvels adamianebma SeiZlebasxvadasxva mniSvneloba mianiWon, mimdinare interesebisda konkretuli situaciis mixedviT. aqcentixan enaze gaakeTon, xan religiaze, xan ki kulturulTaviseburebebze (Шнилерман, 2003: 11-12). axali midgomiTeTnikuri jgufis kulturisadmi damokidebulebaSeicvala. amrigad, es umniSvnelovanesi niSaniganixileba, ara rogorc pirveladi an ganmsazRvreliaramed rogorc EeTnikuri organizaciis Sedegi (Барт,2006: 13).arsebobs mosazreba, rom gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobaeTnikuri TviTSemecnebis anu TviTidentifikaciissakiTxebs eniWeba. rac ufro maRalia konsolidaciisxarisxi, ufro metia eTnikuri TviTSemecneba.igi mniSvnelovan ganmsazRvrels warmoadgens. gansakuTrebiTim SemTxvevaSi, Tu eTnikuri kuTvnilebisgamoxatva SezRuduli ar aris (Джуссоев, 2004).qarTuli sazogadoebis ganaTlebuli nawiliyuradRebiT akvirdeboda qvemo qarTlSi mimdinareeTnosocialur procesebs da SeZlebisdagvaradmonawileobda saWirboroto sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi.amis magaliTia regionis ramdenime sofelSi mcxovrebisomxurgvariani qarTvelebi. es kontingentiTviTSegnebiT qarTveli iyo. zogi maTgani aq aRmosavleTsaqarTvelos mTidanac ki yofila Casaxlebuli(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).qvemoT movitan qarTuli samecniero wriswarmomadgenlis naambobs, romelic aqtiurad monawileobdaregionis “somxurgvariani” qarTvelebisaTviserovnebis dabrunebis saqmeSi. “5 sofeli iyo aq:boslebi, vardisubani, maSavera, ukangori da dididmanisi, sadac qarTuli mosaxleoba cxovrobda, magramCawerili iyo somxebad. qarTulad laparakobdnen,Segnebac qarTuli hqondaT magram erovneba da gvari_somxuri.sruliad axalgazrda viyavi. dmanisidan TbilisSimivdiodi. maSaveris gadasaxvevTan avtobusSi viRacbiWi amovida da Cems gverdiT dajda. vkiTxe saidanxar Tqo, miTxra sof. maSaveradan var, didi sofeliao.138 139


kargi qarTuliT laparakobda da bunebrivia davinteresdi,ra gvari xar meTqi. miTxra _ astanianio. somexixar? ara, qarTvelio. rogor, astaniani da qarTvelimeTqi?! pasportSi ra giweria. pasportSi somexi miweria,magram me qarTveli varo. ase gavige rom ara martodmanisSi, aramed, saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi: qarTlsada kaxeTSi arian qarTvelebi somxuri gvarebiT.visaubreT da man CamomiTvala xuTi sofeli varTaseTio. TbilisSi, rom Cavedi baton vaxtang jafariZes*vuambe am SemTxvevis Sesaxeb. gaecina da momiyva _1964 wels movidnen mag maSaveras warmomadgenlebi,gviTxres qarTvelebi varT, gvinda gvarebi qarTuladgadavikeToTo. b-ni vaxtangi datrialda, SoTa lomsaZes**daukavSirda, javaxeTis specialists. imuSaveserTad, gaakeTes mecnieruli daskvna, rom eseniqarTvelebi arian da sworia amaTi moTxovna. andromoseSvili iyo maSin kolmeurneobis Tavmjdomare.moamzades es sakiTxi da komisia Camovida maSaveraSi.SevardnaZe iyo maSin Sinagan saqmeTa ministri.sammarTvelos ufrosi yofila vinme TavarTqilaZeda isic ki eswreboda krebas. krebaze gadawydaSeedginaT asi kacis sia, srulwlovani vinc iyo.maTTvis unda daebrunebinaT qarTuli gvarebi,erovnebas ki ver Seexen. ZoweniZem moawera xeli. gaigoes vazgenma, (somxeTis maSindeli patriarqi, l.j.)amdeni xalxi somxebad yavda Cawerili, amdeni somexiyavda saqarTveloSi da eSinoda precedentis moxdenis.somxeTis patriarqis winaaRmdegobas Sedegad mohyvais, rom as kacsac ver daubrunes qarTuli gvari. amambavma Zlier aRmaSfoTa, miT umetes maSin dmanisis* istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, arqeologiuri kvleviscentris dmanisis arqeologiuri eqspediciis xelmZRvaneli,Sua saukuneebis ganyofilebis gamge.** istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis sax.istoriisa da eTnografiis institutis ufrosi mecnierTanamSromeli.naqalaqari muzeum-nakrZalad undodaT gamoecxadebinaT.me da batoni vaxtangi (jafariZe, l.j.) davjeqiT. imRamiT Suqic Caqra da lampis Suqze davwereT mecnierulidaskvna. meore dRes SevardnaZesTan undawasuliyo Cemi axlobeli da imas gavataneT es daskvna.SevardnaZes gadaeciT es ra gvWirs, es ra dReSivarT, rom qarTvelebi saqarTveloSi somxebadCagviweres, qarTvelobis dabruneba undaT da amasver vSveliT. me amas ar davtoveb ase, mTel saqarTvelosfexze davayeneb. aris ase 1981-82 weli. SevardnaZemgviTxra Tqven TviTon moagvareT es sakiTxi, menu mekiTxebiTo. SevadgineT gegma ra unda gagveke-Tebina. dmanisis mmaCis biuros ufrosad erTi somexiqalbatoni muSaobda. vidre igi sxvagan ar gadaiyvanesproblema adgilidan ar daiZra, radgan sakiTxisgadawyveta am biuros ekuTvnoda. Semdeg, biurosufrosad Salva aduaSvili dainiSna, Zalze ganaTlebulipirovneba. ase daviwyeT es saqme. ori komisiaCamovida moskovidan, ale SuSanaSvili iyo ministri,ra brZolebi gadavitaneT. aqedanac (somxebidan) midiodasaCivrebi da Tavad somxeTidanac (eCmiaZinidan). meukan ar davixie da ase Tu ise, es saqme gadawyda.maSin “vilisi” myavda, uamravi xalxi CavrTe “gepeidan”da sxva saswavleblebidan. mere Seiqmna istoriisinstitutSi sagangebo samsaxuri, komisia iusticiissabWosTan, sadac mec viyavi eqspertad. amrigad daibrunaaqauri qarTvelebis nawilma erovneba” (janiaSvili,2008).eTnikurad somxebs da sxvadasxva garemoebebiTgasomxebul qarTvelebs kargad ganasxvaveben adgilobrivebic.kazreTSi mcxovrebi moxuci ambobs “adream adgils Jaltami erqva, somxebi cxovrobdnen, magramsomxobis araferi ecxoT, axla gvarebi qarTuladgadaikeTes da gaqarTveldnen. batonobis dros batonmaTavisi gvari misca da axla yaflaniSvilebi arian,adre kafedranovebi iyvnen. namdvili somxebi xaCinSi140 141


da kianeTSi cxovroben. somxuri xaCini didi sofelia.arc ise Zveli Camosaxlebuli somxebiT. kianeTSisomxebi arian, magram qarTuladac da somxuradaclaparakoben. somxur skolaSi dadian. egenic mogvianebiTarian Camosaxlebuli XVIII saukuneSi, maSinmaTac iseTive ufleba hqondaT aq dasaxlebisa,rogorc qarTvelebs (janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010).ukanasknel xanebSi globalizaciis gacxovelebaeTnokulturuli procesebis Tvisobrivi cvlilebisgamomwvevad SeiZleba iqces. informaciulisazogadoebis formireba iwvevs kulturuli erTgvarovnebiszrdas. nebismieri ti pis eTnikuri gaerTianebebisarseboba, maTi stabiluroba damyarebuliakavSirebze, romelTa informaciis cnebis farglebSiaRweris cdas adgili hqonda k. WiWinaZis statiaSi.cnobilia, rom adamianTa sociumSi ori ZiriTaditipis informaciis gadacema xdeba: genetikurisa dasignaluris (kulturulis _ am terminis ufarToesigagebiT). globalizaciis process informaciisTeoriis enaze rom vTqvaT, mivyavarT sinqronuliinformaciis wilis zrdisaken da diaqronuliinformaciis wilis Semcirebisaken (e.i. SefardebaDI/SI - permanentulad ecema). kulturologiaSi amprocesebs tradiciis rogorc qcevisa da azrovnebiswesis) kargva ewodeba da Sedegad kulturulidenacionalizacia SeiZleba mohyves. am procesebisparalelurad mimdinareobs Sida sinqronuli informaciulinakadis (ISI) procentuli wilis Semcirebagare sinqronuli informaciul nakadTan (ESI) SedarebiT(e.i. Sefardeba ISI/SI _ permanentulad ecema).kulturologTa enaze es procesi niSnavs sakuTarikulturuli memkvidreobiTobis TandaTanobiT CanacvlebassxvaTa kulturiT da, faqtobrivad, ucxourikulturis agresias warmoadgens (yovel SemTxvevaSipatara erebisTvis mainc). am procesebis Sedegiamovlenebi, romelsac eTnologebi eTnosTaSorisintegracias da asimilacias uwodeben (WiWinaZe: 2004,16)es sakmaod rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi procesi,rogorc wesi, jgufebis calkeuli wevrebis gaRizianebasiwvevs da xSirad Tavisi jgufis gareT iwyebenmizezebis Zebnas “_imerlebs aq TviTon aqvT TaTrebisgavlena. iq ufro adre Semodis kulturac dagaryvnilebac. am serialebma xom sul gaafuWa yvelaferi.Cvenca gvaqvs midrekileba da imitomaa aseTimdgomareoba _ gveubneba TamarisSi Casaxlebuli svani~(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).teqnologiuri progresis garda aRsaniSnaviaglobaluri integraciis socialuri faqtorebi,romlebic gansxvavebuli kulturis infiltraciasganapirobebs. ZiriTad wyaros gare migraciebSierTobis wevrTa intensiuri gasvlebi warmoadgens.am mxriv, qvemo qarTlSi noyieri niadagia, mosaxleobisdidi nawili gasulia SromiT migraciebSi. amasTan,calkeuli eTnikuri jgufebis warmomadgenlebisxvadasxva mimarTulebiT midian. azerbaijanelebiamjobineben azerbaijans, TurqeTs an ruseTs; somxebi_ruseTs; qarTvelebi ki saberZneTsa da evropis qveynebs.migraciaTa veqtorebi ukavSirdeba Camoyalibebulsaemigracio socialur qsels, romelic ayalibebsmTlian sistemas. sistema xasiaTdeba specifikurisainformacio da materialuri dinebebiT. sworedes specifikuri qseli xdis SesaZlos konkretulipiris migracias da xSirad mis adaptacias. missavefunqciaSi Sedis migrantis religiuri momsaxurebisada eTnokulturuli maxasiaTeblebis SenarCuneba daa.S. (Корякин, 2005: 25).SromiTi migrantebi, ucxo qveynebSi TavianTisocialuri qselis (romelic, rogorc wesi, eTnikuridiasporis saxes Rebulobs) meSveobiT cdilobenSeinarCunon eTnikuri kulturis elementebi. imavdroulad,xSirad swored migrantebi gvevlinebian142 143


globaluri kulturuli elementebis gamtarebad,maTi meSveobiT ecnobian jer ojaxis wevrebi, mere kimisi jgufis warmomadgenlebi axal teqnologiurmiRwevebs da e.w. dasavlur kulturas. ti purisuraTia erTi Cveni mTxrobelis ojaxSi. saberZneTSiwasulia mamakaci. man jer mobiluri telefoniTmoamaraga ojaxis wevrebi, Semdeg ki kompiutericgamougzavna. amieridan, sakmaod tradiciuli ojaxisaTvis,romelic daxurul kulturul erTobasmiekuTvneboda, Cveulebrivi gaxda, interneti, skai pi,feisbuki da adnoklasnikebi. amrigad, saberZneTSiwasuli pirovneba erTis mxriv, axali teqnologiebissaSualebiT inarCunebs kavSirs Tavisi erTobiswevrebTan, virtualurad monawileobs tradiciulsaojaxo ritualebsa da dResaswaulebSi. imavdroulad,ki swored xsenebuli emigranti gaxda erT-erTi gamtaridasavluri kulturuli faseulobebis Semotanisa jermis ojaxSi, Semdeg ki mTels erTobaSi.amrigad, eTnikur jgufTaSoris urTierTobisxasiaTi qvemo qarTlSi metad rTuli da mravalferovania,da Tavis TavSi moicavs rogorc pozitiur, isenegatiur momentebs.i n t e g r a c i i s T u d e z i n t e g r a c i i sp e r s p e q t i v a ? !jgufTaSorisi tolerantoba _ intolerantobisaqtivizaciaze gavlenas axdens socialfsiqologiurifaqtorebi, rogoricaa: pozitiuroba_negatiuroba da eTnikuri identurobis mkafiooba _ambivalenturoba; diskriminaciis xarisxi da religiurobisdone. polikulturul regionSi mcxovrebieTnikuri jgufebi urTierTobis Semdeg strategiebsiyeneben: 1. sxva jgufebTan socialuri distanciisSemcireba an gazrda; 2. mcdeloba sakuTari kulturisSenarCunebisaTvis eTnikuri an konfesiuri niSniT.mniSvnelovania im faqtorebis gamovlena, romlebiczegavlenas axdenen eTnikuri tolerantobisxarisxze. amgvari kvleva moiTxovs sistemur midgomas,unda gaanalizdes rogorc uSualod jgufTa kontaqtebis(socialuri da sameurneo urTierTobebi,kulturuli nasesxobebi da a.S.) Sedegad, ise maTgandamoukideblad warmoqmnili faqtorebi (saxelmwifopolitikis xasiaTi, masmediaSi arsebuli ganwyobebi,qveynis garedan momdinare impulsebi da a.S.) mniSvnelovaniaempiriuli masalis analizi. dadginda, rompolikulturul regionebSi xdeba kulturaTaSorisiurTierTobebis strategiis gamomuSaveba, rac socialuridistanciis Semcirebas an gazrdas ganapirobebs(Лебедева, 2002, 5 _ 7).XX saukunis 60-iani wlebis bolos samecnieroliteraturaSi Semovida eTnikuri jgufebis fenomeniskvlevis axleburi midgoma, rac ukavSirdebodaeTnikuri jgufebis socialuri sazRvrebis arsobrivkvlevas. manamde arsebobda modeli, romelSiccalkeul xalxebs gaaCndaT sakuTari kultura daqmnidnen sazogadoebebs, romlebic aRweris mizniTSeiZleboda warmodgenili yofiliyvnen rogorccalkeuli kunZulebi. miCneuli iyo, rom rasobrivi,144 145


kulturuli gansxvavebuloba, enobrivi barierebi daa.S. ganapirobebdnen eTnikuri sazRvrebis simyares.garkveul izoliaciaSi myofi TiToeuli jgufiadaptaciis procesSi adgilobrivi ekologiur faqtorebzereaqciis Sedegad, gamoimuSavebda sociokulturulstruqturas gamogonebis an gamomgoneblobiTinasesxobis gziT (Барт, 2006: 12).miRebulia, rom met-naklebi avtonomiuri perspeqtivebismqone regionebSi xelisufleba mTlianadakontrolebs masmedias _ televizias, radios dapresas. Sesabamisad, aseT xelisuflebas ara martoganaTlebis sistemis meSveobiT SeuZlia xangrZlividrois ganmavlobaSi moaxdinos gavlena mosaxleobisdamokidebulebaze, aramed xSir SemTxvevaSi, mediissaSualebiT axali ambebis miwodebiT, pirdapirSeiZleba iqonios gavlena mosaxleobaze: isaubrosgulwrfelad, gaswios propaganda da daaCqaroseTnikuri mobilizaciis procesi (korneli, 2004: 54).savele eTnografiuli masalebidan irkveva, romsakvlev regionSi qarTuli saxelmwifo politikadidi aqtiurobiT ar gamoirCeva. pirvel rigSi undaiTqvas, rom lingvisturi situaciidan gamomdinare,qarTuli masmedia araqarTul kontingetze mciregavlenas axdens. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia, rom televiziisada radiomauwyeblobis dafarvis zona mravaldasaxlebul punqtze ver vrceldeba.regionis eTnikuri specifikidan gamomdinareiTvleba, rom es mxare arCevnebis dros arsebulixelisuflebis mudmivi mxardamWeria. nawilobriv essimarTles Seesabameba. Tumca isic gasaTvaliswinebelia,rom amiT aratitularuli kontingentisakuTar loialobas amJRavnebs ara konkretulipolitikuri Zalis, aramed saxelmwifos mimarT. mag.sof. sadaxloSi Cven azerbaijanel mTxrobelTaumetesoba ambobda, rom aq arCevnebi formalurxasiaTs atarebs, masSi qalebi saerTod ar monawileoben,radganac muslimuri kultura ver itansqalis zedmet aqtiurobas. isini verasodes gabedavensakuTari politikuri Sexedulebebi gamoxaton, Tuis ojaxis ufrosisas ar emTxveva (janiaSvili, 2006).ramdenime wlis Semdeg, 2010 wels imave soflismacxovrebelTa nawili gvimtkicebda, rom aqauriqalebi arCevnebSi aqtiurad monawileoben da TavianTpolitikuri gemovnebis gamJRavnebasac ar eridebian(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).cxadia, xelisuflebis organoTa arCevnebis TemapolieTnikur adgilebSi calke mravalSriani problemaa,romelic specialur kvlevas moiTxovs. CvenTansaubarSi aratitularuli jgufebis warmomadgenlebixazs usvamdnen saqarTvelos axali saxelmwifosada mTavrobisadmi TavianT keTilganwyobas. “saqarTveloskonstitucia Zalze kargia. me, magaliTad, maxsovs,rom aqedan TbilisSi ver midiodnen, aCerebdnen.bazarSi rom Sediodnen, gamosulebs specialurimilicia aCerebda da fuls arTmevda. axla sadacginda iq wadi~._ CvenTan wamyvani mesaqonleobaa, vabarebT rZes,vakeTebT aseve karaqsa da naRebs, gvyavs frinvelebi.am axalma mTavrobam marTla xeli Semogvibruna daadamianebad gvaqcia, boselSi vcxovrobdiT erTxans._axali gamgebeli kargi kaci Cans, Tumca ukve“unazadebs”. ramdenjer unda mixvide erT saqmeze,rom pasuxi gamoitano. igi imasTan gagzavnis, igiamasTan da erTi Tve gWirdeba, veRar akeTeb saqmes._somxebi axali mTavrobis kmayofili varT,pensiebi da daxmarebebi mogvca, qurdoba da yaCaRobaaRaraa, oRond egaa, samuSao ara gvaqvs (janiaSvili2008 _ 2010)qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebi calkeuli jgufebikulturuli TvalsazrisiT sakmaod izolirebuliarian erTmaneTisagan.146 147


_ Cven sofelSi, marTalia, aravin aravisaviwrovebs, magram isea, rom magaliTad, berZeni dadgebaberZenTan, svani _svanTan, aWareli_ aWarelTan. erTadro viyoT da visaubroT _ aseTi araa (janiaSvili,2008 _ 2010).intensiuri migraciuli procesebi, politikurida ekonomikuri krizisi da saxelmwifo organoebissisuste gaxda gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolosqvemo qarTlSi calkeuli dapirispirebisa da zogjerlokaluri konfliqtebis mizezi. winaaRmdegobebi rigSemTxvevaSi warmoqmnili iyo sameurneo-ekonomikurniadagze, magram am winaaRmdegobaTa sazRvari eTnokulturulgansxvavebaze gadioda. pirveli disonansiregionSi ekomigrantebis Semosvlas mohyva. isinidaupirispirdnen iq mcxovreb TiTqmis yvela jgufs.qalaq marneulSi am dapirispirebis mizezad iqca isgaremoeba, rom ekomigrantebi Tavdapirvelad CaasaxlesmravalsarTulian sacxovreblebSi, romelic gankuTvniliiyo adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis (ZiriTadadazerbaijanelebisaTvis). konfliqts adgili hqonda sxvajgufebTanac, berZnebTan, adgilobriv qarTvelebTanda a.S. ai, rogor aRwers Cveni Tanamosaubre TeTriwyaroSimaTsa da berZnebs Soris konfliqts.“_berZnebis Tavdasxma iyo am sofelze. qalaqiscentrSi erTi kazinoa, karts rom aTamaSeben Tusabiliardo, zustad ar vici. Cvenma biWebma iq magidadaamtvries. Cxubi atyda da scemes mis patrons, iserom saavadmyofoSi waiyvanes. miuxedavad imisa, romberZnebi Zveli kulturis xalxia, aq WivWavis sasadilosTanqarTvelebs gogoebs arTmevdnen da TviTondaepatronebodnen, qalaqis centrSi qarTulad verlaparakobdnen da sinamdvileSi Cveni xalxi amiswinaaRmdeg gamovida. im Rames kazinos patroni romgalaxes, meore dRes movidnen mTeli berZnebi, 1000kacze meti. jer kidev iyo raikomi, raiaRmaskomi,prokurori. gamsaxurdia jer kidev ar iyo xelisuf-lebaSi mosuli, magram Tavisi gavlena hqonda procesebze.movida es xelmZRvaneloba da gviTxra, vervaCerebT am xalxs da rogorc gindaT ise uSveleTTavso. waviyvane yvela, nawils iaraRi hqonda, Cavasafregzis aqeT-iqedan, gzaze traileri Cavayene da biWebsvuTxari _ pirveli me vesvri Tu srola saWiro iqneba.am traileramde Tu movlen da gadmovidodnen win,Cven miviRebdiT zomebs. sabolood konfliqtismogvareba molaparakebiT SevZeliT (janiaSvili, 2002_ 2011).meore informatori gvizustebs “_rodesac aqCamovediT Cxubebi gvixdeboda TaTrebTan, somxebTan,osebTan. osebi bevri iyo. zogs svani ar enaxa daqarTul laparaksac ki ukrZalavdnen. mere nel-nelaSeCerda, orive mxare damSvidda da erTmaneTTanZmurad arian (janiaSvili, 2010 _ 2011)garkveuli kulturuli izolacia da am mizeziTdapirispireba Tavad qarTul eTnografiuli jgufebSicSeimCneva _ Tavdapirvelad bavSvebi 3 kilometrzedadiodnen Tamarisis skolaSi, mere ukmayofilobamogvixda adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan (imereTidanCamosaxlebulebi) _ skolidan momavali bavSvebiyurZens da xils ratom krefeno. mere bavSvebSicgaCnda bzari, mSoblebSic da iZulebuli gaxdnencalke gadmosuliyvnen. axla aq ori skolaa. erTSimarto svanebi swavloben, meoreSi ki qarTvelebi(qarTlelebi, imerlebi, fSavebi, xevsurebi) daTaTrebic ki. Zvel skolaSi swavloben. Cven romCamogvasaxles, magens davalebebi misces, rom raRaceebigaekeTebinaT. Cven xalxs organizaciebi amaragebdnenyvelafriT, rac adgilobrivebis Surs iwvevda. aseveukmayofileba iyo imis gamo, rom rom im SenobebSiCagvasaxles, marneulSi, sadac isini elodnen binebs.mere aqaurebi ukmayofiloni iyvnen, rom svanebmaRorisa da saqonlis damwyvdeva ar vicodiT, radgansvaneTSi adgilebi SemoRobili gvqonda. aq ki Cveni148 149


Rori an saqonlebi Tu Sevidoda da maT nakveTsgaaoxrebda, veRaraferi moigebda magaT guls. aradaSemoRobe dalocvilo. saqoneli ZiriTadad 10-15Zroxa gvyavs, gaSvebulia, aq saqoneli zamTarSicgaitans saZovarze Tavs, mcireodeni Tiva Tu dagvWirdeba_ gveubneba Tamariseli ekomigranti (janiaSvili,2008 _ 2010).mdgomareoba kidev ufro garTulda 2001 wlidan,regionSi aWareli ekomigrantebis CamosaxlebisSemdeg. razec gavlena iqonia ekonomiurma konkurenciisfaqtorma. integraciis intensivoba mWidro kavSirSiarogorc politikur kulturul, aseve ekonomikurfaqtorebTan. erTis mxriv, Camosulebi emduriansaxelmwifos mxridan uyuradRebobas, meores mxriv,adgilze damxvdurebi ver eguebian CamosulTa miermaTi saarsebo sivrcis erTgvar SezRudvas.es procesebi garkveul daRs asvamen jgufTa-Soris urTierTobas. berZnebis repatriaciis Semdegdacarielebul saxlebs aWaridan da svaneTidanCamosuli ekomigrantebi iWeren, rac aq darCenilberZnebSi gaRizianebas iwvevs „_aq mxolod samisaxlia kanonierad gayiduli, sxva danarCeni ki iseadakavebuli da gauformebeli. rodesac Cvenebi stalinisdros 27 wels soxumidan midiodnen, afxazebi iZaxdnen,es Cveni saxlebiao da Sig Sediodnen. erTma qarTvelmacgadawyvita, ase Sesuliyo berZenis saxlSi, magrammamam uTxra, ara Svilo _ es Seni saxli ar aris. xomxedavT ra moxda afxazeTSi axla, imitom rom RmerTiarsebobs da Sen Tu SegrCa, Sen Svils ar SerCeba. amsaxlebs rom yidulobdnen verafers vityodiT, Tuadamiani Zroxas yidis visi ra saqmea. magram amaT arsurT iyidon saxli, aramed muqTad undaT CaigdonxelSi. an modian da amboben 500 maqsimum 1000 dolari.gana aseT saxls 1000 dolarad aageb? cementi iyide,muSa Zala daiqirave, fundamenti gaTxare. Cvenebma essaxlebi wvalebiT aages, ruseTSi dadiodnen samuSaod,col-Svili wlobiT hyavdaT mitovebuli. iqidanagzavnidnen xis masalas, Sifers Tu cements. amitomaseT fasad veravin miscems. _ gveubneba walkisraionSi mcxovrebi berZeni (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).adgilobrivi qarTvelebi, ekomigrantebi (aWarismaRalmTianeTidan da svaneTidan gadmosulebi) dadevnilebi ki ZiriTadad saxelmwifos mxridantitularuli eTnosisadmi arasakmaris mxardaWerazesaubroben da sxva jgufebTan urTierTobebSi ekonomikuraspeqtebze amaxvileben yuradRebas.„_aWarlebis Camosvla aq 2001 wels daiwyo.stiqiuri mdgomareobaSi viyaviT da wevediT Cvengzaze. gazeTSi deiwera aseTi da aseTi mdgomareobaada aq CamodiTo. prefeqti maSin iyo kvaliaSvili.CvenTanac stiqiuri mdgomareoba moxda da wamovediT.ise varT xulodan, Rorjomis xeobis sof. mekeiZeebidan.axla vcxovrob sof. yarayumSi. iq, aWaraSi,mciredi darCa, 70 procenti wamosuli varT. CvensofelSi berZnebi aRar arian, 2-3 komli darCa. Cvensaxelmwifo arc iq dagvxmarebia, im zonaSi mewyerebirom modioda, gamravlebuli viyaviT, ver veteodiTda Cven Tavs vuSveleT Cven TviTon. aq saxlebi zogiCven viyideT zogi mTavrobam gviyida. me TviTon viyideCemiT. arc ise iafi iyo, magram Tavisi sadari fasiar qonda. axla gasayidi saxlebi ki aris, magram sabuTiar aris da usabuTo saxli vis unda. erTi 5-10 welialaparakoben Casaxleba ari, Casaxleba ari, magramaraviTari daxmareba ar Cans (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).„maincdamainc aWareli kaci unda CamovideswalkaSi da icxovros da somexi unda wavides aWaraSi?imitom gvWirs aseTi ambavi. axla Tu araferi argamova, 800 kvamlia aWareli Tu 1200, yvelani avdgebiT,CavalT davjdebiT baTumSi da gamogvinaxon adgili._ucxoeTSi waval an ukan aWaraSi, aba ras vizam.aq rZe Zalian iafi Rirs. waval, romelicxa qveyanagamogviwvdis xels, waval davjdebi konsulTan da150 151


omelic gamogvxedavs iq wavalT. es aris elementaruliambavi, Torem me imas xom ar geubnebi oqromomecio. unda mogvizomoT erTnairad, ra gansxvavebaaberZeni iqneba Tu qarTveli. miwac Segvpirdnen, wyalicSegvpirdnen, magram kaci araa Cveni patroni._aWarlebiT dasaxlebul maRalmTian sofeldisvelSi (azerbaijanelebi Tafanas eZaxian), sasmeliwyali grafikiT, kviraSi ori dRe da isic ramdenimesaaTiT mogvewodeba. es wyali yarabulaRidan modisbolnisSi, 60 kilometrze (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).regionSi mosaxleobis raodenobrivi klebismiuxedavad, ojaxebs ar yofnis saxnav-saTesi miwebi.rac jgufebs Soris ukmayofilebisa da zogjerkonfliqtis gamomwvevi mizezic xdeba:„miwebis mdgomareoba axla aseTia, erTi Zaliangamixarda axali gamgebeli rom daniSnes. pirvelSexvedraze vifiqre, gveSvela meTqi, magram damTavrda.arenda xels gviSlis. Se ojaxaSenebulo, CamoxvelerTi pirovneba, es miwa saxelmwifosia Tu erTi kacisaa?Tavisufali rac aris is gaanawilon. naxevarze metiaTavisufali miwebi, magram aravin ar gaxedebs, argiSvebs. arendatorebs aqvT, Tbilisidanac aris daadgilobriv mTavrobasac. miviReT cota nawili, magrambaRanasaviT kanfets ro miscemen ise varT._dagvirekes axla, berZnebs nu SeexebiTo, berZnebsra unda SevexoT, erTi-ori kaci aris berikaci, ra undaSevexoT. 100 heqtari miwa aqvs da 46 ro wavarTva ramoxda mere. wasuli berZnebis mTeli miwa darCenilebsaqvs da 100 larSi aqiravebs. 3 larSi misca mTavrobamim droisaTvis, uzomod, umisamarTod. dRes mixvalda erTi mocelva 100 lario. miiReb umaRlesi _ 2-3tona Tivas. cota politikuria da arc unda Tqva,magram berZen kacs aTi da oci Cvendeni, qarTvelkacze meti ufleba rom eqneba esaa? ara, Cven undawevideT sacxa, TiTqmis es trialebs axla. eg azriaaxla. 4-5 welia adamiani Camosulia da eg erTiheqtaric ara aqvs. vis inawileben, ras unawileben arvici. heqtari miwis nakveTi ar gvaqvs, rom baRnebskartofili vaWamoT. 2001_Si Camovedi aq da santimetrimiwa ar gamaCnia._am miwebs patronobs arendatori. aq Camosuliarian 400-500 heqtari miwa aqvs erT arendators.aqiravebs, ar gaaCnia, arc ferma, arc saqoneli, arcRori araferi. Cvenze yidis 100 larad, rac SeuZliaTTu ara dawvaven Semodgomaze. Cven viyaviT ramodenimeuwyebaSi, gancxadeba SevitaneT, magram araferigamodis._rom Seixedo kompiuterSi gedeirevi, jer erTivin Segaxedebs. naxevari miwa aqvT gaformebuli,naxevari ki carielia. aris aseTi SemTxvevac, a kacma4000 dolari gedeixada saxlSi, miwa ki ar misca, argaZlevo. geige axla amnairi ambavi. imas ver xedaven,Cven berZnebs vCagravT Tu ara. saberZneTidan gadmorekesar daCagroTo. axla zemdgomebma gvTxoves,wilSi SeiyvaneTo da SeviyvaneT wilSi, rogorc CvendevinawileT samnaxevari miveciT mas. axla, guSingvirekaven, xeli ar axloTo (janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010).“_aq Seqmnili aqvT kerZo meurneobebic. yofilgamgebels aqvs aseTi meurneoba. zemo yarabulaxSi,mewveli Zroxa yavs 54, mozardi _ 26, sarwyavi miwaaqvs 160 _ ha, saTibi _ 170, saZovari _ 300 ha. dasaqmebuliyavs 12 aqauri TaTari. axla fuli Wirdeba, rommeurneoba ganaviTaros. imitom rom am miwaze 500Zroxis Senaxva SeiZleba, axla investiciebi Wirdeba._komunistebis dros saxlis asaSenebeli miwisgamoyofa problema iyo, aqedan bevri qarTvelicwasula imis gamo, rom miwa ar misces. bezaqloaa, aqerTi sofeli da erT TaTar traqtorists miwaundoda. masac ar misces. viRac “sulierma mamam”daaweria werili leninis saxelze. wavida moskovSi,Caugdo lenins mavzoleumSi. es ro qarTvelsgaekeTebina, daiWerdnen. mas ki moeferen, darekes,152 153


saqarTveloSi daakmayofileTo. Casves TviTmfrinavSi,aq daxvdnen da or DdReSi samosaxlo miwa misces.moskovs qarTuli miwis araqarTvelisaTvis micemaar enaneboda (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).sameurneo-ekonomikuri urTierTobebi kidevufro gamwvavda sabWoTa wyobilebis Secvlisa dasakolmeurneo qonebis gadanawilebis Semdeg. TiToeulijgufi eWvobs, rom sasoflo-sameurneo teqnika sxvaerTobis wevrebs gadasces usamarTlod.“_sasoflo teqnika ar viciT vin waiRo, somxebmaTu qarTvelebma. Cveni soflelebi ki TiTiTac arSexebian. vcxovrobT Zliv-ZlivobiT. axali saxlebididi xania ar aSenebula” (sof. qosalari, TeTriwyaro).(Tumca sofelSi sakmaod kargi, orsarTuliani saxlebia,l.j.).“_axla saTibi manqanebi mxolod TaTrebs aqvs.radgan traqtorebi da kombainebi gaiyida mTlianadsxva soflelebze. erTi heqtaris gaTibva 65 lariRirs. erTi “tiuki” ki 50 kapiki. yovel weliwads 5lari emateba, midi da icxovre.”“_sarwyavi wyali ara gvaqvs 2300 h-ri saxnavimiwa aqvs Saumians, magram didi nawili arendiT gasces,sxva soflelebisa da qalaqelebisaTvis. erTi partiislideris naTesavs 260 heqtari aqvs arendiT (jania-Svili, 2008 _ 2011).aratitularuli jgufebi diskriminaciad miiCnevenyovelgvar uyuradRebobas saxelmwifo organoebidan.mag. norgiuRSi mcxovrebi somxebi diskriminaciadTvlian, rom maT quCaze ar gamoiyvanes gazi.“gazi aris aqeT iqiT, sadac qarTvelebi cxovroben,gverdiT wereTelSic aris da orjonikiZeSic, magramCvenTan araa” (janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010). amas abralebenara azerbaijanelebs (samuSaoebs azerbaijanulifirma awarmoebda, l.j.) aramed qarTvelebs.„_SaumianSi samxedro qalaqi iyo, rusulieklesiac gvqonda. axla mag dasaxlebaSi dangreulisaxlebi SeakeTes da ruseTTan omis Semdeg gamoqceuliltolvilebi _ qarTvelebi da osebi arian.mTeli yuradReba maTzea, Cven ki ar gvexmarebian~(somxebi, l.j.) (janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010).gansxvavebuli situaciaa im adgilebSi sadacwamyvani samrewvelo obieqtebia, mag., kazreTSi. aqekonomikuri problemebi eTnikurs naklebad ukavSirdebada wina planze modis saxelmwifo mesveurebisdamokidebuleba:„_me rom mkiTxo, am kuTxes arafrad Tvlian,oqros movi povebT, spilenZs movi povebT. TaTbirzeambob rom biujetSi 68 milioni Seitane. Se kai kaco,66 Seitane, 67 Seitane da danarCeni aqaurobas moaxmare.komunistebis dros dekoratiuli mcenareebiiyo darguli, gegma iyo rom patara qalaqi Seqmniliyo,troleibusebs unda evloT. me imaT ki ar mivtirivar,raRaca ki gvaqvs. axla me eqskavatoris memanqane var,viReb 850 lars, es erTaderTi Semosavalia 4 sulianojaxSi, aqedan ori studentia. rom ar myofnis agerpatara jixuri davdgi da manqanis nawilebiT vvaWrob.aRarc profkavSiria da aRaraferi moqmedebs. ageres kaci drabilkaze muSaobs, sul TeTria xolmemtvrisagan da 550 lars Rebulobs. mavne (anazRaurebasamuSaos mavneobis gamo, l.j.) mogvixsnes. SvebulebacSegvimcires 58 dRidan dagviyvanes 22 dRemde. damatebaiyo rZe, smetana da a.S. isic mogvixsnes. aq bavSvebisumetesoba daavadebulia, yvelaferi mowamlulia,gavrcelebulia Ciyvi. ityvi raimes da samsaxursdagatovebineben.`_Tbilisidan CamoyavT muSaxeli da TiTos 4000lars uxdian, CamohyavT rogorc specialisti. yvelaTavis xalxs eZebs da mohyavs. axla me saCxerelivar da ra Tqma unda saCxerels Camoviyvan. magram maincaraa es lamazi. axla visac ar unda hkiTxo, yvelaukmayofiloa, magram xmamaRla veravin ambobs. iseTisoflebicaa saqarTveloSi, sadac Cven rom Zexvis da154 155


ludis yidva SegviZlia, egec ar SeuZliaT. gadavxedoT,sadac oqro moipoveba, spilenZi moipoveba, spilenZiskoncentrati gadis, ra moxda rom gza ver gakeTda.Cveni prezidenti ki sul gzas gaiZaxis. ZiriTadadSemosasvlelamde kargi gzaa, magram es mcire monakveTiacudi, sadac manqanas daSli kaci. me im suliskveTebiTavar Svilis swavlis damTavrebas velodebi, Toremam eqskavatorze aRebuli 850 lari, rasac kviraSi 4dRes (12 saaTian cvlas) vmuSaob, namdvilad arSeesabameba._ar muSaobs es profkavSiri, ara. axla raimeukmayofileba rom gamoxato maSinve gaganTavisufleben.rames etyvi mec daqiravebuli varo. es mtverisilikonia Tu raRac organizms wamlavs. SeiZlebaCven gvgonia janmrTeli varT magram, ar varTjanmrTeli. is ki ara eqimTan rom mivdivarT, rogorckazreTs gaigeben eSiniaT daavadeba raime Cagviweron.me TviTon rom mivedi eqimTan suraTic ar maCvena,rom gaigo kazreTidan viyavi. axla direqtors rom22 aTasi dolari aqvs, moadgiles 18 aTasi dolarida me eqskavatoris memanqanes 800 lari, raze undaqondes im mewisqviles mxolod 500 lari. mesmisrom iswavle, did xarjebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. agerSvils vaswavli, magram es xom ar niSnavs, rom vincuswavlelia mSieri mokla._xelfasebi Segvimcires qarxanaSi, saubaria, romsaerTod xalxis Semcirebebic iqneba. Cven ZiriTadadmag xelfasze var damokidebuli, sakarmidamo nakveTebimxolod zogierTebs aqvT, isic soflebSi, aq ki ardaurigebiaT miwebi_vimuSave cota, da SemomeWama ukve. axla rkinigzazevcade muSaoba, magram ar gamomivida. kartofili kidavTese 2000 metrze, bavSvebisTvis. simindi aq modisTu ara arc vici, cota-cota vsinje, magram ara maqvsimis Sansi, rom davTeso da gavakeTo. xorbali kimodis, ukeTesi ar SeiZleba, magram Semodgomaze undadaTesva, damuSaveba da ver vaxerxebT” (janiaSvili,2008 _ 2010).sakvlev regionSi gamovlinda eTnikuri dakonfesiuri jgufebis sakmaod maRali konsolidaciisxarisxi, romelic efuZneba. “erTianobas” garkveuliideologiis safuZvelze da (Tundac fsiqologiuriaspeqtiT) dapirispirebas sxvebTan. eTnikuri identurobisxelisSemwyobi ZiriTadi instrumenti saganmanaTleblosistemaa. adreuli asakidan eTnikur identobasTandakavSirebuli informaciis gacnoba individebSieTnikuri erTobis Zlieri grZnobis ganviTarebasuwyobs xels. sabWoTa erovnuli politikisSemTxvevaSi, es ZiriTadad saganmanaTleblo sistemissaSualebiT xdeboda. eTnikuri umciresobebisaTvis,romelTac gaaCndaT sakuTari eTnoteritoriuliadministraciuli organoebi, erovnul enaze ganaTlebismiRebis individualuri sistemebis dafuZnebismeSveobiT, sabWoTa mTavroba faqtiurad qmnidainstituts, romlis mizani iyo gamoeSkaravebinasaerTo da calkeuli identurobebi. identurobebisSemdgomi ganmtkiceba xdeboda saklaso oTaxebSi,sadac moswavleebs aswavlidnen maTi winaprebiskulturasa da istorias, romelTac ise warmoaCendnen,TiTqos maT hqondaT pirdapiri genetikuri kavSiriTanamedrove eTnikuri jgufis wevrebTan” (korneli,2004: 52)socialuri izolacia da sociokulturuligansxvaveba jgufis Caketiloba-gaucxoebisa daSesaZlo dapirispirebis warmomSob mTavar mizezswarmoadgens. ufro metic, es faqtorebi erTi mxrivnegatiuri stereotipebis da dapirispirebis stimulatoradgvevlinebian, meore mxriv ki, mTavar rolsasruleben mravalferovan eTnokulturul garemoSijgufis TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebasa da eTnokulturulispecifikis SenarCunebis saqmeSi (Джаниашвили,2004: 5-11)156 157


ogorc wesi, arc titularuli mosaxleobacdilobs sxva jgufebis sociumis izolirebuladcxovrebis wesis darRvevas da integraciuli procesebisintensifikacias. informaciis nakleboba, izolirebulobismaRali done, mxareebs Soris gaucxoeba,xels uwyobs ararealuri (miTiuri) siuJetebisgavrcelebas erTmaneTis yofa-cxovrebis Sesaxeb.zogjer sruliad SemTxveviT momxdari, an araadekvaturadinterpretirebuli calkeuli faqtebis safuZvelzeiqmneba negatiuri stereoti pebi. amgvariheterostereotipebis formirebas ufro noyieriniadagi eqmneba kulturul-konfesiuri da anTropologiurigansxvavebis pirobebSi. ver vityviT, romqvemo qarTlis mosaxleobas am ti pis gaucxoebaaxasiaTebdes, piriqiT, bolo xanebSi jgufebis daaxloebisada integraciis procesis erTgvari gaaqtiurebaSeiniSneba. niSandoblivia, rom titularuli jgufi(qarTvelebi) sxva eTnikuri jgufebidan mainc azerbaijanelebs(regionSi faqtobriv umravlesobas) gamoyofspozitiuri maxasiaTeblebiT:„ise simarTle rom giTxra azerbaijaneli ufrosandoa samezoblod videre somexi. Cveni somxebi iseqarTvelebiviT arian maT ras verCiT (qarTveli)._ TaTrebi ise kargi xalxia, Tu dagindo sulSen gverdiT iqneba._ azerbaijanelebi soflebSi imdenad morwmunear arian, ufro marneulSi. bairamis dros sufrasrom gaawyoben ojaxSi, ro mixvide daakakuno, da rameWurWeli daudo gaavseben sanovagiT. ician axlobelqarTvelTan stumrad qorwilSi misvla da fulswamoiReben, 500 larze naklebi araa._ ager axla Cemma Zmam azerbaijanels moanaTvliabavSevebi, eg naTlia qristiani ar iyo, ro moiyvanesnaTlobaSi, ase uTxres jer Sen unda moinaTloqarTuladao._ iseTi xalxia es azerbaijanelebi, rom arasodesqarTvelebs ar awyenineben da arc qarTvelebiawyenineben. Cxubi maTTan ar yofila. daJe ereklemefes jari gayavda aqedan. aq erTi qoroRli yofilaTaTari yaCaRi xalxs ayaCaRebda, qoroRlis cixec arisaqa. somxebTanac kargi urTierToba gvaqvs, isiniqarTuladac ki laparakoben. skolaSi magaTac daazerbaijanelebsac aswavlian qarTuls._ Zmakaci myavs azerbaijaneli, magis gogo daCemi gogo me-8 klasamde erTad dadiodnen, mere kisxvagan gadavida. axlos arian CvenTan. me qirvad(naTliad) aravis movkidebivar, megram aseTi SemTxvevabevria. rac Seexeba qarTul salocavebs, xatissofelixom ici, mag sofelSi eklesiaSi azerbaijanelebicCveulebriv dadian, saklavsac klaven dayvelaferi. ise misvla-mosvla da yvelaferi aqvT(janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010)._amJamad ukmayofileba sxva jgufebTan naklebadaa,radgan adamianebma gaicnes erTmaneTis xasiaTi.iyo amas winaT SemTxveva TeTriwyaroSi, axalgazrdebsCxubi mouvidaT, jer amaT gaulaxiaT, mere isinidaxvedrian, didebi Careulan, mere aqedanac didebiCareulan. bolos aq moiyvanes (sof. WivWavSi) daeklesiaSi daafices. iqiTa mxare gaqarTvelebulisomxebi iyvnen. orive mxarem daifica, rom erTmaneTsaRar dauSavon araferi._ rac Seexeba imas, rom amboben araqarTvelebissaerTo gasaxlebas, araviTar SemTxvevaSi. eg ZveleburizRapruli gamonaTqvamia, verc SeZleb da arcunda ecado. me ase mwams, yovel SemTxvevaSi, romCveni qarTvelebi xom ufro naklebad cxovrobensomxeTsa Tu azerbaijanSi. sxva erovnebis xalxi arunda aRematebodes adgilobrivebs. ase ro aviRoT,es rom azerbaijanelia SevzRudoT ar vamuSaoT egebgaiqceso, ver vizamT” (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).158 159


muslimTa nawili Tavis loialobas religiuriindiferetizmiT cdilobs “_me suniti var, Tu Siitiarc vici, meCeTSi siarulis meti saqme ara maqvs(icinis), ise biWs suniaTi (winadacveTa) ki gavukeTe.aq binaSi vcxovrob. novruzs aRniSnavs ZiriTadadbeberi xalxi, xolo ramadans aravin icavs. novruzsavRniSnav, 21 marts axlobel naTliebs da mezoblebsmoviwvev. ise Roris xorcs mec mivirTmev da Zalianacmiyvars” _ gviTxra Sua asakis azerbaijanelma (jania-Svili, 208 _ 2010).jgufebis Tanacxovrebis praqtika adasturebs,rom saxelmwifos liberaluri politikisa da samoqalaqosazogadoebis Camoyalibebis procesSi pirovnebaSiTandaTan gamyardeba Segneba, rom samyaro dasocialuri garemo mravalwaxnagovania da, maSasadame,Sexedulebebic samyaros Sesaxeb mravalferovaniiqneba. am pirobebSi gaucxoebis daZlevisaTvisaucilebelia iseTi Tvisebebis win wamoweva, rogoricaa:dialogis warmarTvisa da urTierTmosmenisunari; tolerantoba; axal ekologiur da eTnosocialurgaremosTan Segueba.tradiciuli kulturis transformaciisTaviseburebani qvemo qarTlSif. bartis mosazrebis Tanaxmad, garegnulikulturuli formebi, romelTac maxasiaTebelkomponentebad ganixilaven, ekologiis zemoqmedebiskvals atareben da garemosTan adaptaciis istoriasasaxaven, kerZod, garegan garemoebebs, romlebTanmorgebac (Segueba) sazogadoebis wevrebs uxdebaT.gansxvavebul pirobebSi adamianTa erTi da igivejgufi, romelTac erTi da igive Rirebulebebi daideebi gaaCniaT, sxvadasxvagari cxovrebis wesiTicxovreben da gansxvavebul institucionalizaciasmoaxdenen (Барт, 2006: 14). bartis debulebidanlogikurad gamomdinareobs, rom erTi da igivesociopolitikur da ekosameurneo pirobebSi adaptirebisasgansxvavebul erTobebs msgavsi kulturuliformebi CamouyalibdebaT.msgavsi ekologiuri da social-ekonomikurifaqtorebis moqmedebiT sakvlev regionSi gasulisaukunis 30-40-iani wlebidan radikaluri cvlilebaganicada tradiciul-yofiTi kulturis calkeulmasegmentebma. kulturis transformacia gansakuTrebiTmkafiod gamovlinda sacxovrebelsa da sameurneo nagebobebSi.manamde samxreT da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSiistoriulad gavrcelebuli iyo erdoian-gvirgvinianidarbazuli nagebobebi, romelTa lokaluri variantebisCamoyalibeba geografiuli mdebareobisa daekonomikuri cxovrebis gansxvavebulobam ganapiroba.saqarTveloSi erTi saerTo Ziridan aRmocenebuli samimodificirebuli saxeobaa aRwerili: qarTluri, walkuri(TrialeTuri) da mesxuri (Ciqovani, 1967: 45).sainteresoa ra gza gaiara TiToeuli jgufistradiciulma materialurma kulturam. magaliTisaTvisganvixiloT qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebi azerbaijanelebissacxovrebeli nagebobebis da meurneobis ganviTa-160 161


ebis istoria. saqarTveloSi dasaxlebamde azerbaijanelebiswinapar momTabareTa cxovrebis stili danageboba-dasaxlebaTa formebi tradiciul, nomadurcxovrebis umkacres kanonebTan iyo dakavSirebuli.myari, mkvidrad nagebi, sameurneo da scxovrebelinagebobebi amgvari cxovrebis wesTan SeusabamobaSimodioda. momTabareobisaTvis SedarebiT mosaxerxebeliiyo martivi karvebi. me-16 saukunis ingliselimogzauri antoni jekinsoni aRniSnavda, rom nomadebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli sacxovrebeli iyo msubuqikarvebi. TiToeuli urdo calke Cerdeboda da karvebsurdos meTauris karvis irgvliv akeTebda. iqveabinavebdnen saqonlis jogebsac, romelsac tvirTisgadasazidi saWapano transportiT SemozRudavdnen,riTac mtris Tavdasxmis SemTxvevaSi, erTgvargamagrebul punqts Rebulobdnen (Jekinson, 1900: 52).samecniero literaturidan cnobilia, rom nomadebisaerTod eridebodnen dapyrobil qalaqebsa dasoflebSi dabinavebas da maTi gverdis avliT stepebSimomTabareobdnen (Кобичев, 1982: 15-16). saqarTveloSiSemosaxlebul momTabareebs mza sacxovrebeli dasameurneo nagebobebi daxvdaT, radgan ZiriTadadayrili mosaxleobis adgilebSi mkvidrdebodnen.droTa ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda momTabare elTaadaptacia adgilobriv sameurneo ekologiur garemoSida Sesabamisad adgilobrivi sacxovrebeli ti pisaTviseba. CamosaxlebulTa erTi nawilis adgilebzedamagrebas da mkvidr sacxovrebel nagebobebSidabinavebas iraneli mesveurebic uwyobdnen xels.mohamed Taheris erTi cnobiT saqarTveloSi sacxovrebladgamogzavnil elebs kalatozebsac ayolebdnen,raTa maTTvis xelsayreli sacxovrebeli pirobebiSeeqmnaT (fuTuriZe, 1954: 393). savaraudod gadmosaxlebulTapirvandeli sacxovrebeli saxlebi amierkavkasiisaTvistipuri gvirgvinian-erdoiani saxlis adgilobrivmartiv variants warmoadgenda.samecniero literaturaSi miRebuli klasifikaciiTerdoian-gvirgvinian darbazuli nagebobebiaRmosavleT saqarTvelos barSi iyo gavrcelebulida Zlierad Sejgufebul, metwilad gzispira dasaxlebasukavSirdeba. darbazuli ti pis nagebobebigvxdeboda aseve yarsSi, basiansa da mis momijnaveolqebSi da dRevandeli azerbaijanis teritoriazec.swored am ti ps ganekuTvneba saqrTveloSi Camosaxlebulisomxebis tradiciuli sacxovrebeli “glxatuni”,azerbaijanelTa “yara dami” da berZnebis “yaraiafi” (janiaSvili, 2008: 19; faSaeva, 2008: 52).es sacxovreblebi kompleqsuri nagebobebi iyo,erT WerqveS moTavsebuli ramdenime saTavsoTi. maTSoris, iyo saqonlis sadgomi, boseli. saxuraviwarmoadgenda yelisaken daviwroebul safexurovanpiramidas, romelic oTx msxvil xis boZs eyrdnoboda.haeri da sinaTle gvirgvinis yelidan Semodioda,aqedanve gadioda Suacecxlis kvamli. Senoba garedanTiTqmis ar Canda da ufro yorRans waagavda, romel-Sic viwro bneli derefani Sedioda.qvemo qarTlis azerbaijanelTa Soris gavrcelebuliiyo tradiciuli miwuri nageboba “yara dami”(Savi saxli). sadac erTadaa adamianTa sacxovrisi,saqonlis sadgomi boseli (“maldam”), da sxva sayofacxovrebodaniSnulebis saTavsoebi.amgvari nagebobis aveji da dgam-WurWeli metadubralo iyo. aq idga xis yuTebi sasoflo-sameurneoproduqciisaTvis, aseve zandukebi da xis grZelitaxtebi. aqve iyo fqvilis Sesanaxi Txis tyavistomrebi da ormo xorblisaTvis. oTaxis gasana-Teblad iyenebdnen navTis lampas an Wraqs (yaraCirax). iataki nawilobriv xaliCebiT, flasebiT dajejimebiT iyo mofenili.tradiciuli nagebobebis intensiuri modifikaciisprocesi ganpirobebuli iyo eTnodemografiulida social-ekonomikuri faqtorebiT. erdoian-162 163


gvirgvinianidan Tanamedrove sacxovrebelze gadasvlispirvel safexurad, masSi axali ganyofilebebisdamatebas miiCneven, ris Semdegac qarTul yofaSi“Takarebiani oda”, xolo somxurSi “iuri-seniaki”gaCda. axal oTaxebSi buxris Senebis praqtikamkonstruqciuli cvlilebebis aucilebloba gamoiwvia.“keriis”, “vojaxis” adgilsamyofelis Secvlam gavlenamoaxdina oTaxis interierze. Sesasvleli karismopirdapired kedelTan buxris agebam da misTvissagangebo sakvamuris mowyobam, erdos kvamlis gamtarisfunqcia daukarga, xolo ganaTeba fanjrebs daekisra.mtris Semosevebis saSiSroebis gaqrobam miwurnagebobebs TavdacviTi daniSnuleba daukarga. kardinalurmasazogadoebrivma cvlilebebma gasulisaukunis pirvel naxevarSi tradiciuli socialurierTeulis, saojaxo Temis, daSla gamiwvia. amdenadmoiSala erdoian-gvirgviniani nagebobebis socialurifunqciac, radgan qarTuli darbazi, somxuri glxatunida azerbaijanuli yara dami swored aRniSnul socialursafexurs Seesabameboda (janiaSvili, 2003: 187).TandaTanobiT radikalurad Seicvala dasaxlebisstruqtura da sacxovrebeli nagebobebi.miwurbaniani saxlebis adgili daiWires erT daorsarTulianma kapitalurma, qvis, nagebobebma. dasaxlebebiscentrSi gaCnda savaWro, saswavlo da kulturulidawesebulebebi. tipuri azerbaijanuli sofliscentrSi dRemde gvxvdeba salaybo, sadac wydebodasaWirboroto sakiTxebi. aqvea wyaro patara auziT,saidanac sofeli sasmel wyals ezideboda dasaqonels arwyulebda. azerbaijanuli dasaxlebebiumetesad ganlagebulia mdinareebis da sarwyaviarxebis sanapiroebze. individualuri ezoebi, baRebi,sacxovrebeli da sameurneo nagebobebi gamoirCeviangarkveuli dagegmarebis uqonlobiT. meurneobisTavisebureba da cxovrebis wesi kargad aris asaxulisoflebis struqturasa da sacxovrebel kompleqsSi.SenarCunebuli iqna nagebobaTa zogierTi Taviseburebac,kerZod saxlebi mimarTulia yru kedliTgzisaken da fasadiT ezosaken. ezoebi SedarebiTmomcroa da mijriT erTmaneTze miwyobili. sacxovrebelida sameurneo nagebobebis transformaciamWidrod ukavSirdeba meurneobis dargebis proporciiscvlilebas. tradiciuli kulturis elementebisinovacia xasiaTdeba, lokaluri Taviseburebebisgarkveuli nivelirebiT da unifikaciiT (Максимова,2005: 93).gansxvavebuli jgufebis Tanacxovrebis praqtikaekonomikuri xasiaTis kavSirurTierTobebsa daurTierTzegavlenaSic gamoixateboda. tradiciulisameurneo yofa ganisazRvreboda samiwaTmoqmedo damesaqonleobis kulturaTa vertikalur zonalobasTandakavSirebuli proporciiT, soflis meurneobisdargebis da xelosnoba-vaWrobis mdgomareobiT.barisa da mTis mosaxleobis bunebrivi migraciuliprocesebi, ucxoeTidan Semosul moaxal-SeneebTan erTad baris daclil teritoriis mosaxleobiTgajerebas ganapirobebda. aRniSnuli procesebixels uwyobda erTi mxriv ekonomikuri wonasworobisdacvas, meore mxriv, istoriul-geografiulikarCaketilobis moxsnas, sazRvargareTidan SemosuliTu calkeuli qarTuli eTnografiuli jgufis kulturulipotencialis zogadqarTul modelSi gaerTianebas(janiaSvili, 2008: 20).saqarTveloSi maxlobeli aRmosavleTis qveynebisagangansxvavebiT momTabaruli eqstensiuri meurneobisaTvissaWiro sameurneo baza naklebad iyoamitom maT daiwyes adgilobriv tradiciul simbiozurmeurneobaze TandaTanobiT gadasvla. vaxuStibatoniSvilis Tanaxmad ukve XVIII saukunisaTvis _“saxloben elni qciamde velsa zeda, da sTesenyovelsa marcvalsa, da Teslsa zeviT werilTa, damtilovanTa, savseni pirutyviTa” (vaxuSti batoni-164 165


Svili, 1972: 309). amasTanave qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobaSiufro gvian periodamdec ki XX saukinis20-30-ian wlebamde TiTqmis ucvlelad iyo SemorCeniliqarTuli tradiciuli Sromis iaraRebi. qarTveleTnologTa dakvirvebiT amJamindeli sameureo bazaqarTul samiwaTmoqmedo plastzea damyarebuli daqarTuli samiwaTmoqmedo sistemaa wamyvani (beria-Svili, 2008: 264). Turquli warmomavlobis mosaxleobamkvidr cxovrebaze gadasvlasTan erTad eziarebodaadgilobriv sameurneo tradiciebsac, maT qarTulguTans “qoTani” uwodes da memindvreobis wesicadgilobrivebisagan SeiTvises. maT cnobierebaSidRemdea SemorCenili qarTuli xorblis jiSebissaxelwodebebic _ “Savfxa” (“yara yolC”), TavTuxi(“TavTux”), dolis puri (“buRda” da a.S.) (gociriZe,2008: 262)mesaqonleobis SezRudvis xarjze TandaTanobiTgaizarda miwaTmoqmedebis xvedriTi wili. XX saukunisaTvissabWoTa xelisuflebis pirobebSi azerbaijanelebiTdasaxlebul rig soflebSi ganviTarebuliiyo memarcvleoba (xorbali, simindi), mebaxCeoba(kombosto, pomidori da a.S) da mevenaxeobac ki.adgilobrivi ekosameurneo garemos gavleniT momxdaries cvlileba kidev ufro gaZlierda komunisturiwyobis kraxisa da socialuri-ekonomikuri mdgomareobistransformaciis Semdeg. kolmeurneobebisgauqmebam SesaZlebeli gaxada soflis meurneobisproduqciiT qalaqis momarageba uSualod mwarmoebelTamier da kargi mogebis miReba. Seqmnil situaciassakmaod advilad auRes alRo qvemo qarTlSimcxovrebma azerbaijanelebma da mniSvnelovanisegmentic daikaves Tbilisis agrarul bazrebSi.transformacia ganicada qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebiazerbaijanelebis socialurma yofam dasulierma kulturamac. azerbaijanelebis ritualebSiyvelaze arqaulad miCneulia dakrZalvisceremoniali, romelic islamur tradiciazea agebuliamasTanave uamrav islamamdel rituals Seicavs.momakvdavs awvenen zurgze, yiblas (samxreTis) mimar-TulebiT. Semdeg kiTxuloben SahadaTis locvas,sasurveli iyo es locva Tavad momakvdavs moesmina.axlad gardacvlils usworeben xelebsa da fexebs,uxveven Tvalebs da ybebs. Tu fexmZime gardaicvlebodamisTvis muceli unda gaeWraT da bavSviamoeyvanaT, xolo Semdeg isev gaekeraT. aucilebeliagardacvlilis samjer wyliT an qviSiT ganbanva.SariaTi krZalavs gardacvlilis tansacmliT damarxvas,igi TeTri tilos sudaraSi gaxveuli unda daikrZalos(janiaSvili: 2006).micvalebuli uwmindurad iTvleba, masTan SexebiTnebismieri sulieri an sagani SeiZleba waibilwos,amitom axloblebic ki ar ekarebodnen da am saqmiTspecialurad dakavebuli xalxi apatiosnebda. mTelsofels saerTo janezi (micvalebulis saflavamdemisatani xis an liTonis WurWeli) hqonda. micvalebuliar unda Sexeboda miwas, saflavs qviT, aguriTan ficriT amoaSeneben, xolo zemodan xis masiurficrebs awyobdnen da miwas ise ayridnen. dasaflavebisSemdeg saRamoTi saflavze cecxls anTebdnen,romliTac “micvalebulma saiqiosaken unda gaikvalosgza.” micvalebulisadmi amgvari damokidebulebazoroastrizmis gadmonaSTad iTvleba. sabWoTaperiodSi kulturis am sferosac Seexo cvlilebebi.dakrZalvis ritualis da saflavis mowyobis wesiscalkeuli elementebi adgilobrivi eTnikuri garemosgavleniT Seicvala. mag. XX saukunis bolomde aqgvxvdeba micvalebulis suraTiT gamosaxuli saflavisqvebi (rac islamuri dogmatikiT sastikad ikrZaleba)(janiaSvili, 2006).savele eTnografiuli masaliT dasturdeba, romadgilobrivi eTnikuri garemo gavlenas axdendatradiciuli kulturis sxva mxareebzec. mag., TanadaTan166 167


Semcirda leviratisa da sororatis SemTxvevebi,Tumca baldizis (colis dis) Txova da mazlzedaqorwinebis SemTxvevebi bolo xanebamde gvxvdeba.unda iTqvas, rom am sakiTxze msjelobisas CvenimTxroblebi garkveul uxerxulobas ganicdidnen,radgan icodnen rom mezobeli qristianebi aseTurTierTobebs uaryofiTad aRiqvamen. amasTanave,cdiloben daasabuTon qorwinebis am formis upiratesobada xazs usvamen mis dadebiT mxareebs. rogorcleviratis dros sororatis SemTxvevaSic movlenasgarkveuli moraluri gamarTlebas uZebnian _ amboben,deida obol disSvilebs ufro kargad gazrdis damet gulisxmierebasac gamoiCens maT mimarTo (jania-Svili, 2006).qarTuli eTnikur garemosTan urTierTobisSedegad Seicvala azerbaijaneli mosaxleobis damokidebulebaalkoholur sasmelebTan. cnobilia, romislami krZalavas alkoholur sasmelebs, gansakuTrebiT_ Rvinos. qvemo qarTlis azerbaijanelTaumetesoba ki ara marto svams Rvinos, aramed aqvsvenaxi (metwilad maRlari) da sakuTar meurneobaSiawarmoebs mas. cvlileba ganicada saritualo sufrebismsvlelobamac. mag. sof. sadaxloSi (marneulisr-ni) mecnierTa jgufi daeswro saqorwino sufras.ojaxis erTi wevri haji iyo da kategoriulad akrZalasufrasTan alkoholuri sasmelis mitana. amis miuxedavad,dainiSna Tamada, romelic TanamoinaxeebTanerTad sadRegrZeloebs xilis wveniT warmoTqvamda(janiaSvili, 2006).gansxvavebul eTnokonfesiur jgufebSi Sekrebiliempiriuli masalis analizis Sedegad gamovlindajgufTaSorisi urTierTobis Semdegi meqanizmebi:1. sakuTari kulturis dacva da “ucxoTa”kulturuli elementebis miRebaze uaris Tqma;2. sakuTari kulturuli gansazRvrulobismoZieba da dacva;3. eTnikuri da konfesiuri niSniT distancireba;4. pozitiuri da mkafio eTnikuri identurobisSenaxvis an SeZenisaken mimarTuli socialuriCarTulobis Zieba.es meqnizmebi sojaxo da socialuri urTier-Tobis sferoSi garkveul sirTuleebs warmoSobs.gansxvavebuli religiis mimdevari adamianebis SeuRlebisaskonsesusi, rogorc wesi, religiur ritualebzeuaris TqmiT miiRweva. Tu romelime meuRleRrmad morwmunea, qristianobasa da islams Sorisarsebuli dogmaturi gansxvaveba konfliqtis dagayris safuZvelic SeiZleba gaxdes. aseve gasaTvaliswinebeliamaTi Svilebis, religiuri aRmsareblobisda saojaxo ritualebis (qorwineba, micvalebulTamoxsenieba, naTloba, dakrZalva da a.S.) problemac.qorwineba da ojaxi socialuri organizaciisumniSvnelovanes elements warmoadgens, sadac eTnikurierTobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli TiTqmis yvela niSaniaisaxeba da amitom moqceulia im samecniero disciplinebisyuradRebis sferoSi, romelTa kvlevissagansac socialuri urTierTobebi warmoadgens.regionSi TiTqmis yvela jgufSi ojaxi ganasaxierebsmkafiod struqturirebul sistemas, romlisTiToeul elements sakuTari funqcia gaaCnia. marTalia,aRar fiqsirdeba didi patriarqaluri (eTnografiuliTvalsazrisiT) ojaxebi, sadac Taobebi _ mSoblebida maTi ramdenime daqorwinebuli vaJi _ erTadcxovrobda, magram saojaxo urTierTobebSi am ti pisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli mravali niSania SemorCenili.ojaxs asakiT ufrosi mamkaci xelmZRvanelobs. Cveulebriv,mis meuRles akisria qalebis mmarTveloba.saojaxo saqme dayofilia „saqalebod” da “sakacebod”.mamakacebis saqmianoba aseve nawildeba asakisada socialuri ierarqiis mixedviT. mZime fizikursamuSaos axalgazrda mamakacebi asruleben, TumcaSromis procesSi ojaxis yvela wevri monawileobs.168 169


Zlieria jgufTa miswrafeba TviTmyofadobisada individualobis SenarCunebisaken. pirad saubrebsada interviuebSi respodentebi acxadeben, rom TavianTSvilebs ar dauSlian iqorwinon “sxva jgufiswarmomadgenelze”, Tumca praqtikaSi es iSviaTadgvxvdeba.kulturuli urTierTqmedeba ar SeiZleba aRmocendeskulturaTa dialogis gareSe. amas esaWiroebaintegraciisaTvis umravlesobis da umciresobis miergaremos Seqmna. aq, pirvel rigSi, pasuxismgeblobaumravlesobas ekisreba. kulturuli urTierTqmedebissafuZvelia kulturuli Riaoba. Cven mzad unda viyoTyvela kulturaSi arsebuli problemebis, prioritetebisada moTxovnebis mosmenisaTvis, miuxedavadimisa, es kultura umravlesobis saxiTaa warmodgeniliTu romelime eTnikuri jgufis saxiT. esmigviyvans tolerantuli multikulturuli garemosSeqmnamde. Zalze mniSvnelovania kulturaTa Sorisarsebul msgavsebebze yuradRebis gamaxvileba da,amave dros, gansxvavebebis Sefaseba realisturad dademokratiulad (Tahir-ul-qadri, 2004: 84).sakvlev regionSi calkeul erTobebs xangrZliviTanacxovrebisa da socialuri kontaqtebis SedegadCamouyalibdaT garkveuli pozitiuri gamocdilebaerTmaneTis Sesaxeb. TiTqmis yvela jgufis tradiciulkulturas gaaCnia mravali urTierTSexebis wertili.amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qvemo qarTlSi integraciuliprocesebis gaaqtiureba savsebiT SesaZleblia.miuxedavad garkveuli dabrkolebebisa, gansxvavebulijgufebi mzad arian, miiRon saxelmwifos politika.rodesac integrirebuli umciresobebi sazogadoebisganuyofeli nawilni gaxdebian TavianTi cxovrebiT,kanonis morCilebiT, mravali socialuri da kulturulifaseulobis gaziarebiTa da socialuri yofisgaumjobesebisaTvis gaweuli erToblivi muSaobiT.d a s k v n aeTnkonfesiuri mravalferovnebiT qvemo qarTlisaqarTveloSi gamorCeuli mxarea. gansxvavebulijgufebis Tanacxovrebisa da erTian kulturulpolitikurorganizmSi integraciis meqanizmebixangrZlivi istoriis manZilze iqmneboda da ixveweboda.sasazRvro regionebs gansakuTrebuli yuradRebaeqceoda. qarTveli mefeebi cdilobdnen am zonismosaxleoba saxelmwifo politikis dasayrden ZaladeqciaT, amitom erovnuli saxelmwifo institutebisarsebobis periodSi sazRvrispira raionebSi mcxovrebimosaxleoba yovelTvis iyo samefo xelisuflebiszrunvis obieqti. ganviTarebis dRevandel etapze amistoriulma gamocdilebam praqtikuli daniSnulebacSeiZina, radgan socialuri, ekonomikuri da politikurixasiaTis Zvrebma sazogadoebaSi dezintegraciuliimpulsebi gaaZliera.statistikuri monacemebis mixedviT sakvlevregionSi mosaxleobis saerTo raodenobis SemcirebaSeimCneva, Tumca es naklebad Seexo am mxaris eTnikurstruqturas (Tu ar CavTvliT berZnebisa da rusebisrepatriaciis aqtiur process).eTnosocialuri araerTgvarovneba _ TavisTavadgulisxmobs mravalmxriv kulturul urTierTzemoqmedebaseTnikur da religiur jgufebs, calkeulsocialur fenebs, qalaqsa da sofels da sxva ti piserTobebs Soris. es procesi gansakuTrebiT aqtiuriae. w. “marginalur zonebSi” anu adgilebSi romlebicinterkulturuli kontaqtebis maRali sixSiriTxasiaTdebian. xsenebul konteqstSi qvemo qarTlimetad saintereso kuTxea, radgan esaa e.w. titularulimosaxleobisagan gansxvavebuli eTnikuri jgufebiT_“erovnuli umciresobebiT” kompaqturad dasaxlebulimxare, sadac formaluri umciresoba (qveynismasStabiT), faqtiur umravlesobas (lokaluri masS-170 171


tabiT) warmoadgens (mag. marneulis raionSi azerbaijanelebiSeadgenen mTeli mosaxleobis 83,1%, dmanisisraionSi 66,8%, bolnisis raionSi 66%, gardabanSi 45,1%)erovnuli umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebuliregionebi rogorc wesi madezintegrirebeliprocesebis da maSasadame konfliqtis maRali riskismatareblad miiCneva da amitomac didi yuradRebaeqceva saxelmwifos mxridan prevenciuli RonisZiebebisgatarebas. SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas origansxvavebuli strategia:I. eTnikuri asimilacia, romelic mimdinareobsSida eTnikuri identurobis waSlis gziT (am drosZiriTadi aqcenti keTdeba maTi eTnokulturuliTaviseburebebis radikalur transformaciaze).II. integraciuli procesis gaaqtiureba jgufTa-Sorisi solidarobis gazrdis xarjze, rodesacsaxelmwifo gamodis Sigajgufuri identurobis dacvisgarantad. ukanasknel xanebSi ganviTarebuli procesebimowmobs rom, qarTulma saxelmwifom gezi meorestrategiaze aiRo.eTnikuri identurobis erT-erT ZiriTad maxasia-Tebels tradiciuli kultura warmoadgens. m. epSteinikulturas ganixilavs, rogorc sazRvarTa mraval-Srian sistemas romelTagan TiToeuls aqvs sakuTariSerCeviTi da gamtari funqcia: gaacalkevos “sakuTari”“sxvisagan”. kultura rogorc mTlianoba, semiotikuriterminebiT, warmogvidgeba higienuri, eTikuri, ritualuri,informaciuli filtrebis mravalSrian sistemad.kulturuli filtrebi calkeuli jgufis identurobisSenarCunebas emsaxureba da mas asimilaciuriprocesebisagan icavs. xsenebuli meqanizmi upirispirdebacalkeuli jgufebis erTian saxelmwifoebrivorganizmSi integrirebas. integracia kulturuliurTierTqmedebis Sedegia ar SeiZleba aRmocendeskulturaTa dialogis gareSe (epSteini, 2004: 136).rogorc cnobilia, eTnikuri kulturebi pirobiTadSeiZleba daiyos Ria da daxurul sistemebad.amasTan, Ria sistemebi xasiaTdebian axali dagansxvavebuli elementebis aTvisebisaken swrafviT,daxuruli _ piriqiT ewinaaRmdegeba urTierTobebs,romelTac SeiZleba sistemis cvlilebebi gamoiwvion.kulturuli urTierTqmedebis safuZveli ki aris arakulturuli izoliacia, aramed kulturuli Riaoba.mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis tolerantoba, mzaobayvela kulturaSi Taviseburebebis mosmenisaTvisa dagagebisaTvis. sakvlevi regionis eTnikuri da konfensiurijgufebi konservatiulobis maRali donis gamoSeiZleba da ufro kulturis daxurul tips mivakuTnoT,rac integraciuli procesis xelSemSlel faqtoradunda miviCnioT.arsebobs integraciis ori aspeqti _ socialurida kulturuli. socialuri integracia gulisxmobs,process rodesac umciresobebi sazogadoebis ganuyofelinawilni xdebian, TavianTi cxovrebis wesiT,kanonis morCilebiT, mravali socialuri da kulturulifaseulobis gaziarebiTa da socialuri yofisgaumjobesebisaTvis gaweuli erToblivi muSaobiT.integraciis amplituda erTian eTnosocialurorganizmSi integraciidan, socialuri organizaciissrul izolaciamde meryeobs. rac jgufebs Sorissocialuri da naTesaobiTi kavSirebis sixSiresa dasulieri kulturis sferoSi arsebuli nasesxobaSiaisaxeba. gamokvlevam aCvena, rom regionSi es procesimimdinareobs, Tumca didi aqtiurobiT ar xasiaTdeba.jgufTaSoris urTierTobaze Taviseburad aisaxeba,aseve, globaluri procesebi. ganxiluli gvaqvsramdenime aspeqti, romelic sxvadasxvanairad Seexomosaxleobis yvela jgufs. imis miuxedavad rom,calkeuli kulturuli sistemebi iswrafvian TviTmyofadobaizolaciis gziT SeinarCunon. saerTaSorisoda lokaluri komunikaciebis gaadvileba, interkul-172 173


turuli urTierTobebis gaaqtiureba da sameurneoTu kulturuli xasiaTis kontaqtebi aisxeba tradiciuliyofis da kulturis yvela mxareze. transformaciaseqvemdebareba tradiciuli sistemis TiTqmisyvela elementi. globalizaciis gacxovelebuliprocesi, romelic adamianuri kontaqtebis da kulturulurTierTobaTa gaaqtiurebis fonze mimdinareobsganapirobebs adre SedarebiT izolirebuli kulturulisistemebis gaxsnas. yovelive amas emateba isgaremoebac, rom Tanamedrove teqnologiebi migraciaSiwasul adamianebsac ki (romlebic sakmaod mravalricxovaniarian) aZleven aq darCenil erTobiswevrebTan intensiuri urTierTobis saSualebas.Cven qveyanaSi mcxovrebi gansxvavebuli jgufebiseTnolkulturuli Taviseburebebis obieqturadwarmoCena metad mniSvnelovani saqmea. qarTvelixalxisa da aq macxovrebeli eTnikuri jgufebis yofacxovrebis,tradiciuli kulturis elementebisgansxvavebisa da msgavsebis Cveneba kidev erTxelgvarwmunebs, rom am mravalferovnebis gareSe dRevandelobabevrad uRimRamo iqneboda.savele eTnografiuli masaliT dasturdeba, romqvemo qarTlis polikulturul regionSi xdebakulturaTaSorisi urTierTobebis strategiisgamomuSaveba, rac socialuri distanciis garkveulSemcirebas ganapirobebs. amasTanave, gansxvavebulijgufebis Tanacxovrebi s praqtika socialekonomikurisgarda kulturuli xasiaTi skavSirurTierTobebsa da urTierTzegavlenaSicgamoixateba.literatura:1. v a x u S t i b a t o n i S v i l i, aRw era sa mefosasaqarTvelosa, qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, Tb., 1972.2. b e r i a S v i l i l., g o c i r i Z e g., qvemo qarTlismosaxleobis yofisa da kulturis zogierTi aspeqtieTnografiuli monacemebis Suqze (gardabnis raioni) iv.javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutisSromebi, VIII, Tb. 2008.3. g o c i r i Z e g., eTnikuri procesebi da kulturaTadialogi qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobaSi (qarTul_azerbaijanuli urTierTobis magaliTze, gardabnisa damarneulis raionebi), logosi, 2008.4. e pS t e i n i m., TviTgawmenda (TviTgasufTaveba), kulturiswarmoSobis hipoTeza, civilizaciuri Ziebani, #2, Tb., 2004.5. T a h i r-u l -q a d r i muhamed, kulturis globalizacia?,civilizaciaTa dialogi, #2, Tb., 2004.6. T o r i a m., warsulis gaazrebisa da mexsierebispolitikis roli konfliqturi identobebis CamoyalibebaSi,(qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis magaliTi),civilizaciaTa dialogi, #4, Tbilisi, 2006.7. m a c a b e r i Z e d., civilizaciuri da politikurifaqtorebis Tanafardoba kavkasiur konfliqtebSi,civilizaciuri Ziebani, #2, 2004.8. m e l i q i S v i l i l., konfliqti, rogorc socialurimovlena, konfliqturi situaciebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi,(proeqtis avtori da wignis pasuxismgebeliredaqtori l. meliqiSvili) Tb., 1998.9. mosaxleobis aRwera _ saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002wlis pirveli erovnuli sayovelTao aRweris Sedegebi,http://www.statistics.ge/10. r a m i S v i l i v., globaluri transformaciebi da globalurigamowvevebi, http://www.strate.ge/.11. s v a n t e k o r n e l i, avtonomia_konfliqtis wyaro,civilizaciaTa dialogi, #2, Tbilisi, 2004.12. f a S a e v a l., berZnebi, eTnosebi saqarTveloSi, Tb.,2008.13. f u T u r i Z e v., mohamed Taheris cnobebi saqarTvelosSesaxeb / teqsti, Targmani da SeniSvnebi v. fuTuriZisa /174 175


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akulturaciis TaviseburebanipolieTnikur sazogadoebaSidemokratiuli ganviTarebis gzaze myofisaqarTvelosaTvis dRes erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesiamocana samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mSeneblobaa. misiwarmatebiT ganxorcieleba SesaZlebeli iqneba mxolodmTeli rigi saxelmwifoebrivi da sazogadoebrivixasiaTis problemebis gadaWris SemTxvevaSi, racgulisxmobs qveyanaSi arsebuli social-ekonomikuriproblemebis mogvarebas, kanonis uzenaesobis daTavisufali bazris damkvidrebas, eTnikuri konfliqtebisdaregulirebas, eTnikuri umciresobis integraciasqarTul saxelmwifoebriv sivrceSi, orientaciasevropuli faseulobebisaken, ganaTlebis sistemisrekonstruqcias da sxv. magram Tanamedrove saqarTvelospolitikuri, socialuri da ekonomikuriinfrastruqtura aRniSnuli amocanebis gadaWrisgzaze garkveul barierebs qmnis. demokratizaciisada samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTarebis procesebsmniSvnelovnad aferxebs qveynis polieTnikuroba,multikulturalizmi, eTnikur umciresobaTa farTospeqtris arseboba da masTan dakavSirebuli problemebi.aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT, qvemo qarTlis regionigansakuTrebulad sainteresoa.istoriulad am mxareSi xSiri iyo ucxo eTnikurjgufTa migracia (gansakuTrebiT XIX saukunis pirvelinaxevridan) da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis nebayoflobiTiTu iZulebiTi gadineba. qarTvelebi da sxvadasxvaeTnikur jgufTa warmomadgenlebi (azerbaijanelebi,somxebi, berZnebi, germanelebi, osebi, rusebida sxv.) aq saukuneebis manZilze erTmaneTis mezoblad,ZiriTadad izolirebulad da kompaqturad saxlobdnen.sabWoTa periodSi aRiniSneboda rogorceTnikur umciresobaTa imigracia regionidan, iseqveynis Sidamigraciuli procesebis Sedegad dominanturieTnosis garkveuli jgufebis qvemo qarTlSidamkvidrebac. amitomac regionis eTnikur-raodenobriviSemadgenloba garkveul istoriul periodSi mudmivadicvleboda; zogierTi jgufi raodenobrivadqarTul mosaxleobas Warbobda (berZnebi, azerbaijanelebi,somxebi) da titulovani eTnosi umciresobaSiimyofeboda. gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebis miwurulidan,ZiriTadad svaneTsa da aWaraSi momxdariekologiuri katastrofebis Sedegad, qvemo qarTlSiqarTvel migrantTa mravali axali dasaxleba gaCnda,ramac sagrZnoblad Secvala regionis demografiulisuraTi da infrastruqtura. amas daerTo isic, rom1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulmapolitikurma movlenebma da misma Tanmdevmasocialurma da ekonomikurma viTarebam xeli SeuwyoaRniSnuli regionebidan araqarTveli mosaxleobisgadinebas (berZnebis didi nawili saberZneTSigadasaxlda, osebi ZiriTadad CrdiloeT oseTSi, rusebi_ruseTSi, somxebisa da azerbaijanelebis nawili TavianTistoriul samSobloSi, nawili ki _ ruseTSi). ekologiurimigrantebis (svanebi, aWarlebi) nawili araqarTvelimosaxleobisagan daclil centrebsa TusoflebSi dasaxlda. amas daemata afxazeTis omisSedegad dazaralebul ltolvilTa garkveuli nakadisregionSi Semosvla 1993-1994 wlebSi. migraciis axalitalRa 2002 wlidan daiwyo; saqarTvelos sxvadasxvaregionebis mosaxleoba (umetesad mTiani aWaridan)baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis mSeneblobazemuSaobis perspeqtivam miizida da qvemo qarTlSiekonomikur migrantTa soliduri raodenobis araorganizebuliCasvla aRiniSna. samuSaoebis dasrulebisSemdeg ekonomikuri interesebiT CamosulTaukumigracias hqonda adgili (turaSvili m., trierit., 2007).178 179


aRsaniSnavia, rom regionSi svanebisa da aWarlebismigracia da ukumigracia dResac grZeldeba.TeTriwyaros, marneulisa da gardabnis raionebSiCasaxlebuli iqnen ruseTTan 2008 wlis agvistosomis Sedegad Sida qarTlidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebulipirebi (782 ojaxi, 2205 suli). dRes qvemoqarTlis yvela raioni (bolnisi, dmanisi, TeTriwyaro,marneuli, gardabani, walka) eTnikuri da religiuriidentobis niSniT sakmaod Wreli mosaxleobiTgamoirCeva. bolo periodSi aRniSnuli migraciebisfonze regionSi qarTveli mosaxleobis raodenobiszrda SeiniSneba; Tumca, mTlianad qvemo qarTlSiqarTvelebi raodenobrivad pirvel adgilze maincver imyofebian, Tu ar CavTvliT gardabnisa daTeTriwyaros raionebs, sadac isini umravlesobasSeadgenen. dRes qvemo qarTlSi aris dasaxlebebi,sadac cxovroben rogorc mxolod erTi eTnikurijgufis, aseve ori an meti gansxvavebuli eTnikuriTu religiuri aRmsareblobis jgufis warmomadgenlebi.sakvlev regionSi aris rogorc monoeTnikurida monokonfesiuri, aseve polieTnikurida polikonfesiuri ti pis dasaxlebebi.swored aseTi viTarebis gamo erTgvarovani veriqneba kulturaTaSorisi komunikacia, Sesabamisad, veriqneba erTgvarovani erovnul umciresobaTa integraciisprocesic. miT ufro, rom saxelmwifoSi dominantikultura, romelmac unda moaxdinos umciresobishomogenizacia dominantur jgufSi, aRniSnulregionSi garkveuli aspeqtiT dominanti ar aris.regionSi arsebuli viTareba Teoriuladac da praqtikuladacZalian seriozul winaaRmdegobebs qmnismcire eTnosebis samoqalaqo integraciis politikisrealizaciisaTvis.akulturaciis Teoriuli safuZvlebiimis gasarkvevad, Tu ra sirTuleebTan aqvs, anSesaZlebelia hqondes, saxelmwifos saqme qvemoqarTlSi demokratizaciis, samoqalaqo sazogadoebisformirebis, da umciresobaTa samoqalaqo integraciisprocesebSi, aucilebelia Seswavlili iqnes akulturacisspecifika regionSi. miT ufro, rom integraciaakulturaciis erT-erTi ZiriTadi strategiaa.mecnierebaSi sayovelTaod miRebuli ganmartebisTanaxmad, akulturaciaSi igulisxmeba individisan jgufis kulturis modifikacia gansxvavebulkulturasTan kontaqtis Sedegad. es aris procesi,romelic ukavSirdeba or sxvadasxva kulturas Sorisdamokidebulebis an qcevis cvlilebebs, ramacSeiZleba gamoiwvios kulturuli elementebis Serevaan Serwyma.amerikeli kulturuli anTropologebi (r. redfildi,r. lintoni, m. herskovici) akulturaciisproblemiT XX saukunis dasawyisSi dainteresdnen.Tavdapirvelad isini ganixilavdnen akulturacias,rogorc gansxvavebuli kulturis mqone jgufebisxangrZlivi kontaqtis Sedegs, rac gamoixatebodaorive jgufis amosavali kulturuli nimuSebiscvlilebaSi. iTvleboda, rom kulturaTa Serwymisamgvari procesi TavisTavad mimdinareobda, Sedegadkulturul da eTnikur erTgvarovnebas iZleoda.igulisxmeboda rom sinamdvileSi naklebad ganviTarebulikultura ufro metad icvleboda, vidreganviTarebuli (Herskovits 1972; Садохин, 2005: 131).droTa viTarebaSi pozicia Seicvala da akulturaciaSiukve moiazreboda RirebulebiTi orientaciis,roluri qcevis da socialuri ganwyobis cvlilebebi.Tanamedrove kvlevebSi termini akulturacia gamoiyenebagansxvavebul kulturaTa urTierTmoqmedebisprocesisa da Sedegis aRsaniSnavad, romlis drosac180 181


eci pientebi _ erTi kulturis warmomad-genlebi,an maTi nawili, meore _ donori kulturis normebs,Rirebulebebsa da tradiciebs iTviseben (Садохин,2005).cnobili amerikeli anTropologi alfredkreberi akulturaciaSi gulisxmobs erTi kulturismier meore kulturaSi Setanil cvlilebebs, rissafuZvelzedac xdeba am kulturebs Soris msgavsebiszrda. am ti pis cvlileba SeiZleba iyos ormxrivi,Tumca, Zalian xSirad, es procesi asimetriulia daSedegad erTi kultura meores STanTqavs (rogorcwesi, nawilobriv). a. kreberi, romelsac miaCnia romakulturacia aris Tanamimdevruli da ara moulodneliprocesi, mas imTaviTve difuziasTan akavSirebda.miuxedavad imisa, rom mecnieris SexedulebiT, difuziaxels uwyobs akulturacias da akulturacia aucilebladsaWiroebs difuzias, igi maT erTmaneTisaganmijnavs Semdegi formulirebiT: “difuzia arismovlena, rac emarTeba kulturis elementebs, xoloakulturacia aris is, rac emarTeba mTlian kulturas(King G. Wright M.).j. beris mier dadgenili oTxganzomilebianimodelis Tanaxmad, akulturaciis process axasiaTebsSemdegi strategiebi: asimilacia, separacia, marginalizaciada integracia. asimilacia ucxo kulturisRirebulebaTa da normaTa mTlianad miRebasa da saku-Tarze uaris Tqmas gulisxmobs; separaciis dros xdebaucxo kulturis uaryofa da sakuTar kulturasTanidentifikaciis SenarCuneba, rodesac aradominanturijgufis warmomadgenlebi amjobineben dominanti eriskulturisagan met-nakleb izolacias. marginalizaciisSemTxvevaSi adgili aqvs, erTi mxriv, uaris Tqmas sakuTarda, meore mxriv, umravlesobis kulturasTan identobaze;rodesac kulturis SenarCunebis saSualeba da interesiaris naklebi da aseve mcirea sxva kulturasTankavSiris interesic. integraciaSi ki igulisxmebaidentifikacia rogorc sakuTar, ise axal kulturasTan;rodesac individi an jgufi miiswrafvis SeinarCunosTavisi originaluri kultura da, amave dros, yoveldRiururTierTobaSi dominant kulturaze gaakeTossworeba (Berry, 1996: 296).Cveulebriv miRebulia, rom aradominanti jgufiswevrebs ufleba aqvT airCion akulturaciis strategia,Tumca es yovelTvis ase ar aris. dominant jgufsSeuZlia SezRudos maTi arCevani, an aiZulos, akulturaciisgansazRvrul formebs mimarTon. akulturaciisprocesSi individma an jgufma unda gadaWrasori problema _ Tavisi kulturuli identobisSenarCuneba da ucxo kulturaSi CarTva. xolo, imismixedviT, Tu kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobis rogorformas airCeven isini, saqme akulturaciis zemoxsenebuli4 strategiidan erT-erTTan eqnebaT.akulturaciis problema gansakuTrebiT aqtualurigaxda XX saukunis miwuruls, rodesac globalizaciis,politikuri, ekonomikuri Tu ekologiurikataklizmebis wyalobiT, msoflioSi migraciebmaarnaxuli masStabebi SeiZina. Seiqmna naSromebi, sadacganxiluli iyo migrantTa da umciresobaTa akulturaciisproblemebi, Seswavlil iqna ucxo, dominantikulturis gavleniT garkveul sazogadoebaSi ganxorcielebulisistematuri kulturuli cvlilebi.yuradReba mieqca akulturaciis procesSi konkretulisazogadoebis warmomadgenlebs Soris uSualokontaqtis, enis, Cvevebisa da Rirebulebis codnismniSvnelobas, socialuri asimilaciis (adamianebismier socialur poziciaTa dakaveba, aseve dominanturikulturis politikuri, ekonomikuri da saganmanaTleblostandartebis daufleba) da akulturaciisurTierTmimarTebas da sxv. am kvlevebis SedegadCamoyalibda akulturaciisa da asimilaciis Sesaxebzogadi kros-kulturuli formulirebani (Thompson,1996: 133) rac SemdegSi mdgomareobs:182 183


1. dominanti kulturebi ubiZgebs umciresobebsada ucxoelebs akulturaciisa da asimilaciisaken.es procesi SedarebiT nela mimdinareobs, rodesacumciresobebi teritoriulad da saqmianobis TvalsazrisiTkompaqturad arian Tavmoyrii. mag., rogorcamas adgili aqvs erovnuli umciresobebis farTojgufebis SemTxvevaSi, rasac xSirad eTnonacionalurixasiaTi aqvs;2. akulturacia win unda uswrebdes asimilacias;3. umciresobis akulturacia yovelTvis asimilaciiTar mTavrdeba;4. akulturacia da asimilacia axdens umciresobishomogenizacias dominantur jgufSi. homogenizaciisxelis Semwyobi Tu xelis SemSleli faqtoriSeiZleba iyos individis asaki, eTnikuri warmomavloba,religiuri da politikuri orientacia da ekonomikurimdgomareoba (Thompson, 1996 ).Tu winaT iTvleboda, rom akulturaciis yvelazeukeTesi strategia aris sruli asimilacia dominantkulturasTan, dRes akulturaciis mizania kulturaTaintegraciis miRweva, rac Sedegad bikulturul anmultikulturul subieqts gvaZlevs. akulturaciiswarmateba fsiqologiuri aspeqtiT ganisazRvrebapozitiuri eTnikuri identobiTa da eTnikuri tolerantobiT,xolo pozitiuri eTnikuri identoba daeTnikuri tolerantoba Tan axlavs integracias(Садохин, 2005: 132). integraciis warmatebiT ganxorcielebaSesaZlebeli iqneba maSin, Tu umravlesobisada umciresobis jgufebi nebayoflobiT airCeven amstrategias, anu umciresoba mzad iqneba miiRos TavisikulturisaTvis ucxo da axali ganwyobebi da Rirebulebebi,dominanturi jgufi ki _ miRos es xalxi,pativi sces maT uflebebs, Rirebulebebs, moaxdinossocialuri institutebis adaptireba, institutebimoargos am jgufis moTxovnebs. socialuri fsiqo-logebis SefasebiT, integraciis strategiis gatarebamultikulturul sazogadoebebSi SesaZlebelia maSin,Tu arsebobs winaswar Camoyalibebuli pozitiurimultikulturuli ideologia, anu kulturulimravalferovnebis aRiarebis neba; am SemTxvevaSiminimumamde unda iqnes dayvanili eTnocentrizmi,rasizmi da diskriminacia, gamoricxuli iqnesjgufTaSorisi siZulvili, kulturul jgufebsSoris unda arsebobdes dadebiTi ganwyoba dapozitiuri urTierTSefaseba, ufro did jgufTan ansazogadoebasTan identificirebis survili (John W.Berry, 1997: 5 - 68).qarTuli saxelmwifo politika realurad mimar-Tulia umciresobaTa qarTul saxelmwifoebrivsivrceSi integraciisaken, magram, rogorc zemoTacaRiniSna, am TvalsazrisiT qveyanaSi gansxvavebuliviTareba arsebobs. qvemo qarTlis polieTnikursazogadoebaSi, mraval mizezTa gamo, romelzedacqvemoT visaubrebT, integraciis procesi rTulad daneli tempebiT mimdinareobs.ekomigrantebi, adaptaciada konfliqtirogorc iTqva, integraciis strategia mniSvnelovanwiladeTnikur tolerantobas emyareba, racgamoricxavs kulturaTaSoris dapirispirebas. integraciisstrategiis gatareba multikulturul sazogadoebebSiSesaZlebelia im SemTxvevaSi Tu arsebobswinaswar Camoyalibebuli pozitiuri multikulturuliideologia (John W. Berry, 1997: 5-68); magram iseTmravaleTnikur regionSi rogoric qvemo qarTlia,es Znelad misaRwevi amocanaa. iq, sadac ramdenimeTviTmyofadi kulturis mqone eTnosi Tanaarsebobs,maTi interesebis Sejaxebis albaToba didia. Sesaba-184 185


misad, interesTa gadakveTam SesaZloa gamoiwvioskulturaTaSorisi dapirispireba da konfliqtic ki.cnobilia, rom kulturaTaSoris konfliqtebsmravali mizezi ganapirobebs, romelTaganac mTavariaxalxebs Soris arsebuli kulturuli gansxvavebebi,ramac SeiZleba miiRos winaaRmdegobis an Ria dapirispirebisforma. mecnierebi gamoyofen kulturaTa-Sorisi konfliqtis ramdenime saxes: konfliqtigansxvavebul eTnikur jgufsa da maT kulturas,gansxvavebul religiur jgufebsa da maT warmomadgenlebs,TaobaTa da sxvadasxva subkulturis matarebeljgufebs, kulturaSi arsebul tradiciebsa danovaciebs da gansxvavebul lingvo-kulturulsazogadoebebs Soris. konfliqti SeiZleba ganxiluliiqnes ara marto rogorc kulturaTa Sejaxebis, anmaT Soris konkurenciis, aramed rogorc maT Soriskomunikaciis moSlis Sedegi (Садохин, 2005: 208-209).qvemo qarTlis multikulturuli infrastruqturaaRniSnuli mimarTulebiT arc Tu saxarbielo suraTsiZleva.qvemo qarTlSi mudmivad mimdinare migraciulmada imigraciulma procesebma, erTi mxriv, kidev ufrogaamravalferovana regionis eTno-kulturulimozaika da, meore mxriv, gaarTula da gaaxangrZlivaadaptacia-akulturaciis tempebi. Tu am TvalsazrisiTsabWoTa da postsabWoTa periodebs SevadarebTerTmaneTs, davinaxavT, Tu rogor xdeboda stadialuricvlilebebis Sesabamisad akulturaciis strategiebiscvla izolaciidan integraciamde da piriqiT.adaptaciisaTvis aucilebeli socialuri urTierTobebisfarTo speqtris qona (CarTuloba, eniscodna, sainformacio saSualebebis aqtiuri moxmareba,sxva eTnosis warmomadgeneli megobrebis yola)komunistebis periodSi SedarebiT advilad misaRweviiyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom eTnikuri umciresobebiregionSi umTavresad erTmaneTisagan izolirebuladcxovrobdnen, isini im droisaTvis moqmed kolmeurneobebsaTu sabWoTa meurneobebSi, fermebsa dasawarmoebSi erTad muSaobdnen, rac maTi urTierTobebisCamoyalibeba-ganviTarebas uyrida safuZvels.sxvadasxva eTnikur jgufebs Soris sakomunikacioena rusuli iyo; saSualo skolebSi rusuli enisgaZlierebuli swavlebis politika, socialuriinstitutebis samuSao enad rusulis gamoyeneba dakulturaTaSorisi dialogis da socialuri kavSirebisrusuli enis bazaze ganxorcieleba jgufTaSorisintegracias uwyobda xels. “homo sovietikus”-isideologia ar qmnida saxelmwifoSi kulturaTa-Sorisi dapirispirebis safuZvels da akulturaciisprocesic TiTqos SeumCnevlad da uproblemodmimdinareobda. dRes qvemo qarTlis sxvadasxvaeTnosebis warmomadgenlebi sinanuliT ixseneben imdros, rodesac:“winaT skolebi rusuli iyo da rusuladvkontaqtobdiT. axla axalgazrdebma saerTod ar icianrusuli, Tu sxva naciaa, erTmaneTs veRar ugeben”.“winaT rame problema rom gvqonda, an rame armogvwonda, moskovSi vCiodiT, moskovSi vwerdiT dayvelafers vaRwevdiT. axla? axla Cvens saqarTvelosmoskovi aRar uyvars! . . . yvelafers maSin moskovidanviRebdiT. adre 10 maneTs jibeSi Caidebdi, bazarSiwaxvidodi da xurdasac moitandi. axla? 10 maneTiTnabijsac ver gadaadgam. winaT lobio iyo 20 kapiki,pamidori 5 kapiki, kitri 20 kapiki. axla? axla ki arvcxovrobT, aramed varsebobT” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).qarTuli mosaxleobis migraciam (1987 wlidansvaneTidan, 1989 _ 1990 wlebidan aWarasa da leCxumidan)da sakvlev regionSi qarTuli eTnosiswarmomadgenlebis saxiT adgilobrivebisaTvis “ucxo”elementis “SemoWram” disonansi Seitana ukve arsebul“sabWour harmoniaSi”. es iyo qarTvel migrantTafsiqologiuri da bunebriv garemosTan Seguebis,186 187


ucxo mentalitetsa da kulturasTan Sejaxebis,axalmosulTa da damxvdurTa urTierTadaptaciisurTulesi procesi Tavisi uaryofiTi gamovlinebebiTda SedegebiT (problemebi, konfliqti, frustracia,dezorientacia). dazaralebuli maRalmTiani regionismcxovreblebisaTvis sakmaod Zneli SesaguebeliaRmoCnda qvemo qarTlis klimati, bunebrivi garemoda, xSir SemTxvevaSi, mougvarebeli sacxovrebeli dasaarsebo pirobebi. am mizezTa gamo ekomigrantebisnawilma datova qvemo qarTli da Tavis mSobliurkuTxes daubrunda. ekomigrantebis axal kulturulgaremosTan adaptacia ar iyo calmxrivi, is kompleqsuriprocesi iyo, sadac aqtiurad iyo CarTuli eTnocentristulimeqanizmebi, ramac, ZiriTadad sawyis periodSi,jgufTaSorisi dapirispireba gamoiwvia. adgilobrivmamosaxleobam qarTuli jgufebis regionSiSemosvla qarTuli nacionaluri politikis erTerTstrategiad aRiqva da keTilganwyobiT ardaxvedria am process. damxvduri jgufebi, romlebicregionSi umravlesobas warmoadgendnen da, aqedangamomdinare, Tavs upiratesad grZnobdnen, mtruladSexvdnen ucxo sociums, romelic Tavisi eTnikuriidentobis, anu qarTvelobis gamo, cdilobdapirveloba moepovebina da, ase vTqvaT, “CaeCoCebina”privilegirebuli jgufebi. es gansakuTrebiT svanebisSemTxvevaSi SeiniSneba, romlebic, maTi mentalitetidangamomdinare, saqarTveloSi araqarTulijgufis upiratesobas ver egueboda. amitomac iyo,rom adgilobrivebsa da Camosulebs Soris xSiriiyo dapirispirebani eTnocentristul safuZvelze.rogorc informatorebi gadmoscemen, maSin jer kidevar arsebobda davis raime materialuri sababi, maga.,miwis, sayofacxovrebo, an raime sxva msgavsi sakiTxi.individualur doneze dawyebuli dapirispirebebi,gamomdinare opoziciur jgufTa kulturis koleqtivisturixasiaTidan, TiTqmis yovelTvis jgufTa-Sorisi konfliqtis formas iRebda. svanebis mimarTqvemo qarTlSi Tavidanve CamoyalibdaD aWarlebTanSedarebiT ufro metad uaryofiTi ganwyoba, maTkriminalebad da ukanono saqmianobis moTaveebadaRiqvamdnen. svanebis uaryofiTi stereotipis CamoyalibebisSesaxeb saintereso mosazreba aqvT gamoTqmulim. turaSvilsa da t. triers. isini weren:“imisTvis, rom es warmodgena aixsnas, aucilebelia,gaviTvaliswinoT, rom qvemo qarTlSi, kerZod kimarneulis, gardabnis, TeTriwyaros, bolnisisa dadmanisis raionebSi svan ekomigrantTa ojaxebi ufrometia, vidre aWarlebisa. ase rom, svani migrantebiufro Canan regionSi. garda amisa, aWarlebTanSedarebiT, svanebi ufro urbanul garemoSi daasaxles,magaliTad, bolnisSi, dmanissa da gardabanSi, risgamoc maT saSualeba miecaT, ufro aqtiurad Cabmuliyvnenraionebis socialur-ekonomikur cxovrebaSi.urbanul garemoSi moxvedris gamo svanebs aWarlebTanSedarebiT, romlebic, rogorc wesi, kompaqturadcxovrobdnen soflebSi, bevrad ufro didi SexebahqondaT adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan. radgan svanebibevrjer sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulSi aRmoCndnenmxilebulni, maT kriminalebis iarliyi miekeraT, aserom, qvemo qarTlis romelime raionSi momxdaridanaSaulis Camdenad xSirad isini miiCnevian.sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgom gamefebulqaossa da ukanonobaSi danaSaulTa ricxvi mTelpostsabWoTa sivrceSi arnaxulad gaizarda. qvemoqarTlSi, sadac svanebis nakadis Camosvla TiTqmisdaemTxva sabWoTa xelisuflebis aRsasruls, adgilobrivmamosaxleobam CaTvala, rom danaSaulis zrdasvanebis CamosvliT iyo ganpirobebuli (turaSvili,2009: 55).aRniSnul periodSi adgili hqonda dapirispirebasara mxolod svanebisa da ucxo eTnikurijgufis warmomadgenlebs, aramed maTsa da adgilobriv188 189


qarTvelebs (dmanisis raionSi), aWarlebsa da damxvdurjgufebs Sorisac.aRsaniSnavia, rom velze muSaobis dros, konfliqtisTaobaze gamokiTxvisas Cveni araqarTvelirespondentebi Tavs aridebdnen konfliqtebis Sesaxebsaubars, isini maT arsebobas an uaryofdnen, an Zalianmsubuqi formiT warmoadgendnen. maTgan gansxvavebiTqarTuli jgufis warmomadgenlebi ufro gaxsnilebiiyvnen.dmaniseli svani respondentis informaciiT: “Cvenrom CamovediT, TviTon TaTrebi ise iyvnen momravlebulgamagrebuli!TaTrebi Cagravdnen adgilobriv qarTvelebs.magaT undodaT svanebis SeSineba, ise, rogorcqarTvelebi yavdaT daSinebuli, magram ar gamouvidaT.arc TaTrebs gamouvidaT da arc aqaurebs. maSin Zaliandidi Setakeba moxda svanebsa da TaTrebs Soris. erTmakacma Tqva, moxucma, kreba iyo da iq. madloba RmerTs,rom svanebi Camoasaxles aqo, marTaliao, moxda Sexla-Semoxlao, magram mere rao? bodiSi da, saqonelicdaereva erTmaneTso, xdeba, aseTi raRacao. Cveno, Cvenqalebso karSi ver vuSvebdiTo, gveSinodao, axla kiyvelgan gavuSvebTo. ai aseT periodSi Cadgnen Cvenimosvlis mere dmanisSi” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).adgilobrivi qarTveli mTxrobeli ase afasebsmaSindel viTarebas: `svanebi rom Camovidnen, Tavidanwynarad iyvnen, mere magaT, qarTvelebsa da azerbaijanelebsSoris Zalian daiZaba urTierToba; raRacperiodiT airia urTierTobebi. svanebi Tamami xalxia,Cven unda viyoT pirvelebio, eg undodaT. ramekonkretuli mizezebi, an miwaze dava, an egeTi ramear yofila. svanebi Cagravdnen yvelas, ro daiWerdnen,scemdnen, iaraRiTac dadiodnen, yvelaferi fexebzeekidaT. svanebi rom Camovidnen, bevri azerbaijaneliwavida, TiTqmis dacarielda raioni, mere dabrundnen”(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlSi migranti svanebis, aWarlebisada adgilobrivi jgufebis dapirispireba sawyisetapze eTnikur Seferilobas atarebda, miT ufro,rom es periodi daemTxva erovnuli muxtis gamoRvi-Zebas saqarTveloSi, ramac eTnonacionaluri xasiaTimiiRo.1989 wlis ivnisSi qalaq marneulSi svan daazerbaijanel axalgazrdebs Soris dawyebulmaCxubma masobrivi demonstraciis forma miiRo. svansada azerbaijanels taqsis rigSi kamaTi mouvidaT,rac Semdeg muSti-krivSi gadaizarda. iqve mcxovrebisvanebi nacnobis misaxmareblad gamovidnen daazerbaijaneli scemes. sapasuxod, imave dRes azerbaijanelTajgufi svanebis saxlebs daesxa Tavs.situacia rusTavidan da Tbilisidan Casulma policielebmagaaneitrales. Tumca, momdevno dRes marneulSi10000 adamiani gamovida demonstraciaze qvemo qarTlidansvanebis gaZevebis mowodebiT; isini moiTxovdnenagreTve regionSi avtonomiis gamocxadebas, adgilobrivixelisuflebis organoebSi qarTveli CinovnikebisazerbaijanelebiT Canacvlebas da sxv. imaveperiodSi azerbaijanelTa jgufebi Tavs daesxnengardabnis raionis policias; brZola gaimarTaazerbaijanelebsa da qarTvelebs Soris qalaqbolnisSi, ris Sedegadac dazaraldnen adgilobrivimosaxleebi. saerTo areuloba ivnisis pirvelnaxevramde gagrZelda. es SemTxeva marneulelma,gardabnelma, bolniselma da dmaniselma aqtivistebmaregionisTvis avtonomiis miniWebis moTxovnis gasaxmovanebladgamoiyenes. es dramatuli movlenebi qvemoqarTlSi qarTvelebsa da azerbaijanelebs Soris myofiagresiulad ganwyobili nacionalisti agitatorebiswaqezebiT ganxorcielda (turaSvili..., 2009: 56).situacia ufro gamwvavda gamsaxurdias periodSi daSedegad qvemo qarTlidan, gansakuTrebiT ki bolnisidan,aTasobiT azerbaijaneli wavida emigraciaSi.190 191


am SemTxvevis Sesaxeb bolniseli informatorigviambobs: “maSin rac xdeboda, es saSineleba iyo. meSeveswari TviTon am ambavs. Tbilisidan movdiodi.areuloba marneulidan modioda, iqedan dawyebulicxra Zma xerxeuliZe romaa, aqamde sul savse iyoxalxiT, manqanebiT, manqana manqanaze modioda, zedsul TaTrebi isxdnen, SeiaraRebuli iyvnen, ra aRareWiraT, ketebi, fiwlebi, Toxebi, barebi, qvebi. magaTgza gadaketes, manqanebs ar uSvebdnen, amowmebdnenqarTvelebi Tu iyvnen Sig. Cveni mZRoli bolniseliiyo. es TaTrebi aCerebdnen manqanebs, SemoxtebodnenSigniT da qarTvelebs eZebdnen. Cven rom gagvaCeres,am Cvenma mZRolma TaTruli icoda, da gagvafrTxilaar dailaparakoTo da iman dauwyo TaTrulad am biWebslaparaki da ai ase gadavrCiT. mere fexiT gamoviqeciT.iseTi ambavi iyo, qalebi dagvxvdnen quCaSi, bolnisSida xalxs xocaveno, gviTxres. mere am Cvenma xalxmaifiqra, amaT rogor unda dagvCagrono da SeiaraRdnenisinic, sul gamovida quCaSi mTeli qarTveloba barebiT,joxebiT, ToxebiT, magrad davdeqiT Cvenc. TaTrebs maSingubernia undodaT, Cveni gayra da raionis TaTrebiTdasaxleba, magram ar gamouvidaT. axla ki kargadvarT, magram vin aris dazRveuli, ro kidev aseTirame ar ganmeordes?” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).1992 wels dmanisis raionis sofel ganTiadSiekomigrantebsa da mkvidr qarTvelebs Soris ganxeTqilebamoxda. nasvami svani axalgazrdebis jgufsadgilobrivi qarTveli axalgazrda SemoakvdaT, risSemdegac soflis mcxovreblebma Suri iZies dasruliad udanaSaulo svani migranti mokles. svanimigrantebi iZulebuli iyvnen, soflidan wasuliyvnen,zogma saxlebi miatova, zogma ki gacvala. am periodisSesaxeb saubrobs sof. ganTiadis mcxovrebi qarTveliinformanti: “svanebsa da adgilobriv qarTvelebsSoris iyo adre usiamovneba, roca svanebi Camovidnen,maSin; iyo mkvlelobac. svanebmac mokles da Cvenebmac.svanebi Tamami xalxi iyo, mgels ro cxvars gausev,egre iyo. svanebi avtomatebiT dadiodnen, didgulzeiyvnen. mere gza dagviketes qarTvel xalxs, mosaxleobasda raionSi aRar gviSvebdnen. 50_100 kaciiyo avtomatebiT Casafrebuli da ar gviSvebda. cxvaricxvariao, Tu gacxarda cxariao, xom gagigia, xodaegre iyo Cveni saqmec, gagvamwares Tavidan da mereCvengan pasuxic miiRes. mere da mere ki Cawynardasituacia. maSin egeni rom Camoasaxles, xom gaxsovs,ra mTavroba iyo. axla ki TandaTanobiT dawynarda.svanebsa da adgilobriv qarTvelebs Soris romusiamovneba iyo, maSin policia ereoda, magram mTladver akontrolebda. erTi piri ise moxda, rom policiagaiqca. svanebma aiZules, miatoves policia dasafarloSi gaiqcnen” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).dmaniseli svani axalgazrda qalis monaTxrobi:“sanam svanebi Camovidodnen, qarTvelebs azerbaijanelebTandaZabuli urTierToba hqondaT. svanebisCamosvlamde azerebs aqaurebi lamis monebad yavdaT,daCagrulebi iyvnen Zalian. es svanebma ver aitanesda iyo Setakeba. mere azerebi iaraRebiT movidnen,svanebis gayras apirebdnen. me patara viyavi da maxsovs,qalebi da bavSvebi “padvalSi” viyaviT damalulebi.kacebi iaraRiT iyvnen gamzadebulebi. magram srolamdear mivida saqme. mere jaba ioseliani Caeria saqmeSida situacia dalagda. Setakebebi iyo, ki da erTisvani mokvda, maxsovs. qarTvelebTanac iyo raRacdaZabuloba maSin, roca svanebi Camovidnen. iyoganTiadSi SemTxveva. exla egeTi rameebi aRar xdeba,urTierToba nel-nela dalagda. azerebi, svanebi romCamovidnen, aiyarnen da wavidnen. magram axla nelnelaCamodian, aRar aris iseTi urTierToba”.1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi situaciaSedarebiT stabiluri gaxda da jgufuri xasiaTiskonfliqti Temebs Soris masobriv dapirispirebaSiTiTqmis ar gadazrdila, Tu ar CavTvliT ramdenime192 193


SemTxvevas marneulis, gardabnisa da walkis raionebSi.2004 wlis dekemberSi marneulis raionis erTerTisoflis mcxovrebi daaxloebiT 300-mde azerbaijaneliTavs daesxa adgilobrivi sacxenosno fermismepatroneebs, romelTa gankargulebaSic iyo soflismimdebare miwis umetesi nawili. mosaxleoba 320heqtari miwis xelaxla gadanawilebas moiTxovda.Setakebis Sedegad erTi azerbaijaneli gardaicvala,ramdenime adamiani ki daiWra. situacia imdenad mZimeiyo, rom problemis gadawyvetasTan dakavSirebulmolaparakebebSi azerbaijanis mTavrobis warmomadgenlebmada di plomatebma miiRes monawileoba.saqarTveloSi azerbaijanis elCma peticia gaugzavnasaqarTvelos prezidents, romelSic marneulisazerbaijanuli mosaxleobisaTvis miwis saWiroraodenobis gamoyofisken mouwodebda. azerbaijanulmaarasamTavrobo organizaciebma saqarTvelosprezidentisadmi gagzavnil Ria werilSi moiTxovesmiwis privatizebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT azerbaijanuliTemebis uflebebis darRvevebze yuradRebisgamaxvileba (li parteliani, 2004).2003 wels adgili hqonda gardabnis raionissof. jandaris azerbaijanuli da mezobeli sof.lemSvanieras svanuri mosaxleobis dapirispirebas,romlis moTaveebic svani mZarcvelebisgan Sewuxebuliazerbaijanelebi iyvnen. azerbaijanelebmaramdenime saprotesto mitingi moawyves da moiTxovesyaCaRobaSi eWvmitanili svani damnaSavis gasamar-Tleba. sabolood gardabanSi policiis ganyofilebasTan,generalur prokuraturasa da qalaqissasamarTlosTan kvlav Catarda masobrivi mitingi,ris Sedegadac svani damnaSave gaasamarTles. magramsasamarTlom igi gaaTavisufla, rasac sazogadoebriviareuloba mohyva. sabolood, azerbaijanelebismoTxovnis dakmayofilebis Semdeg situacia nel-neladamSvidda da urTierToba TandaTan mowesrigda(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlis raionebidan walka yvelazerTulad integrirebad raionad iTvleba. qarTvelTaekomigraciam, sxva raionebTan SedarebiT walkaSiufro meti daZabuloba gamoiwvia. saqme isaa, rom amregionSi ekomigrantebi umTavresad berZnebisaganSesyidul saxlebSi Sesaxldnen an unebarTvoddaikaves. xSiri iyo SemTxvevebi, roca migrantiaWarlebi TviTneburad iWrebodnen berZenTa mitovebulsaxlebSi. raionis adgilobrivi mosaxleoba(somxebi, berZnebi da azerbaijanelebi) ver amyarebdaverbalur kontaqts qarTvel migratebTan qarTulisarcodnis gamo. komunikaciis barierma da saxelmwifosmier migraciis procesis daregulirebisuunarobam daZabuloba gamoiwvia, rasac amwvavebdamiwis simcire da adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi gavrcelebuliSexeduleba imis Taobaze, rom navTobsadenismSeneblobaze dasaqmebisas upiratesoba axalmosulebseniWebodaT. adgili hqonda ramdenime Setakebasadgilobriv mosaxleobasa da axalmosulebs Soris.2004 wlis maisSi walkis sof. qvemo xarebaSiSemdgari fexburTis matCi _ sofelSi mcxovrebaWarel da sof. kizilqilisadan Camosul somex bavSvebsSoris _ CxubSi gadaizarda. 10 adamiani daiWra.Sejaxebis Semdeg aWarlebi Camovidnen TbilisSi, sadacmaT saprotesto demonstracia moawyves. incidentisgamoZiebis dros, somxebma da berZnebma ganacxades,rom aWarlebi maT uflebebs arRvevdnen, xoloaWarlebma somxebi da berZnebi daadanaSaules, romTiTqos isini ewinaaRmdegebodnen regionSi qarTvelebiscxovrebas (uiTli, 2006: 25).kidev erTi seriozul dapirispirebas walkaSiadgili hqonda 2006 wels. nasvam svanebsa da somxebsSoris momxdari Cxubi 23 wlis somexi axalgazrdissikvdiliT dasrulda. eWvmitanilebi daakaves da194 195


gamoZieba daiwyo, magram sasamarTlo procesi sakmaodgaWianurda. adgilobrivi somxebi walkis policiisSenobis win Seikribnen da eWvmitanilTa linCis wesiTdasjas iTxovdnen. daiwyo masobrivi gamosvla, risSemdegac somxebi gamgeobis SenobaSi SeiWrnen,Caamtvries fanjrebi da daamtvries inventari.mRelvareba javaxeTis somxebsac moedo da regionSisakmaod seriozuli situacia Seiqmna. wesrigisaRsadgenad saqarTvelos samarTaldamcavi organoebiCaerivnen (uiTli, 2006: 47).2008 wels walkis raionis somxur soflebSimuSaobisas, adgilobrivma somxebma ase Seafases esSemTxveva: “svanebisa da somxebis dapirispireba kiiyo, magram es iyo xulignuri dapirispireba. es arSeiZleba politikurad CavTvaloT. ori mTvralisgamo dawyebuli Sexla-Semoxla!!! es sul sxva ramea_xulignuri “razborka”. politika da “razborka”sxvadasxva ramea” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).walkis raionSi viTareba SedarebiT damSviddamigraciis Semcirebisa da samarTaldamcavi organoebisCarevis Sedegad. magram zogadad, aWarlebis mimarT,maTi TviTneburi saqcielis gamo berZnebis mxridanuaryofiTi ganwyoba SeiniSneba. berZnebis saxlebiwalkaSi mitovebulia, xSir SemTxvevaSi Caqceuli,magram isini maT miyidvas aWarlebisTvis ar apireben:“imaT imdeni cudi gagvikeTes, rom berZnebs magaTiSemoSveba aqeT ar undaT. aq marto moxucebi ariandarCenili. aWarlebi rom gamdidrdebian, mere Seviwrovebasdagviwyeben. aWarlebs tkbili ena aqvT, magramguli ara. ai, Cveni saqoneli 2 Zroxa da 3 xbo medabmuli myavs, imaT ki 20 Zroxa aSvebuli da sulCven bostanSi da naTesebze gadadis! ramdeni xaniSeiZleba es moiTmino? erTxel, orjer, samjer?! yoveldRease xdeba. isini Cven adamianad ar gvagdeben.egre undao _ amboben, miwa Cveniao! saidan ari magaTi,musulmanebi arian! marto me ki ara var am dReSi,yvela esea” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).magram, saerTo jamSi, walkaSi adgilobrivebiaRniSnavdnen zogadad jgufTaSoris urTierTobisnormalizacias: “Cven axla qarTvelebTan aranairiusiamovneba ar gvaqvs, kargad varT erTmaneTTan. svanebirom Camovidnen, maSin qarTvelebTan usiamovneba iyo,magram mis mere aRar gvqonia. axalgazrdebs Soris iyoraRac, magram yvelgan aris kinklaoba, iseTi araferi ariyo. iseTi Zmakacoba aqvT exla ro!” (jalabaZe, 2008_ 2010).rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, qvemo qarTlSi 2008wlis omis Sedegad Sida qarTlidan iZulebiT gadaadgilebulpirTa dasaxlebebi gaCnda SaumianSi, gardabansada kodaSi. proeqtis _ “iZulebiT gadaadgilebulpirTa cxovrebis stabilizaciisa da maTisazogadoebaSi integrirebis” monacemTa mixedviT,aRniSnul kontingentSi integrirebis ori formaaRiniSneba _ Temebis SigniT da iZulebiT gadaadgilebulpirebsa da adgilobriv mosaxleobas Soris.proeqtis Sedegebi daemTxva Cveni savele muSaobisSedegebs _ urTierToba mosulebsa da adgilobrivebsSoris Zalze SezRudulia. miuxedavad amisa, isinierTmaneTis mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili ar arian.eTnikuri umciresobebis dasaxlebebSi, gardabansa daSaumianSi, situacia sakmaod daZabuli iyo maTiSemosvlis sawyis etapze; iyo ramdenime dapirispirebaeTnikur somxebsa da iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebsSoris SaumianSi. gardabanSi axalmosulTa damokidebulebaadgilobrivebis mimarT megobruli ar aris.proeqtis daskvnaSi vkiTxulobT: „zogierT garemoebebSieTnikurma grZnobebma SeiZleba ufro gaarTulossituacia. aris Zlieri antiosuri ganwyobebiiZulebiT gadaadgilebul mosaxleobaSi. es SeiZlebaiqces problemad, radganac eTnikuri osebi arianrogor iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa dasaxlebebSi,ise mezobel TemebSi. (qvemo qarTlsa da . . .).196 197


qvemo qarTlis regionSi jgufTaSoris urTier-Tobas Zabavs urTierTpretenziebi TiToeuli eTnikurijgufis meoresTan SedarebiT arasaxarbielomdgomareobaSi yofnis gamo: rogorc mosuli qarTvelebi,ise adgilobrivi araqarTvelebi ukmayofilebasgamoTqvamen, rom, TiTqosda, maTi uflebebi xSiradirRveva. bevri azerbaijaneli da somexi darwmunebulia,rom miwebis gamoyofis, sajaro TanamdebobebzedaniSvnisa da sxva SemTxvevebSi qarTvelebsupiratesobas aniWeben. amave dros, CamosaxlebuliqarTvelebi Tvlian, rom isini araTanabar pirobebSiarian azerbaijanul da somxur mosaxleobasTanSedarebiT: “Cemi biWi exla ar muSaobs. afxazeTisomSi ibrZoda. bavSvebi gadmoyavda. yvelaferigadaitana. omis mere arc erT mis megobars normalurisamsaxuri ar aqvs. amdeni xania samsaxuri ver uSovia.iqneb imitom, rom somexia? ar vici, SeiZleba egreciyos. magas uTxres, gadaikeTe gvari an galustaSvilian galustaZeo da kargi samsaxuri geqnebao. egSevardnaZis dros iyo. saakaSvilze ra vici, jer egeTirame ar gagvigonia” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).2010 wels sadaxloSi yofnis dros, prokreditbankisfilialis TanamSromlebma, romlebic mezobeliraionis qarTvelebi iyvnen, CvenTan saubarSi ganacxades,rom adgilobrivi azerbaijanelebi ukmayofilebasgamoTqvamdnen maTi adgilobriv bankSimuSaobis gamo: “eseni aprotesteben, rom Cven qarTvelebivarT da aq vmuSaobT. ki batono, imuSaon azerbaijanelebma,Cven ra SuaSi varT! magram es saqarTveloa,da aq ucxo enis codnis garda, qarTuli unda icode.iseTi mkacri testireba gvitardeba, Tanac araerTxel.amas gansakuTrebuli momzadeba sWirdeba, eseni romamboben, Cvenebs ratom ar niSnaveno, aba imden gamocdasCaabareben? qarTuli ician?” CvenTan saubarSi kiazerbaijanelma respondentebma protesti gamoTqves:”ratom arian aq CvenTan dasaqmebuli sxva soflidan?aq ra, CvenTan ar SeiZleboda adgilobrivi kadrisSerCeva?” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).qarTvel da araqarTvel jgufTaSoris dapirispirebisparalelurad, konfliqtebi azerbaijanelebs,somxebsa da berZnebs Soris ar aRiniSneba. piriqiT,am eTnikur jgufTa warmomadgenlebi xazs usvamenurTierTSoris karg urTierTobas, imas, rom yarabaxisambebmac ki ar imoqmeda uaryofiTad qvemo qarTlissomxebisa da azerbaijanelebis urTierTdamokidebulebaze:“somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs Zalian kargiurTierToba aqvT, yarabaxis ambebi rom iyo, ar yofilaaranairi daZabuloba Cven Soris, emociac ki argvqonda, rom iq omi iyo” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).Cans, rom am jgufebma ukan moitoves adaptaciaakulturaciisrTuli periodi da wlebis ganmavlobaSierTmaneTis gverdiT cxovrebam, interpersonalurma,kulturulma, ekonomikurma da socialurma kavSirebmamaTi komunikacia pozitiurad warmarTa.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qvemo qarTlSi ekomigranTada ekonomikur migrantebTan adgilobriv eTnikurjgufTa dapirispirebas maTi urTierTobis sawyisperiodSi eTnocentristuli safuZveli gaaCnda. aqdid rols TamaSobda komunikaciis moSlac, rasacqarTuli enis da axalmosul jgufTa kulturuliRirebulebebis arcodna iwvevda. mogvianebiT, rodesacxdeba axalmosulTa damkvidreba da regionis ekonomikurda socialur yofaSi CarTva, maT Soris uTanxmoebasukve gamokveTili materialuri interesebiganapirobebs. yvelaze meti datvirTva am mxrivekonomikur problemebze modis, gansakuTrebiT kimiwis sakiTxze, rac Tanabrad mniSvnelovania, rogorcqarTveli, ise araqarTveli mosaxleobisaTvis. miwamaTi arsebobis wyaroa da amitom maTi interesisobieqtic. amdenad, mogvianebiT maT Soris konfliqtebsekonomikuri interesebis gadakveTa ganapirobebs.momxdari jgufTaSorisi konfliqtis faqtebi mowmobs,198 199


om dapirispireba, romelsac eTnikuri sarCuli araqvs, advilad SeiZleba gadaizardos eTnikurkonfliqtSi. konfliqtebis Camoyalibeba ZiriTadadxdeba iseT dasaxlebebSi, sadac am jgufebs Sexebiswertilebi gaaCniaT. isini, SesaZlebelia, erTdasaxlebaSi arc cxovrobdnen, magram maTi interesebisameurneo samuSaoebis warmoebisas gadaikveTos.TiToeuli eTnokulturuli jgufi pretenziebsgamoTqvams TavianTi, TiTqosda, arasaxarbielomdgomareobaSi da araTanabar pirobebSi yofnis gamo.Tumca, ar SeiZleba ar aRiniSnos, rom konfliqtebismxriv, situacia, ase Tu ise, daregulirda. yofiTsakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli uTanxmoebani, rasakvirvelia,arsebobs, magram bolo periodSi amas ar miuRiakonfliqtis masStaburi forma. amaSi garkveulwiladsaxelmwifos mier gatarebul qmediT RonisZiebebsacaqvs wvlili (kontrolis gamkacreba, kanonis amoqmedeba).kulturaTaSorisi kavSirebis dinamika pozitiuria,vinaidan drosTan erTad es jgufebi erTmaneTiskulturas ufro kargad ecnobian da ukeTeguebian.e n a , g a n a T l e b akulturaTaSorisi komunikacia, rac sxvadasxvakulturis or an met warmomadgenels Soris informaciisada kulturul RirebulebaTa gacvlas gulisxmobs,integraciis aucilebeli pirobaa. kulturulikomunikacia iTvaliswinebs rogorc meore xalxisenis, ise materialuri da sulieri kulturis, religiis,Rirebulebebis, zneobrivi normebis, msoflmxedvelobisda a.S. codnas, rac mTlianobaSi gansaz-Rvravs komunikaciis monawileTa qcevis modelebs.sakvlev regionSi kulturaTaSorisi kavSirebisefeqturoba, upirveles yovlisa, ganisazRvreba moqmedimxareebis mier verbaluri kontaqtis damyarebisSesaZleblobebiT, rac, bunebrivia, erTmaneTis eniscodnas gulisxmobs.rogorc zemoTac aRiniSna, sabWoTa periodSiqvemo qarTlis mravaleTnikuri sazogadoebis sakomunikacioena rusuli iyo. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlisSemdgom ki kulturuli dialogis TvalsazrisiTaq axali problemebi warmoiqmna, rac, upirvelesyovlisa, jgufebs Soris komunikaciis moSlaSigamoixata. saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis gamocxadebisSemdeg saxelmwifos e.w. “qarTul relsebze”gadayvanis politikis ganxorcieleba daiwyo, racqarTuli enis saxelmwifo enad gamocxadebaSi da,Sesabamisad, rusuli enis qarTuliT CanacvlebaSigamoixata. 1990-ini wlebis dasawyisSi, rodesac qveyanaSida areulobam moicva da eTnopolitikur konfliqtebSiiqna CaTreuli, seriozuli politikuri daekonomikuri krizisis fonze rTuli iyo SemuSavebuliyomravaleTnikuri regionebis mosaxleobisaTvisqarTuli enis swavlebis mwyobri sistema daSesaferisi meTodika. es problema, TavisTavad, vercmokle vadaSi mogvardeboda. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoenis arcodnis gamo erovnul umciresobebs gauWirdaTdamoukidebeli saqarTvelos socialur da politikurcxovrebaSi integrireba. j. uiTli, romelic saqarTvelosmultikulturul regionebSi integraciisproblemebs ikvlevda, wers: “SevardnaZis sustixelisufleba ver axerxebda erovnul umciresobebsSoris saxelmwifo enis, qarTulis, swavlebisxelSewyobas. Sesabamisad, qarTuli enis flobis doneuaRresad dabali iyo umciresobebiT dasaxlebulregionebSi. am garemoebebma xeli SeuSala erTiani“demosis” Seqmnas, romlisadmi mikuTvnebulobasTanabrad igrZnobdnen qarTvelebic da sxva eTnikuriwarmoSobis moqalaqeebic. enobrivi barieri gaxdaqarTvelebsa da umciresobaTa jgufebs Soris urTier-TobisaTvis xelisSemSleli faqtori, gansakuTrebiT200 201


axalgazrdebs Soris, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom rusulikargavda intereTnikuri komunikaciis mTavari enisfunqcias. axalgazrda Taoba, kerZod, qarTveliaxalgazrdebi ukve veRar saubrobdnen damakmayofilebladrusul enaze. umciresobebisTvis gankuTvniliqarTuli enis Semswavleli programebi kiaraorganizebuli da uSedego iyo, metwilad saxelmwifosuunarobis gamo, ganexorcielebina ganaTlebisswori politika. ganuviTarebeli infrastruqturakidev ufro arTulebda komunikacias, xolo sazogadoebrivisargeblis xelmiuwvdomloba aferxebdaintegraciis process (uiTli, 2006, :11). saqarTvelosmosaxleobis 2002 wlis pirveli erovnuli sayovel-Tao aRweris monacemebiT, qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobismxolod 31% flobda srulyofilad qarTuls. ().vardebis revoluciis Semdgom did yuradRebadaeTmo multieTnikur regionebSi qarTuli enisumciresobaTa jgufebisTvis swavlebisa da saganmanaTleblosistemis harmonizacias. adgilobrivi daucxouri instituciebis bazaze SemuSavda specialuriprogramebi, ris safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli gaxdaumciresobebisaTvis qarTuli enis SeswavlisTvisxelis Sewyoba da jgufTa Soris verbaluri komunikaciisganxorcielebis perspeqtivis uzrunvelyofa.dRes viTareba Secvlilia ukeTesobisaken, TumcamTeli rigi sirTuleebi mainc arsebobs.ar SeiZleba ar aRiniSnos is faqti, rom sxvadasxvaeTnikuri jgufebis xangrZlivma samezoblourTierTobam xeli Seuwyo sakomunikacio donezeerTmaneTis enis Seswavlas. azerbaijanelebma iciansomxuri da piriqiT, berZnebma somxuri, aseve adgilobrivmaqarTvelebmac ician somxuri da azerbaijanuli,imis mixedviT, Tu romel eTnikur jgufTan aqvTSexebis wertilebi.marneulis raionis sof. sionis 65 wlis someximkvidri sufTad laparakobs qarTulad, radganqarTuli skola aqvs damTavrebuli, magram icisazerbaijanuli, berZnuli da rusuli: “qarTuliskola davamTavre rvawliani. CvenTan sofelSi yvelaqarTvelma somxuri icis, somexma _ qarTuli. mereazerbaijanulic vicodiT. diliT adre, romelicSexvdeboda erTmaneTs, im eniT daviwyebdiT laparaks”(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). dmanisis raionis qarTulisof. boslebis mosaxleobis informaciiT, maT mezobelazerbaijanul sof. azkaklianSi qarTuli TiTqmisar ician. samagierod boslevelebma ician azerbaijanuli:“Cven ufro viciT azerbaijanuli, vidre magaTqarTuli. Cven damTmobi xalxi varT, Cvena vlaparakobTTaTrulaTa” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). walkisraionis sof. yizilqilisas gamgeblis sityvebiT: “Cvensomxebma viciT berZnebis ena, azerbaijanelebisac.roca berZnebi aq iyvnen, maSin ufro icoda Cvenmaxalxma berZnuli, axla aRar ician ise. Cveni bavSvebiaxla aWarlebTan urTierToben da axla ukve qarTulsiswavlian” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). sof. bolnisismkvidri somexi qalbatonis TqmiT: aqaurma somexmabiWebma azerbaijanuli umetesobam icis, imitom romaq xom aris azerbaijanelebis dasaxleba da imaTTanaqvT urTierToba, erTmaneTs xvdebian, fexburTsTamaSoben...” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).sainteresoa isic, rom yofiT doneze urTier-Tobam qvemo qarTlSi SedarebiT gvian damkvidrebulmigrirebul mosaxleobaSic analogiur procesebsSeuwyo xeli. maTac SeuZliaT kontaqtis damyarebamezoblebis enaze. es damoukideblad, TavisTavadmimdinare procesebia, rac sxvadasxva kulturiswarmomadgenlebis samezoblo urTierTobas Tanaxlavs. es aris interkulturuli urTierTobiserTgvari strategia, rasac adaptacia-akulturaciis202 203


procesSi kulturebi Tavad gamoimuSaveben. aRniSnuliviTareba xels uwyobs eTnikur jgufTa Sorisintegracias, es ki samoqalaqo integraciis xelSemwyobierT-erTi faqtoria.rac Seexeba qarTuls, rogorc saxelmwifo enas,romlis codnis gareSec SeuZlebelia samoqalaqointegraciis realizacia, dRes qvemo qarTlSi am mxrivSemdegi suraTi ikveTeba: erovnul umciresobaTaganqarTul enaze met-naklebad gamarTulad saubroben,ZiriTadad, dedaqalaqsa da polieTnikur dasaxlebebSimcxovrebi umciresobebi, xolo izolirebulmonoeTnikur dasaxlebebSi qarTulis codnis doneZalian dabalia.qarTulis flobis done gardabani marneuli dmanisi walkaar icis 24.5% 42.2% 8.1% 19.3%esmis mxolod sityvaTa 47.0% 35.1% 47.5% 49.5%garkveuli raodenobaesmis TiTqmis 14.0% 12.8% 32.3% 22.6%yvelaferi, magramlaparakobselementarul donezeesmis da laparakobs 6.9% 6.2% 7.1% 2.8%kargad, magram arSeuZlia weraesmis, laparakobs dawers gamarTulad7.7% 3.8% 5.1% 5.7%zemoT warmodgenilia umciresobis sakiTxTaevropuli centris mier 2008 wels proeqt “saqarTveloSisamcxe-javaxeTisa da qvemo qarTlis regionebSimcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebis integraciis”farglebSi Sedgenili cxrili (), sadac procentuladnaCvenebia qarTulis codnis done qvemo qarTlis 4raionis mixedviT (aq ar aris monacemebi TeTriwyarosada bolnisis raionebidan, saidanac TeTriwyarosraionSi qarTuli enis codnis maCvenebeliufro maRali unda iyos, vinaidan qarTvelebi aqdominanti jgufia.velze Catarebulma samuSaomac sxvadasxvaraionSi zogadad qarTuli enis codnis araerTgvarovanisuraTi gamoavlina. mxolod erTi aradominantieTnosis warmomadgenlebiT dasaxlebul soflebSiZalian cudad an saerTod ar ician qarTuli ena.Tumca, mamakacebs qalebTan SedarebiT ena ukeT esmiT.es exeba rogorc azerbaijanelebs, ise somxebsa daberZnebs. qarTuli enis codnis mxriv gansxvavebaSeiniSneba TviT qalebs Sorisac _ raionSi dadedaqalaqSi (ZiriTadad bazrebSi) momuSave qalebiqarTulad kontaqtis damyarebas mainc axerxeben.qarTuli enis arcodnis gamo araqarTveli eTnikurijgufis warmomadgenlebi ver kiTxuloben qarTulpresas da ar uyureben qarTul satelevizio arxebs,ar SeuZliaT damoukideblad mimarTon qarTulkanonmdeblobas, swavlas iSviaTad agrZeleben qarTulumaRles saswavleblebSi da sxv., rac kidev ufroaRrmavebs maTi izolacias.monoeTnikur dasaxlebebSi skolebi somxurian azerbaijanulenovania. aris skolebi, romlebicramdenime sofels emsaxureba. azerbaijanul dasomxur skolebSi iswavleba qarTuli enac. Tumca,zogan qarTuli enis pedagogi ar hyavT, xolo, TuhyavT, isic xSir SemTxvevaSi, naklebad kvalificiuriadgilobrivi kadria. arsarvaneli azerbaijanelimamakacis TqmiT: “Cvenma bavSvebma qarTuli ar ician,imitom rom aq qarTvelebi ar cxovroben da qarTulismaswavlebeli ar gvyavs. Cven Zalian gvinda qarTuliscodna. ratom ar unda mindodes? me xom aq vcxovrob?saqarTveloSi? Cven gvyavda ori qarTulis axalgazrdamaswavlebeli, qarTvelebi. mere xelfasi Seumcires,Tavidan 5 lari moumates, mere CamoaWres. isinic adgnenda wavidnen. imaT aq saxlic ar hqondaT. sad undaecxovraT? qirasac xom gadaxda undoda? aq romqarTuls aswavlis exla, is aqauri azerbaijanelia,saxlSic azerbaijanulad laparakoben. is qarTveli204 205


azerbaijanelebi: “aq skola erTi gvaqvs _ qarTuli.yvela iq swavlobs, qarTvelic da araqarTvelic. axlaCvenTan axalgazrdebi rom arian, Zalian megobrobenerTmaneTTan, Sewyobili arian, TaTari ginda, svani,berZeni, aWareli. Cveni sofeli walkis raionSipirvelia wesierebiT” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).erTi ram, rasac uklebliv aRniSnavda yvelarespondenti CvenTan saubrisas, aris qarTuli enisSeswavlis survili da, zogjer, moTxovnilebac ki.aqaur araqarTvel mosaxleobas gacnobierebuli aqvsqarTulis, rogorc saxelmwifo enis, codnis aucilebloba.TviTon qarTuli mosaxleobac aRniSnavs, romazerbaijanelebi qarTulis codnis saWiroebas mixvdnen.sityvierad amas amboben somexi respondentebic daamisTvis mzaobac SeimCneva: “me minda rom Cemi SvilebiqarTul skolaSi miviyvano, imitom rom saqarTveloSicxovroben da qarTuli unda icodnen, Cemi qmari,magaliTad, ise laparakobs qarTulad, rom qarTvelisaganver gaarCev” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). azerbaijanelebissof. patara bolnisSi azerbaijanelTaTavyrilobaze Caweril interviuSi, romelsac aqmTlianad movitan, gadmocemulia is ganwyoba, racumetesad sufevs azerbaijanul mosaxleobaSi,gansakuTrebiT mis axalgazrda progresul nawilSiqarTuli enis swavlebasTan mimarTebaSi (teqstirusulidan aris Targmnili):“_ me aq davibade, magram didi xani maqvs gatarebuliruseTSi, ganaTlebac iq miviRe; axla CamovedisamSobloSi, saqarTveloSi da survili maqvs qarTuliSeviswavlo. vTvli, rom qarTulis codnis gareSe aqSeuZlebelia raimes miaRwio,Pperspeqtiva ar geqneba.aq Zalian kargia, aq perspeqtivebia.-ra perspeqtivebia?-am etapze marto soflis meurneobaSi, sxvaaraferSi, radgan xalxma ar icis ena. ena rom icodnen,sxvagan wasvla ratom endomebodaT?! ena roca gecomaswavlebelirom gvyavda, erT weliwadSi CvenibavSvebi ukve Tavisuflad alaparakdnen qarTulad.”magram gacilebiT ufro Sedegiania araqarTulskolebSi qarTulis swavleba, Tu pedagogi eTnikuradqarTvelia. magaliTad, dmanisis raionis sof. angrevanismkvidris informaciiT, “sofelSi cxovroben martoazerbaijanelebi. aris mxolod erTi qarTuli ojaxi,qiriT aris; is qarTuli enisa da literaturismaswavlebelia. Zalian normaluri kacia da azerbaijanulicicis, coli qarTveli yavs _ svani. adresofelSi qarTulis maswavlebeli ar vargoda, ansaerTod ar iyo swavleba. es rom movida, bavSvebmaqarTuli iswavles TandaTan.winaT rusuli iyo, Cemma Taobam rusuli kargadicoda. axalgazrdebma rusuli ar ician. samagierodqarTuli zogma ise icis, rom qarTvelisagan vergaarCev. am sofelSi axalgazrdebis umravlesoba 8-wlian skolaSia da mere saSualo skolas sofelamamloSi amTavrebs. mere swavlis gasagrZelebladmidis azerbaijanSi an ruseTSi. winaT ruseTSi ufromidiodnen, axla enis arcodnis gamo ufro azerbaijanSimidian. maTi umetesoba iq rCeba mere samuSaod, an ojaxsqmnis. ise rom, aq marto mSoblebi hyavT, saxli aqvT dasanaxavad Camodian xolme” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).dasaxlebebSi, romlebic Sereuli mosaxleobiTaawarmodgenili, sadac somxebis, berZnebis da azerbaijanelebisgverdiT qarTvelebi cxovroben, axalgazrdaTaobam, romelic amave dros qarTul skolaSiswavlobs, ukve qarTuli icis da, amdenad, maT Soriskontaqtebi gacilebiT intensiuria. mag., TeTriwyarosraionis sof. samRereTi, sadac Tavdapirvelad martosomxebi cxovrobdnen, amJamad aWarlebiTa da azerbaijanelebiTaris dasaxlebuli. skola qarTuli aqvT,axalgazrdebi ganaTlebas qarTulad iReben. walkisraionis sof. baSkoiSi gverdigverd cxovrobenberZnebi, qarTvelebi (svanebi, aWarlebi), somxebi,206 207


dineba kacs, aq darCenasac azri aqvs, iseve moewyobisamsaxurSi rogorc isini, vinc qarTuli icis. isinimuSaoben, Cven ki ena roca ar viciT, mivrbivarT anbaqoSi an ruseTSi. ra Tqma unda, iq Semosavali kargigvaqvs, magram jobia saxlSi iyo da 5 rubli gqondes,vidre sxvagan 10 rubli. saxlSi am fuls ufro ukeTda sarfianad moixmar, vidre sxvagan. yoveldRiuradsaxlSi rom xar, eg bevrs niSnavs! sxvagan roca xar,iq axlidan iwyeb cxovrebas, saxli unda aaSeno, ojaxiSeqmna, raRaceebi SeiZino. me ukve 27 wlis var, col-Svili ar myavs. me qarTuli ar vici. sad viswavlo?-ase marto Sen fiqrob?-qarTulis Seswavla marto Cemi survilia araa,aramed sxvebic ase fiqroben, magram vis unda uTxran?ai am patara biWs hkiTxeT (xels iSvers iqve mdgaripatara biWisken), is xan dadis skolaSi, xan ara, ra azriaqvs?QqarTuli ar icis, aq ver gaagrZelebs swavlas,unda wavides baqoSi, iq ki jer marto magis momzadebas2000 dolaramde sWirdeba, mere kidev Cabarebas. . .Aamisifuli xom yvelas ar aqvs? vinc iq iswavlis, aqeT, raTqma unda, aRar wamova, iqve unda darCes. xoda,dacarielda sofeli, saxlebi. . . imitom rom xalximirbis baqoSi, ruseTSi. . . aq momavlis bavSvebi ararian.- ki magram, Tqven bavSvebs skolaSi xom aswavlianqarTuls?- amaT qarTuls ki aswavlian skolebSi, magramcota saaTebia. erTi saaTi dReSi, am erT saaTSi raunda iswavlo? viRac swavlobs, viRac ara, erTi saaTizogs yofnis, zogs ara.- ki magram, amas Tqven ambobT, sxva azerebic amazrze arian?- Tu adamianebs undaT, rom maT Svilebs hqondeTmomavali, rom aqedan ar gaiqcnen, amisaTvis maT isicunda icodnen, rom qarTuli ena unda iswavlon maTmaSvilebma. unda Caidos mTeli Zalisxmeva, undaSemuSavdes politika, rom azerma bavSvebma qarTuliiswavlon. me roca momindeba, maSin waval ruseTSi,imitom rom Cemi Zma aris ldpis (ruseTis liberaldemokratiulpartia, n.j.) deputati.(xalxidan xma: yvelas unda qarTulis swavla!).- pedagogebi adgilobrivebi ar arian, qarTvelebiCamodian, imaT Cveni ena ar ician. qarTvelebTan Cvenar gvaqvs kontaqti, radgan ena ar viciT. aba ranairadunda vikontaqtoT? qarTuli ena azerebis 3%-s esmis.saqme imaSia, rom roca Cveni bavSvebi gaizrdebian,isinic saqonels momwyemsaven an bostans gaToxnian.Tu imaT mSoblebs fuli eqnebaT, maSin baqoSi wavlenda iq iswavlian. qarTuli rom icodnen, aq darCebodnen,aq iswavlidnen. rogorc Cans, kviraSi 5-saaTi qarTulisTvisar aris sakmarisi, ufro meti unda iyos. esyvela qveyanaSi asea, dasavleTSic da amerikaSic, sadaccxovrob, im qveynis ena unda icode, am mxriv CvenSicaris cvlilebebi, yvelas unda qarTuli iswavlos.axalgazrdasac da ufrosebsac. me vici, erTmaazerbaijanelma iyida leqsikoni da swavlobs sityvebs.me mgoni, am mimarTulebiT momavalSi saskolo programaunda Seicvalos. garda imisa, rom kidev erTi enagvecodineba, Cven gvecodineba im qveynis ena, sadacvcxovrobT” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). sof. bolnisissaSualo skolis qarTuli enis maswavleblis informaciiT,“es aris sofeli xaCini, axla bolnisi daarqves.am sofelSi sul somxebi cxovroben. me goridanvar. 1971 wlidan qarTulis maswavleblad gamanawiles,mere gavTxovdi kidec somexze da mas mere aq var.somxuri ise viswavle, rom yvelas vjobni. me dawyebiTklasebs vaswavli qarTuls. winaT ar iyo da axlaki gvaqvs “TavTavi” _ specialurad amaTTvis SeqmnilisaxelmZRvanelo. me myavs klasSi mondomebulibavSvebi, isini cdiloben qarTuli iswavlon, magaTmSoblebsac undaT es, magram marto skolis ganaTlebaar aris sakmarisi. Cveni pedagogebic dadian qarTulis208 209


kursebze, ai, magaliTad, Cvenma direqtorma iara daise kargad iswavla ena, Zalian mowadinebuli iyo.saerTod, qarTuli aq saSualod ician, imitom romkontaqti ar aqvT qarTvelebTan. kontaqtebia aucilebeli,praqtikaa saWiro!” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).svani respondentis azriT, romelic marneulisraionis ganaTlebis sistemaSi muSaobs, “aSkaraa, romqarTuli enis Seswavlis xarisxi didad aris damokidebulikvalificiur kadrebze. amdenad es undamisioneruli saqmianobs tolfasi gaxdes, da saxelmwifopolitikac aqeTken unda warimarTos. unda moxdesmniSvnelovnad gazrda aseTi pedagogebis xelfasebisa,rom moxdes daintereseba; magaliTad, xom aris,afrikaSi an sadme ganviTarebad qveynebSi samuSaodmidian evropidan specialistebi da gacilebiT metxelfass uxdian, aqac egre unda iyos” (jalabaZe, 2008_ 2010).rogorc aRiniSna, araqarTveli eTnosis warmomadgenlebisaxelmwifo enis arcodnis gamo verabareben saqarTvelos umaRles saswavleblebSi daiZulebuli arian swavlis gasagrZeleblad mezobelqveynebSi _ azerbaijansa da somxeTSi (iSviaTadruseTSi) wavidnen. am procesis SesaCereblad daumciresobaTa integraciisaTvis saxelmwifoSi mTavrobambolo dros mniSvnelovani nabijebi gadadga.saqarTvelos axali kanoni “zogadi ganaTlebis” Sesaxeb“uzrunvelyofs saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi umciresobebisTvis,erTi mxriv, TviTmyofadobis SenarCunebissaSualebas, xolo meore mxriv xarisxian ganaTlebasmaTi socialuri inkluziisaTvis” (saqarTvelos kanoni,2005). umciresobebiT dasaxlebuli raionebis skolebSiqarTuli enis swavlebis specialuri programaSemuSavda. daigegma qarTuli enisa da literaturis,saqarTvelos istoriisa da geografiis da sxva“socialuri mecnierebebis” swavleba qarTul enaze.gamoica kanoni akreditebul universitetebSi erTianerovnul gamocdebSi qarTuli enisa da literaturisCabarebis msurvelTaTvis gamsvleli qulis dadgenisTaobaze. erovnul umciresobaTa skolebi (gardasaqarTvelos istoriisa da geografiis Sesaxeb qarTulenaze gamocemuli wignebisa) adre maragdebodaerevnidan da baqodan miRebuli saskolo wignebiT,xolo 2007 wlidan ganaTlebisa da mecnierebissaministrom araqarTuli skolebi uzrunveleyoerovnuli saswavlo gegmiT gaTvaliswinebulisagnebis umciresobaTa enebze Targmnili saxelmZRvaneloebiT,rac Zalze mniSvnelovania ganaTlebissistemis unifikaciisaTvis (uiTli, 2009).marTalia, dRes umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebadeTnikur umciresobaTa axalgazrda warmomadgenlebikvlav baqosa da erevanSi midian, magram ukve arisfaqtebi azerbaijanelebisa da somxebis saqarTveloSiarsebul umaRles saswavleblebSi Cabarebisa, mag.walkis raionis sof. yizilqilisadan 2008 welsqarTul universitetebSi abarebda 7-8 axalgazrda,somxuri sof. bolnisidan 2009 wels 2 gogona ukveTbilisis ilias universitetis studenti iyo, marneul-Sic gaizarda araqarTvel studentTa ricxvi da a.S.q o r w i n e b akulturaTaSorisi kavSirebis realizaciasa daamis safuZvelze integraciis procesebis daCqarebasmniSvnelovnad uwyobs xels Sereuli qorwinebebi.Sereuli qorwinebebis SemTxvevaSi adgili aqvskulturis elementTa difuzias, rac kulturulikomunikaciisaTvis aucilebeli pirobaa. magram is, romregionSi Tavmoyrili arian sxvadasxva religiuriaRmsareblobis warmomadgenlebi, am formiT maT Soriskulturuli komunikaciis warmatebiT ganxorcielebasarTulebs. religiuri mikuTvnilobis gamoqristiansa da muslimans Soris Sereuli qorwinebebi210 211


iSviaTia. amdenad, azerbaijaneli umTavresad arirTavs qarTvelsa da somexs, da piriqiT.aris gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi, magram isic umTavresadiseT garemoSi, sadac sxvadasxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebiSereulad cxovroben, ZiriTadad administraciulcentrebSi. somxebs, berZnebs, rusebsa daqarTvelebs Soris Sereuli qorwinebebis ricxvi,rasakvirvelia metia, da amas religiuri mrwamsiserTianoba ganapirobebs. somxuri mosaxleobis gamokiTxvamdagvanaxa, rom amgvari praqtika ufro xSiri iyosocialistur periodSi. mag., patara bolnisSi, romelicfaqtobrivad somxuri sofelia, TiTqmis ar arisojaxi, sadac qarTveli bebia an babua ar hyavdeT.axalgazrdebma kargad ician TavianTi qarTveliwinaprebis gvari, maTi samSoblo da a.S. es is Taobaa,romelTa fertiluri asakic sabWoTa periodis 30-50-ian wlebs emTxveva. am periodSi qvemo qarTlisregionSi warmatebuli sakolmeurneo da samewarmeocxovreba gansxvavebuli eTnikuri identobis mqonemosaxleobis intensiur urTierTobas ganapirobebda.Tu gaviTvaliswinebT sabWoTa periodis aTeisturideologiasac, maSin aRniSnul periodSi Sereuliqorwinebebis sixSire dRevandelTan SedarebiTamiTac unda aixsnas.azerbaijanelebSi qristianze daqorwinebisSemTxvevebi TiTze CamosaTvlelia. walkis raionSidafiqsirda mcire raodenobiT azerbaijanul _qarTuli, azerbaijanul _ berZnuli, berZnul _somxuri da somxur _ qarTuli ojaxebi. dmanisisraionSi aRvnusxeT ramdenime qarTul _ azerbaijanuliSereuli ojaxis arsebobis faqti: “CveniqarTveli qali azerbaijanels ar gayveba. azerbaijaneliTu moitacebs Tore, qarTvelebi aTasSi erTimisdevs azerbaijanels. aris Sig dmanisSi erTi ojaxi,kaci azerbaijanelia da qali qarTveli. ise amboben,rom adre qarTvelebi azerbaijanelebs ZaliandaCagruli yavdaT Turme, azerebi adre aqaur qalebsxSirad itacebdneno. axla veRar bedaven svanebisgamo. . . (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).kazreTeli axalgazrda azerbaijaneli qalisTqmiT, “azerbaijaneli qalebi ar Txovdebian qarTvelze.piriqiT ki aris SemTxvevebi, qarTveli rom azerbaijanelsgayva; somexs rom wayves Cveni qali, egeTirame me arc msmenia” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).“somexi azerbaijanels ar miyveba, Tu egeTi ramemoxda, maSin am qalze mamis ojaxi uars ityvis,saerTod dakargavs” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).gardabnis raionSi aRvnusxeT azerbaijanul _svanuri da azerbaijanul _ raWuli Sereuli ojaxebi.informatoris monayolidan naTlad Cans, Tu rogorewinaaRmdegeba Temi aseT Sereul qorwinebas: “zogazerbaijanels yavs svani qalebi colad. Cven romCamovediT aq, erTi naTesavi (biZaSvilis Svili)gagviTxovda maSin azerbaijanelze. mokveTilia Cvengan,Cveni miwa-wyali imas ar unaxia da Cveni sanaTesaoimas ar unaxia ukve iqneba 16 weli. imis bavSvebs romSexedav Turme, zedgamoWrili deduleTi _ cisfer-Tvaleba da TeTrebi. mahmadianoba ar miuRia, magasCvenTvis ra mniSvneloba aqvs?! mixvda Tavis Secdomas,magram gvian iyo. mokveTilia yvelasgan, mSoblisgan,Zmisgan, naTesavebisgan. mec ar minaxia. maSin meurneobebiiyo da es gogo im biWTan erTad muSaobda, iqgaicno. axla amdeni weli gavida da mec ukve gamiarada momibrunda guli. axla SeiZleba mindodes imbavSvebis naxva, mainc Cveni sisxli da xorcia. magisZmas veravin ver ubedavs am Temaze laparaks. amaswinaTmivedi da vuTxari, me minda is bavSvebi vnaxomeTqi.mere CemTan aRar moxvideo. sxvaTa Soris, CemirZali Cumad uzidavda raRaceebs, tansacmels, saWmelsda mere qmarma rom gaigo, kinaRam daingra ojaxi.pirvelad rom gavige es ambavi, mikroinfarqti miviRe.viweqi saavadmyofoSi, imdenad Seuracxmyofeli iyo.212 213


maSin Seikribnen Cveni kacebi da Caqolva undodaT.aZalebdnen imis Zmas. magram mere moxda ise, romgaaCeres. svani azerbaijanelis coli aq meti araa.axla kidev raWveli gogo gaTxovda azerbaijanelze.am gogos deda gardabanSi parikmaxeri iyo da isbiWic iq dadioda. xoda wayva es gogo. arc amas arelaparakeba ojaxi. arc azerbaijanelebs ar undaTqarTveli. . .~ (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).mosaxleobis gamokiTxvam dagvanaxa, rom sakvlevregionSi amgvari praqtika sakmaod mcirea, TumcaSesaZlebeli. mag., arsarvanelma azerbaijanelmamamakacma, romelsac qarTveli coli hyavda, kargadicoda qarTuli, icnobda qarTul tradiciebs, miuxedavadmuslimanuri aRmsareblobisa, dadioda eklesiaSi,anTebda sanTels, xSirad iRebda monawileobasqarTul religiur ritualebSi, mis ojaxSi miRebuliiyo qarTuli tradiciuli trapezoba da a.S. misiveTqmiT _ “azerbaijanelma SeiZleba somexi moiyvanos,ra Tqma unda, Tu Seuyvardeba qali. beSTaSenSi arisazerbaijaneli qali berZenis coli, baSkoiSi arisaWareli qali, romelic berZens gayva colad. arisaseTi SemTxvevebi, magram cota. ise, sworad gamigeT,ra mniSvneloba aqvs svania, aWareli Tu berZeni? amashqonda odesRac mniSvneloba, magram axla gaqra. araaqvs mniSvneloba ra naciisaa, mTavaria Wkua hqondesda adamiani iyos!” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). Sereulqorwinebebs Teoriulad arc somxebi ewinaaRmdegebian,Tumca maTi TqmiT, “azerbaijaneli somexs colad armohyavs. albaT, rwmenis gamo. somxebi qarTvelebsmiyvebian, azerbaijanelebs ara. Cven sofelSi gvyavsqarTveli siZeebi, romlebic TbilisSi cxovroben,Cveneburi gogoebi colad gayvnen, aq qarTveli rZaliar gvyavs. Cem biZaSvils magaliTad xevsuri qmarihyavs. qorwineba qarTvelebTan aris, berZnebTanac,gvyavs berZeni rZlebi. berZnebi aq rom iyvnen, CvendavdiodiT maTTan qorwilebSi, dakrZalvaze...”(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTvel migrantTa axalijgufebi (vgulisxmob musliman aWarlebsa da qristiansvanebs) ojaxis Seqmnisas iTvaliswineben TavianTkonfesiur mikuTvnilobas da am mxriv ar arRvevenmis sazRvrebs; aris SemTxvevebi Sereuli qorwinebebisa,romelsac orive mxare ewinaaRmdegeba. naklebadmtkivneulia erTmorwmune sxva eTnikuri jgufiswarmomadgenlebTan ojaxis Seqmna, rasac am bolodros ufro xSirad vxvdebiT. aseve gaxSirda svanebisada sxva adgilobriv arasvan qarTvelTa qorwinebebi.magaliTad, dmanisSi “svanebs mohyavT colad aqauriqarTvelebi da Cvenebic Txovdebian maTze. am bolodros svani gogoebi daTxovdnen aqeT mezobelsoflebSi, azerbaijanels da somexs svani ar miyveba”(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).Sereuli qorwinebebis simciris mizezi, pirvelrigSi eTnikuri umciresobis izolirebulad cxovrebaa;religiuri faqtori, rig SemTxvevaSi, gadamwyvetrols ar TamaSobs. Sereuli qorwinebebis simcirisgamo intereTnikuri komunikaciis es formaQsakvlevraionebSi ver CaiTvleba integraciis procesisdamaCqarebel faqtorad.r e l i g i aqvemo qarTlis religiur infrastruqturasregionis mravalkonfesiuroba ganapirobebs. 6 raionSiarsebul eTnikur jgufTa Sesabamisad warmodgeniliagansxvavebuli religiuri orientaciis jgufebi (qristianimarTlmadidebeli, mahmadiani, grigorianeli,kaTolike); SigadaSig arian sxvadasxva seqtis warmomadgenlebic.qvemo qarTlSi arsebuli eTnikurijgufebi Caketili sazogadoebisaTvis tipuri niSnebiT214 215


xasiaTdebian da, amdenad, isini religiuri niSniTacmet-naklebad Caketilni arian.sabWoTa periodSi aTeistur-komunisturi ideologiisgamoisobiT religiuri praqtika an ar iyo,an saojaxo kultebs iyo Sefarebuli. amitomkonfesiebs Soris religiur niadagze uTanxmoebasarc hqonia adgili. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgomreligiisaken mibrunebisa da religiuri cxovrebisgamococxlebis procesi Tanabrad aisaxa qvemoqarTlis regionSi mcxovreb yvela gansxvavebuleTnoreligiur sazogadoebaze _ funqcionirebadaiwyo marTlmadidebel qristianulma eklesiam,ganaxlda Zveli da aSenda axali eklesiebi, aigomeCeTebi, dRiTidRe izrdeba morwmune mrevlisraodenoba, Tavisuflad aRiniSneba religiuridResaswaulebi da a.S. savele masalis Tanaxmad,sakvlev regionSi religiur niadagze ar momxdaraarc erTi seriozuli konfliqti (Tu ar CavTvliTmcire SemTxvevebs walkis raionSi), rac imazemetyvelebs, rom ZiriTadad sxvadasxva religiurijgufebi tolerantuli arian erTmaneTis mimarT.magram, umetesad, gansxvavebuli religiuri aRmsareblobisjgufebi izolirebuli arian erTmaneTisagan,rogorc fizikurad (monoeTnikur-monokonfesiuriti pis dasaxleba) ise religiuri komunikaciisTvalsazrisiT, rac imas gulisxmobs, rom maT saerTodar aqvT Sexeba da Caketilni arian. mag., somxurisof. bolnisis mosaxleobis informaciiT, azerbaijanelebimaTgan moSorebiT cxovroben da, amdenad,maTTan urTierToba ar aqvT. arc religiur dResaswaulebzeepatiJebian maT.“azerbaijanelebs saerTod ar uyvarT, romqristianis dReobaSi mividnen. aq egrea, aq isini calkearian, TavianTTvis.” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010). walkelmarespondentebmac aRniSnes qristiansa da muslimansSoris izolaciis meti xarisxi religiuri xasiaTiskontaqtebTan dakavSirebiT regionSi. magram, aseTiurTierToba ar niSnavs imas, rom izolirebulijgufebi erTmaneTis mimarT tolerantulad ganwyobiliar arian, piriqiT, maTi izolacia niSnavs maTiinteresebis ar Sexebas, rac bunebrivia, dapirispirebasgamoricxavs. amis paralelurad, religiuri tolerantobisSedarebiT maRali xarisxi aRiniSneba gansakuTrebiTim mosaxleobaSi, romelic tradiciuladerTmaneTis mezoblad an Sereulad cxovrobda.Tumca amave ti pis mosaxleobaSi dapirispirebisperspeqtivac metia. igive tendencia SeiniSnebamigrantebTan erTad mcxovreb SedarebiT axalSereul dasaxlebebSi. mag., marneulis sof. sionSi:“Cven, qarTvelebsa da somxebs erTi eklesia gvaqvsyvela iq davdivarT. wminda giorgi da wminda mariami.erTad mivdivarT. 23 noembers giorgobaa, 28 agvistos_mariamoba. TaTrebic modian axkulidan. es eklesiaaqarTuli. qarTul eklesias kari aqvs aRmosavleTisaken,somxurs dasavleTisaken, ai es aris gansxvaveba.sasaflaozea mariami. es giorgi somxuria. sub-gevorgi.mix. javaxiSvilis deda da da mariamis eklesiaSiadasaflavebuli. mRvdeli moyavT marneulidan, Cveniara gvyavs. svanebi da somxebi mivdi-movdivarT....azerebi modian, roca dReobaa, erTaTa varT” (jalabaZe,2008 _ 2010).sof. bolnisis (yof. xaCini) somexi mosaxleobagrigorianelia, magram isini marTlmadidebel qarTvelebTanerTad dadian bolnisis sionSi: “koleqtiuradmivdivarT, soflis mosaxleoba TiTqmis sulmand dadis” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).xSiria SemTxvevebi, rodesac sxvadasxva eTnokonfesiurijgufebi ar gamoricxaven TavianT tradiciulreligiur RonisZiebebSi erTmaneTis mi pati-Jebas da Tavad monawileobis miRebas. mag. TeTriwyarossof. samRereTis azerbaijaneli mkvidrisTqmiT, “aq aris salocavebi, amboben, rom somxuriao.216 217


aq wminda giorgia, iq adian maRla. Cvenc avdivarTaWarlebTan erTad eklesiaSi. mere ra, rom musulmanebivarT? RmerTi erTia! yvelani erTad varT iq.cxvarsac vklavT. sanTelsac, ra Tqma unda vanTebT,aq yvela azerbaijaneli modis, somxebic. vis rodisunda, cxvars maSin daklavs... qristianebTan erTadrom movxvdiT, ukve namazs aRar vatarebT xuTjer.ufrosebi albaT akeTeben. 16 Tebervals sasaflaosdRe gvaqvs, kvercxs vRebavT wiTlad, SixiloSimivdivarT, azerbaijanelebs aq ar gvaqvs sasaflao”(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).beSTaSenSi Camosaxlebuli xuloeli aWarelimamakacis monayoliT: “seqtemberSi aWaraSi rom viciTialaRebze gasvla, SuamToba, aqac avdivarT mTaze daiq vdResaswaulobT. iq vmarTavT sufrebs da drosvatarebT, Cven iq qristiansac veZaxiT, qarTvelebs,berZnebs, somxebs. vpatiJebT” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).integraciis magaliTad SeiZleba CaiTvalosaWarlebis gaqristianeba walkaSi, rasac sakmaodintensiuri xasiaTi aqvs, Tumca soflebSi mcxovrebaWarlebSi es procesi TiTqmis ar mimdinareobs.“aWarlebis nawili albaT iyo qristiani aq romCamovida, magram ZiriTadad aq inaTlebian, aris iseTiojaxebi, sadac musulmanic aris ojaxis wevri daqristianic. rodesac aWareli qristiandeba, ZiriTadadwinaaRmdegoba ufrosebisagan xvdebaT, aris magaliTad,erTi bavSvi, romelic Cumad moinaTla da Cumad dadis.garda imisa, rom pirad urTierTobebs am SemTxvevaSididi mniSvneloba aqvs, atmosferosac aqvs gavlena.aq bevrma aWarelma miiRo qristianoba da erTmaneTsrom uyureben, esec moqmedebs. maT Sinagani damokidebulebauCndebaT iseTi, rom qristianebad undaTrom moinaTlon. maT rom eZaxo, moinaTle, moinaTleo,Tu TviTon ar mividnen iqamde, azri ar aqvs. rocaemegobrebi, SenSi bevr dadebiTs xedavs. is mere amiTgicxadebs solidarobas, rom Sen sarwmunoebas iRebs:mec Seniani var! iyo SemTxveva, rom azerbaijaneligaqristianda, is qali CemTan muSaobda. TviTongamoTqva survili. saerTod, es piradi urTierTobebidanmomdinarobs. magaliTad, sofelia erTi _somxebi cxovroben, CivTqilisa, iqedan or gogonassasuliero akademiaSi Cavabarebine, patriarqs vTxoveda axla iq arian. es yvelaferi piradi urTierTobebidanmodis” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).walkis raionSi daugegmavi migraciis fonzezogierTma migrantma TviTneburad daikava berZenTamitovebuli saxlebi. rogorc informatorebi amboben:iyo dayaCaRebis SemTxvevebi, gaqurdes berZenTa binebi,Seuracxyofa miayenes siwmindeebs, rasakvirvelia,aseTma SemTxvevebma gamoiwvia dapirispireba berZnebsada aWarlebs Soris, rasac Zalauneburad religiuri(qristianisa da “TaTris”) konteqsti edo.“adamiani iseTi suleli rogor unda iyos, romeklesias Seexos? eg avraloSi iyo, rom aWarlebmadaarbies eklesia. gumbaTSi iyo berZnebis eklesia,Zalian lamazi, iq erTi berZeni qali iyo, albaTuvlida. iq Sevardnen aWarlebi, amaze magrad iCxubes.mere es qali wavida somxebTan da uTxra, ai, ra qneso!aSxalaSi iseTi somxebi cxovroben, Tu eklesiasSeexebi _ mogklaven! warmoidgine, TqvenTan vinme romSemovides da gaanadguros xatebi! daiWires esaWarlebi am somxebma, miabes eklesiis karze, magrascemes da uTxres, mamaliviT iyivleo. mere policiaCaeria” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).miuxedavad imisa, rom dRes walkaSi gacilebiTnormaluria damokidebuleba sxvadasxva religiurjgufebs Soris, vidre ramdenime wlis win, maincarsebobs uaryofiTi ganwyoba qristiani berZnebisamuslimani aWarlebis mimarT. beSTaSeneli qalbatonisTqmiT, “me aWarlebs veubnebi, me Tqven pativs gcemT,imitom rom qarTulad laparakobT, magram rwmenaratom SeicvaleT, musulmanebi ratom gaxdiT-meTqi?218 219


adgan saqarTvelosTan xarT, TurqeTTan saerTo arunda gqondeT-meTqi. imaT ki _ roca TurqeTi Tavsdagvesxmeba, Tqven dagxocaven da Cven arao? aaa, naxera damplebi arian? maSin Cven saqarTveloSi ratomRacxovroben? wadi raa da TurqeTSi icxovre!” (jalabaZe,2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlSi patara yofiTi problema sxvadasxvareligiuri aRmsareblobis jgufebs SorisTavdapirvlad religiur Seferilobas iRebda, ramacmaSin Camoyalibebuli stereoti pis safuZvelze amjgufebs Soris daZabulobis muxtis moxsna gaaZnela.amitomac aris, rom berZnebi kategoriuli winaaRmdegiarian, TavianTi saxlebi aWarlebs mihyidon: “axlamTeli axalgazrdoba saberZneTSia wasuli. davrCiTmarto bebrebi. mec wasvla minda, magram sabuTebsver vakeTeb. am saxls gavyidi da mere waval. dananebiTar damenaneba, aba aq aravin myavs da marto var. magramsaxls aWarels ar mivyidi, aq arc aravin ar miyidisaWarels saxls. ai svans, ki, is mainc qristiania daaWarlebiviT egeni ar iqcevian~ (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).kide erTi sakiTxi, rac religiur niadagzejgufebs Soris daZabulobis warmoqmnis perspeqtivasqmnida, ukanasknel periodSi qvemo qarTlSi qristianulijvrebis aRmarTvis faqtia. 2009 wlis TebervalSiazerbaijanul internetwyaroebSi daibeWdainformacia qvemo qarTlis muslimani mosaxleobisdasaxlebis adgilebSi qristianuli jvrebis aRmarTvisTaobaze. adgilobrivi muslimani mosaxleoba gamoTqvamdaukmayofilebas bolnisis raionis sofelqoCulusa da kapanaxCis teritoriaze 7-10 metrissimaRlis jvrebis aRmarTvis gamo. mosaxleobam amaqciis Sewyvetis mizniT mimarTa sapatriarqos da,marTlac, es procesi SeCerda. azerbaijanelebis TqmiT,maTi mizani iyo ar daeSvaT qristianuli jvrebisaRmarTva azerbaijanelebiT dasaxlebul raionebSi.sagazeTo statiaSi vkiTxulobT: “Cven movaxerxeTprocesis SeCereba. rac Seexeba ukve aRmarTul jvrebs,isini kvlav adgilzea. azerbaijanel xalxs uTxres,rom aseTi qmedeba aRar gagrZeldeboda... TbilisismeCeTis axundis ali alievis azriT, ~jvrebisaRmarTva muslimur soflebSi iyo Secdoma da imedimaqvs, rom msgavsi ram aRar ganmeordeba~. saqarTvelosazerbaijaneli xalxis moZraoba “geiraTis” Tavmjdomaremalibala askerovma ganacxada: ~azerbaijanelebsada qarTvelebs Soris arasdros yofilareligiuri dapirispireba da ar gvinda is warmoiqmnas.Cveni survilia, rom adgilobrivma organizaciebmagadaWran jvrebis demontaJis sakiTxi. Tu ara daiqauri xalxi gadawyvets am problemas.” (http://en.trend.az/news/politics; http://avciya.az/eng/news/intheworld).am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT azerbaijanul mosaxleobasCven jgufTan ar usaubria. magram gasaTvaliswinebeliais, rom am regionSi religiuri xasiaTismosaxleobis survilis sawinaaRmdego nebismieriqmedeba SesaZloa gamoyenebuli iqnes antisaxelmwifoebriviZalebis mier qveyanaSi destruqciuliprocesebis inspirirebisaTvis.da bolos, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qvemo qarTlisregionSi erTmaneTis mimarT loialurni arian erTireligiuri aRmsareblobis jgufebi _ erTi mxriv,qristiani qarTvelebi, berZnebi da somxebi, da meoresmxriv, azerbaijanelebi da aWareli muslimanebi.miuxedavad imisa, rom eTnikur jgufebs religiuriTvalsazrisiT meti distancia aqvT erTmaneTTan, qvemoqarTlSi mainc dasturdeba sxvadasxva konfesiebiswarmomadgenelTa monawileoba erTmaneTis religiurdResaswaulebSi, rac am gziT meore kulturisgacnobasa da im konteqstebSi CarTvas gulisxmobs.es ki integraciis strategiisTvis metad mniSvnelovanifaqtoria.220 221


interpersonaluri urTierTobebipirovnebaTaSorisi komunikacia garemomcvelsamyarosTan adamianis mravalferovani kontaqtebisada individTa mier erTmaneTis emociurad aRqmisunaris Sedegad yalibdeba. is gulisxmobs ramdenimeadamianis uSualo urTierTobas, romlebic sivrcobrivaderTmaneTTan axlos imyofebian da SeuZliaTukukavSiris ganxorcieleba. es kavSiri yovelTvispirovnulad orientirebulia, vinaidan misi yovelimonawile aRiarebs Tavisi partnioris gamorCeulobas,mxedvelobaSi iRebs mis emociur mdgomareobas,pirovnul maxasiaTeblebs da, Tavis mxriv, imedovnebs,rom mis mimarTac igive damokidebuleba eqnebaT.komunikaciis es forma mTavar rols asrulebsadamianis socializaciaSi (Садохин 2005: 91).interpersonaluri urTierTobebi adamianebsSoris subieqturad gancdili urTierTkavSirebia, esaris ganwyobaTa, orientaciaTa, molodinTa, stereotipTada sxva dispoziciaTa sistema, romlis saSualebiTacadamianebi aRiqvamen da afaseben erTmaneTs.am dispoziciebze gavlenas axdens adamianTa erTadmoRvaweobis Sinaarsi, miznebi da Rirebulebebi.socialuri SeRwevadobis Teoriis (Altman & Taylor,1973) Tanaxmad, romelic interpersonaluri erTierToebebisdinamikis Seswavlas iTvaliswinebs, individebierTmaneTTan urTierTobis procesSi, TavianT Sesaxebzogadad ufro met informacias warmoaCenen, xolorac ufro xangrZlivia es urTierToba, miT ufrometi intimuri aspeqtebis warmoCenaa mosalodneli.individebi, ase vTqvaT, aRweven erTmaneTis samyaroSida ufro mets igeben erTmaneTis Sesaxeb. urTier-Tobis dros Tu monawileebi mixvdebian, rom maTuRirT potenciuri urTierToba, maSin, mas SemdgomiganviTareba uweria.interpersonal urTierTobebSi gadamwyvetiakomunikantebs Soris siaxlove da garemo. interpersonaluriurTierToba SeiZleba Camoyalibdessxvadasxva garemoSi _ ojaxSi, samsaxurSi, sanaTesaoSi,samezobloSi, rac socialuri SeRwevadobis gansxvavebuldoneebs moiTxovs. sainteresoa, ra rolsTamaSobs aseTi kavSirebi interkulturuli komunikaciisdros da gansxvavebul kulturul jgufTaintegraciis strategiaSi?pirovnebaTaSorisi komunikacia multieTnikurgaremoSi, romelic SesaZlebelia efeqturic iyosda araefeqturic, mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdensinterkulturuli urTierTobebis xasiaTze. nebismieriaseTi urTierToba, misi efeqturobis Tu araefeqturobismixedviT, iwvevs dadebiTi an uaryofiTiganwyobis Camoyalibebas, rac Sesabamisad konkretulistereoti pebis formirebas udevs safuZvlad. interpirovnuliurTierTobisas Camoyalibebuli stereotipebiSemdgomSi ganapirobebs urTierTobis xasiaTsim jgufebs Soris, romlis warmomadgenlebickomunikantebi arian. qvemo qarTlis multieTnikursazogadoebaSi sxvadasxva xarisxis interpirovnuliurTierTobebi ZiriTadad SesaZlebelia Camoyalibdesojaxis farglebSi, mezoblebTan, swavlis procesSi,samsaxurSi.ojaxSi interpirovnuli urTierTobis Sedegad,rodesac wyvili sxvadasxva eTnikuri kulturiswarmomadgenelia (Sereuli qorwinebis SemTxvevaSi),kulturis elementTa difuzias aqvs adgili; amSemTxvevaSi orive mxare ukeT ecnoba erTmaneTisyofiT da religiur tradiciebs, swavlobs erTmaneTisenas, Rirebulebebs, qcevis normebs da. a. S. es exebamaT Svilebsac, romlebic bilingvebi da orivekulturis matareblebi xdebian. amave dros aseTiurTierToba ganapirobebs, ara marto, uSualod col-222 223


qmris, aramed, orives mxridan sanaTesaos SoriskavSirebsac. maTi gadakveTa xdeba saojaxo Tavyrilobebisdros (qorwili, naTloba, religiuri dResaswauli,dabadebis dRe, panaSvidi, dakrZalva), sadacsxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebi ukvenaTesavisa Tu moyvris statusiT urTierTobenerTmaneTTan. aqve aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom qvemoqarTlSi sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebs,marTalia arc Tu xSirad, magram maincnaTliebad mihyavT erTmaneTi. am formiT damoyvrebaaRiniSneba ZiriTadad erTi rwmenis mqone sxvadasxvaeTnosebs, iSviaTad qristiansa da musulmans Soris.somexi informantis TqmiT: “svanebi somxebidan Sorscxovroben. magram megobroben, erTmaneTs SvilebsunaTlaven, Tu damegobrdebian im SemTxvevaSi”(jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).dmanisis sof. azkaklianis mcxovrebi azerbaijaneliqalbatonis TqmiT: “aris SemTxvevebi, romazerbaijanelebsa da qarTvelebs naTliebad mihyavTerTmaneTi. qarTvels imitom anaTlineben, rom axloblobaundaT imasTan hqondeT. iyo erTi magaliTadCven sofelSi da qarTvelma monaTla. Tu musulmaniaraa, imas naTlobis dros etyvian ra da rogor undagaakeTos da aswavlian. iseve asrulebs, rogorc Cveniwesia” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).gardabneli svani respondentis informaciiT:“naTliebad miyavT qarTvelebi azerbaijanelebs.magaliTad Cveni svani gabiani waiyvanes naTliad.aseT dros moZRvari aZlevs kurTxevas, Tu sTxovennaTliobas. moanaTvlines biWi TavianTi wes-CveulebiT.azerbaijanelebisaTvis naTlia aris yvelaze didinaTesavi biZaSvilze, mamidaSvilze ufro meti.qristians imitom moanaTlines, rom im adamianTanundodaT axlobloba. es Cveni biWi uyvardaT Zalian.Tan dafaseba ician iciT ra doneze? Cven mziTevi arviciT iseTi, rogorc magaT naTliasTan mosakiTximoaqvT, noxebi, saukeTeso WurWeli, servizebi, datvir-Tulebi modian. Zalian xSiri araa aseTi SemTxvevebi,magram aris” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).samezoblo urTierTobas did datvirTva aqvsintegraciis procesebSi. qvemo qarTlSi SesaZlebeliagamovyoT amgvari urTierTobis ori ti pi - erTi,Sereuli dasaxlebis SemTxvevaSi, anu sxvadasxva eTnokulturiswarmomadgenlebs Soris uSualo mezoblobada meore, sxvadasxva eTnosebis mezobeli soflebismosaxleobas Soris. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, rasakvirveliainterpersonaluri urTierTobani ufrointensiur xasiaTs atarebs. urTierToba gansakuTrebiTefeqturia erTi konfesiis warmomadgenlebsSoris. marneulis raionis somxur-qarTuli sof.samebis mkvidris TqmiT: “qarTveli-somexi sulnaTesavebi varT. erTmaneTSi vqorwindebiT. am sofelSisvanebic arian, iqneba ase 20 komli. es dasaxlebaaqvea, soflis SemosasvlelSi. egeni 20 weliwadi aqarian. ro movidnen raRac gareuli xalxi iyo. axlaukve urTierToba gvaqvs. zogierT naTesavebs egenisjobia” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).gardabnis sof. lemSvanieraSi mcxovrebi svanirespondentis informaciiT: “Cemi Zma cxovrobsazerbaijanelebTan, Sig SuagulSi da saukeTesourTierToba aqvs. Tu azerbaijanelma dainaxa SenierTguleba da mixvda, rom magaT pativs scem, Tangadagyveba absoluturad yvelanairad. somxebisganmagiT Zalian gansxvdebian” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).“egeni Tu dagimegobrdebian, Zalian pativs gcemen.qorwilSi modian, wamoiReben 500 laramde fuls dagadadian SabaSze~ (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).samezoblo urTierTobis pozitiuri gamocdilebadadebiTad moqmedebs jgufTaSoris SemdgomurTierTobebze. miuxedavad aWarlebsa da somxebsSoris momxdari incidentisa, romelzedac zemoT224 225


gvqonda saubari, dRes is uaryofiTi ganwyobebi aseTu ise gadalaxulia:“TiqilisaSi aWarlebi cxovroben. imaT bevrisaTibebi aqvT. Cven (sof. daraqoi.) Tivas imaTganvyidulobT. magaTTan Zalian kargi urTierTobagvaqvs. vaxloblobT. riTac SegviZlia vexmarebiT,mag. teqnikiT, isini muSaxeliT gvexmarebian. .. aWarlebimodian CvenTan qorwilebSi da dasaflavebaze. fuliTgvexmarebian, Tu imaT eyolebaT micvalebuli CvencmivalT da mivitanT fuls”. aseTi urTierTobadmanisSic aRiniSneba: “TaTrebTanac gvaqvs urTierTobaaxla. vinc kargad icnobs erTmaneTs imaT misvlamosvlaaqvT, Zmakacoben, patiJoben erTmaneTs, ojaxebiTmidian” (jalabaZe, 2008 _ 2010).rogorc zemoT iTqva, izolirebul dasaxlebebSisaSualo skolebSi swavleba eTnikur umciresobaTamSobliur enaze mimdinareobs, xolo qarTuli enasavaldebulo meore enis statusiT iswavleba.moswavleTa kontingenti umTavresad erTi eTnosiswarmomadgenlebia, amitom aseTi ti pis dasaxlebebSiskolis farglebSi eTnosTaSorisi interpersonaluriurTierTobebis Camoyalibeba ar mimdinareobs.samagierod, Sereul dasaxlebebSi skolebi qarTuliada am gziT realizebuli urTierTobebi gacilebiTmetia.kazreTeli azerbaijaneli respondentis informaciiT:“Cven dros qarTuli cotam icoda da cudad.axla dadga qarTulis codnis saWiroeba, axla sxvadroa da Cvenma Svilebma ukeT ician ena. me rusuliskola davamTavre, magram iq sxva naciis warmomadgenlebiciyvnen. erTad swavlobdnen qarTvelebi,rusebi, berZnebi, somxebi. yvelasTan vmegobrobdi, ganamarto azerbaijanelebTan? stumrad davdiodiTerTmaneTTan, qorwilebSi... aq erTaneTTan yvelas kargiurTierToba gvaqvs. gamorCeulad aravisTan. ara aqvsmniSvneloba qarTvelia Tu somexi, yvelasTan norma-lurad varT. stumrad es patara dasaxlebaa da aqyvela erTmaneTs icnobs. sxvagan mimdinare politikurdapirispirebas, magaliTad yarabaxis ambebs, aqaurebisurTierTobaze gavlena ar mouxdenia. axla yvelanaciis bavSvebi vinc kazreTSi cxovrobs qarTulskolaSia. qarTuli ise ecodinebaT, rom aq gaagrZelebenswavlas da sxvagan aRar mouwevT wasvla”(jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).SedarebiT mcirea interpersonaluri urTier-Tobebi sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis warmomadgenlebsSoris umaRles saswavleblebSi, rac regionSiam ti pis saswavleblebis simciriTac aris ganpirobebuli.umaRlesi saswavleblebi yvela raionSi araris, mxolod marneulis raionSia 4 da gardabnisraionSi 1 umaRlesi saswavlebeli. danarCen raionebSimxolod saSualo profesiuli saswavleblebia. aserom, qvemo qarTlSi interpersonaluri urTierTobisCamoyalibebis perspeqtiva am mxriv jer-jerobiT, didiar aris. iq sadac eTnikuri umciresobis warmomadgenlebida qarTvelebi erTad swavloben, rasakvirveliametia maTi daaxloebis da maT Soris momavaliurTierTobis pozitiuri dinamikis albaToba.dmaniseli svani gogona mogviTxrobs: “me myavsbevri azerbaijaneli megobari. aqauri azerbaijanelebiarian. azerbaijanuli ar vici, cota mesmisraRac. samedicino koleji aq, dmanisSi davamTavre,praqtikaze viyavi saavadmyofoSi da iq gavicani. mesamedicino davamTavre da aqaur eqimebTan gavdiodipraqtikas. axla ar vmuSaob. azerbaijanelebi Caizeda TaTrul xinkalze gvepatiJebian xolme. azerbaijanelaxalgazrdebs undaT Cven mogvbaZon, magramufrosebi nebas ar aZleven. magaliTad, restoranSirom SevdiodiT, ar modiodnen, sircxvilia restoranSiSesvlao. azerbaijanelma axalgazrdebma ufro icianqarTuli, qarTvelebTan rom aqvT urTierToba iqedan”(jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).226 227


interpersonaluri urTierTobisaTvis ZalianmniSvnelovania TanamSomlobis faqtori, rac sakvlevregionSi Znelad realizebadia. postsabWoTa saqarTvelosmoSlili ekonomikis da saerTo ekonomikurikrizisis fonze umuSevroba sayovelTao movlenadiqca mTel saqarTveloSi da maT Soris qvemo qarTlisregionSic. aq saxelmwifo samsaxurebi (garda,administraciuli, ganaTlebisa da medicinis sistemaSiSemavali) daiSala da faqtobrivad aRar arsebobs,aris kerZo organizaciebi, isic raionul centrebSi,sadac ZiriTadad dasaqmebuli arian im eTnikurijgufis warmomadgenlebi, romelsac organizaciisxelmZRvaneli miekuTvneba. azerbaijaneli isevazerbaijanelebs qiraobs samsaxurSi, qarTveliqarTvels da ase Semdeg. administraciul samsaxurebSiinterpersonaluri urTierTobis damyarebaimdenad aris SesaZlebeli, ramdenadac mosamsaxureebiaq sxvadasxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebi arian, magrames mainc mcire kontingentia: “vinc ki axla samsaxurismuSakia, sajaro samsaxurSia, gardabanSi, iseTiurTierToba gvaqvs, rom ar vici, pirdapir! namdviladmegobruli da Zalian kargi urTierToba gvaqvs. 6gamgebeli gvyavs azerbaijaneli, qarTuli ar iciankargad. sul veubnebi, iswavleT qarTuli da ilaparakeTqarTulad-meTqi. arc aprotesteben. erTmaneTSimisvla-mosvla gvaqvs, vpatiJebT da gvpatiJeben. WirSic,lxinSic gverdSi vudgavarT” (jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).TanamSromlobis safuZvelze interpirovnuliurTierTobis ganxorcielebis kargi safuZvelisabWoTa kavSiris periodSi moqmedi da dRes privatizebuliarc Tu bevri sawarmoa (rusTavi, kazreTi,koda), sadac muSaxelad sxvadasxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebiarian: “sxvadasxva naciis xalxi winaTxvdebodnen erTmaneTs, axla aRar aris pirobebi.navTobsadenisa da gazsadenis mSeneblobaze ro iyvnenadre maSin erTad muSaobdnen. magram ufro metimaSinac qarTvelebi iyvnen. maSin kargad viyaviTerTmaneTSi, vZmakacobdiT da rom gaTavda samuSaoes urTierToba aRar gvaqvs. azerbaijanelebi dasvanebi ufro kacebi icnoben erTmaneTs, saqmeSi rocaerTad arian. axla, kazreTSi muSaobs nawilobrivsawarmo, da iq arian erTad, manamdeli muSebi. sabWoTaperiodSi vinc muSaobda is azerbaijanelebi darCnensacxovreblad kazreTSi da ojaxebiT damkvidrdneniq” (jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).Tumca aseTi kavSirebis aucilebloba gacnobierebuliaqvs eTnikuri umciresobis did nawils. sof.patara bolnisis mkvidrebTan Sexvedrisas sworedam Temaze gaamaxviles adgilobrivebma yuradReba:“Cveni daaxlovebisaTvis, marto enis skolaSi swavlaaraa sakmarisi, ufro aucilebelia axalgazrdebspiradi kontaqtebi hqondeT. winaT xom iyo bavSvTabanakebi, raRac programebi da aseTi rameebi, es ufroSedegiani iqneba. aucilebelia aseT kontaqtebs xeliSevuwyoT. umaRles saswavleblebSi araqarTvelbavSvebs adgilebi unda gamovuyoT, rogorc es winaTiyo. iq Tan erTad iswavlian, Tan qarTul sazogadoebaSiRrmad Caixedaven. saWiroa ufro adamianurikontaqtebi axalgazrdebs Soris, kulturuli Ronis-Ziebebis mowyoba” (jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).udavoa, rom sakvlev regionSi piradi kontaqtebisnakleboba aferxebs interkulturul komunikaciasda Sesabamisad anelebs integraciis tempebs.kulturuli kodebis gadarTvakulturuli kodebi garkveuli kulturis ansubkulturis matarebelTa mier aRiarebuli mniSvnelobissimboloebi da sistemebia, romelic gamoiyenebajgufis SigniT kavSirebis gasaioleblad da aseveucxo jgufebisTvis konkretuli mniSvnelobisdasafaravad. kulturuli kodebi uSualo kavSirSia228 229


qcevis tradiciul normebTan. kulturuli kodebisgadarTva, an kros-kulturuli koduri gadarTvalingvo-kulturuli konceptia (Heller, 1988) da gulisxmobssxvadasxva enebze mosaubreTa enobrivi kodebisgacvlas, ramdenime enis niSanTa erTdroul xmarebasverbaluri komunikaciis dros. lingvisturi kodurigadarTva erTi enobrivi formis meore enidan aRebuliformiT CanacvlebaSi gamoixateba, es aris metyvelebisdros mosaubreTa mier erTi enidan (dialeqtidan,stilidan) meore enaze gadasvla komunikaciis pirobebisSesabamisad.koncepti “kros-kulturuli koduri gadarTva”amave dros gamoiyeneba socialur fsiqologiaSiqcevis kulturulad damkvidrebuli sistemebis erTikulturidan meoreSi gadanacvlebis aRsaniSnavad(Myers-Scotton, 1993). am process adgili aqvs ucxokulturul garemosTan adaptaciis SemTxvevaSi.aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa organizaciuliqcevis specialistis endriu molinskis gamokvleva„kros-kulturul kodur gadarTva: ucxokulturasTan urTierTobisas adapturi qcevis fsiqologiuriproblemebi” (Andrew Molinsky, 2007). molinskimSeimuSava kros-kulturul kodur gadarTvis praqtikaSigamoyenebis meTodi. es aris koduri gadarTvisswavleba ucxo kulturis warmomadgeneli studentebisaTvis,raTa maT iolad moaxdinon masTan adaptaciaaxali kulturisaTvis ti puri qcevebis aTvisebiT.igi am meTods ucxoel studentebTan iyenebs, raTa maTucxo kulturaSi (konkretul SemTxvevaSi amerikisSeerTebul StatebSi) damkvidrebuli qcevebi ioladaiTvison da gansxvavebul normebs moergon. mkvlevarivaraudobs, rom qcevebis gadarTvis SeswavliT, isiniSeZleben warmatebiT Seeguon sxva qveynis RirebulebiTsistemebs da, amave dros, TavianTi RirebulebaTasistemis erTgulni darCnen.es idea saintereso aRmoCnda qvemo qarTlSiakulturaciis procesebTan mimarTebaSi, rogorcintegraciis strategiis Teoriuli da praqtikulisafuZvlis Seqmnis samomavlo programis SemuSavebis,ise ukve arsebuli viTarebis Seswavlis saqmeSi.konkretul SemTxvevaSi kros-kulturul kodurgadarTvas odnav gansxvavebul konteqstSi ganvixilav.Sevecdebi warmovaCino, rogorc qcevis kulturuli,aseve materialuri kulturuli kodebis gadanacvlebasakvlev regionSi. marTalia, es meore sakiTxisocialur anTropologiaSi diskursis obieqti aryofila, magram TviT fenomenis arsi, Cemi azriT, mismaterialur kulturasTan mimarTebiT xmarebasdasaSvebs xdis. qvemo qarTlis multieTnikurisazogadoeba, sadac gansxvavebuli kulturis warmomadgenlebsSoris met-naklebi intensivobis komunikaciamimdinareobs, bunebrivad svams dRis wesrigSikros-kulturul kodTa gadarTvis aucileblobas.velze samuSaom naTeli gaxada, rom kroskulturulkodTa gadanacvlebas namdvilad aqvsadgili materialuri kulturis sferoSi. amissaukeTeso magaliTi muslimanuri sasaflaoa, raczogadad, qristianulisagan gansxvavebuli dizainiTgamoirCeva. qvemo qarTlis yvela regionSi TvalSisacemiamusulmanTa saflavebis axali iersaxe.tradiciuli musulmanuri saflavisTvis damaxasia-Tebeli sisadave da mkacri dizaini, romelic gamoricxavsgamosaxulebebis fotoebis, yvavilebis da sxvaraime Sesamkobelis arsebobas, bolo periodis saflavebzeaRar SeiniSneba. Soridan danaxvisas, erTiSexedviT, SeiZleba verc gaarCio visia sasaflao,azerbaijanelebis Tu sxva romelime qristianulijgufis. es exeba azerbaijanelTa axal sasaflaoebsda Zvel sasaflaoze arsebul bolo periodissaflavebs. aq naxavT SedarebiT Zvirfasi qvisagangamoTlil saflavis qvebs micvalebulTa suraTebiTa230 231


da warwerebiT, xandaxan Robeebs saflavebis garSemo,rac aSkarad qarTuli kulturis kvals atarebs.pasuxi, Cem SekiTxvaze, Tu ratom Seicvala saflavebisieri da ratom aRar atarebs is tradiciul saxes,erTi nawilisa aseTi iyo: “axla aseT saflavebsakeTeben”. meore nawilis azriT ki: “marTalia, eseTisaflavebi ar aris miRebuli musulmanebSi, magram,Cven rom saqarTveloSi vcxovrobT, imaTi gavleniTaris. Cven erTmaneTis gverdze xom vcxovrobT, daCvenc Tqvengan da Tqvenc Cvengan raRac-raRaceebigadaviReT” (jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).am SemTxvevaSi swored kulturuli kodisgadarTvasTan gvaqvs saqme. wlebis manZilze arsebulmasamezoblo urTierTobebma Sedegad kulturiselementTa Zalauneburi gadanacvleba moitana. saerTod,kulturuli kodebis gadarTvis procesi ZiriTadaderTi mimarTulebiT xdeba, anu, individi manipulirebsim kulturis kodebiT, romelTanac is adaptirdeba(mag., molinskis mixedviT, Cineli da indoeli studentebiCaanacvleben TavianTi qcevis kodebs amerikuliT,raTa gaiiolon TavianTi integracia ucxo sociumTan).Cven SemTxvevaSi, azerbaijaneli iyenebs qarTulkulturul kods Tavisi kulturis sistemaSi da arapiriqiT. mcire eTnosis warmomadgeneli gadaerTvebadominanti eTnosis kulturis maxasiaTebel niSnebze.praqtikulad, es aris erTi kulturis meore kulturasTanintegraciis strategiis Sedegi.aseTive movlenad unda CaiTvalos, tradiciulimuslimanuri wesebis _ alkoholuri sasmelebisgamoyenebis da Roris xorcis Wamis akrZalvis ugulvebelyofa:“azerbaijanelebi musulmanur wesebsmainc arRveven. Cvenze metsa svamen. Roris xorcsWamen. wesebs ufro ufrosi Taoba icavs”“CvenTan dasaflavebis dros Rvino ar ician,marto Cai, qorwilebze ki sasmelsac vsvamT. RvinosCven TviTon vayenebT xolme”. “aq zogi azerbaijanelisvams Rvinos, zogi ara. zogi Wams Roris xorcs dazogi ara. vinc rogorc Tvlis ise iqceva. Cemi siZeda da, magaliTad, Roris xorcs Wamen, me ara. saerodqalebi metad icaven tradiciebs” (jalabaZe 2008 _2010).arsarvanelma azerbaijanelma, Suaxnis mamakacma,ganacxada: “aq azerbaijanelebi vsvamT sasmels, imitomvsvamT, rom saqarTveloSi vcxovrobT!”, Semdeg kileqsic moayola rusulad:`Как родился я на свет,Дал вино мне старый дед,И с тех пор, как я живу,Я вино как воду пью”.amave soflis mamakacTa TqmiT, isini meCeTSiswored am mizezis gamo ar dadian. 2008 wels Cvenijgufis iq yofnis periodSi meCeTSi salocavad mxolodaWarlebi iyvnen misuli. saqme isaa, rom Roris xorcsazerbaijanelebi (vinc Wams) sakuTar ojaxSi armiirTmeven. isini Rors ojaxis gareT Wamen, magaliTadqarTvelebTan (saubaria qristianebze), sufraze, rodesacstumrad arian. aqac kulturuli kodis gadarTvasTangvaqvs saqme, vinaidan azerbaijaneli muslimani xdebaiseTi kodis matarebeli, rac mis kulturaSi ar zis,anu misi kodi sxva kulturis kodze gadaerTveba.kulturul kodTa gadanacvleba kvebis sistemaSicxdeba, rodesac gansxvavebuli kulturulijgufebi erTmaneTis tradiciuli kerZebis damzadebasswavloben da Semdeg TavianT meniuSi SeaqvT.axalgazrda kazreTeli azebaijaneli qalis TqmiT:“sufraze Cven qarTul saWmelebsac vakeTebT xolme.qorwilis sufraze Rvinos vdgamT. vekiTxebiT xolme,amas rogor akeTebTo. xandaxan isinic gvekiTxebianxolme es TqvenTan rogor ariso? da Cvenc vaswavliT.albaT qarTvelebmac aiRes raRaca Cvengan. sufrebzeqarTvelebsac vepatiJebiT da qarTul saWmelebsvakeTebT”. marneuleli svanebis TqmiT, “azerbaija-232 233


nelebs Zalian moswonT svanuri saWmelebi da sulainteresebT ra rogor keTdeba, gansakuTrebiTkubdari, sunelebiTac interesdebian. iswavles CvenganraRac-raRaceebi. restoranSic ro Sedian iqac svanursaWmelebs ukveTaven” (jalabaZe 2008 _ 2010).naTelia, rom qvemo qarTlSi mimdinare akulturaciisprocesma Zalauneburad win wamoswia kulturulkodTa gadarTvis sakiTxi. es movlena ori anmeti gansxvavebuli kulturis urTierTobis fonzemimdinareobs. magram mniSvnelovania is faqti, romkros-kulturuli koduri gadarTva ZiriTadadumciresobebaTa da dominant kulturebs Soris xdebadominantur kulturasTan integraciis tendenciiT.d a s k v n asamoqalaqo integraciis xasiaTs qvemo qarTlSiregionis multieTnikuri struqtura ganapirobebs.aq arsebuli gansxvavebuli eTnokulturuli jgufebi,regionSi intensiurad mimdinare migraciebis wyalobiT,akulturaciis mravalmxrivi da xangrZliviprocesis monawileebad iqcnen. am mxareSi sxvadasxvaistoriul etapze erTi eTnikuri jgufi meorescvlida (germanelebi _ qarTvelebi, berZnebi _qarTvelebi...) da am mizeziT interkulturulibalansi iolad irRveoda. axali jgufebi adaptaciisramdenime safexurs gadiodnen _ ucxo garemosTan,erTmaneTTan da ucxo kulturasTan SeTavsebisprocesebs. axali eTnikuri erTeulis miReba rTuliiyo mkvidri mosaxleobisTvisac.gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebidan dawyebulmaqarTvel ekomigrantTa (Semdeg ukve 1990-iani wlebismiwuruls aseve ekonomikur migrantTa) am regionSiSemodinebam, intereTnikuri urTierTobis TvalsazrisiT,axali problemebi warmoqmna. adgilobrivmamosaxleobam qarTuli jgufebis regionSi SemosvlaqarTuli nacionaluri politikis erT-erT strategiadaRiqva da mtrulad daxvda am procesebs.ramodenime TviTmyofadi kulturis mqone eTnosisTanaarsebobam da maTi interesebis Sejaxebam, rasaceTnocentristuli meqanizmebi marTavda, eTnikurjgufebs Soris dapirispireba da konfliqtebigamoiwvia. amis mizezi aseve jgufebs Soris komunikaciisararseboba an moSlac iyo. axalmosulTa da adgilobrivTaSoris ufro gviandel uTanxmoebas ukve gamokve-Tili materialuri interesebi, umTavresad, miwisproblema ganapirobebs.qvemo qarTlSi integraciis erT-erTi mTavarixelisSemSleli faqtori eTnikuri umciresobebismier qarTuli enis, rogorc saxelmwifo enisarcodnaa. amis gamo maTi umravlesoba ver axerxebssaqarTvelos politikur da socialur cxovrebaSiCaeweros. bolo periodSi mTavrobam mniSvnelovaninabijebi gadadga qveynis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSiaraqarTuli mosaxleobis integraciisaTvis. saerTa-Soriso organizaciebis didi mxardaWeriT SemuSavdaumciresobebiT dasaxlebuli raionebis skolebSiqarTuli enis swavlebis specialuri programebi,daigegma socialuri mimarTulebis sagnebis swavlebaqarTul enaze, gatarda RonisZiebebi ganaTlebissistemis unifikaciis xaziT _ erovnuli saswavlogegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli sagnebis umciresobaTa enebzeTargmnili saxelmZRvaneloebi daurigda sxvadasxvaklasis moswavleebs, gamoica kanoni akredi-tebuluniversitetebSi erTian erovnul gamocdebSi qarTulienisa da literaturis Cabarebis msurvel-TaTvisgamsvleli qulis dadgenis Taobaze da sxv. dResaraqarTvel mosaxleobaSi SeiniSneba qarTuli enisSeswavlis survili da zogjer, moTxovnilebac ki.akulturaciis daCqarebas mniSvnelovnad uwyobsxels Sereuli qorwinebebi. Tumca, regionis religiurisiWrele da umciresobis umetesad izolire-234 235


ulad cxovreba, am formiT interkul-turulikomunikaciis warmatebiT ganxorcielebas arTulebs.Sereuli qorwinebebis simciris gamo komunikaciises formaQsakvlev raionebSi ver CaiTvleba integraciisprocesis damaCqarebel faqtorad. analogiurad,religiuri jgufebis erTmaneTisagan ufro metaddistancirebis gamo, mcirea am gziT meore kulturisgacnobis da maT konteqstebSi CarTvis SesaZleblobebi.amisda miuxedavad, gansxvavebuli religiurijgufebi tolerantuli arian erTmaneTis mimarT.religiuri tolerantoba aRiniSneba gansakuTrebiTim mosaxleobaSi, romelic tradiciulad erTmaneTismezoblad an Sereulad cxovrobda.integraciis warmatebas ganapirobebs interpirovnuliefeqturi urTierTobebi, romelsac SesaZlebeliaadgili hqondes ojaxSi (Sereuli qorwineba),sanaTesaoSi, samezobloSi, saswavlebelSi, samsaxurSi.aseT urTierTobebs yovelTvis Tan axlavs erTmaneTiskulturis gacnoba, maTi aRiareba da maT konteqstebSiCarTva, raSic didi mniSvneloba aqvs eTnikurijgufebis gansaxlebis struqturas (Sereuli anizolirebuli).qvemo qarTlSi akulturaciis ori _ integracisada izolaciis strategiebi erTmaneTTan mudmiv“brZolaSi” arian. erTi mxriv, es aris gansxvavebuleTnokulturul jgufebs Soris integraciuliprocesebi, meore mxriv, ki daxuruli jgufisTvisdamaxasiaTebeli izolaciis tendenciebi. erTi mxriv,mimdinareobs kulturul kodTa gadanacvleba, matulobsinterpirovnuli da interjgufuri kontaqtebi,izrdeba saxelmwifo enis codnis albaToba, matulobsSereul qorwinebaTa ricxvi, mcirdeba interjgufuridapirispireba da konfliqtebi, jgufebi stumrisstatusiT CarTulebi arian erTmaneTis religiurpraqtikaSi, izrdeba ndoba saxelmwifos mimarT dakmayofileba maTi regionSi saqmianobis gamo,matulobs erTobliv RonisZiebaTa ricxvi, racSemdgomSi samoqalaqo integraciis safuZveli undagaxdes. Tumca, amave dros aRiniSneba izolaciisSenarCunebis tendenciac, religiuri da saqorwinopraqtikis mkacri limitireba, saxelmwifo enisarcodna, interpersonaluri kavSirebis arqona,saqarTvelosadmi kuTvnilebis grZnobis sustadganviTareba, separatistuli muxtis arseboba. CarTulobisda izolaciis aRniSnuli tendencia socialurganwyobebSic aRiniSneba, konkretuli jgufiufro metad sandoa da misaRebi erTisTvis, vidremeore da piriqiT. gamoikveTa, rom iq sadac adgiliaqvs yoveldRiur pirovnebaTaSoris urTierTobebs,kulturaTaSorisi dialogis warmarTva gacilebiTioli da Sedegiania. am winaaRmdegobebis miuxedavad,faqtia, rom, gverdigverd cxovrebam es jgufebidaaxlova, ermaneTis kultura gaacno da efeqturikulturaTaSorisi urTierTobis gamocdileba SesZina.saxelmwifos integraciis strategiaSi didimniSvneloba aqvs ama Tu im jgufis akulturaciispotenciur SesaZleblobebs. risi mixedviTac undaSemuSavdes gansxvavebuli politika, gansakuTrebiTizolaciis tendenciis mqone sociumisTvis. espolitika upirveles yovlisa axalgazrda Taobazeunda iqnes gaTvlili, rogorc samoqalaqo integraciisumTavres sayrdenze, maTi adgilze damagrebispirobebis SeqmniT.marTalia qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebi eTnikuriumciresobani qarTul saxelmwifoebriv sivrceSiintegrirebulad jer ver CaiTvlebian, magraminterkulturuli dialogis da jgufTaSorisintegraciis pozitiuri dinamika amis perspeqtivassaxavs.236 237


literatura:1. l i p a r t e l i a n i m. Tavdasxma sacxenosno fermazekuTlarSi danakargiT dasrulda,Ggaz.: rezonansi, 6 dekemberi,#333, 2004.2. t u r a S v i l i m., t r i e r i t., ekologiurimizezebiT adgilnacval pirTa gansaxleba arsebuliproblemis gadawyveta Tu axlis Seqmna? ekomigraciasaqarTveloSi 1981-2006, monografia #6, umciresobaTasakiTxebis evropuli centri (ECMI), 2007.3. u i T l i j. saqarTveloSi samcxe-javaxeTisa daqvemo qarTlis regionebSi mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebisintegracia, ECMI-is samuSao moxseneba. 44, 20094. u i T l i j. konfliqtis ganeitraleba walkisraionSi, saqarTveloSi: migracia, saerTaSoriso intervenciada saxelmwifos roli ECMI-is samuSao moxseneba# 36, 2006.5. savele eTnografiuli eqspediciis masala, 2008 _2010.11. qvemo qarTlsa da Sida qarTlSi arsebulidevnilTa Casaxlebebisa da maTi mezobeli Temebis sabazisokvleva “iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa cxovrebisstabilizacia da maTi sazogadoebaSi integrireba”, SIIMSproeqti. http://www.geowel.org12. statistikis saxelmwifo departamenti.http://www.geostat.ge13. С а д о х и н А.П., Введение в теорию межкультурной коммуникации,Москва 2005.14. A l t m a n , I . , & Ta y l o r , D . A . Social penetration: Thedevelopment of interpersonal relationships. 1973 New York: Holt, Rinehart,and Winston.15. B e r r y J.W. Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: Socialbehavior and applications, vol. 3. Boston, 1996.16. Berry W. John., Immigration, Acculturation, and AdaptationApplied Psychology: An International Review, 1997. 46 (1).17. H e l l e r M., Codeswitching: Anthropological and sociolinguisticperspectives. Berlin: 1988.18. H e r s k o vi t s M., Cultural Relativism, N.Y., 1972.19. K i n g G . & W r i g h t M., Diffusionism and Acculturation.http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/murphy/diffusion.htm).20. M o l i n s k y A., Cross-cultural code-switching: The psychologicalchallenges of Adapting behavior in foreign cultural Interactions,Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2007.http://people.brandeis.edu/~molinsky/documents/Molinsky21. C a r o l M y e r s - S c o t t o n, Duelling Languages:Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching, Oxford. 1993.22. T h o m p s o n & R i c h a r d H., Assimilation. In Encyclopediaof Social and Cultural Anthropology, vol.1, 1996.23. http://www.ecmi.de24. http://en.trend.az/news/politics25. http://avciya.az/eng/news/intheworld238 239


eligiuri orientacia polieTnikursazogadoebaSireligia sazogadoebrivi sistemebis mowyobiserT-erTi mniSvnelovani faqtoria, romelic Ria dadaxurul sazogadoebebSi gansxvavebulad vlindeba.igi warmoadgens rTul, mravalferovan da mravalganzomilebianmovlenas. yofaSi kargad Cans religiurifenomenis roli socialur kavSirebsa da urTier-TobaSi, aseve saerTo qcevis wesebsa da individisreligiur motivaciaSi.gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebamde rogorc sabWoTamecnierebaSi, ise dasavlel mkvlevarTa erT nawilSic,popularuli iyo mosazreba, rom ganaTleba, urbanizacia,dasaqmebis Tanamedrove SesaZleblobebi,teqnologiuri Zvrebi, axali mecnieruli miRwevebida a.S. aucileblad migviyvanda mTeli msofliosmasStabiT sekularizaciis ganvrcobamde, pluralizmamdeda politikur diferenciaciamde. iyovaraudebi, rom es cvlilebebi ganapirobebda agreTveaxali Rirebulebebisa da Tanamedrove cxovrebisstilis Sesisxlxorcebas, amis Sedegad ki sazogadoebamZafrad daupirispirdeboda religiur tradiciebs.modernizaciis gavrcelebasTan erTad tradiciulireligiuri institutebi daknindeboda da SeiZlebodasrulad gamqraliyo; amrigad, sazogadoeba ganTavisufldebodareligiis marwuxebisagan da dakninebulireligia calkeuli individebis pirad saqmed iqceoda(Sahliyeh, 1990: 3). aseTi midgoma gansakuTrebiT popularuliiyo sabWoTa humanitarul mecnierebaSi.socializmis aTeistur periodSi religiurifaqtori sazogadoebis jgufTaSoris urTierTobissferodan praqtikulad mTlianad gamoricxuli iyo.komunisturi ideologiis kraxma da aTeisturisaxelmwifos dangrevam mosaxleobis religiurobiszrda ganapiroba. axal pirobebSi moimata tradiciulireligiis aRmsarebelTa ricxvma, gaadvildaucxoeTidan axali religiuri mimdinareobebisSemosvla, rac ara marto konfesiuri struqturismniSvnelovan garTulebas, aramed rig SemTxvevaSireligiur da sazogadoebriv-fsiqologiur urTierTobaTarRvevas da Sida winaaRmdegobebs ganapirobebs.Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi religiasdidi mniSvneloba aniWeben pirovnebis TviTidentifikaciis,TviTgansazRvris procesSi. zogjer religiurmaidentobam SeiZleba eTnikur-kulturulimsgavsebis SegrZnebac ki daCrdilos, moaxdinos misinivelireba, an masTan gaigivdes. amgvari damokidebulebagansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia “neofitebisaTvis”.reislamizaciis an reqristianizaciis procesixandaxan radikalur formebSi gamoixateba. mosaxleobamasobrivad brundeba religiaSi, iSleba zRvari sazogadoebasada religiur dawesebulebas Soris. . .religiuri institutis utyvi da uxmo Zalauflebamkvidrdeba ara marto saxelmwifo dawesebulebaTaderefnebSi, aramed yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. sasulieroterminologia msWvalavs politikosTa metyvelebasda es Tanamedrove politikosis imijis SeqmnissaSualebaa (Toria, 2003: 62).calke msjelobis sagania religiur da nacionaluridentobaTa aRrevis sakiTxi. es problema dReisaTvismsoflios mraval qveyanaSi dgas (Bieber, 2000:24-25). istoriulad religiam gansakuTrebuli rolimainc kulturaTa sxvaobaSi iTamaSa. rogorc Rirebulebas,ufro metad ki erovnul simbolos, xalxisTviTSegnebaSi mas dResac mniSvnelovani adgiliukavia, rac qcevis normebiT gamoixateba. yovelSemTxvevaSi, eTnojgufebisaTvis, zogjer eqstremalursituaciaSi, socialuri da politikuri cxovrebiswesis mani pulirebis saSualeba xdeba da TiToeulijgufis erovnul maxasiaTeblad iqceva. isic ki240 241


SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom mas ufro jgufuri msoflmxedvelobagansazRvravs, vidre pirovnuli, Tumca xSiradopoziciuri jgufis wevrebi religiis saSualebiTpirovnulad emijnebian erTmaneTs. meores mxrivaSkaraa, rom religia SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnesgansxvavebul jgufTa mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobisuzrunvelsayofad. konfliqtur regionebSi religiisaqtiur gamoyenebas samSvidobo procesSi mravalisamecniero gamokvleva mieZRvna (Abu-Nimer, 2001: 685;qurdiani, 2008: 234-236).gviani feodalizmis epoqaSi eTnikuri kuTvnilebismTavar ganmsazRvrel niSnad religia iqca.marTlmadidebloba qarTvelobis identuri cnebagaxda _ qarTvelad iTvleboda mxolod marTlmadidebeliqristiani, Sesabamisad, grigorianebs _somxebad, kaTolikeebs _ frangebad, xolo muslimanebsTaTrebad miiCnevdnen. marTalia, XIX saukuneSi mesxebisada aWarlebis eTnografiuli jgufebis qarTuleTnikur sivrceSi dabrunebis Semdeg sarwmunoebiswamyvani roli eTnikurobis gansazRvraSi TandaTanSesustda, magram samoqalaqo sazogadoebis saboloodCamoyalibebamde konfesiuri kuTvnileba am mimarTebiTxSirad hiperbolizebulad warmo-gvidgeba. amgvarimidgoma kidev ufro gaamZafra XX saukunis bolosmomxdarma politikurma da social-ekonomikurmakataklizmebma. imJamad popularuli gepolitikuriTeoriis Tanaxmad, msoflios momavals religiuripolarizacia (islamuri da qristianuli civilizaciisSejaxeba) gansazRvravda. marTalia, am ti pisprognozebi jerjerobiT prognozebad darCa, magramsaqarTvelos mosaxleobis didi umetesoba sarwmunoebrivmoments gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas aniWebs.kavkasiis konfliqtebis aRmocenebaSi religiasmniSvneloba hqonda imdenad, ramdenadac is nacionaluriidentobis safuZveli iyo da, damoukideblobismopovebis Semdgom rTul, areulobebisa da siZne-leebis pirobebSi, xalxs sulier xelmZRvanelobasada fsiqologiur komforts sTavazobda. socialuriTvalsazrisiT, religia erTi jgufis identobisdacvas emsaxureba sxva jgufebTan mimarTebiT, TumcaxSirad politikur iaraRadac gamoiyeneba (macaberiZe,2006: 18-19).Tanamedrove msoflios sazogadoebebsa da politikaSireligiis gavlenis zrdas jonaTan foqsiSemdegi mizezebiT xsnis _ pirveli _ xelisuflebebma,gansakuTrebiT mesame samyaroSi, romlebic xelmZRvanelobdnenTanamedrove dasavluri politikuri daekonomikuri ideologiebiT, ver Seasrules politikurisamarTlianobisa da ekonomikuri ayvavebisdapirebebi. aman maT legitimurobas Ziri gamouTxra.amas mohyva politikuri da ideologiuri vakuumi,romlis Sevsebac religiurma moZraobebma daiwyes;meore _ mravali adamiani, romelTac tradiciebisa datradiciuli cxovrebis wesis rRvevis gamo mouxdaTgadaadgileba da sacxovrebeli adgilis Secvla,gaucxoebis daZlevas cdilobs religiisaken mibrunebiT;mesame _ rogorc saxelmwifoebma, asevereligiurma organizaciebma ganavrces TavianTigavlenis sferoebi, rasac Sedegad mohyva maT Sorisdapirispirebis gamZafreba; meoTxe _ Tanamedrovesakomunikacio saSualebebma msoflio ufro “daaviwrova”,ramac religiur moZraobebs erTmaneTismoqmedebaTa gacnobis, farTomasStabiani urTier-Tobisa da TviTorganizebis saSualeba misca; mexuTe_rwmenis Tavisuflebis Tanamedrove cnebam adamianebsreligiis arCevis saSualeba Seuqmna, ramac ganapirobareligiuri institutebis Zalisxmevis gaaqtiurebapotenciuri mimdevrebis mosazidad. zogierTismtkicebiT, amas Sedegad religiurobis zrda mohyva;da bolos _ kolonializmma da eri-saxelmwifoebisSeqmnam ganamtkica eTnikuri da nacionaluri idento-242 243


ebi, romlebic xSirad dakavSirebulia religiuridentobebTan (foqsi, 2005: 116-117).religias didi mniSvneloba eniWeba globaluraspeqtiTac. meoce saukunis bolos metad popularuligaxda samuel hantingtonis Teoria civilizaciaTaSejaxebis Sesaxeb. am Teoriis mixedviT, axal eraSikonfliqtebis ZiriTad mizezad civilizaciaTakulturuli gansxvavebuloba iqceva, sadac erT-erTimniSvnelovani kvanZi religiuri (islamuri daqristianuli) kulturebis dapirispireba iqneba.civilizaciebis omis hantingtoniseuli Teorias TuverwmunebiT, gansxvavebuli anTropologiuri, kulturuli,social-ekonomikuri, politikuri sistemebissazRvarze mdebare regionebSi gansakuTrebiT maRaliacivilizaciaTa konfliqtSi CaTrevis saSiSroeba.lokalur doneze warmoiSveba konfliqtebi gamyofixazebis gaswvriv – mezobel saxelmwifoTa Soris,romlebic sxvadasxva civilizacias ekuTvnian, sxvadasxvacivilizaciur jgufebs Soris saxelmwifosSigniT, an kidev – im jgufebs Soris, romlebiccdiloben axal saxelmwifoTa Seqmnas Zvelis nangrevebze,rogorc yofil sabWoTa kavSirsa da iugoslaviaSi.konfliqtebi gamyof xazebze gansakuTrebiTxSirad warmoiSoba muslimur da aramuslimur qveynebsSoris (hantingtoni, 2010)zemoxsenebulis miuxedavad SeiZleba iTqvas, romgasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi kavkasiaSi mimdinarekonfliqtebi wminda religiur xasiaTs ar atarebda.samecniero literaturaSi miRebuli gansazRvrebisTanaxmad, imisaTvis, rom konfliqts religiuri ewodos,aucilebelia erT-erTi mxaris mier dapirispirebareligiur prizmaSi ganixilebodes. aseve undaSeimCneodes konfliqts gareT romelime jgufTanreligiuri solidarobis niSnebi da a.S., eTnopolitikurkonfliqtebSi religia xSirad asrulebsori dapirispirebuli mxaris gammijnavi faqtorisrols. radganac CeCenebi da rusebi, somxebi daazerbaijanelebi, inguSebi da osebi CarTulni arianerTmaneTTan omSi, sxvadasxva religiuri aRmsareblobaiqceva damatebiT faqtorad, rac ormxrivSuRlsa da da undoblobas zrdis (xinCagaSvili,2003: 47-48).eTnopolitikis cnobili mkvlevris svante kornelisazriT religia Zalze SezRudul rols Tama-Sobda kavkasiis regionis konfliqtebSi mxolodimdenad, ramdenadac religia eTnikuri identobis erTerTiganmsazRvreli faqtoria. am konteqstSi SeiZlebaimis mtkiceba, rom konfliqtebi bunebiT eTnopolitikuria,radganac eyrdnoba eTnikurobis (da arareligiis) politizacias (korneli, 2003: 92).religia saukuneebis manZilze gamoiyenebodaucxo saxelmwifoebis mxridan calkeul qveyanaSisakuTari interesebis ganxorcielebis saSualebad.am iaraRs dResac efeqturad iyeneben calkeulisaxelmwifoebi Tu eqstremistuli religiuri mimdinareobebi.qvemo qarTli, garda imisa, rom multieTnikuria(azerbaijanelebi, somxebi, berZnebi, qarTvelebi),sxvadasxva konfesiuri (qristianuli da muslimanuri)jgufebiTac aris dasaxlebuli. Teoriulad, racufro diferencirebulia sazogadoeba religiurad,miT ufro dabalia religiuri konfrontaciis riski.ufro metia albaToba konfliqtSi erTmaneTs daupirispirdesori Zlieri konfesia, vidre Seiqmnas situacia“yvela yvelas winaaRmdeg”, Tumca sazogadoebis Zlierifrustraciis pirobebSi arc amgvari mdgomareobagamoiricxeba. regioni problemuria imis gamoc, romaxalmosaxleebs (aWarlebs, svanebs) adaptaciis procesijer ar daumTavrebiaT. yvela jgufi (rogorc axalmosaxleebi,ise damxvdurebi) icavs Tavis tradiciulkulturas da konfesias. isini cdiloben maTTvisdamaxasiaTebel TaviseburebaTa SenarCunebas, radgan244 245


TiToeuli maTganis kulturam ganviTarebis gansxvavebuligza ganvlo da dResac ki garkveulwiladizolirebul sistemas warmoadgens.dapirispireba igrZnoba gansxvavebuli religiismimdevar mosaxleobas Soris. walkis raionSi CamosaxlebuliaWarlebis nawili muslimania. maT surTmeCeTebis aSeneba im soflebSi, sadac saxloben, magramjerjerobiT did winaaRmdegobebs awydebian qristianobis“Tavgamodebuli damcvelebisagan”, amitomaWarlebis didi nawili sof. ar-sarvanSi, sadac amramdenime wlis win sofsabWos Senoba meCeTad gadaakeTes,yovel paraskevs salocavad, fexiT Tu manqaniTmidis (meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).aWaridan gadmosaxlebuli erT-erTi mcxovrebigviyveba: ~aq aWarasTan SedarebiT ukeTesi miwebiada amitom iolia cxovreba, Torem ise arafris pirobebiar aris. Cven Cveni religia gvaqvs muslimanuri dayvela tradicias ojaxebSi vasrulebT. . . yoveldResaxlSi 5-jer vasrulebT alahis sadidebel locvebs.magram yovel jumas (paraskevs) da bairamobis drosvikribebiT da mivdivarT sof. ar-sarvanSi, sadac meCeTiaris. Semdeg vinme axloblis ojaxSi tkbileuliTvumaspinZldebiT erTmaneTs” (mRebriSvili, 2008 _ 2010).religias aniWebs wamyvan rols berZnuli warmomavlobismosaxleoba ekomigrantebTan urTierTobisas_”aWarlebs SedarebiT Znelad veguebiT, isinixom musulmanebi arian. Tumca dro rom gaivlis,SeiZleba yvelaferi mowesrigdes, erTmaneTTan TxovagaTxovebawavides. amitom ukeTesia qarTvelebimovidnen da icxovron. aWareli ki musulmania, Cvenirwmena ar emTxveva, am saqmes axalgazrdoba SedarebiTadvilad uyurebs, moxucebi ki metad ganicdian. amitomvambob: ar unda CaesaxlebinaT sxva rwmenis warmomadgeneli,aramed mxolod qristiani. SeiZleba qarTvelebirom CamoesaxlebinaT, maTTanac yofiliyo igiveproblemebi, magram Txova-gaTxoveba wavidoda daadvilad movrigdebodiT” (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).rogorc iTqva, religias interviuarebi sxvajgufTan TavianTi urTierTobis ganmsazRvrelpirvelmniSvnelovan faqtorad aRiareben. amitomgansxvavebuli jgufis sasurvel prizmaSi warmosadgenadkonteqstidan gamomdinare faqtebs asaxeleben.erTi berZeni, aWarlebis pozitiurad daxasiaTebismizniT, xazs usvams aWarlebis qristianobas, Tumcasakmaod bundovani warmodgena aqvs maTze _ “erTiqarTveli muSaobda “BP-Si”, Semovida eklesiaSimuxlebze daeca, Zalian morwmune biWi iyo. me masvkiTxe, es aWarlebi qristianebi arian-Tqo? kio, _mi pasuxa. mere amas winaT wignSi wavikiTxe, aWarlebiarian qarTveli musulmanebio. isini cxovrobdnensaqarTvelos teritoriaze. qristianobis miRebamdeiyvnen warmarTebi, mere aRmosavleT saqarTvelommiiRo qristianoba, aWaram ki islami” (janiaSvili,2008 _ 2010).somexi respodenti ambobs _ “saWiroa adamianisara marto politikurad, aramed religiurad momzadebac.CvenTan yvela sofelSi eklesiuri tradiciamoSlilia, mRvdeli TbilisSi zis da sakuTar saqmesakeTebs. monastrebSi, yvela, visac niWi aqvs, Seulocavsadamians da moarCens. me vici aseTebi TbilisSi,magaliTad, Savnabadaze. aseTma sasuliero moRvaweebma,Tund TveSi erTxel, Semovla unda gaakeTon. ramniSvneloba aqvs, somxuri eklesia iqneba Tu qarTuli.xalxi yvelgan miiRebs, vin ityvis jvarze uars.religiurad Cven yvelas erTi mteri gvyavs” (jania-Svili, 2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlis somex grigorianelebs aWarelimuslimanebi TurqebTan hyavT asocirebuli da maTmimarT uaryofiTi ganwyoba igrZnoba. “egeni raqarTvelebi arian, ena aqvT marto qarTuli;” `RmerTmaar qnas omi, Torem musulmans eklesiaSic rom Seaswro,246 247


iqac Semogivardeba da iqave gamogWris yels. amas argaakeTebs arc berZeni da arc qarTveli” _ acxadebsinformatori (meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).aWarlebTan urTierTobaSi sarwmunoebrivimomenti win wamoswia walkis raionis azerbaijanulieTnikuri jgufis wevrma muslimma RvTismsaxurmac_“CvenTan ar aris gansxvaveba, es aris meCeTi _ RvTissaxli, sul erTia Siitia, sunitia, vahabitia. erTaderTimagas vicavT, rom aq vahabitebi ar iyvnen. aWarlebimarTalia im aTdRian marxvas ar icaven, romelicimam huseins eZRvneba, magram is dReebi, ra dReebsacCven vicavT, esenic loculoben, yurans kiTxuloben,pativsa cemen. xuTjeradi namazis Sesrulebas meCeTSiyvela ver SeZlebs, radgan zogi saxlSi ver midis, esxalxi gareubnebis soflebidanaaa Camosuli. esaaerTaderTi meCeTi walkis raionSi. rogorc centraluri,aq modian _ baSkovidan, karaxumidan, imeridan,walkidan, TrialeTidan, kide maRla buniakalidan.ara, modian mainc bairamze, suyvela aq ari” (janiaSvili,2008_ 2010)aWarlebi xazs usvamen azerbaijanelTa religiurindiferetulobas da aRniSnaven rom, “es azerbaijanelebiZiriTadad mesaqonleebi arian, Zalian codvaxalxi, gamoqceuli xalxi. a, Sexede axla ra gaaCnia.Semoxval sofelSi _ axali gakeTebuli araferiaqvT. ver warmomidgenia sul imas fiqroben mogatyuos,mogparos. urTierToba yvelasTan erTnairad gvaqvs.ar arsebobs yvela glaxa iyos, kaic urevia, glaxacurevia” (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010)qvemo qarTlSi mcxovreb azerbaijanul kontingentSimimdinare religiuri procesebi gansakuTrebulyuradRebas imsaxurebs (radgan swored isini warmoadgenenyvelaze mravalricxovan kontingents). istoriuladam eTnokonfensiuri jgufis erovnul orientirswarmoadgenda Turqmanul-Turquli erToba, religiurski _ islami. aRiarebuli faqtia, rom ruseTisbatonobis pirobebSi umaRlesi religiuri ganaTlebismiRebisaken gza arakeTilsaimedo pirebs gadaketilihqondaT, ris gamoc azerbaijanelTa Soris sasulieropirebis ganaTlebis done sakmaod dabali iyo.zemoxsenebuls adasturebs istoriuli wyaroebida savele-eTnografiuli masala. “axlac arsebobsiseTi adgilebi, sadac SariaTi ki ar moqmedebs, aramedxalxuri islami. maT ar ician, rogor Seasrulon esritualebi, moxucebs surT Zveleburad gaagrZelon,saSualo Taobas cota sxvagvari damokidebulebaaqvs, axalgazrdebSi ki aris miRwevebi. komunisturepoqaSi ganaTlebas Rebulobdnen ojaxebSi moxucebisagan.piradad me religiiT davinteresdi 1973 w.ganjaSi swavlis dros, rodesac gavicani ganjis axundida misgan bevri ram viswavle, maSin Zalze Wirdasasuliero ganaTlebisaTvis saWiro literaturisSovnac” _ gviambobs respodenti (jukaSvili, 2003).revoluciamde qvemo qarTlSi mxolod ramdenimemoqmedi meCeTi arsebobda (Набиев, 1981: 2). mdgomareobamniSvnelovnad ar Secvlila sabWoTa periodSi,muslimuri RvTismsaxurebis aRsrulebam ZiriTadadojaxebSi gadainacvla, Sesabamisad, gaxalxurebulireligia garkveulad dascilda orTodoqsalurnormebs, e. i. maTSi “bida” (wminda islamis normebisSebRalva) gansakuTrebul masStabebs aRwevs. erTimTxrobeli, romlis metsaxeli “seidia” gviambobs _“me mxolod ¼1/4-iT¼var seidi. seids ufro miwodebenrogorc zedmet saxels. mama rom myoloda seidi,maSin marTlac seidi viqnebodi. religiur ganaTlebasbavSvobidan viRebdi, deda religiuri wesebiTcxovrobda, saxlSi spirtiani sasmeli arasodes gvqoniada xalxi dedas did pativs scemda. marTalia, maSinZneli iyo, magram ojaxSi yuranic gvqonda, ar vici,visgan modioda, magram 3-4 Taobis naqoni iyo daerTgvar saojaxo relikvias warmoadgenda” (juka-Svili, 2003).248 249


marneulSi mcxovrebi erTi muslimis cnobiT,2003 wlisaTvis saSualo muslimanur sasulieroganaTlebas Rebulobdnen q. marneulSica da TbilisSic.saswavlebelSi aswavlidnen arabuls, religiisistorias, SariaTs. sxva sagnebi ara hqondaT, Tvlian,rom kargi iqneboda astronomiac eswavlaT dazogierTi sxva disci plinac, magram maswavlebeliar hyavdaT. swavleba mimdinareobda azerbaijanuladda rusulad. arabulad ZiriTadad locvebsa dayuranis surebs aswavlidnen. medreses mowafeebsSeuZliaT gardacvlilisaTvis locvis wakiTxva.micvalebulisaTvis mniSvneloba ara aqvs, vin waukiTxavslocvas, piriqiT isini (medreses mowafeebi) amas ufrokargad akeTeben, meti ician. sasuliero Siituriliteratura Semodis ZiriTadad baqodan da iranidan,sunituri ki _ TurqeTidan. Cveni mTxrobelisdakvirvebiT, qvemo qarTlis muslimanTa umravlesoba60-70% Siitia, danarCeni suniti. bolnissa da dmanisSinaxevari sunitia, marneulsa da gardabanSi kiumetesoba Siiti. sunitur Tems xelmZRvanelobdamTeli kavkasiis muslimTa lideri Seixi alaa aSkura.Siitebs ki xelmZRvaneloben baqodan, TbilisSiimyofeba maTi warmomadgeneli axundi maSada alialievi (jukaSvili, 2003).XX saukunis bolodan saqarTvelos muslimanurregionebSi daiwyo reislamizaciis procesi. saqarTveloSiamJamad 280-ze meti meCeTi da salocavi saxlimoqmedebs. Sendeba ramdenime meCeTi (papuaSvili, 2008:364). am muslimanur samlocveloTa nawili qvemoqarTlSic moqmedebs, Tumca ver vityviT, rom yvelganintensiurad tardeba religiuri ritualebi. arjevansarvaniazerbaijanuli sofelia. dRes 200 ojaxicxovrobs. sainteresoa is, rom aqauri azerbaijanelebiar Sedian meCeTSi salocavad, rasac informatorebiase xsnian: “70 wlis ganmavlobaSi meCeTiakrZaluli iyo. Cven yvela saxlebSi vloculobdiT.locvaSi amas xeli ar SeuSlia. meCeTi bolo drosaSenda da mas did mniSvnelobas ar vaniWebT. savaldebulo5 locvaa, magram Cven mxolod 3-jer vloculobT”(meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).saqarTvelos azerbaijaneli mosaxleoba politikurda religiur impulsebs azerbaijanis, iranisda TurqeTis saxelmwifoebidan iRebs. islamurimoZraobis sponsorebi ZiriTadad azerbaijanSisaqarTvelodan wasuli SeZlebuli azerbaijanelebiarian. maTi xelSewyobiT Sendeba meCeTebi damuslimuri saswavleblebi. amitom sazRvris miRmamimdinare religiuri procesebi garkveul asaxvasam kontingentSic poulobs.gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi azerbaijanSipopularuli gaxda religiisaTvis politikurimiznebis miniWeba. arsebobs monacemebi, rom azerbaijanSisalafizmi ZiriTadad iranis respublikidan Semovida(Baran, 2006: 17), Tumca am mimarTebiT arc Turquliislamuri organizaciebi pasiuroben. magaliTad,cnobilia “nurjebis” (TurqeTSi arsebuli islamuriorganizacia) aqtiuroba postsabWoTa sivrcismasStabiT (Давыдов, 2007).azerbaijanis respublikaSi ukve 90-iani wlebisdasawyisSi (oficialuri registraciis gareSe)arsebobda ”azerbaijanis islamuri progresis partia”,‘“azerbaijanis islamuri partia”, sazogadoeba “azadruxaniler” (Tavisufali sasuliero pirebi) da“tovbe” (monanieba), romlebic garkveuli politikuriwreebis interesebs religiur safenels udebdnen.azerbaijanis saxalxo frontma safuZveli Cauyara“azerbaijanis islamur partias”, romelsac gaaCndaperioduli organoï”islam duniasi” (islamurisamyaro), opoziciaSi edga prezidents, musulmanTaoficialur winamZRols _ Seixs da mwvavedakritikebda TurqeTis sekularul saxelmwifos. amorganizaciebs aRebuli hqondaT radikaluri250 251


eTnikuri da religiuri kursi, ris gamoc qvemoqarTlSi maTi gavlenis gavrceleba metad arasasurvelperspeqtivaa.muslimur TemSi religiis wmindad Senaxvisniadagze dapirispirebas xangrZlivi istoria aqvs.islamis gavrcelebis pirvelive xanebidan morwmuneTayofisa da cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela mxare mkacradiyo reglametirebuli yuraniTa da SariaTiT.mogvianebiT social-ekonomikuri da kulturulicxovrebis Secvlam da sxva xalxebTan urTierTobamaucilebeli gaxada muslimanTa yofasa, da SesabamisadreligiaSi, axali elementebis Semotana. gaCnda “bida”_ siaxleebi, anu islamis morgebis mcdeloba droismoTxovnilebebze. es savsebiT miuRebeli iyo orTodoqsaluriislamisaTvis, radgan religiur normaTayovelgavri cvlileba warmoudgenel mkrexelobadiTvleboda (Васильев, 1982: 3-84).fundamentalizmisa da islamis ganwmendis egidiTdReisaTvis mTels msoflioSi vrceldeba salafizmi,anu “wminda islami”, romelic adgilobriv muslimanRvTismsaxurebTan da “xalxur islamTan” opoziciiTxasiaTdeba. salafizmis mimdevrebi uaryofen “bidas”_islamSi Sesul yovelgvar siaxles, romelic sanqcionirebuliaraa yuraniTa da suniT. gansakuTrebiT ebrZvianim Cveulebebs, romlebic, adaTis mixedviT, muslimanTayofis ganuyofel nawilad iyo miCneuli, mag. yalimi,wmindanebis kulti, xalxmravali qorwilebisa dadakrZalvebis gamarTava da a.S.kavkasiaSi salafitis yvelaze gavrcelebulisaxeobaa e.w. “vahabizmi”. qvemo qarTlis muslimanurimosaxleoba gansakuTrebiT ufrTxis am mimdinareobasda xSirad afiSireben, rom maT Soris vahabitebi ararian. rac Seexeba vahabizms _ ambobs Cveni mTxrobeli_es saudis arabeTis islamia da saqarTveloSi vahabizmisarc erTi namdvili mimdevari ar aris. vahabitebireligias sxvagvarad iReben, magaliTad amboben, rommuhamedis ase miReba ar SeiZleba. Tu alahma muhamedsneba misca, yofiliyo misi mociquli, Cven unda gvqondesmisi rwmena, vahabitebis azriT ki, man ukve amowuraalahisagan miniWebuli misia da wavida, e.i. mociqulicaRar aris. Cven am dogmaSi ar veTanxmebiT erTmaneTs.dRes arabeTSi ar aris muhamedis qaliSvilis saflavi,amas krZalaven kidec. aseve ikrZaleba saflavTaTayvaniscemac. misiis Sesrulebis Semdeg muhamediiqca Cveulebriv adamianad. sunitebSi dRemde 400-mde seqta arsebobs da am azrs TiTqmis yvela esseqta iziarebs (janiaSvili, 2006).eqstremistul mimdinareobad warmoadgensvahabizms muslimani RvTismsaxuric. mas miaCnia, romvahabizmi igivea, rac “ieRovas mowmeebi” qristianobaSi_ “vahabitebs ar SemouSvebT imitom, rom egeni rogorcTqvenTan aris eqstremistuli moZraobebi, iseTivea.egeni yuransa da SariaTs ki ar misdeven, uares saqmeebsakeTeben. marTalia, axla es politikuri sakiTxiada saCemo saqme ar aris, magram Cveni winaaRmdegiarian egeni. amboben, rom movida muhamedi, SeasrulaTavisi misia da morCa, axla 21-e saukunea. egre araris, yurani bolo dRemde CvenTan erTad iqneba, Cveniwmindac iqneba. magas ar aqvs mniSvneloba, Siitia,sunitia, alelia. Cven mivdivarT erTad.” amasTan, Tavisreligias warmoaCens ara rogorc titularuleTnosTan (qarTvelebTan) gaTiSvis, aramed rogorcgaerTianebis saSualebas. _ “abraamas, Cven ibrahimsveZaxiT, Cven magis Svilebi varT, qristiani, ebraeli.Cven kidev ismailidan movdivarT” (janiaSvili, 2008_ 2010)marTalia, amJamad qvemo qarTlSi salafiturislamuri mimdevarTa gaaqtiureba ar SeimCneva, magramaseTi perspeqtivis mTlianad gamoricxva ar SeiZleba.aWarasa da mesxeTSi salafituri islamis gavrceleba,qvemo qarTlisa da kaxeTis azerbaijanelebiTa daCrd. kavkasielebiT dasaxlebuli adgilebis aTviseba252 253


islamuri radikalizmis didi gamarjveba iqneba.Seikvreba pirdapiri gza aRmosavleTis islamuricentrebidan, CrdiloeT kavkasiis, Sua aziisa davolgispireTis regionebamde. aqve unda iTqvas, rommovlenaTa amgvari ganviTareba ewinaaRmdegebaazerbaijanis interesebsac, amitom iqauri saxelmwifoorganoebi aqtiur winaaRmdegobas uweven islamispolitizacias. Teoriulad, qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobaSiSemosvliT politikur islams azerbaijanSiSeWris saSualebac miecema. cnobilia, rom aRmosavleTsaqarTvelos Turqulenovani mosaxleoba azerbaijanispolitikur, ekonomikur da kulturulsferoSi moRvawe kadrebis Sevsebis erTgvar wyaroswarmoadgens.qvemo qarTlis azerabaijanelebi sakmaod loialurniarian sxva jgufebisa da, gansakuTrebiT,marTlmadidebeli qristianebis mimarT. maTi didnawili mowiwebiT epyroba qristianul Zeglebs. amfaqts gancvifrebaSi mouyvania sof. vaxtangisismoZRvari. RvTismsaxurma CvenTan saubrisas aRniSna,rom muslimi mSeneblebi bevrad ufro kargadmuSaobdnen taZris mSeneblobaze, vidre qarTvelebian somxebi. muslimebi meti pativiscemiT epyrobodnensaydars _ mag., ar eweodnen sigarets mis axlomaxlo,ar bilwistyvaobdnen da a.S.qristianul ritualebSi aqtiurad monawileobdaCveni azerbaijaneli respodentic sof. arsarvanidan_ “Cven marianobas [mariamobas l.j.]yovelTvis davdiodiT mezobeli soflis eklesiaSi(xatikSi). [somxebis sofelia, l.j.] mTeli azerbaijanelebiaRniSnavdnen. axla aRar dadian, radganacCvens sofelSi aaSenes meCeTi [yofili soflis sabWosSenoba gadaakeTes meCeTad, l.j.]. iq eklesiaa,dadiodnen da saklavsac klavdnen... me ki davdivarxolme marianobas isev manglisSi. Cemi coliqarTvelia, beqauri, da saxlSi isini aqvs (xatebi),yovel saRamos loculobs da jvars iweravs...Cveneburad ar ilocavs, naTqvamia jer Tavo da Tavoo”(janiaSvili 2008 _ 2010). unda aRiniSnos, romazerbaiajanelebi zogjer sxva qristianul ritualebSic(mag. giorgobaze) monawileoben. aseve, sakmaodxSiria muslimanur inciciaciaSi “suniaTSi” qristianis“qavorad” (naTliad) mowveva da a.S. bunebrivia,yovelive es mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs gansxvavebuleTnokenfesiur erTobebs Soris pozitiuridamokidebulebis gamyarebaSi (janiaSvili, 2010)postsabWour periodSi marTlmadidebeli qristianobaqvemo qarTlSic ganicdis aRmavlobas. mag.,walkaSi moqmedi eklesiis irgvliv gaerTianebulmrevlSi Sedian berZnebi (mcire raodenobiT) daqarTvelebi (svanebi da aWarlebi). qalaqi walka dResiqca erT-erT qristianul mikrocentrad. mis axlomaxlosoflebSi mcxovrebi aWarlebis nawili umtkivneulodgaqristianda. moZRvarisa da yofili gamgeblismondomebiT walkelebisaTvis dRes yvelaze dididResaswauli wyliT kurTxevaa (aiazma), romelicmariamobis marxvis wina dRes tardeba. dResaswaulzeaucilebelia wyalSi ganbanva, ganwmenda, raTa mariamobisdResaswauls Sexvdnen ganwmendilebi. esrituali, romelic Tavisi arsiT da vizualuradqristianulia, axalia da specialurad walkis mosaxleobisgasaerTianeblad iqna SemoRebuli.aseTive mikrocentri Seiqmna sof. oliangaSi,sadac daarsda mamaTa da dedaTa monasterebi. aqac,amave sofelSi Casaxlebuli aWarlebi moinaTlnenda religiurad – marTlmadideblobiT integrirebulniarian svanebTan da berZnebTan. magram arianiseTebic, romlebisTvisac warmoudgenelia qristianuliwesiT monaTvla da acxadeben: `RmerTmadagvifaros aseTi ramisagano”. aseTi msoflmxedvelobisaWarlebi walkisa da oliangis qristianulisamyarosgan moSorebiT cxovroben. qristianobam254 255


yofili muslimani (aWareli) da qristiani qarTveliberZenTan sarwmunoebrivi identobiT TaviseburadgaaerTiana. magram imas ki ver vityviT, rom islammaazerbaijaneli da aWareli igive xarisxiT daaxlova.aWarlebze mravali uryofiTi miTi iTxzeba somxurda berZnul mosaxleobaSic, romlebic berZenTamitovebuli saxlebidan aWarlebis mier xatebisgareT gatanis faqtebs pirad Seuracxyofad aRiqvamen(meliqiSvili 2008 _ 2010).rogorc iTqva, aWareli ekomigrantebis erTinawili marTlmadidebeli gaxda. bolnisis raionissof. disvelSi sxalTis xeobidan gadmosaxlebuliaWareli gviambobs _ “Cven sxalTelebs aWaraSi erTimudmivmoqmedi eklesia gvqonda, ianiCarebis dros erTimola Sesula Sig da qva Camovarda da Tavi gautexa.asi kacidan marto is amoirCies. amis mere veravinbedavda eklesiaSi Sesvlas da komunistebis drosacki moqmedi iyo. Cven xeobas kulturis mixedviT vercerTi xeoba ver edreba. ise, kaci rwmenas rom gamoicvlis,is ar indoba. axla am sofelSi 30 biWi gaqristianda.erTi eklesia avaSeneT kidec. me piradad rwmenaar gamomicvlia, aTeisti viyavi, komunisti da iseTivedavrCi. Cvens eklesias erTi biWi patronobs, Suaxevelia,didi pirovneba da swored maTi iniciativiTaigo es eklesia. ise, qristianebad ZiriTadad axalgazrdaxalxi moinaTla” (janiaSvili, 2009).gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba aqvT religiismimarT qvemo qarTlSi gasuli saukunis Sua xanebSiCamosaxlebul xevsurebs. marTalia, isini formaluradmarTlmadideblebi arian, magram zogierTiinarCunebs mamapapur rwmenas misi sinkretuli elementebiT,zogi ki ufro metad marTlmadidebeli purizmiTxasiaTdeba. gviambobs sofel gamarjvebis mkvidrixevsuri _ “ori welia, rac eklesia aaSenes _RvTismSoblis miZinebis taZari. ukve 35 stiqarosanigvyavs. amis gamo ufals did madlobas vwiravT. adrerom aeSenebinaT aq eklesia, amdeni seqtanti vergabedavda Semosvlas. sofelSi ieRovelebi, baptistebi,ormocda-aTianelebi Zalian bevria. maT iseTi kargidafinanseba aqvT, rom maTi Svilebi dasasvenebladmiyavT da skolis saxelmZRvaneloebiTac isini amarageben.ieRovelebSi ufro asakovani xalxia gaerTianebuli.rac Seexeba axalgazrdobas, isini baptisturorganizaciebSia gaerTianebuli. baptistebi ar arianagresiulebi da aravis ar upirispirdebian. ieRovelebisagangansxvavebiT, ar dadian kardakar da TavianTsarwmunoebas Tavs ar gaxveven” (meliqiSvili, 2010 _2010).zogierT xevsurs maincdamainc ar moswonseklesiebs rom aSeneben, radganac eklesiebSi “dadisiseTi xalxi, romelic kidec qurdobs, kidec meZavobsda ra vici, ras ar sCadis. xevsuri qali salocavTanar midis axlos, ar ekareba mas, eklesiaSi ki Sedis.kidev rasac unda, imas akeTeben eklesiebSi” (meliqi-Svili, 2008 _ 2010).aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTidan migrirebulimosaxleoba saerTod xasiaTdeba tradiciulirwmena-warmodgenebis erTgulebiT. isini cdiloben,axal adgilebSi SeinarCunon mama-papis sarwmunoeba.pankisis xeobaSi Casaxlebul qarTvel mTielebs,rogorc wesi, Tan mohqondaT mama-papiseuli salocavidanrelikvia da axal adgilas moawyobdnen salocavniSs. marTalia, eZnelebaT Ziri-xatis salocavSisiaruli, magram savaldebulod iTvleba weliwadSierTxel mainc moinaxulon igi (xuciSvili, 2002: 149).analogiuri mdgomareobaa sxva regionebSic. mesxeTSi,axalcixis raionis sof. fersaSi cxovroben warmomavlobiTgudamayreli mTielebi _ Coxelebi daafciaurebi. isini aq kaspis raionidan gadmosaxldnengasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebSi. fersadan amJamadacdadian TavianT sagvareulo salocavSi _ Coxsa dadumacxoSi. aqve dafiqsirebulia salocavi niSis256 257


mowyobis tradiciac. rodesac salocavs adgilsSeucvlian Zveli salocavidan wamoiReben raime nivTs(ufro xSirad qvas), Seasaxeleben kurats, rodesacigi sami an xuTi wlis gaxdeba, gauSveben da sadacgaCerdeba, iq daklaven. iqve gaakeTeben axal niSs dadadeben Zveli salocavidan wamoRebul qvas (jania-Svili, 1997: 28)sof. gamarjvebaSi xevsurebs, marTalia, niSi jerar aqvT, magram maTi xevisberis informaciiT, uaxloesxanebSi apireben mis mowyobas. aqauri xevsurebixSirad dadian winaparTa adgilebSi (SatilSi),Cveulebad aqvT Svilebis “jvarSi gayvanac” (jania-Svili, 2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobSi mravlad ariansomxuri qristianobis mimdevrebic. somexTa wmindasamociqulo marTlmadidebeli eklesia erT-erTiuZvelesi eklesiaa msoflioSi, romelic mravaliarsebiTi niSniT gansxvavdeba rogorc marTlmadidebeli,ise romis kaTolike eklesiisagan. religiaTmcodnenimas araqalkedonuri aRmosavlurieklesiebis jgufs miakuTvneben. saqarTveloSi moqmedebssomexTa eklesiis saqarTvelos eparqia, romlisrezidenciac TbilisSi mdebareobs (aleqsiZe, 2008:190).qvemo qarTlis somxebiT dasaxlebul soflebSi,rogorc wesi, aris eklesiebi, Tumca xSirad gvxvdebacalkeuli pirebis mier saxlebSi mowyobili mciresamlocveloebi. mag., SaumianSi eklesia aqvT, magramtertera ara hyavT da bavSvis naTlobas da jvriswerasZiriTadad eCmiaZinSi atareben. saxlis axlos ezoSiagebul sakuTar samlocveloebSi, e.w. `ojaxebiseklesiebSi” _ matur-Si loculoben.SaumianSi ramdenime maturi SemorCa, romlisinterieri eklesiis magvar mowyobilobis mcdelobaa.datvirTulia xatebiT, droSebiT, yvavilebiT, mcireqandakebebiT da saritualo jam-WurWliT.religiur niadagze daZabuli situacia SeimCnevasof. wereTelSi “dRes-dReisobiT TaTrebi Zalianmomravldnen da moZlierdnen. dRes yvelaferimagaTia: biznesi, miwa, maRaziebi, fuli. maT Zalianexmareba azerbaijanis mTavroba. aZleven sesxebs, romaq biznesi ganaviTaron. magaliTad, qarTvels romhqondes `marketi”, iq aravin ar Seva. bazarSi me romkargi Zroxis xorci Sevitano, Cemsas aravin iyidisda isev TaTrebTan garbian yvelafris sayidlad.somxebi isedac cotani iyvnen. esenic yidian saxlebsda midian aqedan, radganac TaTrebi maTac aviwroveben.maT meCeTic aqvT, Cven ki erTi eklesiac ar gvaqvs,rom vilocoT. erTaderTi eklesia wminda giorgissaxelobis aris mTaze da misasvlelad cota rTulia,ris gamoc xalxs uZneldeba iq yovel wuTSi salocavadmisvla. aseT ganukiTxaobaSi ieRovelebicmomravldnen, aRar eridebian xalxs. sadac undaT, iqatareben krebas. amas isic uwyobs xels, rom maTxelmZRvanelebs didi pativi da dafaseba aqvT mavanida mavanisagan. magaliTad, iyo am sofelSi ieRovelebiserTi meTauri, Zalian gamdidrda. waiyvanesCexeTSi. Semdeg man Tavisi biWic waiyvana da ieRovaswyalobiT iq didi Tanamdeboba miiRo. ieRovelebsmanqanebi akiTxavs da miyavT soflebSi saqadageblad.kongresi rom tardeba, sami dRis ganmavlobaSiavtobusebi emsaxurebaT. saWmel-sasmeli ufaso aqvT.mamakacebi Sarval-kostumebSi da halstuxiT ariangamowyobilni da saqadageblad ise dadian. Tu surviligaqvs da maT krebas daeswrebi, isini sixaruliTmigiReben. `erTi fexi WiSkarSi gaqvs, meore WiSkrisgareT, Semodgi meore fexic, WiSkris gareT ar darCeo”.ase xvdebian axalmisuls” (meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010)rac Seexeba “aratradiciul” konfesiebs, romlebicsakmaod gavrcelebulia mTels saqarTveloSi, maT qvemoqarTlSic SexvdebiT. am mimdinareobebma qarTvelebSi,somxebsa da azerbaijanelebSi SedarebiT advilad258 259


moikides fexi. Tumca zogierT jgufSi, gansakuTrebiTki aWarlebsa da berZnebSi SeRweva maT ufro gauWirdaT.“seqtantebi” ufro “nayofierad” moRvaweoben imsoflebSi, sadac tradiciuli religiis mimdevarTaricxvi naklebia. mag., sofel CivTqilisaSi (somxurisofeli walkis raionSi) TiTqmis aRaravin ar SediseklesiaSi. sof. qosalarSi (azerbaijanuli sofeliTeTriwyaros raionSi) erT-erTi SeZlebuli macxovrebeliaSenebs sakmaod did meCeTs. Tumca Tavadsoflis macxovrebelni amboben: “vin unda ilocosaq?” Cveni iq yofnisas qosalaris Zvel meCeTSisalocavad mxolod sami xanSisesuli adamiani Sevida(meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).qvemo qarTlis calkeul soflebSi sakmaodintensiurad moqmedebs ieRovas mowmeTa jgufi. undaiTqvas, rom “ieRovelobis” arsi rogorc mis mimdevrebs,ise sxvebsac naklebad aqvT gaazrebuli. mag.,aWareli informatori maT `winaswarmetyvelebs”uwodebs da acxadebs, rom “Cveni da maTi SexedulebebierTmaneTs Zalian emTxveva. maT ician, rac unda moxdesmomavalSi, rom muhamedi ibatonebs msoflioSi damahmadianoba iqneba mTavari religia. Cven da `winaswarmetyvelebi”TiTqmis yvela sakiTxSi veTanxmebiTerTmaneTs, amitom ieRovelebi xels ar gviSlian”(mRebriSvili, 2008 _ 2010)somexi informatori ambobs: `ieRovelebi CvenTaniyvnen, mogvitanes uamravi literatura. Zalian mogvewona,kai gaformebuli da dasuraTebulia. wavikiTxeT,ra gvaqvs sawinaaRmdego, yvelas aqvs ufleba, swamdesis, rac unda. me ratom unda davgmo maTi Sexedulebebi”(mRebriSvili, 2008 _ 2010).ieRovas mowmeTa umTavres debulebad iTvlebaqristes meored movlinebis rwmena, Taviseburiwarmodgena imqveyniur cxovrebaze. isini uaryofensulis ukvdavebas. maTi azriT, suli sxeulTan erTadkvdeba, magram ieso qristes movlinebasTan erTadmicvalebulebic aRsdgebian mkvdreTiT. isini uaryofensamebis erTarsebas da axali saxiT gvTavazoben qristesraobas. ieRova _ es aris samyaros Semqmneli, yovlis-SemZle, RmerTi _ qriste ki mxolod Ze RvTisa, anupirveli angelozi, Ze sayvareli mxolodSobili.suliwmida _ RmerTis moqmedi Zalaa, romlis saSualebiTacSeqmna ieRovam mze, varskvlavebi da samyaro.`qristem Tu raime saswauli moaxdina mxolod mamisZaliT da daxmarebiT. mama Cemze maRlaao” _ gangvimartavsmTxrobeli, zogis azriT ki _ qriste arisufali, magram masze ar unda vilocoT. isini amboben:`rodesac qriste iyo dedamiwaze man Tqva: mamazeiloceT, is didia Cemzeo”. ieRova es aris samyarosSemqmneli yovlisSemZle. qriste aris mxolod ZeRvTisa, anu pirveli angelozi, Ze sayvareli mxolod-Sobili. suliwminda RmerTis momqmedi Zalaa, romlissaSualebiTac Seqmna mze, varskvlavebi da samyaro.RvTismSobeli mariami aris qristes deda. ufalmamariami mxolod sufTa WurWlad gamoiyena, raTa eSvaqriste, romelsac kacobriobis codvebi unda gamoesyida(mRebriSvili, 2008 _ 2010).ieRovas mowmeebi uaryofen Sobas da aRdgomas,xatebs, eklesiebs, micvalebulTa sulebs, nebismierwes-Cveulebas, romelic micvalebulTan aris dakavSirebuli.ar iReben monawileobas samxedro samsaxurSida msgavs saqmianobaSi. isini uaryofen agreTvesisxlis pirdapir gadasxmas, radganac, “sxvisi sisxliaravin ar icis, riT aris dabinZurebuliO” (mRebri-Svili, 2008 __ 2010).xatebi, miT umetes RmerTis gamosaxulebiT,dauSvebelia: `vis unaxavs RmerTi, rom imisi saxedaxatos? iesos saxe yvelgan sxvadasxvanairad arisdaxatuli e. i. saWiro ar aris misi daxatva” _ ambobsinformatori. rac Seexeba suls, romelic adamianissikvdilis merec ganagrZobs arsebobas, maTTvismiuRebelia. isini amboben: `gankiTxvis mere yvela260 261


aRsdgeba suliT da xorcSesxmuli, ar aRsdgeba martoadami da eva, radganac maT RmerTs ar daujeres da,miuxedavad gafrTxilebisa, nayofi mainc igemes”. yvelaadamiani Tavisi namoqmedaris mixedviT gasamarTldeba.vinc moinaniebs RmerTi mas Seundobs, radganackeTilia. vinc RmerTs `ieRovas” saxeliT ar moixseniebs,is xelmeored mokvdeba (mRebriSvili, 2008 _2010).Taviseburi damokidebuleba aqvT naTlobismimarTac. kategoriulad miuReblad miaCniaT CvilibavSvis ganaTvla, radganac maTi mrwamsiT, bavSvmaaraferi icis RmerTis da bibliis Sesaxeb, rocagaizrdeba da gaerkveva yvelaferSi, is TviTongaakeTebs arCevans. oeRovas mowmeebi dResaswaulebsnaklebad aRniSnaven. isini mxolod jvarcmas aRiareben.Tumca amboben _ jvars ar unda emTxvio, qriste xomjvarze gaakres-o. WeSmariti morwmunisaTvis misaRebiamxolod is, rac bibliaSi weria. rac bibliaSi araris, is arc aRniSvnis Rirsia, _ amboben isini. qristesjvarcmis dRes, acxoben xmiadebs da RvinosTan erTadmagidaze awyoben. mere morwmuneebs Soris Camoatarebenda isev magidaze daabruneben. aqve kiTxuloben“moxsenebebs”. xmiadis Wamis ufleba ar aqvT. miaCniaT,rom sam dReSi xmiadi sakralur mniSvnelobas kargavsda mas an ZaRls aWmeven, an gadayrian. Rvinos kisufrasTanve Rvrian (mRebriSvili, 2008).ieRovas mowmeebis azriT, rodesac qristezeTisxilis mTaze avida da iq daiwyo locva, manamiT eklesiebi da mRvdlebi uarhyo, amitomarmagedonis dros daingreva eklesiebi, daisjebayvela mRvdeli, xolo religia aRar iarsebebs.mRvdlebi matyuarebi da fulismoyvarulebi arian.isini sanTlebisa da saeklesio nivTebis gayidviTmdidrdebian, qristes ki fuli da simdidre Zalianejavreboda (mRebriSvili, 2008).ieRovas mowmeebi uars acxadeben samxedrosamsaxurze. samuSaos isini irCeven imis mixedviT,sadac maTi mrwamsi ar SeibRaleba. maTi valdebulebebiRmerTis winaSe imiT ganisazRvreba, rom undaiqadagon, rac SeiZleba meti urwmuno moaqcion`WeSmarit” rwmenaze. iesom jer TerTmeti kaci gamoiyvanasaqadageblad, mere ormocdaaTi. isini daanawilasoflebSi da uTxra: `midiT, daakakuneT karebze, Tuiq viqnebi, gagiReben, Tu ara da fexebi daibertyeTda gamodiT. es niSnavs im ojaxis dawyevlas da vaiimas, vis zRurblze fexebs daibertyavs” (mRebriSvili,200 _ 2010). amitomac isini Zalas da energias arzogaven, raTa rac SeiZleba meti xalxi gadaibironda TavianTi zegavlenis qveS moaqcion. Tu moaxerxesda erTi adamiani mainc Semates TavianT rigebs, maSin“ieRovas madlobas daimsaxureben”.mestiis raionidan 1989 wels Camosaxlebuliinformatori gviambobs: “rodesac svaneTidan sacxovrebladam sofelSi gadmovediT, miuxedavad imisa,rom aq aranairi eklesia ar iyo, rom gveloca, Cvenmainc SeZlebisdagvarad vaxerxebdiT svanuri mamapapiseulidResaswaulebis aRniSvnas. erTxelacmivdiodi saxlSi da gzaSi ieRovelebi Semxvdnen.gamomelaparaknen da mTxoves momesmina maTTvis. meuari vuTxari da avuxseni, rom var qristianimarTlmadidebeli da ar minda Tqveni rwmenis Sesaxebraime vicode. maT ZaliT mainc SemomaCeCes TavianTiwignebi da miTxres `icode, rom Sen qristiani jerar xaro”. saxlSi rom movedi wignebis kiTxva daviwyeda Tan vadarebdi axal aRTqmas. vnaxe, rom axalaRTqmaSi rac ewera, igive iyo maT wignebSic. marTlac,ra mqonda sawinaaRmdego. mivedi maTTan da ase gavxdimaTi wevri. me kiTxva-pasuxebi bibliidan maT zedamxedvelsCavabare. moewonaT. amis mere momnaTlesda dRevandlamde am organizaciis wevri var.262 263


yvelafers, rasac ieRova iTxovs Cemgan, vasruleb”(mRebriSvili, 2009).monaTvla Tavisi wesis mixedviT, ieRovas mowmeebisrwmeniT, aucilebelia, radganac amiT qriste “niSansadebs”. gankiTxvis dros is Tavis angelozs gamogzavnisda etyvis: `Cemi xalxi gadamirCineo”, amiT maTi cnobagaadvildeba. fuli, maTi azriT, aris damRupveli.vinc fulze da simdidreze fiqrobs, maT RmerTisaTvisdro aRar rCeba. “ecvlebaT xasiaTi da RmerTze maRlaayeneben fuls, amitom aseTi xalxis adgili CvensrigebSi ar aris” (mRebriSvili, 2009).svaneTidan Camosuli erTi-erTi ekomigrantimogviTxrobs: “mestiidan sacxovreblad dmanisisraionSi gadmovedi. aq Sevxvdi ieRovelebs da maTrwmenaSi Sevedi. mamapapuri wes-Cveulebebs da religiurdResaswaulebs aRar vasruleb. metic, is rwmenawarmodgenebiSecdomad mimaCnia, ganvlili cxovrebaki fuWad da dakargul wlebad. Tormeti welia ukve,rac ieRovas mimdevari var. roca Cven ieRovas mowmeebivxdebiT, e.i. vtovebT Zvels da viwyebT RvTisTvisaxal cxovrebas. ieRovas mowmeebSi bevri gvyavs yofilimkvleli, meZavi, qurdi. isini monaniebis Semdeg cudsaqmes aRar sCadian. Cveni xalxi fulze da fufunebazear fiqrobs. mas, vinc fuls da simdidresaa gamokidebuli,RmerTisTvis dro aRar rCeba” (mRebriSvili,2008 _ 2010).ieRovas mowmeebi Caketili arian Tavis jgufSida pasiuroben sazogadoebriv da saxelmwifo saqmianobaSi.maT ar iwveven jarSi da “omic rom daiwyos daqveyanas mteri Semoesios _ rogorc TviTon amboben_xelsac ar gaanZreven samSoblos dasacavad, radganacyvela daiRupeba da mxolod ieRovas mowmeebi gadar-Cebian” (meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).saerTod, qvemo qarTli, SeiZleba iTqvas, aramarto konfesiaTa siWreliT gamoirCeva, aramed imiTac,rom zogi adamiani rwmenas Taviseburad ganixilavsda ritualebsac Taviseburad asrulebs. zogierTiTvlis, rom locvisaTvis meCeTSi Sesvla ar arissaWiro. “me miwaze viCoqeb da vloculob imitom,rom miwa var da isev miwaSi Caval” (mRebriSvili,2008 _ 2010).rogorc velze gamovlenilma masalam gviCvena,regionSi arsebuli sxvadasxva religiuri mimarTulebisjgufebi xasiaTdebian jgufTaSorisi gaucxoebiTda Sinagani integraciis maRali xarisxiT,rasac Sidajgufuri religiuri identoba uwyobsxels. SeiZleba laparaki sxvadasxva konfesiebis(ieRovas mowmeebi, baptistebi, ormocdaaTianelebi dasxv.) Tanaarsebobaze, radgan isini sakmaod mcirericxovaniarian da erTmaneTis sazRvrebSi ar iWrebian.Tumca susti, magram dapirispireba mainc vlindebadmanisSi azerbaijanel muslimanebsa da qarTvelebs,kerZod, svanebs, Soris. marTlmadideblebi cdiloben,rac SeiZleba meti simbolo warmoaCinon, rasac sxvadasxvaadgilebSi uzarmazari jvris dadgmiT gamoxataven.qristianebSi did ukmayofilebas iwvevs muslimanebismcdeloba meCeTis agebis Taobaze.sofel sionSi Taviseburi situaciaa. aq orieklesiaa _ wminda giorgis _ grigorianuli (sufgevorqi) da wminda mariamis (qarTuli marTlmadidebeli)saxelobis eklesiebi. am eklesiebSi dResaswaulebze(28 agvistos _ mariamobas da 23 noembers _giorgobas) dadian rogorc qarTvelebi, ise somxebi“. . .azerbaijanelebic gvierTdebian. mTavaria rwmenagqondes, iqnebi qristiani Tu mahmadiani, unda gwamdesRmerTi, locvaSi inanieb Sens codvebs da cdilobiyo ukeTesi da mimtevebeli. amiT cdilob iyo RmerTTanaxlos. ai, es aris rwmenaSi mTavari. Cven mRvdeli argvyavs. Cveni Tavis mRvdlebic Cven varT da mlocvelebic.yvela erTad varT. aq svanebic cxovroben. imaTmacalke koSki aiSenes da iq loculoben. azerbaijanelebsTavianTi sasaflaoc ki ar aqvT calke. Cven264 265


sasaflaoze asaflaveben, somxebTan da qarTvelebTan.Cvens Soris aranairi gansxvaveba ar aris, arc locvaSi,arc tradiciebSi, da saerTod vinvin aris, verc vgrZnobT.an ra erovnebis varT. diliT vinc pirveli Segxvdeba,im enaze vesalmebiT erTmaneTs” (meliqiSvili 2008 _2010).“religiuri tolerantobis” amgvari movlena bevrsofelSi SeiniSneba. rac ar unda gasakviri iyos,sadaxloSi suniti da Siiti muslimanebi erTmaneTismimarT keTilganwyobileni arian. “Cvens SorisaraviTari dapirispireba ar aris. Cven erTi xalxivarT. roca Siitebi sofel damiaSi “Saxsei-vaxseis”rituals asruleben, Cvenc (sunitebi) veswrebiT. is kiara, zogierTi sadaxloeli (suniti) raimes SeuTqvamsda eqvs kilometrs gaivlis fexSiSvela gvemiT dauerTdeba Siitebs” (meliqiSvili 2008 _ 2010)gansxvavebuli religiebis mimdevarTa urTierTobainterkulturuli urTierTobis mniSvnelovan momentswarmoadgens. muslimani sasuliero piri winadacveTis(suniaTis) ritualis aRwerisas gviambobs _ “ai abraamamkiTxa RmerTs _ me rogor vicode, ro es xalxi Cemia?RmerTisgan movida brZaneba, rom gaakeTon sunaTi,raTa icodes, rom es xalxi Cvenia. axla ebraelebicakeTeben sunaTs, rogorc Cveni musulmanebi, abramasSviliSvilebi. eg jer erTi, eqimis mixedviT sisufTavea.ar SeiZleba kaci musulmani iyos da ar iyos dasuna-Tebuli. eg iqneba qristianiviT. pirveli “grexia”.qirva SeiZleba iyos ebraelic da qristianic. Cemialali naTlia kaspidan aris, qarTvelia, qristiani.magas didi gansxvaeba ar aqvs. magas vinc akeTebs,gind eqimi, gind xelosani locvas ityvis da eg aris.axla axalgazrdebSi qirurgebi akeTeben. jer erTi,eg sisufTavea, da ebraelebi Tavidan akeTeben. magaTSiTu kaci ar aris monaTluli, ar damarxaven. axlaqurTebi TbilisSi ro cxovroben, asi wlisac romiyos, Tu ar monaTles, ar damarxaven. egeTia wesi,eseni soncepaklonikebi, arian arc qristianebi, arcmusulmanebi” (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).miuxedavad Tavisi muslimanobisa, igi uars arityoda qristianul ritualSi monawileobaze daukvirs, rom amis nebas qristianuli mrwamsi ar aZlevs_“Cemi mezobeli iyo osi, magas yavda ori biWi, Zaliankargad viyaviT. magan miTxra, mominaTle bavSvebio.mere magan wavida da kiTxa mRvdels, Cemi mezobelia,Zalian kargi morwmune kacia, Tu SeiZleba bavSvimominaTloso. mRvdelma uari uTxra, maSin magan Cvenirwmena unda miiRoso. CvenTan egeTi ram ar aris, kidevvimeoreb, ginda qristiani iyos, ginda ebraeli iyos, rajiSis adamianic ginda, Cven gvaqvs ufleba, romdavajinoT magis muxlebze bavSvi da movnaTloT.Tan kidev Tqven Tu iciT musulmanebSi aris kidev,Cveni yvelaze siyvaruli aris Cveni naTlia, Zmazecwin aris, dazec. imitom rom tradiciaa aseTi. qirvasigive ufleba-movaleobebi aqvs, rac ojaxis ufros wevrs.ai magaliTad, me myavs ufrosi biWi. magazec is arisufrosi (aWarlis xma – mSoblis adgils ikavebs).qirvas Svilze daqorwineba SeuZlebelia, ai rogorcqristianebSia” (janiaSvili, 2008 _ 2010).sofeli vaxtangisi sazRvrispira azerbaijanelebiTdasaxlebuli sofelia. aq aris wmindanikolozis moqmedi taZari. moZRvari yvela dResaswaulsjandaraSi atarebs, radganac mrevli iq hyavs.magram eklesiaSi masTan azerbaijanelebic modian.anTeben sanTels, romelic TviTon moaqvT. azerbaijanelebiqarTvelebis mimarT Zalian keTilganwyobilnida loialurebi arian. arian iseTebic, romlebicinaTlebian qristianulad, magram gaazrebulad.magaliTad, erT-erTs unda moenaTla qristiani bavSvi,amitom jer TviTon moinaTla qristianad da meremonaTla bavSvi. “xuTi welia aq vmsaxurob da sadmerom mivdivar jer kari ar damiketavs da arc araferiar damikargavs. es faqti me mgoni metyvelebs imaze,266 267


om Tu keTili neba aris da gaazrebulad iqnebadagegmili, Tu ra unda gakeTdes rTul regionebSida ras unda mieqces yuradReba, albaT problemebicufro advili dasaZlevi iqneba” ambobs eklesiismoZRvari (meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).rogorc vxedavT, sakvlev regionSi religiissuraTi Taviseburadaa warmodgenili. marTmadidebelieklesiebi, zogan axali da zogan aRdgenili, cdilobenmrevlis Semokrebas. aseve muslimani mosaxleobaikribeba Zveli Tu axali meCeTebis garSemo dacxovrebis wesis religiuri mrwamsiT gansazRvrascdilobs; paralelurad dasturdeba warmarTuliritualebis arsebobac. amas gansakuTrebiT axalmosaxlesvanebi asruleben da Tan zedmiwevniTsrulad. yoveli qristianuli dResaswauli aqac, iseve,rogorc svaneTSi, gajerebulia warmarTuli ritualebiT.vaxtangisSi, eklesiis moZRvari mogviTxrobs:“jandaraSi, lemSvenieraSic vwirav. iq svanuridasaxlebaa. saocaria, magram iq oTxi patara eklesiaaqvT, ubnebis da SeiZleba iTqvas, gvarebis mixedviT.pirvel da meoTxe ubnis taZarSi ar SemiSves wirvisTvis,raRac gadasakeTebeliao. mesame ubanSi ki vwiravdi,magram arcerTi sxva ubnidan salocavad ar modiodnen.ver gaerTiandnen jer, rom erTad movidnen wirvaze.meoTxe ubanSi davdgiT trapezi. giorgobas, wirvasrom vatarebdi, svanebic gareT atarebdnen Tavisrituals. me SigniT vwiravdi da garedan imaTi xmaSemodioda. ritualis Sesrulebisas mirTmeul araysmosvamdnen da danarCens ki bidonSi asxavdnen. raTqma unda nel-nela xmas uwevendnen da rogorimosasmenia Cems wirvasTan erTad. (icinis). me rocavwirav kacebi eklesiaSi Semodian, qalebi gareTdganan. roca qalebi Semoviyvane, kacebi gareT gavidnen.saklavsac klaven. nel-nela mieCvevian, iswavlian. meaxalgazrdebis imedi maqvs. isini wirvaze aqeT,vaxtangisSi modian.” (meliqiSvili 2008 _ 2010).rogorc vnaxeT, qvemo qarTlis regionSi, iseve,rogorc mTels saqarTveloSi, tradiciul religiaTagverdiT, damkvidrebas cdiloben sxva religiurimimdinareobebi (ieRovas mowmeebi, ormocdaaTianelebida a.S.). es procesi obieqturi mizezebiTaa ganpirobebuli,magram sazogadoebaSi garkveuli daZabulobisprovocirebas ganapirobebs. mdgomareobas arTulebsis, rom, erTis mxriv, aucilebelia religiis sferoSitolerantuli ganwyoba da mimtevebloba, radganyovel adamians konstituciiT garantirebuli aqvsrwmenis Tavisufleba; meores mxriv ki sazogdoebaSiSiSs iwvevs axali religiuri mimdinareobis moZalebada konfesiaTa Soris arsebuli winaaRmdegobebi.informatorTa ganmartebiT “kacma ar icis es seqtebirogor moubrundeba saqarTvelos”. gavrcelebuliSexedulebiT, seqtebis ukan mdidari organizaciebidgas, romlebic gaWirvebis periodSi ekonomikuridaxmarebiT “yiduloben” rwmenas. amis gamo “axalreligiaSi” metwilad gaWirvebuli fena midis. isiniganudgnen tradiciul Rirebulebebs da erTgvar“renegatebs” warmoadgenen. gansakuTrebiT mwvavedaRiqmeba titularuli eTnosis warmomadgenlebis sxvakonfesiaSi gadasvla, radgan marTlmadideblobasaqarTvelos mosaxleobis did nawilSi eTnikur identurobasda saxelmwifoebriobas ukavSirdeba.aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom konfesiaTa nawiliaRiarebs saqarTvelos, rogorc qristianul qveyanas,sadac qarTulma marTlamadidebelma eklesiam undaiqadagos qristianoba. isini ar ewevian aqtiur misionerulsaqmianobas, qvelmoqmedebis SemTxvevaSi armouwodeben adamianebs maT eklesiebSi siarulisken(abaSiZe, 2002: 8). cnobilia isic, rom 2002 wlisoqtomberSi gaformda konkordati. saxelmwifomkonkordatiT aRiara, rom valdebulia, cnos saqarTvelosteritoriaze moqmed religiur organizaciaTa268 269


garkveuli rangireba da qarTuli marTlmadidebelieklesiis gansakuTrebuloba.am viTarebaSi marTlmadidebeli sazogadoebiserT nawilSi Cndeba cduneba qristianobis saxelmwiforeligiad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb. Tumca amgvariganwyobas Tavad saeklesio pirebis gonieri nawiliewinaaRmdegeba. miaCniaT, rom sekularizacia qristianobiswin gadaSlis garkveul perspeqtivebs, romelicmas ar gaaCnia klasikur religiur garemoSi (henriki,2008: 62). am pozicias istoriuli argumentebiTacamagreben. kerZod, mefis ruseTSi, sadac eklesiassaxelmwifoebrivi statusi hqonda, xelisuflebisdiskreditaciam eklesiis diskreditireba gamoiwvia(papuaSvili, 2001: 166).kvlevam gamoavlina, rom sxvaTa religiurRirebulebebs konfesiuri jgufi afasebs opoziciurimidgomis “Cven _ isini” mixedviT. _ “Cven sxva mrwamsigvaqvs, sxva xalxi varT _ isini sxvebi arian.” regionSiigrZnoba gaucxoeba da negatiuri stereotipebi erTmaneTis(gansakuTrebiT ki aratradiciuli religiurimimdinareobebis, mag. ieRovis mowmeebis) mimarT, racmiuTiTebs, rom saWiroa am mimarTebiT sazogadoebamgarkveuli nabijebi gadadgas. amasTanave, arsebobspozitiuri gamocdilebac: regionSi yvelaze mravalricxovanimuslimanuri Temi loialuradaa ganwyobilititularuli eTnosis religiisadmi. maT bunebrivadmiaCniaT saxelmwifos mier marTlmadidebel eklesisTandadebuli konkordatiT, misTvis miniWebuli uflebebi.sakmaod xSiria tradiciuli religiebis (islamis,marTlmadidebluri da araqalkedonuri qristianobis)warmomadgenelTa monawileoba erTmaneTisritualebSi. yovelive es iZleva safuZvels vivaraudoT,rom religia SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli regionismosaxleobis interkulturul dialogSi.gamoyenebuli literatura1. a b a S i Z e levan, religiuri urTierTobebi postsabWouriperiodis saqarTvelSi, religiur urTierTobaTasamarTlebrivi regulirebis zogierTi aspeqti, Tb., 2002.2. a l e q s i Z e zaza, somexTa wminda samociqulomarTlmadidebeli eklesia, religiebi saqarTveloSi,Tbilisi, 20083. k o r n e l i s v a n t e, religia, rogorc faqtorikavkasiur konfliqtebSi, civilizaciuri Ziebani #1, Tb.2003.4. m a c a b e r i Z e daviT, eTnikuri, religiuri dapolitikuri faqtorebis Tanafardoba kavkasiis konfliqtebSi(postsabWoTa periodi), civilizaciuri Ziebani #4,Tbilisi 2006.5. m e l i q i S v i l i lia, qvemo qarTlis saveleeTnografiuli eqspediciis DdRiurebi (2008-2010).6. m R e b r i S v i l i lali, qvemo qarTlis eqspediciisdRiurebi (2008-2010).7. p a p u a S v i l i nugzar, islami, religiebi saqarTveloSi,Tbilisi, 2008.8. foq s i j on a T a n, eTnoreligiuri konfliqtebimesame samyaroSi: religiis, rogorc konfliqtis mizezisroli, civilizaciuri Ziebani #3, Tbilisi, 2005.9. q u r d i a n i mixeil, civilizaciaTa dialogisreligiuri safuZvlebi, logosi, #5, Tbilisi, 2008.10. x i n C a g a S v i l i SoTa, religiis faqtori kavkasiiskonfliqtebSi (1990-iani wlebi), civilizaciuri Ziebani #1,Tb. 2003.11. x u c i S v i l i lia, religiuri orientaciissakiTxebi polieTnikur sazogadoebaSi, //usafrTxoebisstrategiis eTnikuri aspeqtebi (pankisis krizisi), Tbilis,2002.12. j a n i a S v i l i lavrenti, qvemo qarTlis saveleeTnografiuli eqspediciis dRiurebi (2008-2010).13. j a n i a S v i l i lavrenti, marneulis eqspediciisdRiuri, 2006.270 271


14. j a n i a S v i l i lavrenti, qvemo qarTlisazerbaijanelebis Tanamedrove qarTul sazogadoebaSiintegraciis eTnokulturuli aspeqtebi, istoriuleTnografiuli krebuli, XII, Tb., 2011.15. j a n i a S v i l i lavrenti, eTnikuri procesebisamcxe-javaxeTSi, politika, #1-3, 1997.16. j u k a S v i l i irine, qvemo qarTlis mivlinebisdRiuri, 2003.17. h a n T i n g t o n i s e m u e l, “civilizaciaTaSejaxeba da msoflio wesrigis gardaqmna” Targmna ninoCiqovanma, internet versia http://polittheory.wordpress.com/2010/02/08/.18. m R v d e l i h e n r i k ( p a p r o c k i), eklesiebisekularizaciis pirispir: misi gavlena da sapasuxoreaqcia, logosi, #5, Tbilisi, 2008.19. В а с и л е в Алексей Михайлович, История СаудовскойАравии (1745-1973), М., 1982.20. Д а в ы д о в М.Н., Деятельность турецкой религиознойсекты «Нурджулар» , internet-versia, http://www.iimes.ru/rus/stat/2007/03-11-07b.htm21. Н а б и е в А.М. Поселения и жилища азербайджанцевпроживавших в Грузии в конце XIX начале XX вв. (По материаламКвемо-Картлийской историко-этнографической области), Авторефератдиссертации на соискание ученой степени КИН, Тб. 1981.22. П а п уа ш в и л и Тамаз, К вопросу о поринципах взаимоотношениймежду государством и православной церквью Грузии,Центральная Азия и Кауказ, №3 (15), 2001.23. A b u - N i me r M o h a mme d, Conflict Resolution, Culture,and Religion: Toward a Training Model of Interreligious PeacebuildingJournal of Peace Research, Vol. 38, No. 6 (Nov., 2001).24. B a r a n Z e y n o, S. F r e d e r i c k S t a r r & S va n t e E.C o r n e l l, Islamic Radicalism in Central Asia and the Caucasus:Implications for the EU, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and Silk RoadStudies Program, 2006.25. B i e b e r F l o r i a n, Muslim Identity in the Balkans Beforethe Esteblishment of Nation States, Nationalities Papers, vol, 28, #1, 2000.26. S a h l i y e h (ed.) E m i l e, Religious Resurgence and Politicsin the Contemporary World (New York: StateUniversity of New York Press,1990).interkulturuli ganaTleba, rogorcpolieTnikuri sazogadoebis usafrTxoebisuzrunvelyofis erT-erTi meqanizmisaqarTvelo dResac, iseve, rogorc istoriulad,warmoadgens polieTnikur da multikonfesiur qveyanas,sadac sxva religiebisa da eTnikuri jgufebiswarmomadgenlebi ara mxolod cxovroben da moRvaweoben,aramed ganapirobeben sazogadoebrivi cxovrebissocialur-fsiqologiur klimats da amiT garkveulwiladzegavlenas axdenen qveynis erTian politikur,socialur da ekonomikur suraTze.eTnikur da religiur mravalferovnebasTanerTad, saqarTvelos lingvisturi mravalferovnebacaxasiaTebs. Tumca qarTuli ena saxelmwifo enaasaqarTvelos mTels teritoriaze, qarTulis garda,saqarTveloSi sxva iberiul-kavkasiuri, indoevropuli,Turquli da semituri enebia gavrcelebuli (gabunia,ezugbaia, qiria. 2010: 3).amdenad, qarTuli ena ar aris erTaderTi sakomunikacioena mosaxleobisaTvis. sxvadasxva eTnikurjgufTa enebi maTi dasaxlebis teritoriebis mixedviTsxvadasxva intensivobiTa da sixSiriT aris gavrcelebulisaqarTvelos sxvadasxva raionSi da, Sesabamisad,gamoiyeneba socialuri cxovrebis sxvadasxva doneze:saojaxo, yofiT Tu oficialur urTierTobebSi. amenebs gansxvavebuli statusi da funqcia aqvT. esgansakuTrebiT exeba eTnikuri umciresobebiT kompaqturaddasaxlebul regionebsa da raionebs. aqumTavresad gamoiyeneba somxuri, azerbaijanuli darusuli enebi. kompaqturad dasaxlebuli eTnikuriumciresobebis warmomadgenelTa didma nawilmasrulebiT ar icis an Zalian cudad icis saxelmwifo_qarTuli ena da, amdenad, aq mosaxleobis didinawilisTvis saojaxo da yofiT sakomunikacio enas272 273


maTi mSobliuri ena warmoadgens. rac Seexebaoficialur enas _ qarTuls, romelic dRevandelsaqarTveloSi ara mxolod saxelmwifo enaa, arameddominantur kulturasTan (qarTvelebTan) sakomunikacioenacaa, misi gamoyeneba ver xerxdeba arcodnisgamo. Sedegad, saqarTvelos regionebSi kompaqturaddasaxlebuli eTnikuri umciresobebi xSiradCaketilni arian sakuTar sakomunikacio sivrceSi,mowyvetilni arian qveynis sazogadoebriv cxovrebasda naklebad, an sruliad ver iReben monawileobaspolitikur da socialur cxovrebaSi.sabWoTa kavSiris dros Tumca qveynis saxelmwifoena qarTuli iyo, magram dominantur mosaxleobasada eTnikur jgufebs Soris sakomunikacio enas rusuliena warmoadgenda. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlisa dadamoukidebeli saqarTvelos mSeneblobis Sedegad,rusuli ena bunebrivad “amovarda” sxvadasxva eTnikurjgufebs Soris sakomunikacio saSualebaTa nakrebidan.sxvadasxva subieqturi Tu obieqturi mizezisgamo, qarTuli enis aTviseba ver moxerxda da eTnikuriumciresobebi faqtobrivad mowyvetilni aRmoCndnenqveynis sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisgan.bolo wlebSi saqarTveloSi mimdinare demokratiuliprocesebis da reformebis fonze, samoqalaqosazogadoebis Camoyalibebisa da misi ganviTarebisTvismetad aqtualuri gaxda saqarTveloSimcxovreb sxvadasxva eTnikur jgufTa samoqalaqointegracia.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am procesSi, sxvafaqtorebTan erTad, gadamwyveti roli aqvs saerTosakomunikacio enis arsebobas, romlis funqciasac,cxadia, saxelmwifo ena unda asrulebdes. amdenad,araqarTulenovani mosaxleobisTvis saxelmwifo enisswavleba qveynis ganviTarebisTvis aucilebeliumniSvnelovanesi amocanaa. miznis misaRwevadganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministrom dargisucxoel da adgilobriv eqspertebTan erTadSeimuSava specialuri politikis dokumenti, rac, raTqma unda, myar politikur da sakanonmdeblosafuZvels qmnis saqarTvelos multieTnikurregionebSi qarTuli enis Seswavlis specialuriprogramebis realizaciisTvis. skolisa Tu ufrofarTo sazogadoebis doneze SemuSavebuli sxvadasxvaprogramebis efeqtiani danergvisTvis mniSvnelovaniaswavla-swavlebis komponentebis srulyofa, kvalificiuripedagogebis momzadeba, maRali xarisxis saswavloprogramebisa da saxelmZRvaneloebis SemuSaveba.Sesabamisad, aqtualuri sakiTxia am mimarTulebiTganaTlebis sistemis reformireba da multi-lingvuriganaTlebis politikis gatareba. aRniSnuli mimarTulebaaisaxa saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier damtkicebultolerantobisa da samoqalaqo integraciisprogramaSi, xolo konkretulad gaiwera ganaTlebisada mecnierebis saministros “multilingvuri ganaTlebispolitikis strategiaSi”, romelic SemuSavdaeuTos erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi komisrisofisTan TanamSromlobiT latvieli da qarTvelieqspertebis mier. strategiis paralelurad, ganaTlebisda mecnierebis ministris mier 2009 wlis 31martis brZanebiT damtkicda “multilingvuriganaTlebis programa”, romlis Sesabamisad SeirCa 40araqarTulenovani skola multilingvuri programebispilotirebisaTvis (bilingvuri 2009; grigule 2010:31-43; Wanturia 2010: 2-6; http://www.mes.gov.ge; http://www.ncac.ge).ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro araerTnabijs dgams aRniSnuli programis efeqturadrealizebisTvis. saministroSi muSaoben ucxoeli daqarTveli eqspertebi multilingvuri ganaTlebisregulaciebis SemuSavebaze, mSoblebisTvis multilingvurida interkulturuli ganaTlebis Sesaxebsainformacio masalis miwodebaze, araqarTulenovani274 275


skolis administraciis momzadebaze multilingvuriprogramebis SemuSavebisa da implementaciisaTvis.aRsaniSnavia, rom am mimarTulebiT adgilobrivmada saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebmacaraerTi aqtivoba ganaxorcieles: sajaro skolebSidainerga qarTulis, rogorc meore enis swavlebapirveli klasidan. tardeba samecniero kvlevebi,treningebi maswavleblebisTvis, mzaddeba saxelmZRvaneloebida sxv. araqarTulenovani regionebis ramdenimeskolaSi moxda bilingvuri swavlebis pilotireba.ganxorcielebulma aqtivobebma da maTi Sedegebisanalizma aCvena, rom araqarTulenovan mosaxleobasaqvs maRali motivacia, daeuflon saxelmwifo enas.amavdroulad, arsebobs garkveuli SeSfoTebac,romelic dafuZnebulia sakuTari enisa da kulturisdakargvis SiSTan da dominantur mosaxleobasTankulturuli asimilaciis safrTxis gancdasTan(beikeri 2010; gabunia, ezugbaia, qiria. 2010; gabunia2010: 21-29; rekomendaciebi, 2008; wereTeli 2010: 21-29;Церетели, 2008: 209-215).saqarTvelo polieTnikuri qveyanaa da am mxrivar warmoadgens gamonakliss msoflioSi. Tumca,qveynebi gansxvavdebian eTnikur umciresobaTa samoqalaqoda iuridiuli statusiT, migraciebis raodenobiT,eTnikur umciresobaTa Soris asimilaciisaTu integraciis motivaciiT da sxv., magram TiTqmisyvela qveyanaSi sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis erTsaxelmwifo sivrceSi mSvidobiani socialuri, politikurida fsiqologiuri Tanacxovrebis mogvarebiserT erT ZiriTad instrumentad interkulturuliganaTlebis sistemis ganviTareba da danergvaamiCneuli (tabataZe, nacvliSvili, 2008).interkulturuli ganaTleba _ es aris konceptualur-ideologiurimimdinareoba Tanamedrovedemokratiuli sazogadoebis ganaTlebis praqtikaSi.igi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba iseT qveynebSi, sadac arispolieTnikuri mosaxleoba an mZlavri migraciuliprocesebi. interkulturuli ganaTlebis mizaniarogorc umravlesobis, aseve umciresobebis warmomadgenlebsCamouyalibos iseTi socialuri cnobierebada faseulobaTa sistema, romelic uzrunvelyofsmaT warmatebul integracias polieT-nikur sazogadoebaSi.igi orientirebulia solidarobis, pluralizmis,humanizmis, tolerantobis, urTierTgagebisada sxva demokratiuli princi pebis ganviTarebaze(tabataZe, nacvliSvili, 2008). aRsaniSnavia isic, rominterkulturuli sensitiuroba adamianebis bunebrivimaxasiaTebeli ar aris, radgan kulturaTaSorisurTierTobebs istoriul WrilSi xSirad Tan sdevdakonfliqtebi da sisxlisRvra, represiebi da eTnikuriwmenda. interkulturul sensitiurobas ganviTarebada swavla esaWiroeba. interkulturuli ganaTlebainstrumentia, romelic saSualebas iZleva, moagvaroskulturaTaSorisi urTierTobebi da uzrunvelyossxvadasxva kulturaTa mSvidobiani Tanaarseboba.interkulturuli ganaTlebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia,erTi mxriv, mravalferovnebis arseboba da, meore mxriv,adamianTa Tanasworobisa da uflebebis aRiareba dapativiscema (tabataZe, nacvliSvili, 2008).garda dominanturi mosaxleobis da umciresobebisenebis Seswavlisa, interkulturuli ganaTlebisumTavres funqciebs warmoadgens ganaTlebisiseTi axali garemos Seqmna, romelic xels SeuwyobseTnikuri daZabulobis Semcirebas da tolerantobisganviTarebas sxvadasxva eTnikur kulturaTa urTier-Tobisas da amiT uzrunvelyofs samoqalaqo sazogadoebisstabilur ganviTarebas (tabataZe, nacvliSvili,2008).amgvarad, interkulturuli ganaTlebis erTerTiumniSvnelovanesi mizania eTnikuri daZabulobisganmuxtva ganaTlebis gziT. saqme isaa, rom sxva,gansxvavebuli kulturis adamianTan srulfasovani276 277


komunikacia ara mxolod masTan informaciis gacvlasgulisxmobs, aramed mis fsiqologiur mimReblobasac.amisTvis ki metad mniSvnelovan faqtors warmoadgensimis codna, Tu ratom iqceva igi ase Tu ise, rogoriamisi cxovrebis wesi, Sexedulebebi, tradiciebi,socialuri qcevis normebi da saerTod msoflxedvissistema. amitom interkulturuli ganaTlebis mizaniaara mxolod sxva eTnikur jgufTa enebis, aramedzogadad maTi kulturis Seswavlac.amgvarad, eTnikuri umciresobebis sazogadoebriviintegraciisTvis metad mniSvnelovania maTTvisara mxolod saxelmwifo enis swavleba, aramed maTitradiciebis, faseulobebis, cxovrebis wesisa da a.S.Seswavla, sazogadoebis dominanturi nawilis maTmimarT fsiqologiuri mimReblobis ganviTareba daam TvalsazrisiT samoqalaqo cnobierebis donezeqveynis eTnikuri mravalferovnebis gaazreba.rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, interkulturulisensitiuroba adamianis Tandayolili Tviseba araris da SesaZlebelia misi swavla, ganviTareba.swored am midgomas efuZneba benetis interkulturulisensitiurobis ganviTarebis modeli. ammodelis agebisas beneti gamoyofs adamianis unars,ganiviTaros interkulturuli sensitiuroba sxvakulturis warmomadgenlebTan interaqciis Sedegadda kulturuli sxvaobebi sakuTari cnobierebisnawilad aqcios. igi gamoyofs interkulturulisensitiurobis ganviTarebis or ZiriTad fazas:eTnocentrulsa da eTnorelatiurs, romlebic, Tavismxriv, sam safexurad iyofa. eTnocentruli fazispirvel safexurze kulturuli sxvaobebis ignorirebaxdeba da, amdenad, es safexuri eTnokulturulimgrZnobelobis yvelaze dabali donea. meoresafexurisTvis damaxasiaTebelia kulturuli sxvaobebisaRiareba, Tumca, gansxvavebuli kulturisSefaseba xdeba mxolod negatiur konteqstSi. amsafexurs beneti kulturuli sxvaobebisagan Tavdacvissafexurs uwodebs. mesame safexuris ganmsazRvreliakulturuli sxvaobebis minimizacia, rac maTzedapirul aRiarebasa da yvela adamianisaTvisdamaxasiaTebel Tvisebad miCnevaSi vlindeba. Semdegmodis eTnorelatiuri fazis safexurebi, romelTaganacpirvelze yalibdeba sxvaobebis mimReblobada pativiscema. am safexurze kulturuli sxvaobebiaRar aRiqmeba rogorc saxifaTo. mexuTe safexurzeadgili aqvs sxvaobebisadmi adaptaciasa da kulturaTaSoris efeqtur komunikacias. meeqvse, interkulturulisensitiurobis yvelaze maRalganvi-Tarebuli safexurisTvis damaxasiaTebelia kulturulisxvaobebis integracia, rac or sruliadgansxvavebul kulturaSi Tanabrad efeqtur funqcionirebasada komunikaciaSi vlindeba (tabataZe. . . , 2008).am modelis mixedviT, interkulturuli ganaTlebasensitiurobis maRali safexurebis miRwevaSi mdgomareobs.meore mxriv, benetis interkulturulisensitiurobis modeli da masSi gamoyofili fazebida safexurebi erTgvari eqvssafexuriani skalis saxesatarebs, romelic efeqturad SeiZleba gamoviyenoTama Tu im sazogadoebis interkulturuli sensitiurobisSesafaseblad.interkulturuli ganaTlebis politikis adekvaturida warmatebuli realizacia, iseve, rogorcinterkulturuli sensitiurobis ganviTareba, mravalsxva faqtorTan erTad, pirdapir dakavSirebuliamultieTnikur regionebSi arsebul socialurfsiqologiurda kulturul klimatTan. sazogadoebisdamokidebulebebi da ganwyobebi meoreenisadmi, misi aTvisebis motivaciis xasiaTi dasiZliere, agreTve, sazogadoebaSi arsebuli interpersonaluriurTierTobebi da eTnikuri stereoti pebixSirad gadamwyvet rols asruleben interkulturuli278 279


ganaTlebis realizaciisas (Gass, Selinker, 2001: 329-270;Eggen, Kauchak. 2007: 296-333; Woolfolk. 2007: 161-188).rogorc cnobilia, Zalauflebis, resursebisada SesaZleblobebis araTanabari ganawileba SesaZloeTnikuri daZabulobis wyaros warmoadgens. SesaZloriskfaqtorebs miekuTvneba sxvadasxva eTnikurjgufebs Soris enobrivi, religiuri da tradiciulikulturis gansxvavebulobac.eTnikuri daZabuloba fsiqologiur donezevlindeba eTnikur jgufebs Soris interesebisa daSexedulebebis gansxvavebaSi, sakuTari da sxva jgufisurTierTdapirispirebul stereoti pebSi, eTnocentrulatribuciasa da uaryofiT ganwyobebSi.jgufTaSorisi aRqmis erT-erT mniSvnelovanmeqanizms Sidajgufuri favoritizmi warmoadgens.igi gulisxmobs sakuTari jgufisa da misi wevrebisadmikeTilganwyobas da maTTvis upiratesobis miniWebassxva jgufebTan da maT wevrebTan SedarebiT. Sidajgufurifavoritizmis yvelaze gavrcelebuliformaa egocentrizmi. u. samneris mixedviT, es arismovlenebis iseTi xedva, romlis drosac sakuTarijgufi yvelafris centrSia, sxva jgufebi ganixilebasakuTar jgufTan mimarTebaSi da fasdeba maszedayrdnobiT (Стефаненко, 2004: 272).Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi ganixilaven eTnocentrizms,rogorc adamianebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas,“aRiqvan da Seafason cxovrebiseuli movlenebi saku-Tari eTnikuri jgufis tradiciebisa da faseulobebisprizmaSi, romelic miCneulia rogorc etalonian optimumi”.bruneri da kempbeli gamoyofen eTnocentrizmisSemdeg ZiriTad maxasiaTeblebs:1. sakuTari kulturis elementebis _ normebisda faseulobebis, rogorc bunebrivisa da sworisaRqma, xolo sxva kulturis elementebis_ rogorcarabunebrivisa da arasworis;2. sakuTari jgufis adaT-wesebis universaluradmiCneva;3. Sexeduleba imis Taobaze, rom adamianisaTvisnormaluria sakuTari jgufis wevrTan TanamSromloba,misi daxmareba, misTvis upiratesobis miniWeba,misiT siamaye, misi ndoba da sxva jgufebisadmiundobloba da mtrobac ki.aucilebeli ar aris samive maxasiaTebliserTdrouli arseboba imisaTvis, rom eTnocentrizmshqondes adgili. iq, sadac aris mesame maxasiaTebeli,adgili aqvs eTnocentrizmsac (Стефаненко, 2004: 273-274).egocentrizms, rogorc socialur-fsiqologiurmovlenas, aqvs rogorc dadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTimxareebi. erTi mxriv, igi xels uwyobs jgufismTlianobis identobisa da specifikurobis SenarCunebas,magram, meore mxriv, xSirad jgufTaSoris urTier-Tobis barierad gvevlineba.cnobilia, rom eTnocentrizmi da misi negatiurimxare gansakuTrebuli simZafriT vlindeba e.w. mcireerebSi, eTnikur umciresobebSi an eTnikur migrantebSi.movlenas aZlierebs socialuri faqtorebi, gansakuTrebiTki sxva jgufebTan SedarebiT dabalisocialuri statusi an konfliqti.Tumca, jgufebisa da maTi wevrebis eTnocentrizmiSeiZleba sxvadasxva siZlieriT iyos gamovlenili,magram yvela SemTxvevaSi igi SeiZleba ganvixiloT,rogorc Teoriuli kontinuumi ori ukiduresi polusiT.igi gamoxatavs diferenciacias urTierTmimarTebaSi.jgufTaSorisi diferenciaciis indikatoradgvevlineba polaruli xatebi, rodesac konfliqturijgufebi sakuTar Tavs miaweren mxolod pozitiurTvisebebs, xolo dapirispirebul jgufs ki _ mxoloduaryofiTs. cnobilia e.w. sarkiseburi aRqmisfenomenic, rodesac dapirispirebul jgufs miewereba280 281


sakuTari jgufisTvis miwerili dadebiTi Tvisebebissapirispiro uryofiTi Tvisebebi.rac ufro Sorsaa jgufebis mier gamoTqmulipoziciebi Tu Sefasebebi centridan, miT ufroZlieria jgufebs Soris dapirispireba da piriqiT,rac ufro axlosaa jgufebis mier gamoTqmulipoziciebi da Sefasebebi kontinuumis centridan, miTufro naklebia jgufTa Soris daZabuloba daSesabamisad, metad misaRebia erTmaneTi.jgufTaSorisi diferenciaciis ZiriTad meqanizmadmiCneulia stereotipizacia da atribuciuli procesebi,romelTa Tanaxmadac individis Tvisebebi, misi qcevada miRwevebi axsnilia jgufuri mikuTvnilobissafuZvelze.socialuri stereoti pebi _ es aris socialuriobieqtebis gamartivebuli, sqematuri xatebi, romlebicsaerToa jgufis wevrTa didi umravlesobisTvis.stereotipebis aTviseba adreuli bavSvobidan iwyebada Cveulebriv, maT safuZvels warmoadgens arauSualo gamocdileba, aramed e.w. meoradi wyaroebi.sxva socialur stereoti pTa Soris adamianebsgaCniaT eTnikuri stereoti pebic _ eTnikuri jgufebisgamartivebuli xatebi. iseve, rogorc sxva ti pissocialur stereoti pebs, eTnikur stereoti pebsacaxasiaTebT misi matarebeli jgufis wevrebs SorismaRali xarisxis gavrcelebuloba (sxvagvarad romvTqvaT, Tanxmobis maRali xarisxi). amdenad, eTnikuristereotipebis gamosavlenad metad efeqturia e.w.“TvisebaTa miweris” meTodis gamoyeneba, romelicsakuTari an sxva eTnikuri jgufebisTvis garkveuliTvisebebis miwerasa da maTi gavrcelebis xarisxisSefasebaSi mdgomareobs.mkvlevrebi gamoyofen stereoti pizaciis samZiriTad funqcias. es aris fsiqologiuri, socialurfsiqologiurida socialuri funqciebi. fsiqologiurifunqciis arsi fsiqikuri ekonomizmis principSimdgomareobs, rac gulisxmobs minimaluri kognituridanaxarjebiT maqsimaluri informaciis gadamuSavebassocialuri samyarosa da misi movlenebis Sesaxebda maTi Sinaarsis gaadvilebul wvdomas.stereotipebis socialur-fsiqologiuri funqciaki jgufTaSoris diferenciaciaSi mdgomareobs. igivlindeba sakuTari jgufis sasargeblod gakeTebuliSefasebebis saxiT da xels uwyobs pozitiurijgufuri identobis SenarCunebas. swored amitomavtostereoti pebi, Cveulebriv, ufro pozitiuria,vidre _ heterostereoti pebi. stereoti pizaciissocialur funqcias ki warmoadgens, erTi mxriv,jgufebs Soris arsebuli urTierTobebisa da maTimizezebis axsna, da meore mxriv, arsebuli jgufTa-Sorisi urTierTobebis gamarTleba. orive maTganiemsaxureba arsebuli urTierTobebis SenarCunebas.eTnikuri stereoti pebis erT-erT umniSvnelovanesTvisebas, garkveuli Sinaarsis matareblobasTanerTad, maTi emociur-SefasebiTi xasiaTiwarmoadgens. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, stereoti pebSi,da maT Soris _ eTnikur stereotipebSic _ erTiandebakognituri da emociur-SefasebiTi komponenti. emociur-SefasebiTi komponenti damokidebulebis, mimReblobamiuReblobisxarisxs (rogoricaa simpaTia, siZulvili,siyvaruli, mowoneba an ubralod mimReblobamiuRebloba)gamoxatavs, xolo kognituri ki - Sinaarss.aqedan gamomdinare, garkveuli Sinaarsis mqonestereotipis emociur-SefasebiTi komponenti SesaZlebeliapozitiuri an negatiuri muxtis matarebeliiyos (Майерс, 2000: 247-253; Психология, 2003: 575-656).fiqsi gamoyofs siZulvilis stereotips, romelic,Cveulebriv, miewereba “ucxo”, “sxva” dabal statusianda arakompetentur jgufebs, romlebic amavdrouladfasdeba rogorc “civi” jgufi. fiqsis azriT, sakuTarijgufis mimarT, Cveulebriv, vlindeba “aRfrTovanebis”stereoti pi, romlis mixedviTac am jgufs miewereba282 283


kompetenturoba, maRali statusi da “siTbo”. magram,garda pozitiuri da negatiuri stereoti pebisa,arsebobs aseve Surisa da paternalizmis e.w. ambivalenturistereoti pebic. Suri axasiaTebs urTier-Tobebs maRalstatusian, kompetentur, magram “civ”jgufebTan; paternalizmi ki _ urTierTobebs dabalstatusian,arakompetentur, magram “Tbil” jgufebTan(Стефаненко, 2004: 278-280).amgvarad, pozitiurad damuxtuli SeiZleba iyosara mxolod “sakuTari” jgufis stereoti pebi, aramedim “sxva” jgufebisac, romlebic ar iwveven safrTxisgrZnobas imis gamo, rom arsebobs sakuTari ZaliTgamowveuli usafrTxoebis SegrZneba. im jgufebismimarT ki, romelTaganac safrTxe momdinareobs,SesaZlebelia gamovlindes erTdroulad Suri dapativiscema.eTnikuri stereoti pebis meore mniSvnelovanTvisebad iTvleba mdgradoba (rigidoba) axaliinformaciisadmi. eTnikuri informaciis stabilurobadadasturebulia araerTi empiriuli kvlevissafuZvelze. dadgenilia, rom isini, Cveulebriv, nelada TanmimdevrobiT icvlebian.stereoti pebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia agreTvemaRali xarisxis Tanxmoba, anu “socialuri konsensusi”_ stereoti pis matarebel jgufSi SexedulebaTaTanxvedris maRali xarisxi. stereotipis kidev erTiTvisebaa uzustoba.stereoti pebze zegavlenas axdenen realurieTnikuri urTierTobebi. am urTierTobebis xasiaTi_ TanamSromloba Tu moqiSpeoba, dominireba TudamorCileba, mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebseTnikuri stereoti pis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblebs:Sinaarss, mimarTulebas, keTilganwyobis xarisxs dasizustesac ki.sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebis urTierTobebSiarsebuli problemebis erT-erTi mizezi is aris, rommaT ar esmiT erTmaneTis qcevis mizezebi da amitomakeTeben mcdar Sefasebebs. mravalricxovani kvlevebisSedegad, romlebic Catarda rogorc individualur,aseve jgufTaSorisi urTierTobebis doneze,dadginda, rom “sakuTari” jgufis pozitiuri da “sxva”jgufis negatiuri qcevis mizezad miiCneva Sinagani,pirovnuli faqtorebi. xolo “sakuTari” jgufisnegatiuri qcevebi da “sxvisi” jgufis pozitiuriqcevebi aixsneba garegani, garemos, faqtorebis zegavleniT.aseTi atribuciebi, romelTa saSualebiTacaixsneba agreTve “sakuTari” da “sxvisi” jgufiswarmateba da warumatebloba cnobilia eTnocentruliatribuciebis saxeliT.amgvarad, fsiqologiaSi dadgenilia (Майерс, 2000:247-253;, Стефаненко, 2004: 272-305; Психология. 2003: 575-656), rom “sakuTari” da “sxva” jgufis da misi wevrebisSefasebisas arsebobs asimetria, romelic vlindebamaTTvis rogorc konkretuli Tvisebebis (pirovnulimaxasiaTeblebis) miweris doneze, aseve maTi pozitiuriTu negatiuri qcevis axsnis donezec. amasTan, rac ufroZlieria diferenciacia da eTnikuri dapirispireba, miTufro didia asimetria urTierT-Sefasebisas.yovelive zemoT Tqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, Cvenikvlevis mizani iyo qvemo qarTlSi kompaqturaddasaxlebul eTnikur umciresobaTa socialurfsiqologiurida kulturuli klimatis Seswavlada maT mier saxelmwifo enis aTvisebaze moqmedifaqtorebis Sefaseba.walkis raioni istoriulad saqarTvelosmultieTnikur kuTxes warmoadgens. aq saxlobdnengansxvavebuli religiisa da eTnikuri kulturisxalxebi: berZnebi, qarTvelebi, azerbaijanelebi,somxebi. bolo drois saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulipolitikuri, bunebrivi da socialur-ekonomikuricvlilebebis zegavleniT, es kuTxe kidev ufro metaddaitvirTa mravaleTnikurobis TvalsazrisiT. aq284 285


mosaxle berZnebis didma nawilma datova sakuTarimiwebi da sacxovreblad saberZneTSi gadavida. meoremxriv ki, saqarTvelos mTavrobam aq Camoasaxlabunebrivi kataklizmebis Sedegad dazaralebuli dausaxlkarod darCenili svanebi da aWarlebi. amgvarad,eTnikuri da konfesiuri TvalsazrisiT, isedacmravalferovani suraTi ekomigrantebis CamosaxlebiTkidev ufro Wreli gaxda.amasTan, gansxvavebuli aRmoCnda sxvadasxvaeTnikuri jgufebis socialur-ekonomikuri statusic.berZnebis umravlesobam qveyana ki datova, magramsakuTrebad daitova kar-midamo da miwebi, xoloaxalmosaxleTa (ekomigrantTa) umravlesobas sakuTariarc saxli da arc miwa ar gaaCnia.walkis raionSi arsebuli eTnikuri viTarebisgaTvaliswinebiT, mniSvnelovania SesaZlo daZabulobisim socialur-fsiqologiuri faqtorebis Seswavla,romlebic cnobierebis doneze vlindeba. rogorczemoT iyo aRniSnuli, esenia eTnikuri stereoti pebi,avto- da heterostereotipebi (maTi rogorc SefasebiTemociuri,aseve kognituri nawili) da qcevisatribuciuli meqanizmebi. mniSvnelovania agreTveinterkulturuli sensitiurobis arsebuli donisSefasebac.am mizniT Cven SevimuSaveT specialuri anketainterviusaTvis. dagegmili iyo naxevrad struqturirebuliintervius Catareba, romelic moicavdaCvenTvis saintereso Temebs Sesabamisi kiTxvebisblokebiT da, amavdroulad, iTvaliswinebda interviurebisprocesSi aRmocenebul SesaZlo barierebsenobrivi kompetenciisa da ganaTlebis donis TvalsazrisiT.intervius ZiriTadi Temebi iyo:1. sxva jgufebis codna da zogadi damokidebulebamaT mimarT;2. socialuri distanciebi sxva jgufebTan;3. stereoti pebi sakuTari da sxva jgufebismimarT;4. Sexedulebebi jgufebs Soris Zalauflebisada socialuri statusis gadanawilebis Sesaxeb;5. sxvadasxva jgufebis mier qarTuli enis mimarTdamokidebuleba.kvlevis Sedegad gamoikveTa, rom raionSimosaxle jgufebi ar icnoben, an TiTqmis ar icnoben,sxva jgufebis wes-Cveulebebs da tradiciebs. gansakuTrebiTes exeba aWarlebisa da svanebis jgufebs. amjgufebis Sesaxeb msjeloben zedapiruli, formaluriniSnebisa an erTxel nanaxi qcevis an momxdari ambisSTabeWdilebis zegavleniT.socialuri distancia aq tradiciulad mosaxleeTnikur jgufebs Soris zomieria. semantikur donezeigi vlindeba keTilmezoblobaSi, zomier pirovnulurTierTobebSi, Wirsa da lxinSi urTierTmxardaWerisSesaZleblobebSi.rac Seexeba urTierTobebs e.w. axal da Zvelmosaxleebs Soris walkaSi, isini meti daZabulobiTxasiaTdeba. didia socialuri distancia somxebsada aWarlebs Soris, aseve _ somxebsa da svanebs Soris.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Sefasebis skalaze am jgufebsSoris socialuri distancia maqsimaluri quliTSefasda da igi absolutur miuReblobaSi vlindeba.am sakiTxze gamonaTqvamebi aseTia: “garda mosulebisa,Cven yvelasTan vurTierTobT, Tu Wiri gvaqvs, an lxini,an ubralod saqme. . . ” ekomigrantebi (svanebi daaWarlebi) kvlevaSi monawile somxebisTvis sruliadmiuRebelni aRmoCndnen. miuRebloba gamovlinda maTmimarT rogorc mezoblobis, aseve saqmiani urTierTobebis,da miT umetes, soflis saqmeebis gadawyvetaSimaTi CarTulobis doneze. aSkaraa, rom miuReblobissafuZvels undobloba warmoadgens, romelic am286 287


jgufebisagan fsiqologiuri, socialuri da fizikurisafrTxis gancdiTYaris ganpirobebuli. “svanebi armomwons, Zalian cudad iqceodnen. ambobdnen, es Cvenimiwaa da Tqven wadiT, Cxubic iyo, kacic mokles.aWarlebi Turqebi arian. eg ra qarTvelebia, martoena aqvT qarTuli. Turqebi rom dagvesxnen, egenipirvelebi uRalateben saqarTvelos. eg ra xalxia.berZnebis saxlebSi ZaliT Sedian da xatebs wvaven,saxlidan agdeben. maTTan ra saerTo gvaqvs. . .”(wereTeli, 2008 _ 2010). msgavsi suraTi gamovlindawalkaSi berZnebis mxridan aWarlebsa da svanebTandamokidebulebaSi. svanebis stereoti pi ukavSirdebasafrTxes. “aq saxlebi aris da eseni ise Semodian,arc muSaoba undaT, arc araferi. raT minda eseTixalxi Cem sofelSi?! Tu arc qurdoba icis, kide ho,daveTanxmebi . . . ki arian qristianebi, cota romarian, araferia, magram bevri erTad ukve cudigaxdebian CvenTvis. ise TiTo-TiTos ara uWirs.svanebma iq mokles, aq mokles, Cveni adgilobrivi . . .“ respodenti aWarlebsac axasiaTebs da maT mimarTkidev ufro met miuReblobas avlens: “ai, aWarlebiar SemouSvi, me skolaSi vmuSaobdi da aba, esmusulmanebi rad minda? magaT azerbaijanelebiviTmusulmanuri “vera” (rwmena) aqvT. Cven unda Tqvenieklesia meCeTad gadavakeToTo, ase Tqves aWarlebmao- bavSvebma miTxres. Cveni sasaflao im eklesiisezoSia da aba rogor SeiZleba es!” religiurniadagze aRmocenebul miuReblobaze metyvelebs sxvaberZeni respodentis sityvebic: “aWarlebma SeurachyvesCveni siwmindeebi. . . Sevidnen Cvens saxlebSi(igulisxmeba mitovebuli saxlebi) gadmoyares Cvenixatebi da “nadrugalis” (wereTeli, 2008 _ 2010).masalidan Cans, rom somxebisa da berZnebis didinawilisTvis e.w. ekomigrantebi aRiqmebian, rogorcsafrTxis Semcveli jgufebi, romlebic Seicavenrogorc fizikur, aseve materialur da religiursafrTxesac. Tumca socialuri distancia da miuReblobaaWarelis mimarT gacilebiT ufro didia, vidresvanis mimarT. am daskvnas kidev ufro amyarebs berZenirespondentis Semdegi sityvebi: “Camosulebi rom arian,unda moridebuli iyvnen, mosuli unda iyos wynari.icodes, rom Camosulia. ra, me rom wavide svaneTSi,miwas, nakveTs momcemen?! arc iq da arc ar-sarvanSimomcemen. iq meCeTi aiSenes. im meCeTSi adgilobriviazerbaijanelebi ar dadian, ar Sedian da aWarlebiki dadian, sxva ti pis xalxia egeni.” sxva berZenirespondenti Semdegi sityvebiT gamoxatavs Tavisdamokidebulebas: “svanebs da aWarlebs me ubralodqarTul enaze molaparaked vTvli, Torem ise egeniar mimaCnia qarTvelebad, Tumca me mainc svanebi ufromeaxloeba, erTi rwmena gvaqvs” (wereTeli, 2008 _ 2010).aq mosaxle somxebisTvis aseve miuRebelia e.w.ekomigrantebis (aWarlebis da svanebis) monawileobasoflis saWirboroto sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi da,saerTod, soflisa da raionis marTvaSi.savele kvlevebi cxadyofs, rom sakvlev jgufebSiCamoyalibebulia mkveTrad diferencirebuli eTnikuristereoti pebi. amasTan, sakuTari jgufis stereotipebSi ufro metad kognituri nawili gamodis winaplanze, xolo sxva jgufebis stereoti pebSi kiwamyvania emociur-SefasebiTi nawili. es gansakuTrebiTkargad Cans svanebisa da aWarlebis heterostereotipebSi. sainteresoa isic, rom am etapze yvelazemisaRebi jgufi somxebisTvis berZnebi arian. esvlindeba maT mimarT maRali ndobis xarisxis gamovlenaSirogorc ubralo adamianuri urTierTobebis,aseve fizikuri da ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis gancdisdonezec (safrTxis Semcveli ar aris arc ekonomikuradda arc religiurad).rac Seexeba am raionSi arsebul viTarebasinterkulturuli sensitiurobis TvalsazrisiT,benetis interkulturuli sensitiurobis modelisa288 289


da mis mier SemoTavazebuli eqvs safexuriani skalismixedviT eTnikur jgufTa urTierTdamokidebuleba,Cveni azriT, eTnocentrizmis meore safexuris _sxvaobebisgan Tavdacva, Sesabamisia.ganxorcielebuli kvlevis monacemTa analizmagamoavlina regionSi arsebuli jgufTaSorisi (somexi,azerbaijaneli, berZeni, aWareli, svani) urTierTobebisspecifika da maTi fsiqologiuri safuZvlis ganmsaz-Rvreli meqanizmi. aRsaniSnavia, rom regionSi gamovleniljgufTaSoris damokidebulebebsa da ganwyobebsmravalmxrivi da mravalSriani motivaciuri faqtorebiganapirobebs.iseve, rogorc sxva polieTnikur da multireligiursazogadoebaSi, aqac, eTnikur jgufebs SorisdaZabulobis erT-erT umTavres faqtorad religiawarmoCndeba. eTnikur jgufTa fsiqologiuri urTierTmiuReblobisxarisxsa da socialur distanciasmniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs maTi gansxvavebulida xSir SemTxvevaSi urTierT gamomricxavi msoflxedvissistemebi, romlebic Rirebulebebis, cxovrebiswesis, stereoti pebisa da socialuri normebis donezevlindeba da yoveldRiur urTierTobebSi ganxorcielebuliqcevis safuZvelze mtkicdeba. eseniagansxvavebuli dakrZalvis wesi, Sromis ganawilebaojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi, Sexedulebebi qalisa damamakacis rolsa da funqciaze, qorwinebis asakTandamokidebuleba, gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebi gogonebisada biWebis ganaTlebaze da a.S.amavdroulad, am regionSi mcxovrebi jgufebismotivaciur sistemebSi metad mniSvnelovan adgilsikavebs pirveladi e.w. sabaziso donis, sasicocxlomniSvnelobis mqone motivebi, romlebic gadarCenisada gamokvebis moTxovnilebebs ukavSirdeba. samwuxarod,miwis simciris gamo ekomigraciis Sedegadgadmosaxlebul mosaxleobaSi (aWarlebi, svanebi) ammoTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba ver, an didi Zalis-xmevis Sedegad xerxdeba. amdenad, es ukanaskneli maTiqcevis wamyvan motivatorad gvevlineba. rogorckvlevis Sedegad miRebuli monacemebi gviCvenebs, miwisdamuSaveba da misgan miRebuli mosavali Tu Semosavalifaqtiurad regionis mcxovrebTa vitaluri,sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebiserTaderTi saSualebaa. Tumca mosaxleobisdidi nawilisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki ekomigrantisvanebisa da aWarlebisaTvis, miwa naklebadaa xelmisawvdomi.ekomigrantebSi pirveladi sasicocxlomniSvnelobis moTxovnilebebis daukmayofileblobaregionSi sazogadoebis socialuri urTierTobebissistemis funqcionirebaze uaryofiTad aisaxeba dajgufTaSorisi daZabulobis erT-erTi realuriwyaroa.ekomigrantebSi dabalia TviTSefasebis donec,romelsac socialuri usamarTlobisa da sxvaeTnikur jgufebTan mimarT araTanasworuflebianobisgancda ganapirobebs.regionSi mcxovreb jfufTaSoris socialurdistancias mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs yvelajgufisTvis saerTo sakomunikacio enis faqtiuriarasebobac. gamokvleva gviCvenebs, rom mosaxleobisdidi nawili mxolod sakuTar enas flobs da, amdenad,maT Soris komunikacia metad gaZnelebulia. TumcaqarTuli ena saxelmwifo enaa, magram am regionSimas mxolod formaluri statusi aqvs da igi verasrulebs saerTo sakomunikacio enis funqcias. zemoTaRwerili eTnofsiqologiuri faqtorebis zegavleniTqarTuli enis aTvisebis araformaluri,bunebrivi garemos gamoyeneba ver xerxdeba. TumcaaraqarTulenovani bavSvebi da mozardebi swavlobenqarTuls, rogorc meore enas skolaSi, magram misirealizaciis garemos ararsebobis gamo maTi codnametad mwiri da formaluria. amgvarad, walkis raionSiarsebuli socialur-fsiqologiuri klimati saxel-290 291


mwifo enis aTvisebis EerT-erT mniSvnelovan barieradgvevlineba.rogorc cnobilia, adamianis normaluri fsiqologiurifunqcionirebisa da TviTrealizaciisaTvisaucilebelia misTvis damaxasiaTebel motivTa ierarqiulisistemis Tanmimdevruli realizeba (Хекхаузен,1986: 112-116). Tumca arsebobs gansxvavebuli mosazrebebida empiriuli monacemebi mniSvnelovan motivTaTvisobriobis Sesaxeb, magram udavoa, rom motivTaierarqiaSi pirveladi da sabazisoa vitaluri moTxovnilebebi,xolo meoradia socialuri, pirovnebisindividualur socialur gamovlenasa da realizaciasTandakavSirebuli moTxovnilebebi. gamokvlevismonacemebis analizis Sedegad ki irkveva, rom sakvleviregionis mosaxleobaSi (gansakuTrebiT ki ekomigrantebSi)ver xerxdeba rogorc qveda, sabaziso, asevesaSualo da SedarebiT maRali donis motivTaamoqmedeba. amdenad motivaciuri sistemis realizebaierarqiis TiTqmis verc erT doneze ver xerxdeba.ararealizebuli motivaciuri sistemebis zegavlenaaisaxeba jgufTaSoris urTierTobaze da qcevisdoneze iseT fsiqologiur maxasiaTeblebSi vlindeba,rogoricaa socialuri distancireba, fsiqologiurdoneze urTierTmimReblobisa da tolerantobisdabali done da uaryofiTi valentobis ganwyobebi.amgvarad, regionSi arsebuli mosaxleobisjgufTaSorisi urTierTobebi metad specifikuria.isini ganpirobebulia mravalSriani fsiqologiurimeqanizmiT, romelSic resursebisa da ZalauflebisaraTanabari ganawilebiT, aRmsareblobiT, eTnikurobiTda sakomunikacio enis uqonlobiT ganpirobebulisocialuri distanciebisa da uaryofiTivalentobis ganwyobebis fonze wamyvania sasicocxlomoTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebisken swrafva da misidakmayofilebis garTulebuli SesaZleblobebiTgamowveuli uaryofiTi gancdebi.amgvari fsiqologiuri klimati, cxadia, xelsuSlis regionis sazogadoebis integracias daaferxebs samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebasada ganviTarebas.dmanisis raionSi ZiriTadad cxovrobs ZirZveliqarTvelebi, azerbaijanelebi da SedarebiT axalimosaxleebi _ svanebi. zedapiruli suraTis mixedviT,eTnikuri urTierTobebi maT Soris mowesrigebulia,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ganwyobebi neitraluria dazogierT SemTxvevaSi, dadebiTic ki. yoveli respondenti,romeli eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenelicunda iyos, aRniSnavs, rom yvelani keTilmezobluradda mSvidad cxovroben. Tumca TiToeuli maTganicdilobs SeinarCunos sakuTari tradicia dagarkveulwilad sxva jgufisgan distancirebuladicxovros.sainteresoa, rom iseve, rogorc sxva sakvlevraionebSi, aqac svanebis identifikacia ar xdebaqarTvelebTan. Tumca azerbaijanelisTvis deklaraciulicodnis doneze svani qarTvelTan igivdeba,magram isini saubrisas an Sefasebisas mkveTradmijnaven svanebsa da qarTvelebs, rac imaze miuTiTebs,rom maT cnobierebaSi es ori gansxvavebuli jgufia.aRsaniSnavia, rom igive damokidebuleba vlindebasvanebis mimarT e.w. ZirZveli qarTveli mosaxleobismxridanac. identurobis arqona svanebTan gamowveuliamaTi qcevis gansxvavebuli normebiT, tradiciebiTda maTi mxridan garkveuli fizikurisafrTxisa da fsiqologiuri diskomfortis SegrZnebiT.axalgazrdebi am problemis mimarT naklebadmgrZnobiareni arian, Tumca esenic aRniSnaven, romsvanebi zedmeti ambiciurobiT “gveqcevian” da “gelaparakebian”.rac Seexeba azerbaijanelebs, isini svanebTanurTierTobebze laparaks ZiriTadad Tavs aridebenda cdiloben e.w. gamzadebuli frazebiT gvi pasuxon:292 293


“У нас все хорошо, все нормально” (CvenTan yvelaferikargadaa), magram ufro axlo kontaqtSi Sesvlisasirkveva, rom svanebis mimarT Zlierad gamoxatuliagresia aqvT da mkveTradac gamoxataven amas. aseTmkafiod gamoxatul negatiur ganwyobebs xsnian axlowarsulSi svanebis e. w. “mxedrionis periodis”kriminaluri qceviT azerbaijanelTa mimarT. miuxedavadamJamindeli mSvidi garemosi, miaCniaT, rom sakmarisiasaxelmwifom da samarTaldamcvelebma yuradRebamoadunon, rom igive ganmeordeba. amgvarad, azerbaijanelebsaqvT Zalian mkveTrad gamoxatuli uaryofiTistereoti pebi svanebis mimarT, romlebic maTganfizikuri safrTxis SegrZnebas efuZneba da sworedamitom zedapiruli komunikaciis dros cdilobendafaron es uaryofiTi ganwyobebi.sainteresoa sxvadasxva Taobebis qarTvelebisgansxvavebuli Sefasebebi svanebTan damokidebulebismimarT. rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, axalgazrdebi maTmxolod piradi komunikaciis WrilSi afaseben damaTi ganwyobebi neitraluri mimReblobidan uaryofi-Tisken ixreba. rac Seexeba ufros Taobas, esenic armiiCneven svanebs sakuTari jgufis warmomadgenlebad,ar axdenen maTTan identifikacias, magram maTTanTanacxovrebas ufro farTo konteqstSi ganixilavenda acnobiereben, rom swored svanebis Camosaxlebas-Tanaa mniSvnelovanwilad dakavSirebuli regionSiqarTvelebis, da zogadad qarTuli kulturis,gaZliereba. amgvarad, zeda Taobis ZirZvel qarTvelebse.w. ambivalenturi ganwyobebi aqvT svanebismimarT: erTi mxriv, dadebiTi, radgan swored maTTanaris dakavSirebuli regionis qarTuli orientaciiskenSemobruneba da azerbaijanelebTan urTierTobebisdabalanseba, da meore mxriv, uaryofiTi, radgansvanebi (maTi TqmiT) gansxvavebuli tradiciis, enisada qcevis normebis matareblebi arian da Tanaccdiloben dominanti roli daimkvidron ara mxolodazerbaijanelebTan, aramed danarCen qarTvelebTanac.rac Seexeba regionSi mcxovreb eTnikur jgufTaSoris socialur distanciebs, am TvalsazrisiTqarTvelebi da svanebi erT jgufad erTiandeba daazerbaijanelTa jgufs upirispirdeba. am ori jgufisTanacxovrebis socialuri sazRvari mezoblobis,samsaxuris an erToblivi biznesis doneze gadis.orive mxarisaTvis sruliad miuRebelia qorwineba,rac religiuri gansxvavebulobiT aris ganpirobebuli,Tumca ufros TaobaSi Sereuli ojaxebi arcTu iSviaTi iyo. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom urTierTobebSiam mkveTri sazRvris arseboba ufro Tanamedrovemovlenaa.amgvarad, erTi SexedviT dadebiTi fsiqologiuriklimati zedapirul TanacxovrebaSi vlindeba, sinamdvileSiki arsebobs mkafiod gamoxatuli izolaciada faruli agresia.aq mcxovreb eTnikur jgufTa integraciasmniSvnelovnad aferxebs isic, rom maTi TviTidentifikaciametad viwroa. kiTxvaze, Tu sadauri xar, igiTavis sofels asaxelebs, nacvlad imisa, rom Tqvas,rom qarTvelia an saqarTvelodan aris, im SemTxvevaSicki, roca igi unda warsdges/gaecnos (cxadia,warmosaxviTad) sxva qveynis moqalaqes (mag., amerikels).es ki imaze miuTiTebs, rom aq mcxovrebi adamianebisakuTar Tavs adamianTa Zalian mcire, SemosazRvrulteritoriaze mcxovreb da specifikuri TvisebebiTada tradiciebiT aRWurvil jgufTan aigivebs. ‘mes~mikuTvnebulobis aseTi siviwrove xels uSlissakuTari Tavis regionSi mcxovrebi erTi didi dasaerTo jgufisadmi mikuTvnebulobis gancdisCamoyalibebas da, Sesabamisad, masSi integracias.am Tvalsazriss ganamtkicebs e.w. Sereuliojaxebidan gamosuli axalgazrdebis msoflxedvissistema. igi gacilebiT ufro moqnilia da farToa.294 295


Sereuli ojaxebis warmomadgenlebi, miuxedavad imisadeda hyavT araqarTveli, mama Tu papa, TviTidentifikaciasaxdenen ara sakuTar sofelTan, aramed _mTlianad saqarTvelosTan.raionSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri jgufebis harmoniulTanacxovrebas aferxebs saerTo sakomunikacio enasTandakavSirebuli problemebic. adreul wlebSi amfunqciis matarebeli rusuli ena dRes naklebadician rogorc azerbaijanelebma, aseve _ qarTvelebmac.qarTvelebma azerbaijanuli iSviaTad ician.gamonakliss Seadgenen isini, vinc momsaxurebis,jandacvis an socuzrunvelyofis sferoSi muSaoben(mag., gamyidveli, eqimi da sxv.). Tumca unda aRiniSnosmosaxleobis integraciisTvis metad mniSvnelovanida dadebiTi movlena: azerbaijanelebi masiuradcdiloben qarTuli enis swavlas da qarTuladlaparaks. isini acnobiereben saxelmwifo enisswavlis aucileblobas da aqtiurad cdiloben misdauflebas. es gamoixateba rogorc maT saubarSi(mag., “Cveni nakli isaa, rom saxelmwifo ena ar viciT”an “saqarTveloSi vcxovrobT da qarTuli undavicodeT”), aseve bavSvebis masiur SeyvanaSi qarTulskolebSi. axalgazrdebis umravlesobas qarTulienis swavlis maRali motivacia aqvs da maTi didinawili sakmaod kargad laparakobs qarTulad.metad sainteresoa agreTve azerbaijanelebisdamokidebuleba saqarTvelos umaRlesi ganaTlebissistemisadmi. Tu adre ufro prestiJulad iTvlebodabaqoSi miRebuli ganaTleba, axla miaCniaT, romsrulfasovani ganaTlebis miReba mxolod TbilisSiSeiZleba. qarTul enaze ganaTlebis miRebis aseTimaRali motivacia ganpirobebulia TviTrealizaciisproblemebiT, romlebic qarTulis armcodne dagaunaTlebel adamians eqmneba. amitom azerbaijanelebi,maT Soris esenic, romlebmac TviTon ar icianqarTuli, cdiloben, rac SeiZleba kargad aswavlonTavianT Svilebs qarTuli ena da Tbilisidan Casulmecnierebs an, maTi STabeWdilebiT, avtoritetulpirebs pirdapir da mourideblad sTxoven Tanadgomagauwion regionSi mcxovreb azerbaijanelebs qarTulienis swavlebis organizebis saqmeSi (meti maswavleblebi,meti saaTebi skolaSi, meti saxelmZRvaneloebida wignebi da a.S.). sainteresoa isic, rom enis swavlismotivacia ganpirobebulia ara mxolod ekonomikurifaqtorebiT, rogoricaa mag.: ukeTesi samsaxuris Sovna,aramed fsiqologiuri diskomfortiTac, romelic maTqarTvelebTan urTierTobisas eqmnebaT. maTi TqmiT,eTakilebaT qarTvelebTan rusulad laparaki,rcxveniaT, rom qarTuli ar ician.amgvarad, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom azerbaijanelebisSemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs qarTuli enisSeswavlis rogorc ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebiTgamowveul Zlier garegan motivaciasTan, asevearasrulfasovnebis gancdiT ganpirobebul aranaklebZlier Sinagan motivaciasTanac.sainteresoa azerbaijanelTa damokidebulebasaqarTvelosa da moqalaqeobisadmi. azerbaijanelirespodentebi aRniSnaven, rom “es Cveni qveyanaa daamitom saxelmwifo enac unda vicodeT da undaviomoT kidec”. sxva respodenti gviyveboda, rogorSeikribnen azerbaijaneli biWebi dmanisSi moedanze,rom omSi wasuliyvnen (igulisxmeba 2008 wlisagvistos omi).yovelive zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare,SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom azerbaijanelebs aRarakmayofilebT mxolod fizikurad cxovreba saqarTveloSida isini sruliad cnobierad iswrafvian, gaxdenmisi srulfasovani moqalaqeebi.rac Seexeba bolnisis raionSi mcxovreb somxebsada qarTvelebs, isini ZiriTadad erTmaneTisagan Zalianizolirebulad cxovroben. es aris rogorc fizikuri,aseve sainformacio da fsiqologiuri izolacia.296 297


maT zomieri ganwyobebi aqvT erTmaneTis mimarT,Tumca erTmaneTis tradiciebisa da adaT-wesebisSesaxebac naklebad ician.soflebSi mcxovrebma somxebma qarTuli enacudad an TiTqmis ar ician. axalgazrdebi azerbaijanelebTanSedarebiT naklebad motivirebulni arian,iswavlon qarTuli ena. saerTod, am sakiTxs didisifrTxiliT ekidebian, radgan miaCniaT, rom SeiZlebaaman maTi qarTvelebTan kulturuli asimilaciagamoiwvios.amgvarad, kvlevis Sedegebi cxadyofs, rom zemoTganxilul eTnikuri umciresobebiT kompaqturaddasaxlebul raionebSi fsiqologiuri klimati,SeiZleba iTqvas, arasaxarbieloa: Warbobs negatiurieTnikuri stereoti pebi da eTnocentrizmi. jgufebsSoris socialuri distancia didia, xolo interkulturulisensitiuroba naklebad aris ganviTarebuli.SeiZleba Tamamad iTqvas, rom ganxilulieTnikuri jgufebis umravlesoba interkulturulisensitiurobis ganviTarebis skalis mixedviT sakmaoddabal _ egocentruli fazis sxvaobebisgan Tavdacvissafexurze imyofebian. es safexuri ki sakmaod Sorsaasrulfasovani eTnikuri urTierTobebis da kulturaTaSoris efeqturi komunikaciis, TanamSromlobisa daTanaarsebobisgan.arsebul viTarebaSi zemoT ganxiluli socialuri,ekonomikuri da sxva faqtorebis mogvarebasTan erTadregionis sazogadoebis integraciis, fsiqologiuriklimatis gajansaRebis, daZabulobis ganmuxtvisa dapolieTnikuri sazogadoebis mSvidobiani TanaarsebobiserT-erT meqanizmad interkulturuli ganaTlebagvevlineba.literatura:1. b e i k e r i k. bilingvizmisa da bilingvuriganaTlebis safuZvlebi, samoqalaqo integraciisa daerovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis 2010 wlis qarTuliversiis gamocema.2. bilingvuri ganaTlebis programebis debulebisproeqti, saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebissaministro, Tb., 2009.3. g a b u n i a k., e z u g b a i a l., q i r i a W., enobrivisituacia Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi, qarTveluri enebi,gamomc.: “saimedo”, Tb., 2010.4. g a b u n i a k., enisa da sagnobrivi Sinaarsisintegri-rebuli swavlebis Taviseburebebi bilingvurklasSi, JurnalSi: “bilingvuri ganaTleba”, #1, 2010.5. g r i g u l e l., saqarTvelos umciresobaTa ganaTlebisreforma: adgilobrivi iniciativebidan saxelmwifosmier dagegmil umciresobaTa ganaTlebis reformamde,JurnalSi: “bilingvuri ganaTleba”, #2, 2010.6. rekomendaciebi enobrivi umciresobaTa dacvismimarTulebiT enobrivi politikis SemuSavebisTvis, gamomc.“saimedo”, Tb., 2008.7. t a b a t a Z e S., n a cv li S vi l i n., interkulturuliganaTleba, maswavlebelTa profesiuli ganviTarebiscentri, Tb., 2008.8. t a b a t a Z e S., bilingvuri ganaTlebis programebi,ra arCevani aqvT saqarTveloSi sajaro skolebs, JurnalSi:“bilingvuri ganaTleba”, #1, 2010.9. W a n t u r i a r., erovnul umciresobaTa integraciamultilingvuri ganaTlebis saSualebiT, _ JurnalSi:“bilingvuri ganaTleba”, #1, 2010.10. w e r e T e l i m. walkis raionSi arsebuli jgufTa-Sorisi urTierTobebis fsiqologiuri TaviseburebebissakiTxisaTvis – JurnalSi: “bilingvuri ganaTleba”, #2,2010.11. М а й е р с Д., Социальная Психология, “Питер”, 2000.12. Психология и Культура, под ред. Д. Мацумото, “Питер”,2003.298 299


13. Ст ефа н енко Г.Т., Этнопсихология, “АспектПресс”, М.,2004.14. Ц е р е т е л и М. Установки и Ценности учителей в мультикультурныхрегионах Грузии, в сб.: ACT Aetcommentationes CollegiiNarovensis, Актуальные вопросы, мультикультурного образования всовременном обществе: педагогическая теория и практика, 2008.15. Х е к х а у з е н Х а й н ц, Мотивация и Деятельность, т. 1,“Педагогика”, М., 1986.16. G a s s S. M., S e l i n k e r L., Second Language Acqisition,“LEA”, 2000, New Jersey, London, 2001.17. E g g e n P., K a u c h a k D., Educational Psychology,“Pearson”, 2007.18. W o o l f o l k A. Educational Psychology, “Pearson”, 2007.19. www.mes.gov.ge 20. www.ncac.ge www.ganatleba.org qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobissocialur-fsiqologiuri analizieTnikuri urTierTobebis Tavisebureba eTnologiis,sociologiis, socialuri fsiqologiisa daeTnofsiqologiis winaSe arsebul aqtualur problemaTarigs ganekuTvneba. eTnikuri urTierTdamokidebulebebisspecifikis ganmsazRvreli faqtorebigamorCeulia Tavisi simravliT da mravalgvarobiT.swored aman ganapiroba is faqtiuri viTareba, romeTnikuri urTierTobis Seswavla da kvleva verTavsdeba erTi mecnierebis farglebSi. Tavis mxriv,socialuri fsiqologiis mkvlevrebi, rogorc wesi,miuTiTeben im sirTuleebze, rac Tan axlavslaboratoriis pirobebSi jgufuri procesebis, dagansakuTrebiT ki konfliqtebis kvlevas, laparakiaiseT farTo-masStabian konfliqtebze, rogoricaaeTnikuri konfliqti an didi jgufebis dapirispireba,Tumca amgvari laboratoriuli kvlevis pirobebSicki mecnierebi axerxeben im konceptualuri zogadisgamoyofas, rac rogorc mcire, aseve didi jgufebiskonfliqtisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. “samwuxarod,Cven ufro meti viciT omis Sesaxeb, imis Sesaxeb, Turogor davxocoT, vidre imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogorvicocxloT da vicxovroT” (Маиерc, 2000: 261).vinaidan dRevandel saqarTveloSi mZafrad iCinaTavi eTnikuri procesebis gaaqtiurebam, rac ara martoeTnikuri urTierTobebis gamwvavebaSi gamoixata,aramed rig SemTxvevebSi konfliqtSic gadaizarda,savsebiT gasagebia is faqtiuri viTareba, rom eTnikururTierTobebSi arsebuli problemebi mecnierTaseriozuli kvlevis sagani gaxda.saqarTveloSi arsebulma politikurma, socialurmada ekonomikurma mdgomareobam, gansakuTrebiTki am ukanasknelma, rTuli viTarebis winaSe daayena300 301


saqarTvelos mosaxleobis didi nawili. saqarTvelosTiTqmis mTel teritoriaze arnaxuli masStabebimiiRo rogorc ekonomikurma emigraciam, aseveekologiurma migraciam. saqarTvelos teritoriazegadaadgileba sxvadasxva mizeziT xdeba, maT Soris,stiqiuri movlenebisagan mosaxleobis dacvis mizniT.gadaadgilebuli pirebis didi nawili ganekuTvnebae.w. ekomigrantebs. bolo periodis statistikurimonacemebis mixedviT, saqarTvelos teritoriazemxolod stiqiiT dazaralebulTa saerTo raodenobam31 aTas 341 ojaxi Seadgina. es sakmaod STambeWdaviricxvia (dvali, 2007: 13 _ 14).sacxovrebeli adgilis amgvari monacvleobagarkveul problemebs uqmnis rogorc gadaadgilebuljgufebs _ ekomigrantebs, aseve adgilobriv mosaxleobas_ damxvdurebs. sazogadod, damxvdurisaTvis“sxva”, misgan gansxvavebuli ucxos niSnavs. gansxvavebulkulturebSi damokidebuleba Tavisianebis dasxvebis mimarT erTmaneTisagan Zireulad gansxvavdeba.Triandisma da misma kolegebma gamoikvlies eTnikurijgufebis kulturaluri Taviseburebebi koleqtivisturda individualistur parametrebSi. (Мацумото,2008: 523). koleqtivizmsa da individualizmSi igulisxmebakulturis rogorc socialuri, aseve fsiqologiuriparametrebi. kulturis es ori parametriZiriTadad jgufis Semadgeneli subieqtebis jgufisSida da jgufis gareT arsebuli urTierTobisformebiT ganisazRvreba. individualisturi kulturisarsebiTi maCvenebelia is, rom es kultura xasiaTdebapirovnebis, individis interesebisa da miznebisdominantiT. individi, rogorc aseTi, jgufis gareSe,calke moiazreba. koleqtivistur kulturaSimniSvnelovania jgufis SigniT urTierToba. aqedangamomdinare, koleqtivisturi cnobierebis mqoneindividebisagan Semdgari jgufisaTvis jgufis gareTmyofi subieqtebi _ “isini” arian sxvebi; “sxvebis”mimarT jgufis ganwyoba gaucxoebasa da diskriminaciasgulisxmobs. amasTanave, sirTules qmnis isgaremoeba, rom Tavad “adgilnacvali” subieqticsruliad gansxvavebuli fsiqologiuri TaviseburebiTxasiaTdeba. es ganapiroba, erTis mxriv,gadanacvlebis faqtma, rac mWidro kavSirSia arsebulimolodinebidan gamomdinare ganwyobebTan da, meoresmxriv ki, konkretulad am jgufisaTvis damaxasia-Tebelma gansxvavebam. a. maalufi Semdegnairad gadmogvcemsadgilnacvali subieqtis mier gancdil grZnobebsmimRebi qveynis mimarT: “es grZnobebi bundovania.raki Camovidnen, e.i. imedi aqvT ukeTesi cxovrebisa,TavisTvisac da TavisianebisTvisac. magram am imedsTan sdevs SiSi ucnobis winaSe, miT ufro, TuarakeTilmosurne faqtorebs awydebian. eWviT elian,ar uaryon, ar daamciron, gafacicebiT akvirdebianyovel qcevas, zizRs, ironias Tu maT mimarTgamovlenil sibraluls~ (maalufi, 2007: 48).xazgasasmelia, rom mocemul SemTxvevaSi eTnikurijgufebis adgilis monacvleoba ganxorcielda maTisamSoblos teritoriaze, anu es ar aris migraciis isSemTxveva, rodesac migracia sxva qveyanaSi gadasvlasgulisxmobs. erTi SexedviT, amgvari gadaadgilebiTmxolod radikaluri “geografiuli” cvlileba gvaqvssaxeze. samSoblos teritoriis farglebSi, adgilmdebareobiscvlilebis Tanmxlebia imis Sinaganigancda, rom is ar aris xizani, da rom is kvlavsakuTari samSoblos miwazea, saqarTvelos sruluflebianisubieqtia. amave dros, faqtobrivad, sacxovrebeliadgilis Secvlam qarTvelebis ekojgufebi_svanebi da aWarlebi _ axal regionSi erTgvar eTnikurumciresobad aqcia. bunebrivia, amgvari viTarebaeTnikuri jgufebis urTierTobaSi Taviseburadaisaxa. saqme isaa, rom eTnikuri umciresoba, rogorc302 303


socialuri erToba, sruliad gansxvavebuli fenomenia.eTnikur umciresobaSi sociologebi da eTnologebigulisxmoben ara marto eTnikuri jgufis raodenobrivsimcires, aramed mocemul sociumSi jgufisdaqvemdebarebis xasiaTs. magaliTad, eTnosociologiaSieTnikuri umciresobis qveS igulisxmeba iseTnikuri jgufebi, romelnic garkveuli TaviseburebiTxasiaTdebian, kerZod: jgufebi eqvemdebarebian e.w. dominantur jgufs,aqvT naklebi Zalaufleba da privilegiebi; sazogadoebaSi maT mimarT aris specifikuridamokidebuleba, rac diskriminaciaSi gamoixateba; qorwineba, rogorc wesi, endogamiur xasiaTsatarebs; umciresobis wevrebi acnobiereben sakuTardaqvemdebarebul statuss.gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom sazogadod,kategoria eTnikuri umciresoba gulisxmobs jgufebsSoris farul Tu gamovlenil dapirispirebas, eTnikurijgufis wevrebis garkveul socialur poziciasa daganwyobebs. gansxvavebul socialur jgufebs Sorisdamokidebulebebi gansazRvrulia ara wevrebisraodenobiT, aramed sazogadoebis ierarqiaSi am“umciresobis” adgiliT” (Налчаджян, 2004: 92). umciresobisstatusi garkveulwilad zRudavs umciresobaSimyofi adamianebis SesaZleblobaTa realizacias.zemoT naTqvamidan gamomdinare, ekomigrantebisjgufebma, romelTac sakuTari qveynis teritoriazefizikuri garemo Seicvales, amgvari cvlilebisparalelurad, regionSi sruliad axali, ucxo,“umciresobis” socialuri statusi SeiZines. aq undagamoikveTos is ZiriTadi mimarTuleba, romelicSemdgom urTierTobebs ganapirobebs. is, romfaqtobrivad qarTulma mosaxleobam _ svaneTis daaWaris macxovreblebma _ dominanturi jgufisstatusidan umciresobis, anu daqvemdebarebulijgufis statusSi gadainacvles, mniSvnelovnadamZimebs situacias. samSobloSi, sakuTar teritoriaze,“umciresobis” statusSi gadanacvlebisas saxezegvaqvs ori mniSvnelovani komponentis erToblioba:adilmdebareobisa da socialuri statusis cvalebadoba.es ukanaskneli, rogorc aRvniSneT, ganxorcielebuliasamSoblos farglebSi. amave dros, samSoblosfenomeni, sxvadasxva gancdiseul komponentebTanerTad, Seicavs rTul gaSinagnebul gancdas, imisSegrZnebas, rom es adgili, es teritoria Cemia, aq Cemienaa, Cemi xalxia, aq daculi var. “samSoblo~ xdebaistoriuli mexsierebisa da asociaciebis sacavi,adgili, sadac “Cveni” brZeni winaprebi, wmindanebi dagmirebi cxovrobdnen, Sromobdnen, loculobdnen daibrZodnen. yovelive amis gamo mSobliuri miwaunikaluri xdeba. igi sakralur mniSvnelobas iZens.rogorc e. smiTi aRniSnavs, “avtarqia~ nakarnaxeviarogorc samSoblos interesebis dacviT, aseveekonomikuri interesebiTac (smiTi, 2008: 2009: 12).rogorc samSoblos fenomenis fsiqologiurmakvlevam uCvena, “samSoblo aris Cemi da Cem msgavsTaTandayolilad mocemuli daculad yofnis adgili,romelTanac xorcieldeba Cemi identoba” (gomelauri,2001: 31). am teritoriis gancdis farglebSi, rac “Cemia”da ara sxvisi, me var daculi, daculia Cemi “me”,radganac es “mes” teritoriaa. samSoblos gancdaSifizikuri sivrce gaSinagnebulia, Serwymulia da,amdenad, yovelnairi cvalebadoba mZimed ganicdeba.amasTanave, saxezea mtris mimarT Zlieri agresia. exebaes adgilobriv, ZirZvel mosaxleobas Tu e.w. adgilnacvalsubieqts, iqneba es ekomigranti Tu Cveulebrivimigranti. igive teritoriaze moiazreba damxvduricTavisi fsiqologiuri Tu kulturaluri specifikiTda miseuli “Cemi miwis” gancdiT. “Camosuli imigrantebisaTvismimRebi qveyana, Cven SemTxvevaSi samSoblosteritoriis sxva geografiuli adgili, sxva regioni304 305


ar warmoadgens “TeTr furcels”, romelzec TiToeulsSeuZlia daweros is, rac mas moesurveba” (maalufi,2007: 49). amdagvar sivrciT garemoSi socialurisubieqtebi yvelaze mniSvnelovani RirebulebiTupirispirdebian urTierTs _ es Rirebulebaas a m S o b l o . aqve unda aRiniSnos is garemoeba, rommxolod bunebis geografiuli landSaftis Secvlacki uqmnis adamians problemebs. igulisxmeba am procesisTanmdevi fsiqologiur adaptaciasTan dakavSirebuliproblemebi: kulturis Soki, akulturaciis stresida sxv. TiToeuli dasaxelebuli faqtori uSualodukavSirdeba regionis eTnikuri umciresobis integrirebissakiTxs. axalmosaxle unda Seeguos axalgeografiul landSafts da im kanonebs, Rirebulebebsada rwmenebs, kulturul Tu adamianurTvisebebs, rac dadgenilia am axal sociumSi. arsebulCamonaTvals daemateba rTuli ekonomikuri foni;amgvari atmosfero jgufebs Soris urTierTobisgamwvavebisaTvis xelsayrelia. yovelive es biZgsaZlevs konfliqturi garemos Seqmnas, rac, bunebrivia,prevenciul samuSaoebs moiTxovs.zemoT moyvanili da ganxiluli faqtorebisgarda, saxeze gvaqvs iseTi mniSvnelovani faqtori,rogoric aris jgufSi gaerTianebuli subieqtebispirovnuli damokidebuleba. urTierTpirovnulmadamokidebulebebma garkveul konkretul situaciaSiSesaZloa gansxvavebuli formiT iCinos Tavi. laparakiasocialur ganwyobebis xasiaTze, riTac adamiani,pirovneba Semodis socialur cxovrebasa da socialururTierTobebSi. uaryofiTi ganwyobis mqoneadamianebi urTierTis mimarT mtrobas amJRavneben da,rogorc wesi, maTi Tanacxovreba, iseve rogorcerToblivi saqmianoba, konfliqtisaken aris mimarTuli.socialuri ganwyobis bunebis kvlevisas dadginda,rom pirovneba garkveul urTierTobas amyarebssagnebTan, movlenebTan, adamianebTan da garkveulRirebulebebTan. rodesac saqme gvaqvs socialurganwyobasTan, mniSvnelovania, rom socialuriganwyobis Sinagani faqtoria ara moTxovnileba, aramedis moTxovna, romelsac sazogadoeba uyenebs pirovnebas(nadiraSvili, 2009: 109). “yovelive es arsebiTadgansazRvravs pirovnebis orientaciebs, saqmianobas,damokidebulebebs garkveuli movlenebis mimarT~(nadiraSvili, 2009: 114).niSandoblivia, rom socialuri ganwyobasocialur qcevasTan kavSirSi gveZleva da, amdenad,maTi uaryofiTi Tu dadebiTi valentoba mniSvnelovanwiladgansazRvravs adamianebis urTierTobisxasiaTs. zemoT ganxiluli fsiqologiuri cnebebis_fsiqologiuri cvladebis analizi gvarwmunebs, romsazogadoebrivi cxovrebis procesis mimdinareobaSiam cvladebs gansakuTrebuli adgili eniWebaT.aRsaniSnavia, rom am cvladebs Soris garkveuli mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri arsebobs: kulturaluri Taviseburebebi,tradiciebi, erovnuli mentaliteti,stereoti pebi, socialuri ganwyobebi, rogorc wesi,jgufebisa da sazogadoebis wevrebis socialurqcevaSi vlindeba. aqve unda mivaniSnoT im garemoebaze,rom yovelive amas emateba is socio-ekonomikurisivrce, realoba, romelSic subieqtis integrirebaxdeba. upirvelesad vgulisxmobT saqarTvelosmosaxleobis eTnikur mravalferovnebas, rac rogorcdadebiTi, aseve uaryofiTi datvirTvis matarebelia.eTnikuri mravalferovneba, erTis mxriv amdidrebsrogorc eTnikuri jgufebis, aseve satitulo eTnosiskulturas, meores mxriv ki gansxvavebuli kulturulida tradiciuli Rirebulebebis simravle sirTulesuqmnis urTierTobas. RirebulebaTa simravle mxolodenisa da aRmsareblobis gansxvavebis farglebSicki ukve ganapirobebs eTnikur jgufebs Soris didsocialur distancias, gaucxoebas da erTmaneTismiuReblobis maRal xarisxs, socialuri mxardaWeris306 307


dabal xarisxs. eTnikuri jgufebi erTi sivrcisfarglebSi mxolod Tanaarseboben da ar TanamSromloben.ekomigrantoba, saqarTvelos teritoriis farglebSigeografiuli sivrcis cvalebadoba, sacxovrebladsaSiSi adgilidan ufro xelsayrel adgilzegadasvla, _ yovelive es, erTi SexedviT, TiTqos arunda qmnides raime gansakuTrebul problemebs, magramCven mier zemoT CamoTvlili adgilmonacvleobisTanmdevi fsiqologiuri, gancdiseuli cvlilebebisruliad sxvagvar suraTs qmnis. mocemul SemTxvevaSiCven gansakuTrebiT gamovyofT im faqtobriv viTarebas,rom Camosaxlebul jgufebsa da adgilobriv mosaxleobaserTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli tradiciebi,azrebi da grZnobebi gaaCniaT, miuxedavad imisa, rommTlianobaSi TiToeuli maTgani koleqtivisturitipis (Мацумото, 2008: 526). kulturas ganekuTvneba.rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, koleqtivisturi ti piskulturaSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba jgufs. jgufiswevrebis individualuri interesebi eqvemdebarebajgufis interesebs, sakuTari jgufis gareT arsebuli“sxva” ki gansxvavebuli da ucxoa. es “sxva” uaryofiTimniSvnelobis matarebelia da masSi Tavmoyriliayvela is problema, rasac awydeba axali jgufi,axalmosaxle. amas adgili aqvs maSinac ki, Tu esgadaadgileba misi sakuTari samSoblos teritoriisSigniT ganxorcielda; ufro metic, SesaZlebelia, rigiproblemebi fsiqologiurad ufro advili dasaZlevicki gaxdes im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac subieqtisxva, ara samSoblos, teritoriaze saxldeba, anurodesac mas emigrantis statusi Tu socialuriroli eniWeba.kvlevisaTvis SerCeuli qvemo qarTlis regioniseTnikuri jgufebis socialur-fsiqologiuri analizi,gansxvavebul eTnikur jgufebs Soris arsebulirealuri komunikaciis mecnieruli Seswavla daaRwera ganxorcielda eTnologebisa da fsiqologebisTanamSromlobiT. amgvari erToblivi kvlevasaSualebas iZleva siRrmiseulad, mravali kuTxiTgaviazroT yvela is problema, rac regionissazogadoebis integraciis procesebs Seaferxebs, anpiriqiT xels Seuwyobs.saqarTvelos polieTnikuri realobidan gamomdinare,Teoriuladac ki Znelad warmosadgeniasaqarTvelos teritoriaze monoeTnikuri regionisarseboba. Cven mier Sesaswavlad SerCeuli walkisada dmanisis raionebi gansakuTrebulia TavisieTnikuri SemadgenlobiT; es “gansakuTrebuloba”,upirveles yovlisa, ar amoiwureba regionis eTnikurimravalferovnebiT. am regionebis dasaxasiaTebladar kmara mxolod gansxvavebuli eTnikuri jgufebissimravlis miniSneba. dReisaTvis am regionSi oTxierovnebis lokaluri kulturis matarebeli mosaxleobaa:azerbaijanelebi, berZnebi, somxebi, qarTvelebi.es aris ZiriTadi mosaxleobis CamonaTvali. dasaxelebuleTnikur jgufebs aqvT gansxvavebuli tradiciebi,aseve gansxavebuli ena da aRmsarebloba. amdenad,amgvari CamonaTvali mocemuli regionis eTnikurobisZalze zedapirul suraTs gvaZlevs: erTis mxriv,regionis TiToeuli eTnikuri jgufis subkulturamrvalmxrivi da erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebulia, meoresmxriv, ZiriTad mosaxleobas daemata e.w. ekomigrantebisaqarTvelos maRalmTiani regionebidan: aWaridan,svaneTsa da raWidan.mocemul SemTxvevaSi Cveni kvleva miznadisaxavda, gamogvevlina qvemo qarTlis regioniseTnikuri jgufebis urTierTobis socialur-fsiqologiurispecifika, saxeldobr, gagverkvia:1. raionSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri jgufebisurTierTobis xasiaTi, maTi fsiqologiuri TaviseburebebisgaTvaliswinebiT;308 309


2. ram ganapiroba eTnikuri jgufebis urTier-Tobis esa Tu is forma;3. adgilobrivi araqarTulenovani mosaxleobisdamokidebuleba _ socialuri ganwyobebis _ rogorcsazogadod qarTvelebis, aseve konkretulad ekomigrantebismimarT;4. regionis adgilnacvali qarTuli mosaxleobissocialuri ganwyobebi da stereoti pebiadgilobrivi “damxvdurebis” mimarT;5. “damxvdurebis” socialuri ganwyobebi daheterostereotipebi Camosulebis mimarT;6. erovnuli umciresobis damokidebulebasaxelmwifo enis dauflebisadmi;7. Tu inarCunebs simyares tradiciebi, wes-Cveulebebi, ceremoniebi da simboloebi da romeliSeicvala; romeli tradicia Seigua, moirgo sxvaeTnikurma jgufma, anu ganicada akulturacia.kvlevisaTvis gamoyenebuli meTodi ZiriTadadganisazRvra TiToeuli eTnikuri jgufis, zog SemTxvevaSiki konkretuli informatoris Tu gamokiTxavSimonawile subieqtis specifikiT: igulisxmeba kvlevisprocesSi enis barieris, eTnikurobis, socialuristatusis gaTvaliswineba. mag.: zog SemTxvevaSioficialuri piri an saxelmwifo moxele ar iyoTanaxma gaeca pasuxi Cvens kiTxvebze, Seevso kiTxvari,an misi piradi mosazreba diqtofonze Cagvewera. aseTviTarebaSi, situaciidan gamomdinare, vcvlidiTmuSaobis taqtikas. gamokiTxva, CaRrmavebuli interviu,kiTxvaris meSveobiT werilobiTi masalis mogroveba,mTxrobelTan diqtofoniT muSaoba da misTanani.yvela SemTxvevaSi esadageboda respodentis nebasurvils.umeteswilad ufro mizanSewonili iyoCaRrmavebuli intervius meTodi, Tumca dialogisparalelurad diqtofonis gamoyeneba zogjergarkveul sirTules qmnida, radganac es “Jurna-listis” muSaobasTan iyo asocirebuli da umetesaduaryofiTad ganicdeboda.kvlevisaTvis SerCeuli qvemo qarTlis regionisraionebi garkveulwilad erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuliraionebia. gansxvavebaSi, upirveles yovlisa,vgulisxmobT sxvadasxva soflis mosaxleobisistoriul beds da eTnikuri jgufebis socialurfsiqologiuriSemadgenlobis specifikas. mTlianobaSiregioni da mis SemadgenlobaSi myofi mosaxleobaspecifikis TvalsazrisiT Tamamad SeiZlebagansakuTrebuli regionis kategorias mivakuTvnoT.am SemTxvevaSi Cven vgulisxmobT regionSi mcxovrebigansxvavebuli eTnikuri jgufis, rogorc garkveulisocialuri erTobis, fsiqologiur Taviseburebebs,kerZod: am jgufebis enas, kulturas, eTnikurTviTcnobierebas, tradiciebs, eTnikur stereoti pebs,socialur ganwyobebs da a.S. amasTanave, viTvaliswinebTregionSi Camosaxlebuli e.w. ekomigrantebiseTnikuri jgufis Taviseburebas.rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sacxovrebeli adgilismonacvleobis gamo migrantebs axali adgilis mimarTgarkveuli molodinebi gaaCniaT. es molodinebiSesaZloa iyos rogorc imedis momcemi, aseve uimedo.ekomigrantisaTvis adgilis cvlasTan dakavSirebulisirTuleebis winaswar sruli gaazreba da Sesabamisimzaobis gamomuSaveba praqtikulad SeuZlebelia.rogorc wesi, realuri garemo pirobebi migrantismolodinebisagan didad gansxvavdeba da mas viTarebarTuli xvdeba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu situaciamgaamarTla axalmosaxlis molodinebi da axaligaremo mis mier dadebiTad ganicdeba, bunebrivia, esproblemebs Seamcirebs, xolo Tu arsebuli sociumiver gaamarTlebs migrantis molodinebs, kargi niadagiSeeqmneba problemebis warmoSobisas.axal adgilze, erTis mxriv, mZime ekonomikurida sayofacxovrebo pirobebia, meores mxriv, aseve310 311


aranakleb mniSvnelovani da axalmosaxlisaTvismoulodneli fsiqologiuri xasiaTis sirTulec(igulisxmeba piradi gancdiseuli samyaros Sexebaaxal garemosTan). yvela SemTxvevaSi, ekonomikurisirTuleebis paralelurad, axalmosaxle undaSeeguos gansxvavebul geografiul garemos da misigancdisaTvis ucxo, axal sociums _ damxvdurebs,maT socialur ganwyobebs da eTnikur stereoti pebs.faqtobrivad gadmosaxlebis momentidan iwyebaakulturacia. akulturacia rTuli procesia, igimoicavs adaptaciis process, rac axali kulturisaTvisebas gulisxmobs. axali kultura gansxvavebuliaim kulturisagan, romelSic pirovnebaCamoyalibda. rogorc wesi termini akulturaciaemigrantebis mimarT gamoiyeneba (Мацумото, 2008: 224).ekomigrantma sruliad axal fizikur da socialurgaremoSi, axali socialuri pozicia da roli SeiZina.mTlianobaSi swored es axali, gaucxoebuli eTnikuriurTierToba emigrantSi iwvevs Sinagan daZabulobas,rac ganapirobebs e.w. akulturaciis stress. racufro didia kulturebs Soris gansxvaveba, miT ufroizrdeba dezorientacia da swored axali stereotipebis samyaroSi moxvedril adamians euflebaakulturaciis Soki. unda aRiniSnos, rom mkvlevrebigarkveul “sifrTxiles” iCenen termin “kulturisSokis” gamoyenebis mimarT. am formiT termini Semoitanaamerikelma kultur-antropologma k. obergma(Стефаненко, 2000: 281). misi TvalsazrisiT, es mdgomareobaswored Sokis msgavsia. am Sokur mdgomareobasganapirobebs, erTis mxriv, gancvifrebis grZnoba da,meores mxriv, Rirebulebebis, socialuri da pirovnuliidentobis aRreva. gaumarTlebeli molodinebi,sakuTari kompetenturobis dakargva, gaucxoebamxolod uaryofiT gancdebTan aris dakavSirebuli.kanadeli fsiqologis Hh. berris (Berry, 1980: 445-478)azriT, yuradReba unda mivaqcioT kulturis SokisdadebiT mxareebsac. d. berrs miaCnia, rom SokisSedegis dadebiT mxare im individebis Secvlilimdgomareobaa, romelTac moaxerxes diskomfortisdaZleva. droTa ganmavlobaSi gaiTavises, miiRes axaliRirebulebebi da qcevis axali modelebi. faqtobrivadsaxezea individis pirovnuli ganviTareba.aqedan gamomdinare, d. berri gvTavazobs “kulturisSokis” nacvlad gamoviyenoT akulturaciis stresi”.sabolood, misi azriT, axal kulturasTan SexebadadebiT gamocdilebasac gvaZlevs (Стефаненко, 2003:282). imisaTvis, rom “mosulma” misTvis axal, ucxogaremoSi kulturuli adaptacia moaxerxos, man aucilebladunda daZlios “akulturaciis stresi”.stresis daZleva garkveul dros saWiroebs. sworedam periodSi iqmneba konfliqtis aRmocenebis saSiSroeba.am Sinagani, ufro pirovnuli fsiqologiurisirTuleebidan momdinare konfliqts umetes SemTxvevaSieTnikurobas miaweren, rac gaumarTlebelia.regionis socialuri fsiqologiuri garemoSemdegnairad SeiZleba davaxasiaToT: TiToeulmaeTnikurma jgufma socio-kulturuli ganviTarebisdamoukidebeli gza ganvlo. mag., walkis raionSidarCenili berZnebis mniSvnelovani nawili, boloperiodSi, saberZneTTan aris dakavSirebuli _ ojaxiswevrebis nawili saberZneTSi cxovrobs da muSaobs.am TvalsazrisiT walkis raionSi migraciuliatmosfero sufevs. walkis raionis sazogadoebaSiaqtualuria mosaxleobis denadobisa da gadaadgilebissakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli Tematika da,aqedan gamomdinare problemebi. walkis raionSi sul23 berZnuli sofelia. berZnebi regionis ZiriTadmosaxleobas warmoadgenen. isini enobrivi niSniTiyofian berZnulenovan da Turqulenovan berZnebad.“berZnebi, elinofonebi laparakoben berZnuli enispontos dialeqtze~ (Пашаева, 1992: 17). amave dros,walkis raionis ZiriTadi masa warmoadgens e.w.312 313


urumebs. urumebi Turqulenovani berZnebia, saubrobenTurqul kiloze, romelic Tavis mxriv iyofaerTmaneTisagan mcired gansxvavebul kilokavebad(Пашаева, 1992: 19). am kilom saqarTveloSi ganicadaazerbaijanuli, qarTuli da rusuli enis Zlierigavlena. garda enobrivi Taviseburebisa, aq mosaxleberZnebisaTvis sirTules qmnis eTnikuri identurobistransformaciis sakiTxi, radganac berZnuli mosaxleobisgarkveuli nawili “wamsvlelebis” ricxvsganekuTvneba (igulisxmeba saberZneTSi wasvla).“wamsvlelebi” da “darCenilebi” gansxvavebulisocialuri ganwyobiT xasiaTdebian, rac garkveulwiladaisaxeba maT yoveldRiur yofiT urTier-TobaSi. saberZneTSi wasvlaze orientirebulisubieqti yvelanairad cdilobs gaamarTlos wasvlisaucilebloba. es iwvevs masSi gaormagebul SeuTavsebelSinagan gancdas, rac garkveulwilad disonansurmdgomareobaSi ayenebs pirovnebas: wasvlis,yvelafris datovebis aucileblobis damadasturebeliargumenti, umetes SemTxvevaSi, materialurstimuls efuZneba.sadReisod dasaxelebul berZnul mosaxleobasTanerTad regionSi cxovroben somxebi da azerbaijanelebi.aq 17 somxuri sofelia da 4 azerbaijanuli.walkis regioni, bolo dros, eTnikurad ufromravalferovani gaxda, radgan Seemata svaneTidan daaWaris maRali mTianeTidan gadmosaxlebuli ekomigrantebi.adgilobrivi ZiriTadi mosaxleobis:berZnebis, somxebis da azerbaijanelebis sakomunikacioena rusulia. svanebi laparakoben svanuradda qarTulad, xolo aWarlebi _ aWarul dialeqtze.eTnikuri jgufebis ganxilvisas erT-erTiumniSvnelovanesi da mravlismomcveli maxasiaTebeliaaRmsarebloba. faqtobrivad aRmsarebloba aris isqvakuTxedi, romelsac efuZneba TiToeuli eTnikurijgufis Rirebulebebi, eTnikuri identobis ganmsaz-Rvreli socialuri ganwyobebi da romliTac ganisaz-Rvreba eTnikuri urTierTdamokidebulebebis xasiaTi.berZnebi da svanebi qristiani marTmadideblebiarian; svanebTan warmarTuli religiis elementebicaRiniSneba; qarTvelebi aWaridan da adgilobriviazerbaijanelebi suniti muslimebi, xolo somxurierovnebis mosaxleoba qristiani grigorianelebiarian. amgvaria mocemuli regionis lokaluri suraTi,misi kulturaluri areali, romelSic ikveTebakoleqtivisturi kulturebis individualuri specifika.TiToeuli eTnikuri jgufis enobrivma da aRmsareblobiTmagansxvavebam Tavi iCina rogorc eTnikurstereotipebSi, aseve socialuri distanciis xarisxSi.EeTnikuri stereotipebis dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTixasiaTi mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs rogorceTnikur jgufebs Soris urTierTobas, aseve socialuridistanciis xarisxs. stereoti pebi ama Tu imeTnikuri jgufis myar ganzogadebuli xatebia. amxat-warmodgenebis, sazogadod, eTnikuri stereotipebis,kvlevis mravali meTodi arsebobs. arsebulTaSoris Cveni SemTxvevisaTvis mizanSewonilad miviCnieTe.w. CaRrmavebuli, struqturirebuli interviusmeTodi. zedmiwevniT mdidar masalas iRebs mkvlevariaraformaluri intervius meSveobiTac. amgvarxangrZliv dialogSi mkvlevars saSualeba aqvspirdapir kiTxvasTan erTad, informators iribikiTxvebic dausvas. swored iribi SekiTxvebis gziTxdeba SesaZlebeli eTnikuri jgufebis damokidebulebisada miReba-miuReblobis xarisxis dadgena.bunebrivia, rom amgvari dialogis procesSi mkvlevariwinaswar Sedgenili gegmiT xelmZRvanelobs. CvensSemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba specialurad SedgenilikiTxvari, romelic ramdenime blokisagan Sedgeba.bloki Seicavs erTi sakiTxis irgvliv gaerTianebulkiTxvaTa jgufs (mag.: 1. bloki aerTianebs eTnikuristereoti pebis dasadgen kiTxvebs: a) berZnebis romeli314 315


Tvisebebi mogwonT yvelaze metad? b) azerbaijanelebisromeli Tviseba mogwonT? g) aseve romeliTvisebebi ar mogwonT? 2. samoqalaqo cnobierebisdasadgen blokSi Semavali kiTxvebis nimuSi:a) megobrobT Tu ara Tqven TanasoflelebTan, romlebicar arian Tqveni erovnebisa da b) iqorwinebT Tu ara Xerovnebaze da misT). bunebrivia, rom am SemTxvevaSiupiratesoba SekiTxvis azrobriv mxares eniWeba.informatorTan muSaobis procesSi, rogorc wesi,gasaTvaliswinebelia enobrivi barieric. ZiriTadmamosaxleobam _ igulisxmeba berZnebi da azerbaijanelebi_ qarTuli ena saerTod ar icis, sxvebTankomunikaciisaTvis rusul enas iyeneben, rac asevecudad ician. amdenad, kiTxvariT pirdapir, lakonuraddasmuli kiTxvis SemTxvevaSi raime saxis masalismopoveba azerbaijaneli, somexi da berZeni erovnebismTxroblebTan sakmaod gaZnelebulia.MmTxrobelTanuSualo saubrisas SesaZlebelia, SekiTxvis gasagebadkiTxvis formis sxvadasxva variantebis SerCeva, aseveJestebis enis gamoyeneba da misT.masalis analizma gviCvena, rom, miuxedavadmosaxleobis amgvari siWrelisa da mravali kulturaluri,socialuri Tu ekonomikuri sxvaobisa mTlianobaSimocemul etapze regionSi Ria konfliqti araris saxeze. adgilobrivi mosaxleoba gverdigverdcxovrobs da urTierTobs. bunebrivia, aq Tavs iCensgarkveuli daZabuloba, rac zemoqmedebas axdensadamianebis qcevaze, magram daZabulobis xarisxirealurad mainc normis farglebSia. regionSi Riakonfliqtis ararsebobas xels uwyobs eTnikurijgufis wevrebs Soris minimaluri kontaqti. faqtobrivades aris daxuruli jgufebis urTierToba, racfizikurad erTmaneTis gverdiT cxovrebis farglebSixorcieldeba. savaraudoa, rom konfliqtis SemTxvevaSicjgufis wevrebi upiratesobas Tavis aridebisstrategias mianiWeben. sazogadod, emigran-tebisamgvar qcevas, TviTizolacias sociologebi ganixilaven,rogorc “nebayoflobiT eTnikur segregacias”da es, rogorc wesi, upirvelesad yovlisa, arakeTilmosurneda araxelsayreli garemoebis Sedegia.gazrdili socialuri distancia asaxuliaeTnikuri jgufebis heterostereoti pebSic, anu sxvaeTnikuri jgufis SefasebaSi. aRsaniSnavia, romumeteswilad heterostereoti pebSi Warbad ariswarmodgenili uaryofiTi maxasiaTeblebi. sxvaeTnikuri jgufis daxasiaTebisas mTxrobeli, rogorcwesi, mniSvnelobas aniWebs aRmsareblobas. mag.: TuCven (igulisxmeba mkvlevari) arCevanis winaSevayenebdiT mTxrobels, urTierTobisaTvis (mezobloba,erToblivi samuSao, qorwineba da misT.) SeerCiaromelime sxva eTnikuri jgufis wevri, respodenti,rogorc wesi, umetesad “sxva” eTnikuri jgufis wevrsaRmsareblobis mixedviT irCevda, iwonebda, an, piriqiT,iwunebda. “Cven erTi rwmena gvaqvs, magaTi rwmenaCvennairia”. aqedan gamomdinare, arCevanis ierarqiaSiberZeni pirvel rigSi irCevs berZens, Semdeg ganTavsdebaqarTveli, Tumca ara aqve, regionSi, mcxovrebiAaWareli,aramed zogadad qarTveli, racupirvelesad qristians gulisxmobs. sazogadod,religiuri erToba mWidrod ukavSirdeba eTnikuridentobas. bunebrivia, im sazogadoebaSi, sadaceTnikuroba gaigivebulia aRmsareblobasTan, Zneliwarmosadgenia, iyo erTdroulad qarTveli damuslimani. berZnebi kategoriulad ar aRiarebenaWarlebis “qarTvelobas”. aWarlebis muslimanobaeWvis qveS ayenebs maT qarTvelobas. rogorc mTxrobeligvixsnis: “egeni ubralod qarTulad laparakoben,qarTuli ician, Torem qarTvelebi ar arian”. rogorcwesi, svanebze da aWarlebze arc berZeni da arcazerbaijaneli ar ambobs, rom isini qarTvelebi arian.rodesac zogadad vekiTxebiT, mag., _ romeli erovnebisadamians andobdiT saxls? _ gvpasuxobs, rom berZens,316 317


an azerbaijanels, an somexs da sxv. magram Tu aWarelsan svans andobs saxls, mas qarTvelad ar moixseniebs.aseTi arc erTi SemTxveva ar gvqonia. ufro metic,rigi argumentebi mohyavT amis dasasabuTeblad.SesaZloa, dasaxelebuli eTnikuri jgufebis “araqar-Tveloba” adgilobrivi macxovreblebisaTvis ufromisaRebia, radganac amiT maTi uaryofiTi socialuriganwyoba “araqarTvelebis” mimarT ufro gamarTlebulia.cnobili evropeli lingvisti a. van-deiki fundamenturnaSromSi “ena. Semecneba da komunikacia”yuradRebas amaxvilebs enis funqcionirebis socialurkonteqstze; laparakia iseTi socialuri faqtorebismniSvnelobaze, rogoricaa mTxroblisa da msmenelisganwyoba, maTi eTnikuroba da socialuri statusi.aqve igi dasZens, rom situaciis interpretacia daeTnikuri umciresobis qmedeba, rogorc wesi,umravlesobis mier uaryofiTad aRiqmeba. sagulisxmoa,rom, Tu adre miRebuli gamocdilebiT subieqtsCamouyalibda uaryofiTi ganwyoba, da amave drosaxali situaciac epizodur mexsierebaSi uaryofiTadaisaxa, saxeze gveqneba suraTi, romelic kargad ergebaCven adreul codnas da gamocdilebas. aseTSemTxvevaSi arsebuli mikerZoebuli socialuri aRqmaufro met simtkices SeiZens (Ван Деик, 1989: 178).sakuTar uaryofiT ganwyobas am e.w. “araqarTvelebis”mimarT azerbaijaneli da berZeni mTxroblebisruliad Riad gamoxataven. niSandoblivia, romadgilobrivi qarTvelebic svaneTidan gadmosaxlebulekomigrantebs moixsenieben rogorc svanebsda ara rogorc qarTvelebs, ufro metic, zogSemTxvevaSi xazs usvamen, rom es svanebia. “egeniaqaurebi ar arian, svanebi arian!” mTxrobeli bolnisismcxovrebi skolis moswavlea, romelsac rusuli gvariaqvs. “me adgilobrivi qarTveli var, svani ar var, merusuli gvari maqvs, skolaSi cotaTi gamirTuldaamis gamo, ise klasSi qarTvelebi arian da svanebic!~vekiTxebi: svanebi ar arian qarTvelebi? mTxrobeliWoWmanobs, mohyavs svanebis araqarTvelobis dasamtkicebladargumentebi: “aba ra vici, TviTon sul aseamboben, Cven svanebi varT, enac Tavisi aqvT, wesebicraRacnairi, qarTvelebi egeTebi ar arian, sxvanairadacloculoben”. mTxrobelTa jgufi, romelic Cvenssaubars eswreboda da adgilobrivi qarTvelebisganSedgeboda aseTive damokidebulebas afiqsirebda.motanil nimuSebSi mTxroblis argumentebicxadyofen eTnikurobis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebismniSvnelobas. upirveles yovlisa, mniSvnelovaniargumentia is, rom Tavad svaneTidan gamosulisubieqtebi sakuTar Tavs, rogorc wesi, svanebadmoixsenieben _ “svanebi varT”! arc erTi svaneTidanadgilnacvali piri sakuTar Tavze ar ambobs, rom isqarTvelia da aris svaneTidan. bunebrivia, rom sxvaeTnikuri jgufebis mier svanebis araqarTvelebadaRqmas qarTuli enisagan gansxvavebuli svanuri enauwyobs xels.eTnikuri heterostereoti pebis uaryofiTimaxasiaTeblebis CamonaTvalSi mTxroblebi tradiciisan kulturis maxasiaTeblebis ganmasxvavebel niSnebzemiuTiTeben. rogorc wesi, sakuTari eTnikurijgufisagan gansxvavebuli maxasiaTeblebis CamonaTvalisafuZvlad udevs uaryofiT Sefasebas. aqve undaaRiniSnos, rom umetes SemTxvevaSi ganmasxvavebeliniSan-Tvisebebi naklebad aris gamokveTili. eskonkretuli niSnebi ufro gaucnobierebeli formiTgveZleva da erTianad miuTiTeben “gansxvavebaze”,rogorc uaryofiTze. rogorc wesi, umeteswilad esis gansxvavebuli niSnebia, rac vizualuradaa TvalSisacemi. mag.: gansxvavebuli samzareulo, Cacmis stili,qalebis Tavsaburavi, dasaflavebis rituali, micvalebulisdatirebis forma, “sasaxlis” gareSe dasaflavebada misT.318 319


unda aRiniSnos, rom urTierTobis sixSires dasiaxloves sagrZnoblad aferxebs enis barieri. aqveunda vTqvaT, rom radgan aWarlebis da svanebissakomunikacio ena qarTulia, SeiZleboda gvevaraudamaT Soris axlo urTierToba, axlo socialurikontaqti. dakvirvebis masalis analizma gamoavlina,rom dasaxelebuli eTnikuri jgufebi ar gamoirCevianaxlo socialuri distanciiT, anu siaxlovissixSiriT. socialur distanciaSi igulisxmeba“sxvisi” miReba-miuReblobis, urTierTobis siaxlovisda siSoris xarisxi. mezoblad unda, magram ar undamasTan erTad muSaoba, saerTo saqmis keTeba da misT.svani mTxrobeli gvixsnis amis mizezs: “Cven CvenTvisvarT, isini TavisTvis”. “Tu Wiri an lxinia, rogorc“wesi moiTxovs”, ise moviqceviT, aba magaTi (igulisxmebamuslimanebi) dasaflavebis wesi sul sxvaa, sadgagonila qali sasaflaoze ar gauSva. Cvenc ise,mxolod mivalT, movusamZimrebT da morCa”; “magaTidasaflavebac sxvanairia, im dResve asaflaveben,sasaflaoze mxolod kacebi gadian. qalebi arSeiZleba rom wavidnen sasaflaoze”. mTxrobelimiuReblobis gasamarTlebel Zlier argumentadmiiCnevs muslimanebis dasaflavebis wess, igi ukmayofilosaxiT gvixsnis, rom misTvis saSinelia imiswarmodgenac ki, rom “cxedari jerac ar iyo gaciebulida ise daasaflaves”... “es Cemi TvaliT rom ar menaxa,ver davijerebdi.” rogorc dakvirvebam gviCvena, yvelaeTnikuri jgufebis SemTxvevaSi araformaluriurTierToba, mezobloba, bavSvebis erTad TamaSi,daxmareba daSvebulia. amasTanave, sruliad miuRebeliamuslimanze daqorwineba an raime sxva formiTdanaTesaveba. miuxedavad obieqturad eTnikuraddaSorebuli jgufebisa, rogorc mag., svani da berZenia,(igulisxmeba ena, kultura, berZnebis lokalurispecifika, Turqul enaze laparaki da sxv.). aWarlebisgangansxvavebiT, berZeni mosaxleobisaTvis ufromisaRebia svani. saubaria Sinagan, gancdiseulisiaxloveze. es ar aris imis maCvenebeli, rom berZnebssvanebis heterostereoti pi dadebiTi aqvT, magrammaTTvis muslimani imdenad miuRebelia, rom, am fonze,isini svanis mimarT met mimReblobas avlenen. argamovricxavT, rom am lokalur garemoSi es ormxriviuaryofiTi stereoti pi, izolaciasa da gazrdilsocialur distancias _ “daxurul” urTierTobasganapirobebs. Cvenis azriT, am etapze Ria konfliqtisararseboba swored minimaluri urTierTobisa daTavis aridebis strategiis xarjze xorcieldeba.uaryofiTi eTnikuri stereoti pebi problemebiskompleqsis mxolod erT-erTi komponentia da araZiriTadi. lokalurad, mocemul multikulturulsociumSi yvela eTnikuri jgufisaTvis prioritetulisagnobrivi Rirebulebebia religia da ojaxi.ojaxi is pirveladi socialuri sistemaa, romelSicbavSvs gadaecema mSoblebis RirebulebiTi orientaciebismimarTuleba, qcevis modelebi, romlismeSveobiTac bavSvi ecnoba da iTavisebs kulturisnormebs. rwmena, rogorc prioritetuli Rirebuleba,CarTulia bavSvis socializaciis procesSi. empiriulmakvlevebma gamoavlina, rom religiuri ideologiiszemoqmedeba bavSvebze gaSualebulia mSoblisRirebulebaTa sistemebiT, aRzrdis meTodebiT.muslimani mSobeli bavSvs adreul asakSi unergavsRirebulebebisa da tradiciuli wes-Cveulebebis myarsistemas. deda adreuli asakidan uxsnis bavSvstradiciuli qcevis normebs, raSic igulisxmebagarkveuli akrZalvebi, ufleba-movaleobebi: “undaicodes, rom is muslimania”, icodes, Tu ra aris misi,rogorc morwmune muslimanis valdebuleba, romarseboben sxva rwmenis adamianebi; socializaciisprocesSi gulisxmoben im meqanizmebs, romlismeSveobiTac adamiani eufleba sazogadoebaSi qceviswesebsa da kulturis normebs (Мацумото, 2008: 224).320 321


mSobels Sehyavs bavSvi “Cven” jgufSi; uyalibebsmas “Cven” jgufis xats. am procesSi bunebriviaSedarebis momenti im “sxvasTan” da maxvili amgvariSedarebisas gadatanilia “sxva” jgufis ganmasxvavebelniSnebze. rogorc wesi, swored aq ikveTeba isZiriTadi eTnomadiferencirebeli maxasiaTeblebismniSvneloba, rac ayalibebs rogorc sakuTari Tavis,aseve “sxvis” xat-warmodgenas. kerZod es exebaRirebulebebs, enas, religias, istoriul mexsierebas,tradiciul qcevas da misT.qarTveli muslimebi, aWaris mTiani regionidangadmosaxlebuli ekomigrantebi, monokulturuligaremodan mSobliur miwaze axal sociumSi aRmoCndnen.swored amgvar viTarebaSi mTxrobeli, romelicmSobelia, gadmogvcems, Tu rogor uxsnis bavSvebsqcevis dasaSveb normebs. “Cem gogos vuxsni, rom arvuSli, imegobros maTTan, saxlSic moiyvanos Tavisiamxanagebi da yvelaferi, magram Seyvareba ar SeiZleba,colad ar unda gayves sxva rjulis adamians.” arunda miekaros “sxvas”, es ar SeiZleba, ar unda Seiyvaro“sxva”. SeyvarebaSi qalisa da vaJis siyvaruls vgulisxmobT,xolo “sxvaSi” upirvelesad yovlisa igulisxmebasxva aRmsareblobis piri, am mocemulobaSiqarTveli erovnebis. muslimani qarTveli mTxroblispasuxis tonalobaSi igrZnoba uxerxuloba, rodesacam damokidebulebas erovnebiT qarTvel damkvirvebelsuziarebs. “qorwineba aq jer ar momxdara.arc vici, ver warmomidgenia.”rogorc masalis analizma gviCvena da razedacTavad mTxrobelma xazgasmiT migvaniSna, amgvarigansakuTrebuli axsna “aq” gaxda saWiro, Torem “iq”,anu mTxroblis sofeli, aWaris mTianeTis muslimanurimonokulturuli sociumi, amgvari axsnisaucileblobis pirobas ar qmnis.mocemul garemoSi kidev erTxel gamoikveTaaRmsareblobis da eTnikurobis rTuli urTierT-mimarTeba eTnikuri identobis WrilSi. aWareli Taviserovnebad aWarlobas asaxelebs da ara qarTvelobas.axalma, arsebulma multikulturulma sociummasafrTxis winaSe daayena aWarlebis aRmsareblobada garkveulwilad eTnikurobac. swored amanganapiroba tradiciuli wes-Cveulebebis ganmtkicebisaucilebloba, rac konkretul SemTxvevaSi mSobeli_ Svilis urTierTobaSi aisaxa. mag., aWareli dedagviyveba, Tu rogor uxsnis mSobeli bavSvebs pataraobidanveim religiur _ muslimanur wes-Cveulebebs,rasac unda daemorCilos bavSvica da didic. “mepataraobidanve veubnebi Cem Svilebs, Tu rogor undamoiqcnen, Cveni wesi rogorc iTxovs, gogo qaliSviliunda iyos, aba sxvanairad ar SeiZleba, Cveni wesismixedviT asea. dedam Tavidanve unda auxsnas, SiSiunda hqondes, biWTan kavSiris unda eSinodes. me undavuTxra, rom amas ar unda gadaabijos. Tu gogo Secda,ityvis vin iyo, iman unda waiyvanos, Tundac colihyavdes. Tu ara da im soflidan unda asaxldes.axla dro Seicvala, kinoebs uyureben, baRanasTavsaburavs ar ukeTeben, adre aucileblad vukeTebdiT.gogo ro gaTxovdeba, SeiZleba mere jinsic Caicvas.Cveni baRanas daaxloveba qristianTan ar SeiZleba.me vuxsni Cem gogos gaqristianebul aWarelTanmegobroba SeiZleba, magram gaTxoveba ar iqneba. baRanaam azrs Seguebulia.” mSobeli, rogorc TaobidanTaobaze kulturisa da tradiciis gadamcemi subieqti,bavSvis aRzrdaSi aregulirebs am process, romelSicZlierad aris gamokveTili tradiciulobis xazi.“Cemi Svili meore klasis moswavlea da sul veubnebi,vuxsni yvelafers, adamians 100-jer rom uTxra sityva,tyuilic rom iyos, daijerebs. mec bevrjer vumeoreb;me vici, rom ar moxdeba Seyvareba qristianis, esCvenTvis codvaa!.” (xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010).svaneTidan gadmosaxlebuli erT-erTi skolisdawyebiTi klasebis pedagogi gviyveba: “muslimanebTan322 323


urTierTobaSi yoveldRiurobaSi ar gvaqvs problemebi,magram me skolaSi vaswavli, dawyebiTi klasebispedagogi var da iq Semxvda problema. skolaSi,saskolo klasSi problemebi namdvilad aris; iseyoveldRiurobaSi araferi ar SeimCneva, egeniTavisTvis arian da Cven CvenTvis.” (xarSilaZe, 2008 _2010). niSandoblivia, rom yoveldRiur cxovrebaSitradiciis farglebSi arsebuli socialuri distanciaSenarCunebulia, magram saklaso oTaxis garemo ukvecvlis am urTierTobis “dakanonebul” wesebs.saklaso oTaxis situaciaSi arsebuli urTierTobagansxvavebuli da specifikuria, amdenad, es socialurigaremo rogorc maswavleblisagan, aseve bavSvisaganaxlebur damokidebulebas da Zvelis gadastruqturebasmoiTxovs, rac situacias arTulebs. amgvarrealobaSi maswavlebelica da bavSvic gaorebulmdgomareobaSia, amgvari Sinagani mdgomareoba orivemxarisaTvis rTuli dasaZlevi xdeba. pedagogimTxrobeli gviyveba _ “musulman bavSvebTan siZneleebimqonda klasSi, bavSvebs bibliidan movuyevi sainteresoambebi da musulmani bavSvebi amis SesaxebsaxlSi rom moyvnen. bebiebma wigni gamoarTves dauTxres, meorejer ar gadaSaloTo, mec SemomiTvales,ar aswavlo qristianuli ambebio, piradadac mnaxes,maT ar siamovnebT Cveni mefeebis warsulze saubari.me mainc vcdilob..... gakveTilis dawyebis win “mamaoCvenos” locvas vakiTxebdi, saxlSi ena miitanes, amanZalian didi uTanxmoeba gamoiwvia. ise aWarelmSoblebs bavSvebis swavla ar ainteresebT, urCevniaTyanaSi amuSaon, gogoc da biWic.” “aqedan (gulisxmobsTavis sofels) skolaSi mxolod biWebi dadian.aWarel mTxrobel qals _ dedas Cvens winaSeeuxerxuleba im faqtis aRiareba, rom misi qaliSviliar dadis skolaSi, rom ar uSvebs skolaSi dacdilobs agvisxnas amis mizezi: “aq sul oTxi klasiada Sors skolaSi gogo ver gauSvi, CamorCa, axla 16wlisaa da mexuTe klaselebTan xom ar dajdeba?biWi ki dadis, swavlobs. gogo gaTxovdeba....”(xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010). rac Seexeba aWarlebisberZnebTan urTierTobas, am kiTxvaze aWarlebi,rogorc wesi, dadebiT urTierTobaze miuTiTeben. amurTierTobaSi xazgasasmelia is momenti, romurTierToba mezoblobis farglebs ar scildeba.miuxedavad imisa, rom TavisTavad mezoblobisinstituti axlo urTierTobas gulisxmobs, urTier-Tobis formebis simravleSi mxolod “mezoblobiT”Semofargvla socialuri distanciis sididezemiuTiTebs. “berZnebTan kargi urTierToba gvaqvs. isiniTavisTvis arian, Cven CvenTvis, vmezoblobT” damokidebulebises xarisxi aWarlebs da berZnebs akmayofilebTda sruliad bunebrivad miaCniaT.rig eqsperimentebSi dadgenili iqna, rom,monokulturul individebTan SedarebiT, bikulturulgaremoSi myofi individebi gacilebiT metixarisxiT axdenen identifikacias Tavis sakuTarkulturasTan; gacilebiT ufro pozitiurad afasebenmas da miiCneven, rom es ori kultura erTmaneTisagangansxvavdeba. ufro konkretulad rom vTqvaT, sxvakulturaSi moxvedrili adamiani ufro met mniSvnelobasaniWebs tradiciul Rirebulebebs, rac maTsakuTar kulturasTan akavSirebT, vidre individebi,romelnic mSobliur kulturaSi cxovroben. kroskulturulifsiqologiis Tanamedrove mkvlevarsdevid macumotos moyvanili aqvs analogiuri faqtebiamerikaSi emigrirebul sxvadasxva eTnikur jgufebiscxovrebidan. emigrirebuli eTnikuri jgufebigacilebiT ufro tradiciulebi aRmoCndnen, vidreadgilze monokulturaSi mcxovrebi maTi monaTesavetomebi. “myari kulturaluri tradiciebi, memkvidreoba,wes-Cveulebebi, ena amerikaSi mcxovrebma Cinelmaemigrantebma aSS-s mTel teritoriaze SeinarCunes~.am movlenasK~kulturis ganmtkicebis efeqts” (cultural324 325


eaffirmation) (Мацумото, 2008: 99) uwodeben. axalisocialuri realoba, axali garemo, romelic gadmosaxlebulieTnikuri jgufis cnobierebaSi safrTxesuqmnis maT eTnikur identobas, ufro metad aZlierebssakuTari jgufisadmi dadebiT, mimzidvel ganwyobas.Zlierdeba siamayis grZnoba da sakuTari eTnikurijgufiT gamowveuli sircxvilis grZnoba sustdeba(Стефаненко, 2003: 215 ). mTxrobeli aWaris mTianeTidan(sof. Rorjomi): “Tu mkiTxav, sadauri xar? ra undagiTxra: Rorjomeli var! mere? mere, mere baTumelivar! mere? mere qarTvelebi varT, magram vinc ar icis,vetyvi, rom muslimani qarTvelebi varT, unda uTxra,Torem zogma ar icis.” (xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010).rac Seexeba dmanisisa da bolnisis raionsmTlianobaSi, dmanisis mosaxleoba Sedgeba azerbaijanelebisagan,ZirZveli qarTvelebisagan, somxebisa dasvaneTidan da raWidan gadmosaxlebuli ekomigrantebisagan.mocemul SemTxvevaSic TiToeuli eTnikurijgufis enobrivi da aRmsareblobiTi gansxvavebagamovlinda rogorc eTnikur stereoti pebSi, asevesocialuri distanciis xarisxSi. dasaxelebularealSi (dmanisi) azerbaijanuli da qarTuli (Ziri-Tadad qarTlelebi) mosaxleoba svanebs moixseniebs,rogorc “svanebs”, mxolod dasazustebeli miTiTebisSemdeg amboben, rom isini arian qarTvelebi. Tavadsvanebic aseve zogadad qarTvelad miiCneven sakuTarTavs, magram “svanobiT” moixsenieben yvelas, vincsvania. adgilobrivi mosaxle, erovnebiT qarTvelimTxrobeli gvixsnis, rom “am sofelSi svanebi ararian, mxolod erTia svani qali. kaci ki qarTvelia,coli svani hyavs” (sof. safarlo). sazogadod,mkvlevrebis eTnikur jgufebTan muSaobis procesSi,rogorc wesi, mTxrobeli garkveulwilad mniSvnelobasaniWebs mkvlevris erovnebas. es umetesadvlindeba mTxrobelis mxridan uaryofiTi maxasia-Teblebis CamoTvlisas, im viTarebaSi, rodesacmTxrobeli gvawvdis masalas mklevris eTnikurijgufis erovnulobaze. mkvlevris erovnulobisfaqtori absoluturad ar zRudavda arc azerbaijanel,arc berZen da somex mTxrobels, rodesacisini svaneTidan gadmosaxlebul qarTvelebs uaryofiTadaxasiaTebdnen. es erTxel kidev miuTiTebs imgaremoebaze, rom maT svani qarTvelad ar miaCniaT.azerbaijaneli mTxrobeli sayvedurs gamoTqvamssvaneTidan Camosaxlebul ekomigrantebze: “movidnen,yvelaferi Tavisi goniaT, unda da morCa, ar kiTxulobs,ar ainteresebs, Tavisia Tu sxvisi, egeni eseTebi arian”.analogiurad uaryofiTad axasiaTebs berZeni erovnebismTxrobeli, skolis pedagogi, svaneTidanCamosul ekomigrantebs. “es Cveni sasaflaoa da Cvenieklesiaa. me arc svanebi ar minda, Tumca isinicqristianebi arian. cota roca arian svanebi, kideara uSavs, magram erTad bevri ukve cudi gaxdebianCvenTvis. ise TiTo – TiTos ara uWirs. svanebma iqmokles, aq mokles Cveni adgilobrivi, ra amisaTvismadlobas vetyviT?” “Camosulebi rom arian, undamoridebuli iyvnen, mosuli unda iyos wynari! icodes,rom Camosulia! me rom wavide svaneTSi, miwas, nakveTsmomcemen? arc iq da arc aq ar-sarvanSi ar momcemen”.(xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010). meore berZeni erovnebismTxrobeli qalbatoni ukmayofiloa imiT, meCeTi romaSenda erT-erT sofelSi. “iq aWarlebma meCeTi aiSenes!im meCeTSi adgilobrivi azerbaijanelebi ar dadian,maT ar undaT, saerTod ar Sedian meCeTSi da aWarlebiki dadian, aWarlebi sxva ti pis xalxia.” seqtebTanberZeni mosaxleobis damokidebuleba uaryofiTiada seqtantebis, kerZod, ieRovas mowmeebis mimarT,ukompromiso gancxadebebs akeTeben: “magaT aq vinSemouSvebs, ver gabedaven da arc modian”. (xarSilaZe,2008 _ 2010).326 327


ogorc savele masalis analizma gviCvena,uaxloes warsulSi, rogorc wesi, sirTule urTier-Tobisas umetes SemTxvevaSi adgilobriv qarTulmosaxleobasa da svaneTidan migrirebul subieqtebsSoris iCenda Tavs. es bunebrivia, radganac realuradaxlo urTierToba svanebs ZiriTadad sworedadgilobriv qarTul mosaxleobasTan uwevT. azerbaijanulmosaxleobas, adgilobriv berZnebsa daCamosaxlebul svanebs Soris didia rogorc eTnokulturuli,aseve socialuri distancia. berZnebsada svanebs Soris arsebuli socialuri distanciasimetriul xasiaTs atarebs, anu orive mxare Tanabradar iRebs erTmaneTs. mocemul SemTxvevaSic sworedsocialuri distanciis maRalma xarisxma (urTier-Toba mxolod oficialur doneze da aucileblobisSemTxvevaSi) ganapiroba konfliqtis ararseboba.Camosaxlebuli svanebi mtkiced icaven sakuTareTnikurobas, “svanobis” damadasturebel wes-Cveulebebs, aRmsareblobas, warmomavlobas, yofiTCvevebs. “svani arafriT ar gayveba aWarels, kimarTalia, viciT, rom ZirZveli qarTvelebi qristianebiiyvnen, magram mainc ar gayveba, ise imaTac (igulisxmebaaWareli) ar undaT, arc isini daqorwindebian svanze.”bunebrivia rom Tavis mxriv aseve amgvari qorwinebiswinaaRmdegni aWarlebic arian. maTi urTierTSefasebebi sarkul xasiaTs atarebs; erTi mxareanalogiurad afasebs meore mxares.svanebis yofis gansxvavebuli markerebi, rogorcadgilobrivi qarTuli, aseve azerbaijaneli mosaxleobismxridan ganapirobebs gaucxoebis gancdas.am mocemul SemTxvevaSi, iseve, rogorc yvela sxvaanalogiur viTarebaSi, gaZlierebulia e.w. eTnoafilaciuriganwyobebi, anu moTxovnileba miekuTvnebodeSen eTnikur jgufs. am pirobebSi eTnikurijgufis wevrebisaTvis eTnikuroba wina planzegamodis, rogorc jgufTan identificirebis saSua-leba. Tu ar gvaqvs saxeze saamiso pirobebi, anu ardadgeba eTnikurobis identificirebis aucilebloba,es niSnebi gadainacvlebs wina planidan periferiaze.maSin gveqneba eTnikuri indiferentizmi.saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi umciresobisaTvis _araqarTuli mosaxleobisaTvis _ yvelaze mniSvnelovaniqarTul sazogadoebasTan integraciissakiTxia. integracia mraval faqtorTan aris dakavSirebuli,romelTa Soris saxelmwifo enis codna erTerTiumTavresia. saqarTveloSi, ise rogorc mTelsabWoTa sivrceSi, erTaSoris urTierTobis enafaqtobrivad rusuli iyo. bunebrivia, rom am periodSisaqarTveloSi mcxovrebi araqarTuli mosaxleobaqarTuli enis swavlis saWiroebas ver xedavda.erovnulma umciresobam, kerZod, regionSi macxovrebelTaumravlesobam (azerbaijanelebma da somxebma),romlebic didi xania saqarTveloSi cxovroben, arician qarTuli ena. azerbaijaneli mTxrobeli sof.qesalodan gulwrfelad gveubneba, rom ar icisqarTuli: “me ar vici qarTuli, ar mWirdeba, rusuladvlaparakob (rusuli cudad icis) da saxlSi azerbaijanulad.“skolaSi ki aris qarTulis maswavlebeli,magram me “gamarjoba” da “ho” vici, meti araferi.”(xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010). realurad, saqarTveloSimcxovrebi eTnikuri umciresobis jgufebi saxelmwifoenaze komunikacias praqtikulad ver axerxebdnen.qarTuli enis saxelmwifo enad aRiarebis pirobebSimniSvnelovnad Seicvala erovnuli umciresobisdamokidebuleba qarTuli enis codnis mimarT.rodesac saqme exeba erovnul umciresobas dasaxelmwifo enis codnas, anu praqtikulad sxva, meoreenis dauflebas, gasaTvaliswinebulia enis SemswavlelTadamokidebulebebi Sesaswavli enis da imxalxis mimarT, romel enasac unda daeuflossubieqti. igulisxmeba konteqstualuri faqtori,romelic mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs zogadad328 329


saxelmwifo enis swavlebis saxelmwifo politikisefeqturobas, fsiqosocialur ganviTarebas daenobrivi umciresobis warmomadgenelTa sazogadoebaSiintegrirebulobis xarisxs. gansakuTrebiTgasaTvaliswinebelia socialuri da kulturuligaremos roli, rac gamoxatulia rogorc enis aseve,am enaze molaparake xalxisa da maTi kulturismimarT enis Semswavlelis damokidebulebaSi. rasniSnavs azerbaijaneli Tu somxuri erovnebismosaxleobisaTvis saxelmwifo enis Seswavla da,sazogadod, saxelmwifo enaze “gadasvla”, xom aruqmnis es safrTxes maT erovnul identifikacias?“araferia imaze saSiSi, vidre mcdeloba im mSobliuriZafis gawyvetisa, romelic adamians sakuTar enasTanakavSirebs. rodesac es Zafi gawyvetilia, andarRveulia, es damangrevlad aisaxeba pirovnebismTlianobaze. fanatizmi, romelmac sisxliT morwyaalJiri, aixsneba ufro metad enasTan, vidrereligiasTan dakavSirebuli frustraciiT” (maalufi,2007: 136). mocemul etapze aucilebelia angariSigaewios erovnuli umciresobis mier enis dauflebismotivacias. ratom undaT qarTuli enis Seswavla?aris es survili mxolod saWiroebidan gamomdinare,anu es gulisxmobs enis dauflebisadmi instrumentulmidgomas, Tu enis Seswavlis motivi integraciazeorientirebulobiT aris gapirobebuli? instrumentuliorientaciis mqone adamiani enas swavlobsraime socialuri an ekonomikuri sargeblis (presti-Jul umaRles saswavlebelSi swavla, maRalanazRaurebadisamsaxuris Sovna da sxv.) miRebis mizniT, anuena misTvis aris instrumenti raimes misaRebad(Hudson, 2000: 21) integraciaze orientirebulimotivaciis mqone enis SemswavlelTaTvis damaxasia-Tebelia dadebiTi damokidebuleba rogorc Sesaswavlenaze molaparake adamianebis mimarT, aseve survilida ganzraxva, iyos am sazogadoebaSi integrirebuli.mas surs gaxdes orenovani da aqvs kidec saamisomzaoba, igi gaxsnilia sxva kulturis mimarT. aseTSemTxvevaSi xdeba Semswavlelis kulturuliidentobis, gamocdilebisa da msoflmxedvelobis sxvakulturiTa da eniT gamdidreba. am viTarebaSi enisSemswavlelis winaSe ar wamoiWreba sxva enissasargeblod sakuTari kulturis uaryofis sakiTxi(xarSilaZe, kerZaia, 2009:170)Cven mier qarTuli enis mimarT damokidebulebisdasadgeni, specialurad Sedgenili kiTxvariTmopovebuli masalis analizis mixedviT orivedasaxelebuli regionis azerbaijanuli, somexi, aseveberZnuli erovnebis mosaxleoba dReisaTvis didmniSvnelobas aniWebs qarTuli enis codnas, misSeswavlas. mTxrobeli berZeni axalgazrda qali,saubrobs rusulad: “aba ra, qarTuli unda icodnen,me Cem Svils qarTul skolaSi mivabareb. saqarTveloSicxovroben. saberZneTSi rom midian, SeiZlebaberZnuli ar icodnen? svanebs da aWarlebs me piradadubralod qarTul enaze molaparaked vTvli, Toremise egeni ar mimaCnia qarTvelebad, Tumca me maincsvanebi ufro meaxloveba, erTi rwmena gvaqvs.” svanmTxrobel mamakacs miaCnia, rom azerbaijanelebmaunda iswavlon qarTuli: “unda iswavlon qarTuli,me ratom unda velaparako rusulad? yvela aqaurmaqarTvelma icis azerbaijanuli, arc erTma azerbaijanelmaar icis qarTuli! axla TiTqos aswavlianpatarebs.” (xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010). regionis araqarTulimosaxleobisaTvis qarTuli ena, rogorc Rirebuleba,gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens, “umciresobis”didi nawilis azriT, es aris erT-erTi mizezi, ramacganapiroba axalgazrdebis migracia (igulisxmebabaqoSi, erevanSi, saberZneTsa Tu ruseTSi wasvla).yvela mTxrobeli pirvel rigSi migraciis mizezaduklebliv qarTuli enis arasakmaris codnas asaxelebs.“aqaurobis datoveba ar undaT da iZulebulebi arian,330 331


om datovon”. “ena ar ician, ra unda akeTon aq?! arwavidoda, ena rom icodes, aqauri 5 lari gvirCevniaruseTSi gakeTebul 10 lars, xom iciT, axla ruseTSira Znelia, iq ar undaT kavkasielebi.” “saqarTveloCveni samSobloa, arsad ar wavalT aqedan, Tu odnavkargi pirobebi gveqneba, Cven gvinda, bavSvebma romiswavlon qarTuli, magram azerbaijanuli skolebiar unda daxuroT, es ar iqneba kargi politika” (qvemobolnisi, meCeTis meTvalyure).qarTuli enis dauflebis motivaciis zrdasganapirobebs enobrivi barieri, rac arTulebsurTierTobas. “rac Seexeba berZnebsa da qarTvelebsSoris urTierTobas, igi mtruli arasodes yofila.SeiZleba iyo uTanxmoeba socialur niadagze, magrames eTnikur dapirispirebaSi arasodes gadazrdila.dRes raionSi realurad arsebobs enobrivi barierisproblema, romelic TandaTan mogvardeba. gvinda, romsaxelmwifo ena viswavloT” (dvali, 2007: 12). niSandoblivia,rom azerbaijanul da somxur mosaxleobaSiiklo rusuli enis dominirebam. araqarTulenovanmosaxleobaSi qarTuli enis codnis aucileblobaar amoiwureba am enis codniT mxolod yofiT,yoveldRiurobis doneze, aramed saWiroa saqmiani,samsaxurebrivi urTierTobisaTvisac.pasuxebidan miRebuli informacia, aseve monacemebisanalizi da dakvirveba imaze miuTiTebs, romeTnikurobis gamyarebis aucilebloba regionSiarsebulma viTarebam ganapiroba. imis gacnobiereba,rom esa Tu is eTnikuri jgufi sxva qveyanaSicxovrobs, kerZod, saqarTveloSi, da ara saberZneTsaTu azerbaijanSi, gansakuTrebiT gamoikveTa berZnebTanda azerbaijanelebTan. aWareli mTxroblebicmiuTiTeben im garemoebaze, rom azerbaijanelebma daberZnebma daiwyes bavSvebis Seyvana qarTul skolebSi.“azerbaijanelebi da berZnebi axla ukve mixvdnen,rom qarTuli unda iswavlon maTma bavSvebma darusul skolaSi aRar SeyavT Svilebi qarTulSiaswavlian”. (mTxrobeli sof. guniakaladan). amsoflis ZiriTadi mosaxleoba aWarlebi da svanebia.“saqarTveloSi Catarebuli eTnikur umciresobasTandamokidebulebis kvlevis 2002 wlis monacemebismixedviT, qarTuli mosaxleobis umravlesobaSieTnikuri umciresobis mimarT aris qsenofobiuriganwyoba, Tumca mosaxleobaSi Warbobs “mepatronis”aramtruli, magram dominanturi pozicia, rac eTnikurijgufebis warmomadgenlebs “meorexarisxovani moqalaqeebis”mdgomareobaSi ayenebs, rasac isini kargadacnobiereben” (umciresobebi, 2008: 40).sakuTari eTnikuri identifikaciis axleburgaazrebas, gadastruqturebas, rasac socialuristatusis Secvlisken mivyavarT, stimuli miscaaxalmosaxlem. amave dros, statusis SesanarCunebladmosaxleobis nawilisaTvis qarTuli enis codna gaxdaaucilebeli. amasTanave, enis problema uSualodukavSirdeba eTnikuri identobis SenarCunebisproblemas. mSobliuri enis gamoyenebis uflebisdaknineba, uflebisa, rom iurTierTo, iswavlo daaRizardo mSobliuri enis miRma, integraciissanacvlod dezintegraciisaken wagviyvans, Seaferxebsakulturaciis procesis normalur, kanonzomierganviTarebas (Стрелцова. 2001: 81).“adamianebs unda SeeZloT Rrma sulieri tkivilebisgareSe itvirTon am ormagi kuTvnilebisganxorcieleba: SeinarCunon kavSiri TavianT sawyiskulturasTan da, imavdroulad, TavianTi guli dagoneba gauxsnan mimReb kulturas” (maalufi, 2007:161). azerbaijanul sasaflaoze, rogorc amas qarTvelebiakeTeben, saflavis qvaze gamoxatulia gardacvlilissuraTi, rac Cveulebrivad muslimanurkulturaSi ar aris miRebuli. bolnisSi mTxrobelmaTavad agvixsna, rom es bunebrivi procesia: “amdenixania erTad vcxovrobT da aba rogor iqneba,332 333


sanTlebsac vanTebT, Rvinosac vsvamT da kidecvayenebT; CvenTan marto kitri ki ar fasobs, yurZenicgvaqvs.” rodesac individi iTvisebs mimRebi kulturisRirebulebebs, iRebs maT umtkivneulod, aseTkonteqstSi miwodebul socialur garemoSi eTnikurobagadaiqceva adamianis komunikaciuri SesaZleblobebisadaptaciis erT-erT resursad, rac massaSualebas aZlevs, moiqces arsebuli socialurigaremos Sesatyvisad. aseT dros, rogorc wesi,konfliqtis warmoqmnis albaToba mcirdeba.urTierTobis analizi ver CaiTvleba srulad,Tu ar ganvixileT am urTierTobis ganmsazRvrelifaqtori _ ena. rogorc samarTlianad aRniSnavs i.strelcova, “enisa da ganaTlebis problema sazogadoebiskonfliqtis da arastabilurobis xangrZliviprocesis mizezia.” mosaxleobasTan iqneba esemigrantebi Tu umciresoba yvela SemTxvevaSi saxezegvaqvs orenovneba. am TvalsazrisiT, umciresobagansakuTrebuli sirTulis winaSea, maT enis meSveobiTsakuTari kulturis Rirebulebebis gverdiT sxvakulturis Rirebulebebic unda miiRon. umciresobisSida, salaparako da saurTierTo ena erTia, xolokultura, romelTanac uwevT intensiuri Sexeba _gansxvavebulia. magaliTisaTvis ganvixiloT berZenimosaxleoba, romelic qarTvelebTan sxva mdgomareobaSiimyofeba; konkretulad berZeni mosaxleobisaTvis,romelic jgufis SigniT azerbaijanuladlaparakobs, saqmian urTierTobas rusul enazeawarmoebs da am mocemulobas emateba svaneTidanCamosaxlebul qarTvelebTan _ svanebTan urTierToba.eWvgareSea maTi enobrivi da kultururi mdgomareobisgaurkvevloba. faqtobrivad am “umciresobas”,romelic konkretul regionSi “umravlesobaa”,urTierTobis normalizaciamde ramdenime rTulisafexuri aqvs dasaZlevi. upirveles yovlisa, sxvakulturis qceviTi stereoti pebis miReba, maTisakuTar stereoti pebze morgeba da Segueba. aq CvenaRarafers vambobT araverbalur komunikaciaze, maTfunqciaze, rac qcevaSi gveZleva da rac asevegansxvavebulia. yovelive zemoT CamonaTvals ematebais, rom mosaxleobis didi nawili semilingvia, anuramdenime enas flobs da srulfasovnad arc erTiar icis.regionSi mcxovrebma azerbaijanulma mosaxleobamwlebis manZilze garkveulwilad asimilaciaganicada; gaiTavisa qarTuli kulturis elementebi.qceva pirovnuli urTierTobis doneze normisfarglebSi xorcieldeba; qarTuli kulturiT, Tusazogadod qarTulenovani sociumiT, dainteresebaupirveles yovlisa gamoxateba qarTuli enis dauflebissurvilis maRal xarisxSi. azerbaijanelirespondentis azriT, “sadReisod Zalian cudia, romCvenma xalxma ar icis qarTuli”, azerbaijanelebisminusia is, rom Cven ar viswavleT qarTuli”; an _ “mepiradad Zalian minda rom qarTvelebma da azerbaijanelebmaerTad kargad icxovron, Tu qveyanaSi cxovrob,unda pativi sce mis folklors, mis xelovnebas.”“ena unda iswavlo, es aucilebelia”, gvixsnisaxalgazrda azerbaijaneli mamakaci, profesiiTJurnalisti. respodenti Sewuxebulia imis gamo, romazerbaijanul skolaSi specialuri saxelmZRvaneloebisada wignebis naklebobaa, aseve qarTulisgakveTilebis simcirea. misi azriT, yovelive amisfonze regionSi damatebiTma faqtorma garkveulisirTule Seqmna; damatebiT faqtorSi igulisxmebaCamosaxlebuli, axali eTnikuri jgufebi _ “ucxosxva”.rogorc cnobilia eTnikuri jgufis erovnulobisdasadgen kriteriumebSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobaenas da aRmsareblobas eniWeba. mocemul viTarebaSirTuli saTqmelia, Tu eTnikuri jgufis wevrebiromels aniWeben prioritets. mag. aWarlebisaTvis334 335


“sxva” aris_svani. “is, rom svani ar aris qarTveli,amas Tavadac ambobs! ase ambobs, me svani var, aba,ratom ar ambobs qarTveli var!?” sxva SemTxvevaSiki igive aWareli mTxrobeli ase asabuTebs svanebiseTnikurobas: “rogor aris qarTveli, ena ara aqvTqarTuli, sxva enaze laparakobs”. svani mosaxleobismimarT damokidebuleba uaryofiTi niSnis matarebelia,maSin rodesac berZnebisa da azerbaijanelebisdamokidebuleba adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobismimarT aSkarad dadebiTia. vinaidan sazogadodaxalmosaxle, rogorc wesi, ucxoa, uaryofiTi niSnismatarebelia, amdenad, am mocemul sociumSi igiqarTvelis kategoriaSi ar Tavsdeba. araqarTvelobidangamomdinare, mas is maxasiaTeblebi miewereba,romelic gaamarTlebs maT uaryofiT ganwyobas: “sulsxva enaze laparakoben, qarTveli magaT erTsityvasac ver gaigebs, dedasac ki sxvanairad amboben”;“magaT qristianulad ar swamT RmerTi, dResaswaulebicsxva dros ician, micvalebulis “sulsgamoiZaxeben”, datirebis wesic sxva aqvT”; “magaTiqalebi qarTvelebs ar miyvebian colad da misT”.(xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010). aRsaniSnavia, rom TavadqarTvelebSic zogs saeWvod miaCnia svanebis qarTveloba.“ena sxva aqvT, qristianebi ki arian, magramsxvanairad loculoben, raRacnairi dResaswaulebiaqvT, sxvanairi, qarTvelebi arian Tu ara? aba ravici?. . . TviTonac ase amboben, Cven svanebi varTo!aba SeekiTxeT, ase ityvian”. azerbaijanuli mosaxleobasvanebs qarTvelebad ar miiCnevs. am SemTxvevaSimaxvili gadatanilia enis sxvaobaze _ “sxva enazelaparakoben” (xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010). amave dros,rodesac aWaridan gadmosul qarTvelebze msjeloben,aq xazs usvamen maT gansxvavebas _ aRmsareblobas,kerZod, muslimanobas. am sazomiT adgilobrivmosaxle azerbaijanelebis cnobierebaSi dadasturebuliamaTi araqarTveloba: “marTalia, qarTuladlaparakoben, magram ar arian qarTvelebi”. daaxloebiTanalogiurad afaseben svanebi aWaridangadmosaxlebul ekomigrantebs _ musliman qarTvelebs:“isini qarTveli muslimanebi arian, mainc sxvarjulis arian da qarTuli marto gvarebi daitoves,saxelebic ki TaTruli aqvT, mamedi, Tu raRac aseTi”;“qarTveli me gamigia qristiani, egeni ar arianqarTvelebi, garegnobac sxva aqvT” _ gveubnebaqarTveli mTxrobeli (xarSilaZe, 2008 _ 2010).rogorc vxedavT, regionSi rTul socioekonomikurgaremoSi Tavmoyrilia uaryofiTiganwyobis mqone eTnikuri jgufebi. amis TqmissafuZvels gvaZlevs zemoT ganxiluli rogorcobieqturi, aseve subieqturi faqtorebi, kerZod: ucxogeofizikuri garemo da axli socialuri garemocva.mocemuli uaryofiTi ganwyobis forma da mimarTebebiasaxavs am eTnikuri jgufebis erTmaneTTan integrirebisxarisxs. qarTvelebi, azerbaijanelebi, berZnebi,somxebi _ dasaxelebul eTnikur jgufebs Tu ganvixilavTmaTi kulturalur-specifikuri TvalsazrisiTSemdegi suraTi gveqneba saxeze:a) qarTvelebi _ erTi nawili ZirZveli mosaxle,adaptirebuli adgilobriv berZnebTan; ekomigrantiqarTvelebi _ aWarlebiT da svanebiT warmodgenili.aWarlebi _ gansxvavebuli aRmsareblobis qarTvelebi;svanebi sxva enaze, araqarTulad molaparake qarTvelebida aRmsareblobaSi warmarTuli religiiselementebiT;b) berZnebi _ Tanac Turqulenovani qristianebi,aseve Zveli mosaxleebi, romelTa sakomunikacio enaucxosTan aris rusuli da salaparako _ Turquli.g) somxebi _ aseve am teritoriis Zveli mosaxleebi,qristiani grigorianelebi, semilingvebi, jgufisSida salaparako ena somxuria, gare sakomunikacioena rusulia, qarTuli ar ician. realurad arc erTiena ar ician kargad.336 337


d) azerbaijanelebi, mahmadiani Siitebi dasunitebi _ regionis Zveli mosaxleebi, salaparakoena azerbaijanuli, komunikaciisaTvis gamoiyenebenrusuli enas, qarTuli ar ician.cnobilia, rom amgvar garemocvaSi sazogadoeba,jgufebTan mimarTebaSi, maT integraciaze uaryofiTadreagirebs. “maTi wevrebi markirebulni arian, rogorc“sxva” eTnosi da ganwirulni arian marginalurstatusze im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu am jgufis romelimewevri materialur warmatebas miaRwevs” (Малахов, 2001:111).mocemul etapze dasaxelebul regionSi SesaZlebeliagamovyoT eTnikuri jgufebis urTierTdamokidebulebisSemdegi socialur-fsiqologiuriaspeqtebi:1. socialur-ekonomikur sirTuleebs mniSvnelovaniadgili ukaviaT regionis mosaxleobisTanacxovrebaSi da es sirTuleebi garkveulwiladgansazRvraven regionis mosaxleobis jgufebisurTierTobis xasiaTs;2. TiToeuli eTnikuri jgufi koleqtivisturikulturis daxuruli sistemis tips ganekuTvneba, racganapirobebs eTnikuri jgufebis izolaciasa daminimalur kontaqts. jgufis wevrebi sakuTarieTnikuri jgufis farglebSi funqcionireben:3. sazogadod, umciresobis da umravlesobisurTierToba ar aris martivi. saqarTvelos mosaxleobisumetesi nawilis heterostereotipebi erovnuliumciresobis mimarT mdgradad uaryofiTia;4. regionSi mcxovrebi eTnikuri jgufebisheterostereotipebSi Warbobs uaryofiTi maxasiaTebeli;rogorc wesi, sakuTari jgufisagan gansxvavebulimaxasiaTebeli uaryofiT ganwyobas ganapirobebs.umciresoba umravlesobisaTvis gansxvavebuli da,amdenad, miuRebelia;5. aseve umciresobisaTvis umravlesobac gansxvavebulida miuRebelia.6. eTnikur jgufebs Soris socialuri miuReblobisada socialuri distanciis maRal xarisxsZiriTadad enobrivi barieri da gansxvavebuliaRmsarebloba ganapirobebs;7. orive regionis umciresobis warmomadgenlebiaucileblobad miiCneven qarTul enis, anu saxelmwifoenis codnas;8. berZeni da azerbaijaneli eTnikuri umciresobaemigraciis mizezad, rogorc wesi, saxelmwifoenis, qarTuli enis arasakmaris codnas asaxelebs;9. regionSi mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobanimiekuTvnebian Znelad modernizebad, anu kulturisdaxuruli sistemis ti ps. eTnikuri jgufebis kulturidanda tradiciebidan gamomdinare gansxvavebuliqcevis normebi, Rirebulebebi, mentaliteti, stereotipebi ganasxvaveben aRniSnuli jgufebis integraciistendenciis xarisxs.338 339


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eTnospecifiuri orientaciis faqtorebieTnojgufebis urTierTobis pricesSi.eTnikuri identoba dakulturuli faqtorebiidentoba adamianis da sazogadoebis aucilebelimoTxovnilebaa. adamianebis moTxovnilebaTayvelaze warmatebuli ti pologia ekuTvnis amerikelfilosofoss erih froms. pirveli moTxovnilebaaurTierToba adamianebs Soris. sazogadoebisgan gariyuli,izolirebuli adamiani kargavs socialurCvevebs, kulturis standartebs. meore moTxovnilebaaSemoqmedeba, romelic adamians samyaros Sesacvleladda Tavisuflebis mosapoveblad sWirdeba. mesame _esaa moTxovnileba, SeigrZno “Rrma fesvebi”, romelicpirovnebas aZlevs saSualebas adamianis modgmisgarkveul nawilad Seicnos Tavi. meoTxe _ esaa swrafvaSemecnebisken, samyaros aTvisebisaken. mexuTe _ltolva raime obieqtis Tayvaniscemisken. individsdamoukideblad uWirs samyaros aRqma, garkveva misgarSemo arsebuli yofis arssa da daniSnulebaSi.mas esaWiroeba orientaciis sistema. ai ratom sWirdebaadamians identoba, romelic did rols asrulebs mis,rogorc kulturis subieqtis, CamoyalibebaSi (Фромм,1986).adamianebis identoba rom mravalgvaria, amazekvlevaTa simravle miuTiTebs: eTnikuri, moqalaqeobrivi,religiuri, sqesobrivi, klasobrivi, gendenuri,politikuri da sxv. erT situaciaSi mniSvnelovaniaerTi identoba da is xdeba dominanti, meore SemTxvevaSiki dominirebul adgils sxva ikavebs.identoba ar aris biologiuri, aramed is arissocialurad gansazRvruli movlena. identobasocializaciis procesSi yalibdeba.eTnikuri identoba pirovnebis socialuriidentobis Semadgeneli nawilia da garkveul eTnikurerTobasTan mikuTvnebulobis gacnobierebas gulisxmobs.igi erT eTnikur erTobasTan igiveobis, dasxvebisgan gansxvavebulobisa da gancalkavebulobisgancdaa.individis eTnosTan identifikaciis struqturaSi,Cveulebriv, gamoiyofa ori ZiriTadi komponenti:kognituri da afeqturi. pirvelSi igulisxmeba garkveulicodna, warmodgena sakuTari jgufis TaviseburebebisSesaxeb da eTnomadiferencirebeli niSnebissafuZvelze sakuTari Tavis konkretuli jgufiswevrad gacnobiereba, xolo meore _ afeqturi komponenti_ moicavs sakuTari jgufis TaviseburebebisSefasebas, mis wevrebTan damokidebulebas, wevrobismniSvnelobas (sarjvelaZe, 2009: 65).sazogadod eTnikuri azrovneba gulisxmobsindividis identifikacias Tavisi jgufis istoriulwarsulTan da, amdenad, individs “fesvebis” ideaZlierad aqvs gamoxatuli (XX saukunis bolosamerikaSi, kanadasa da evropaSic aqtualuri gaxda“fesvebis” Ziebis anu “winaprebis da warmomavlobis”fenomeni, romelic gamyarebulia miTebiT, legendebiT,simboloebiT, istoriuli maxsovrobiT da a. S.eTnikurobis idea xasiaTdeba sociokulturulijgufuri specifikiT da aseve “gansxvavebulobiT”,romelsac TviT am jgufis warmomadgenlebi iziareben.adamiani miiltvis sakuTari Tavis Sesacnobadda cdilobs, Tavisi Tavi uSualod ritualebissistemis, stereoti pebis saSualebiT gamoavlinos.adamiani Tavis Tavs yovelTvis aigivebs jgufTan,eTnosTan, romelic erTian kulturaSi erTiandeba.eTnikurobis Camoyalibeba socializaciisprocesSi xorcieldeba. 13 _ 14 wlis asakidan iwyebaeTnikuri identurobis Camoyalibeba, rasac pirvelrigSi ojaxi, skola, da, saerTod, garemo pirobebi342 343


uwyobs xels. mozardebis eTnikuri identobis CamoyalibebaSidRes yvelaze did rols asrulebs Tanatolebisjgufi, romelic Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSigvevlineba yvelaze Zlier socializatorad, iTxovsra erTgulebis mudmiv niSnebs maTgan, vinc monawileobsmis cxovrebaSi (Девос, 2001: 229-276).eTnikuri identoba kulturuli faqtorebiTaaganpirobebuli. kulturuli identifikacia ki ariskonkretul kulturaSi adamianis TviTSegrZneba.miekuTvnebode raime sazogadoebas, gaerTianebas,jgufs _ esaa adamianis fundamentaluri moTxovnileba_ afilacia. adamiani dabadebidanve ojaxiswevria. is agrZelebs cxovrebas garkveul adgilze,garkveul sazogadoebaSi da aseve SeiZleba iyosgarkveuli religiis mimdevari. SesaZlebelia, adamianiam pirobebSi mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi iyosda pirovnebaSi Camoyalibebuli eTnikuri identobacmTeli cxovrebis manZilze SeinarCunos. magram,saerTod, eTnikuri identoba ar aris statikuri, isdinamikuria da adamianis cxovrebaSi momxdaricvlilebebis gamo SeiZleba isic Seicvalos. aseveSesaZlebelia Seicvalos kulturuli identobac.Tanamedrove etapze kulturuli identifikaciisxasiaTi icvleba. heterogenulidan diferencirebulsazogadoebaze gadasvlisas, identifikaciaSi sulmeti da meti gansxvaveba iCens Tavs. TanamedroveepoqaSi sxvadasxva jgufebis Tu sazogadoebebis metisegmentizacia xdeba. Cndeba sul ufro meti da axalimoTxovnilebebi, rac xels uwyobs axali jgufebisaTu sazogadoebebis Camoyalibebas.SesaZlebelia, monoeTnikuri identoba (erTkulturaSi) bieTnikuri identobiT (saxlSi, gareT)Seicvalos da orkulturianoba miviRoT.zog SemTxvevaSi sxva jgufTan identifikaciaiwvevs asimilacias, anu subieqti iRebs am jgufistradiciebs, Rirebulebebs, normebs, enas da a. S.SeiZleba kidevac gaiTqvifos masSi.dRevandel pirobebSi adamiani, ojaxidan dawyebuli,damTavrebuli qveyniT, mraval jgufSia identificirebuli.aseT viTarebaSi individi sul ufroda ufro metad SeiZleba daSordes dabadebiTmikuTvnebul jgufs. aqedan gamomdinare, mas ufrometi arCevanis saSualeba eZleva.socializaciis procesSi eTnikuri identobisformirebaze gavlenas axdens rogorc ojaxi, isemikro - (naTesauri wre) da makro - sazogadoebiswevrebi. magram polieTnikur garemocvaSi mcxovrebiadamiani an jgufi iZulebulia, TviTidentifikaciisgarda identifikaciis procesi sxva, magaliTad,dominanti eris, sazogadoebaSic gaiaros da masSigaerTiandes.cnobilia, rom sxva qveyanaSi Casul emigrantTaSvilebi izrdebian or kulturaSi: ojaxSi, TavissakuTar “fesvebSi” da gareT, sxva qveynis kulturaSi.amgvar viTarebaSi isini konfliqtur situaciebsada RirebulebaTa sxvaobas Tavs Znelad aRweven.radganac aseT pirobebSi mxolod sakuTar jgufTanidenturobiT arseboba sociumSi rTulia. amitomxdeba individis Tanatolebsa da axalgazrdulsubkulturaSi identificireba (Девос, 2001: 264)eTnikuri umciresobis identobaze gavlenasaxdens sxvadasxva eTnikuri garemocvis simWidrove.bevri mecnieri aRniSnavs, rom homogenur garemocvaSieTnikuri identoba ufro dadebiTia, radganac yoveliadamiani Tavisnairs (Стефаненко, 2003: 254) _ erTbedqveS myofs _ ukavSirdeba.heterogenul _ mravaleTnikur garemocvaSipirovnebas sxva eTnikur jgufebze meti informaciaeZleva. es ki xels uwyobs jgufebs Soris urTierTobasda komunikaciis Cvevebs uviTarebs. saerTod, Tavis344 345


eTnikur mikuTvnilobas ufro metad is adamianiganicdis, romelic sxva garemocvasa da kulturaSiamoxvedrili, vidre is, vinc sakuTar eTnikur jgufSiimyofeba. is ki ara, eTnikuri identoba mxolod maSinxdeba mniSvnelovani, rodesac ori (an meti) eTnikurjgufs xangrZlivi kontaqti aqvs erTmaneTTan (Phinney,1990: 501). da saerTod, eTnikuri identoba ufro metadgamoxatuli aqvs imas, vinc cxovrobs sxvis kulturulgaremoSi, vidre imas, vinc cxovrobs sakuTar eTnikurgaremoSi.marTalia, identobis Camoyalibeba adreuliasakidan iwyeba, magram misi gacnobiereba situaciazeadamokidebuli. respodentebis frazebSi kargad Cans,Tu rodis gaicnobieres Tavisi eTnikuroba:1. iniciaciiT, sunitiT xdebi muslimani. eqvsiwlisam vicodi, rom azerbaijaneli var;2. religiiT;3. ojaxiT, winaprebiT, eniT;4. sabavSvo baRidan, skolidan;5. ritualebi yovel wuTs gvaxseneben;6. erovnuli moZraobiT;7. akakis leqsiT;8. me patara qarTveli var. . . ;9. 90-iani wlebSi bevrma gaacnobiera, rom arissxva;10. jarSi samsaxuriT;11. azerbaijaneli _ 10-11 wlis viyavi, rodesacfexburTis matCs daveswari da pirvelad mqonda aseTiSegrZneba, rom Cemebs _ azerbaijanelebs aucilebladunda moegoT;12. vizrdebodi internatSi, vlaparakobdi qarTulad,megona, rom qarTveli viyavi. 12 wlisa saxlSiwamomiyvanes. ar vicodi, rom azerbaijaneli viyavi.rodesac amas mivxvdi, erTi kvira avad viyavi, miWirdasituaciis gamocvla. damaSores amxanagebs. axla kivar azerbaijaneli. azerbaijanelebi Caketili xalxia;13. dmanisSi yvela qarTvelma icoda azerbaijanulida azerbaijanelebma ki _ qarTuli. mamaCemmamoiyvana stumrebi da azerbaijanulad elaparkeboda.maSin mivxvdi, rom raRac sxva xalxic arsebobda. esskolis asakamde moxda. konfliqtebi xdebodasoflebSi qarTul da azerbaijanul soflebs Soris.rogorc zeviT aRvniSneT, saerTod, eTnikuriumravlesobisaTvis eTnikuri identoba arc isemniSvnelovania, anu masze ar xdeba xSiri apelireba_ is TavisTavadia, magram eTnikuri umciresobisaTviseTnikuri identifikacia, SeiZleba iTqvas romiZulebiTia, radgan masTan dakavSirebuli problemebiyoveldRiuri cxovrebis sirTuleebs da diskomfortsuqmnis. is ki ara, zog qveyanaSi aseT pirobebSiara marto socialur problemebzea laparaki, aramedimaze, Tu jgufma ra saxeli airCios TviTwodebad.igive SeiZleba iTqvas saqarTveloSi azerbaijanelebze,romlebic dRes sakmaod mZafrad aprotestebensaxelwodeba `TaTars” _ “нам не нравится, когда настатарами зовут”. Tumca aseve, aris SemorCenili adgilebi(mag., walka), sadac ar iReben saxelwodeba `azerbaijanels~da Tavis Tavs `TaTars” uwodeben (erTerTisvani respodenti CvenTan saubarSi azerbaijanelmosaxleobas “TaTrebad” moixseniebda. saubrisdasasruls gvindoda SeniSvnis saxiT, magram maincagvexsna, rom es xalxi TaTrebi ki ar arian, aramedazerbaijanelebi. man gulwrfelad da uSualodgvi pasuxa: “me Zalian kargad vici, rom azerbaijanelebiarian, maTac veubnebiT, rom Tqven azerbaijanelebixarT da ara TaTrebi, magram swyinT da amboben,ara Cven TaTrebi varTo”).msgavsi Sefaseba azerbaijaneli respodentebisgamonaTqvamebSic gvxvdeba, rodesac isini azerbaijanelebiseTnikuri jgufebis warmomadgenlad TvlianTavs, magram axal saxels irCeven. aRsaniSnavia, romamaze gansakuTrebiT inteleqtualuri wris warmomad-346 347


genlebi amaxvileben yuradRebas. maTi cnobiT, isinialbanelebi arian da ara azerbaijanelebi: “Мы неазербайджанцы, мы албанцы”. da es ar aris erTeuliSemTxveva. azerbaijanul soflebSi garkveul Zeglebzeda Zvel saflavis qvebze (cxvris da cxenis qandakebebze)migviTiTeben, rom es albanuria da im xalxisgan viciT,romlebic “aq TqvensaviT dadiano.” am movleniTumciresobis eTnojgufi cdilobs SeinarCunos Tavisiidentoba, magram Seicvalos TviTdasaxeleba da amiTTavisi Tavi da jgufic sxva statusSi gadaiyvanos,aseve, maTi azriT, ara marto gauTanabrdebian umravlesobas_ qarTvelebs, aramed SesaZlebelia maTzemaRlac ki dadgnen, radganac aq kavkasiis albaneTiigulisxmeba. am formis identoba maTTvis Zalianmomgebiania: isini CaiTvlebian istoriulad kavkasiisaborigen mosaxleobad, da, aqedan gamomdinare, maTsaqarTvelos teritoriazec eqnebaT Tavisi garkveuli“istoriuli ufleba”. es viTareba identobas axalSinaarss da ufro met popularobas aniWebs. ar gamovricxavT,rom, Tu saWiro gaxdeba, maT “albanelebisqristianobis” sakiTxic gamoiyenon, gaaCnia, rogoriiqneba politikuri viTareba. saerTod, jgufis miersaxelisa da sadaurobis Secvla, Tu gind Secvlismcdelobac ki, ar aris axali movlena.2009 w. 28 ivniss sof. pantianTan axlos azerbaijanelebisiniciativiT Catarda dResaswauli `pantianoba”,romlis organizatorebi iyvnen dmanisidanbaqoSi gadasaxlebul azerbaijanelebis mier dafuZnebuliorganizacia `borCalus” wevrebi. RonisZiebistransparantebze ewera azerbaijanulad da damaxinjebuliqarTuliT _ `borCalus TurqelTa kulturuliRonisZieba”. qarTuli mosaxleoba gakvirvebulidarCa am movleniT. rogorc erT-erTma informatormagviTxra, ~74 wlis kaci var da aseTi dResaswauli aqarasodes yofila. iq rom weria `borCalus TurqelTaTavyriloba”, imaSi ra igulisxmeba, RmerTma icis. meraRac eWvi maqvs da CemSi darCeba. es mTavrobissaqmea”-o.politikuri koliziebis gamo jgufs ki ara, zogSemTxvevaSi, ersac ki miuRia aseTi gadawyvetileba,anu Tavis identobas didi politikis Sesabamisadayalibeben (Шнирельман, 2003:194-255).pirobiTad identobis or ti ps gamohyofen. esaapozitiuri da negatiuri identoba (Стефаненко, 2003:254; Дробижева, 1966).pozitiur eTnikur identobas keTilganwyobilsocialur-istoriul garemoSi Tan axlavs patriotizmi,Seni xalxis mier miRweuli warmatebebiT, misisaxelovani warmomadgenlebiT siamaye da adekvaturadmaRali Sefaseba da a. S.rogorc kvlevebma uCvena ~eTnikuri identobisformireba “normis” (dadebiTi eTnikuri identoba)farglebSi gulisxmobs sakuTari eTnikuri jgufisstruqturaSi dadebiTi xatis urTierTmimarTebassxva eTnikuri jgufis dadebiT RirebulebebTan”(Дробижева, 1996: 332).magram pozitiuri eTnikuri identoba SeiZlebasxvagvaradac gamovlindes. Tavis ukidures formebSiigi gvevlineba rogorc hiperidenturoba, rac individissocialuri identobis ierarqiaSia dominirebuli.hiperidenturobas Tan sdevs mtruli stereotipebi,winaswari uaryofiTi ganwyobebi da sxva eTnikurijgufebis Seuwynarebloba, maTTan urTierTobisaganTavis Sekaveba da sxv. es arRvevs balanss: ar xdebaerTmaneTTan qorwineba, megobroba, mezobloba da misT.adamianisTvis yvelaze bunebrivia SeinarCunos,an aRidginos pozitiuri eTnikuri identoba, anusakuTari eTnoidentoba dadebiTad ganicdebodes dasiamayis grZnobiT vlindebodes, rac usafrTxoebisada stabilurobis garantias miscems. amitom xdebasocialuri Semoqmedebis strategiis gamoyeneba.dabali ekonomikuri statusis mqone jgufis wevrebi348 349


Tavis Tavs axasiaTeben, rogorc Tbils, keTils,gulisxmiers da stumarTmoyvares. magram Tu jgufTa-Sorisi urTierToba arasaxarbielo socialur garemoSia,diskriminirebulma umciresobis jgufmaSeiZleba miiRos strategiulad swori, magram uaryofiTieTnikuri identifikacia. aseT dros yalibdebauaryofiTi eTnikuri identoba, dabali TviTSefasebiT:1. Армянские села в отчуждении, дети даже русского незнают;2. Нам нужна духовное успокоение;3. Нуждаемся в любви, терпении, справедливости;4. SeRavaTi ar arsebobs umciresobisaTvis. sab-WoTa kavSirSi erovnuli umciresobisaTvis arsebobdalimitebi umaRles saswavleblebSi, socialursakiTxebSi _ binebis gacema, samsaxurSi ukonkursodmiReba da sxva;5. enis armcodne karg specialists aTavisuflebensamsaxuridan da enis mcodne araprofesionalebsuTmoben maT adgils;6. “Мы все коренные”;7. skolaSi qarTuls arasrulyofilad gvaswavlian,qarTuli klasikuri literatura ar SeaqvTaraqarTuli skolebis programaSi, qarTuli danacionaluri programebis SeuTavseblobaa.Tavisi eTnosis mimarT umravlesobis mxridanuaryofiT msjelobaze, adamiani sxvadasxvanairadreagirebs. am dros umciresobis jgufis mozardiwarmomadgenlebi acnobiereben imas, rom aseTsocialur garemoSi maT perspeqtiva ara aqvT dagamoimuSaveben usafrTxoebis strategias.Tu sxvaoba umravlesobasa da umciresobasSoris uaryofiT poziciaSia, maSin am damokidebulebispozitivSi gadasasvlelad umciresobamraval praqtikul movlenas _ dawyebuli politikurida socialuri sakiTxebidan, damTavrebuli ritualuriqmedebebiT _ ganaxorcielebs. eTnikur umcire-sobebSi gamovlindeba qvejgufebi, romlebic aucilebladmxars dauWeren wamyvan partias, prezidents,gamgebels da a. S.fokus jgufebis frazebi:1. Национальное меньшинство поддерживает правительствона выборах;2. У меньшинства единственная надежда - это правительство;3. Дружба меньшинства и большинства зависит отправительства;4. Когда правительство делает подарок нацменьшинству,нацменьшинство обязательно делает отдачу, это сидит втрадиции;5. `nacionaluri partia” Tu rames hpirdeba Cvensraions, maT sanacvlod undaT “xmebi”.umciresobis wevrebi gamoavlenen socialuraqtivobas, an daarRveven Tavis kulturis normebs,gadalaxaven tradiciis sazRvrebs da moigonebenraime socialur qmedebas, raTa maTi identoba negatiuridanpozitiurSi gadavides. mag.:1. walkis raionis sofel beSTaSenSi, sadac sulramdenimeAaWarlis ojaxi cxovrobs, atareben “Suam-Tobis” zeims, romelic am SemTxvevaSi mcirericxovaniaWarlebisTvis ufro metad sxvadasxva eTnojgufebTanmegobruli kavSiris gasaZlierebeli qmedobaa, vidreTviTdamkvidrebis simbolo;2. dmanisis raionis qarTvelebiT dasaxlebulisofeli boslebi da mis maxloblad mdebare kakliani,romelsac azerbaijaneli mosaxleobiT dasaxlebisgamo xalxi azkaklians (azerbaijanelebis kaklians)uwodebs, istoriis manZilze mravaljer yofilandapirispirebuli. sofel boslevSi gadmocemiT ician,rom gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi am or sofels Sorissakmaod mtruli damokidebuleba yofila. azkaklianismcxovrebT araerTxel ganuxorcielebiaTTavdasxma maTze da saqonelic gautaciaT. amas xalxic350 351


ki Seewira. saflavis qvebis epitafiebi xSiradaxsenebs msgavs situacias boslebis mkvidrT (erTerTiwarwera: “1919 w. TaTrebi dagvecnen Cven ubedurboslebs. me da Cem Svil Sua gvesroles Tofis tyvia.Cveni halali cxvari da Zroxa wasxes Cven TvalT wina.me Camivarda gulSi Zalian dardi. is gaxda Cemiwera”). da bolos, urTierToba 90-iani wlebis erovnulimoZraobis Semdeg gamwvavebula. am periodSi,rogorc respondentebi gadmogvcemen, mTeli sofelityeSi iyo gaxiznuli, radganac xma dairxa, romazerbaijanelebi sofelze Tavdasasxmelad emzadebodnen.igive provokaciuli qmedeba azkaklianSicgavrcelda da esenic tyeSi qarTvelebs emalebodnen.im periodSi bevrma azerbaijanelma qvemo qarTlisaerTod datova.azerbaijanelebis gadmocemiT, am situaciisgansamuxtavad, isini aRdgoma dRes wiTel kvercxebsRebaven da saklaviTac midian samebis eklesiisnangrevebTan, sadac boslevis qarTveloba aRdgomidanmesame dRes ikribeba; Tumca amas qarTveli mosaxleobauaryofs da amboben, rom azkaklianis mosaxleobauxerxulad grZnobs Tavs mas Semdeg, rac azerbaijanelebmasamebis nangrevebidan qvebi gazides dasaxlebis mSeneblobaSi gamoiyenes, amis Semdeg maTiojaxebi amowyda.3. daaxloebiT 40_50 welia gasuli mas Semdeg,rac “qirvoba” _ “dostoba” daiwyes. rogorc TviTonvexsnian, “Cvens Soris rom kargi urTierToba iyos,amitom qarTvelebs bavSvebs vanaTvlinebT.”igive azkaklianis ramdenime mosaxles SvilisnaTliad saxeldebuli hyavs bosleli qarTveli megobarimamakaci _ dosti. Tumca latenturi konfliqtiSeiniSneba da azerbaijanelebi ar malaven, rom “rocaqarTvelebi CvenTan amodian kargad gvelaparakebian:aRa, . . . iaxSi kiz _ ase mogvmarTaven, da roca sofelSiCavivliT, gzaze SemogvZaxeben: TaTrebo, Turqebo,Tavebi unda wagaTaloTo”, boslevis qarTvelebi amasuaryofen. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom am dapirispirebaSiistoriuli maxsovrobac erios, radganacboslevis qarTvelebi adre terteram gaagrigorianada azerbaijanelebi maT somxebad aRiqvamdnen. xazsusvamen imas, rom azkaklianis azerbaijanelebibrazoben, Tu TaTari dauZaxes _ “Cven TaTrebi aravarT, Cven Sax-abasma iranidan gadmogvasaxlao”.4. sof. weraqvSi sul ramdenime aTeuli ojaxicxovrobs. informatoris TqmiT, aq mcxovreb somxebsada qarTvelebs saukeTeso urTierToba hqondaT.“gansxvaveba tradiciaSi da salocavebSi ar gvqonda”_amboben isini. am sofelSi ori eklesiaa qarTuliwminda mariamisa da somxuri _ sub-gevorqis (wmidagiorgis saxelobis). agvistoSi mariamobas somxebida qarTvelebi erTad zeimoben wminda mariamiseklesiaSi, xolo noemberSi giorgobas ki _ somxursub-sarqisSi. tertera da mRvdeli ar hyavT. msgavsisituaciaa bolnisis raionis sof. xatisofelSi, sadacwminda giorgis eklesiaSi noemberSi giorgobas,azerbaijanelebi da qarTvelebi erTad zeimoben. amiTisini Tanacxovrebis usafrTxoebisa da TviTgadarCenisstrategias gamoimuSaveben. eTnikuri umravlesobisgaremocvaSi moxvedrili eTnikuri umciresoba,miuxedavad negatiuri identobisa, yovelTvis Seecdeba,is pozitivSi gadaiyvanos.1. Для меня родина Грузия это мать, а Армения отечество— отец ambobs somexi erovnebis respondenti.sul sxva suraTia, rodesac piruku situaciasTangvaqvs saqme. rodesac erTi saxelmwifos farglebSi,konkretul regionSi, eTnikuri umciresoba warmoadgensumravlesobas, xolo am saxelmwifos dominanti eriumciresobaSia, maSin friad rTul suraTs vawydebiT.umravlesoba (dominanti) cdilobs SeinarCunos Tavisiidentoba da amayobs amiT, magram socialur, yofiTda xandaxan politikur pirobebSi mxolod diskom-352 353


forti ki ara, aramed uaryofiTi ganwyobac aqvsmiRebuli. erTis mxriv, misi damokidebuleba sruliaduaryofiT Rirebulebebs Seicavs da meores mxriv, iscdilobs Tavisi qceviT miuaxlovdes umciresobas,romelic regionSi umravlesobaa. is iZulebulia,sakuTari identobiT amtkicos Tavisi prioritetiara konkretulad am regionSi, aramed mTels saxelmwifoSi.mere ra, rom is aq umciresobaSia, “qveyanaxom mas ufro ekuTvnis, vidre sxvas”. da Tu misimdgomareoba diskriminaciamde midis, es aucilebladgadaizrdeba konfliqtSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi amotivtivdebaZiriTadi da mosuli jgufebis urTierTobisproblema. ar aqvs mniSvneloba, vin vin aris, anu arisdidi Tu mcire jgufis, ZiriTadi eris warmomadgeneli,Tu ara. walkaSi Casaxlebuli qarTvelebi, kerZod,aWarlebi, arian marginalebi, xolo svanebi dmanisSi,TeTriwyarosa da walkaSi, Tavisi sakuTari identobiTimdenad mtkiced grZnoben Tavs rogorc qarTvelebi,rom maTi diskriminaciis mcdelobasac ki veravinbedavs. maTi da adgilobrivi mcirericxovani qarTvelebisgagebiT, `isini aq qarTuli miwis dasacavadCamovidnen”, raTa mravaleTnikuri qvemo qarTli`gaqarTveldes” (ix.: interviu I, II). svanebma Tavisiarseboba da simtkice ara marto qmedebiT, aramedsimboloebiTac gaamyares (svanuri koSkebi gzebze,saflavebze), rac maT erTianobas kidev ufro metsimtkices matebs. amitom am mocemulobaSi svanebiSeiZleba “maRalstatusian” jgufad CaiTvalos. rodesaceTnikuri umciresobis warmomadgeneli sakuTarjgufSi diskomforts ganicdis pirovnul doneze,subieqtma SeiZleba gamoiyenos individualurimobiluroba da, mkacrad reglamentirebuli sakuTariidentobis miuxedavad, sxva jgufs daukavSiros Tavisisocialuri, politikuri an yofiTi cxovreba da amisdemonstraciul afiSirebas axdens. (nawyveti interviudan:“. . . me da Cemi qmari samuSaos veZebT, ojaxsxom unda rCena?! Cemi qmari qarTvelebTan erTadafxazeTSi ibrZoda, magram exla umuSevaria. pensiaekuTvnis, magram ara aqvs. ar vici ratom. sTxovenmodulSi modio, magram ambobs iaraRs xelSi aRardaviWero. imdeni saSineleba naxa omSi. aq miwa argvaqvs. ar varT Cawerilebi~.`Cven somxebisgan varT Seviwrovebuli. soflidangamogvasaxles imis gamo, rom Sen (gulisxmobs qmars)afxazeTSi qarTvelebis mxareze ibrZodio da yarabaxSiarao. aSkalaSi saxli dagviwves da iZulebuli viyaviTaq (walkaSi) gadmovsaxlebuliyaviT.” (dedamTiliCaerTo saubarSi). “. . . Cemi Svili afxazeTSi ibrZodada svaneTis gadmosasvleliT gadmovida. imden xansvmkurnalobdi. . . is qarTulad aris gazrdili. Svidenaze laparakobs. inglisuri daamTavra, magram misTvissamuSao ar aris. an iqneb somexia da imitom araaqvs?! _ ar vici. SeiZleba, ratom ar SeiZleba?!. . .qalaqSi gviTxres ori aTasi dolari gadaixadeTda “. . .ians” “. . . Svilad” an “. . . ZeT” gadagikeTebTda kargi Tanamdeboba geqnebao. es SevardnaZis damamalaZis dros iyo” (meliqiSvili, 2008 _ 2010).magram “maRalstatusian”, titulovan eTnojgufSigadasvla Secvlili identurobiTac ki rTulia. aqaucileblad amoqmeddeba erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdegojgufuri identuroba da eTnikuri sxvaoba. rogorcakademikosi s. aruTinovi aRniSnavs, safrangeTisa daitaliis sazRvarze mcxovrebi adamiani, SeiZleba ariyos bolomde darwmunebuli, ra erovnebisaa igi,magram sakmarisia gaiaros 60 km sazRvridan italiismxares da mas agrZnobineben, rom is aris frangi, daTu is aRmoCndeba safrangeTis siRrmeSi, mas miiRebenrogorc italiels (Арутюнов, 1989: 22-24).mecnierebis umravlesoba Tanxmdeba imaze romeTnikuroba aris socialuri, da ara biologiuri,movlena, romelic memkvidreobiT gadadis da romel-Tanac mikuTvnebulobas praqtikulad ver Secvli.354 355


fokus jgufebSi muSaobisas “erovnuli mikuTvnebulobismemkvidreobiTobasa da arCeviTobis Sesaxeb”dasmul kiTxvaze gamokiTxulTa TiTqmis 100% pasuxobs,rom erovnuloba aris memkvidreobiTi dabiologiuri movlena. is mogvecema Cven bunebrivadRmerTisagan, misi Secvla ar SeiZleba _ amboben isini.frazebi:1. erovnuloba gvaqvs dabadebidan, misi Secvlaar SeiZleba:2. Национальность дается от рождения, ее нельзяизменить;3. erovnuloba genetikuria, mSoblebidan modis;4. rac unda Seicvalo, raRac maxasiaTeblebimainc rCeba;5. Если поменять национальность, значить изменитьРодине;6. marto wvrTna ras uSvelis, Tu bunebamac aruSvela;7. SeiZleba sxvagan daibado da gaizardo, magramSeni genetikuri xasiaTi Tavs iCens;8. cnobilia, rom 70% gadadis genebiT;9. genotipi genotipia, da fenotipi _ fenotipi.Tumca, garkveuli axsna_ganmartebis Semdeg aseamboben:1. roca vambobT, ar SeiZleba Seicvalos, vgulisxmobT,TiTqos kargs cudze ar SevcvliT, qarTvelikargia da sxva cudi? yivCaRebi ukan ar wasulan;2. naSvilebi bavSvi rom gaizrdeba, imis erovnebasver gaigeb;3. Человек рождается человеком, индивидом он становитсяпотом;4. baqoSi rom CavdivarT, isini qarTvelebsgveZaxian;5. somxeTSic igivea, gveubnebian: somxebi xarT,magram aqcenti qarTuli gaqvT;6. var somexi, magram bevri ram qarTuli maqvs. is,rom qarTulze gadavdivar, es me ar mcvlis, qarTveliar gavxdebi, magram SeiZleba, albaT, Seicvalos;7. Генетический код меняется через пять поколений, этоможно изменить;8. roca vambob erovnebaSi genetikur kods,vgulisxmobT Tvisebebs. mag.: qarTvelTa mTis mcxovrebelTaTaviseburebebi. me, mag., mTidan SiraqSi gadavsaxldi,roca fasanaurSi Cavdivar, iq ufro komfortuladvgrZnob Tavs, iq me var Cems saxlSi;9. Ребенок рождается какой-то национальности, а потомсам может выбрать;10. deda erTia, mama SeiZleba iyos sxvadasxva;11. Если это измененное, значит неврожденное;12. Национальность социальный феномен;13. Национальность мы создаем, эта — культура;14. guriaSi Cems bavSvobaSi yvela erovnebas russeZaxdnen;15. Cemi miyvars, Tqvensas pativs vcem.aseTi Sedegi arc aris gasakviri _ imitom rom,sabWoTa periodSi sabWoTa pasports iuridiulTanerTad eTnikuri datvirTvac qonda _ arsebobda grafaerovnulobis Sesaxeb. realurad ki asea _ adamianigacnobierebuli arCevaniT miekuTvneba Tavis EeTnikurjgufs da am jgufis kulturas, da ara biologiurmemkvidreobiT gadacemul gens.fokus jgufTan muSaobis damamTavrebel etapzeCvenma axsna-ganmartebebma SeZlo, rom TiToeulimonawilis mier sakuTari Tavis TviTgacnobierebaSigarkveuli wvlili Seetana. yovelma maTganma gaiazra,rom misi TviTSegneba ar emTxveva e. w. ~sufTa eTnikuriwarmomavlobis kods”; rom TiToeul subieqtSi zogierTSemTxvevaSi ramdenime eTnikuri warmomavlobisnajvari aRmoCnda. saqme aqamdec ki mivida, rom saubaridasrulda sityvebiT: ~vin ra icis, ramdeni ~sisxli”gvirevia?!”356 357


aris iseTi movlenebi adamianisa Tu jgufiscxovrebaSi, rodesac Segnebulad xdeba identobisSecvla, romelic ganpirobebulia raime dadebiTiTu uaryofiTi xasiaTis socialuri movleniT. magramadamianis an jgufis mier gakeTebuli arCevani maTidentobisTvis arCeuli jgufis mier yovelTvis armiiReba, anu Semcvleli Tavisi Secvlili identobiTar ewereba arCeul jgufSi. rogorc wesi, mimRebijgufi maT mainc ucxoebad Tvlis (ix.: interviu I).amitom aucilebelia, eTnikuri identobis aRiarebisas,mosulsa da damxvdurs Soris iyos ormxrivi SeTanxmeba(Шпет, 1996).magram iq, sadac ar aris didi sxvaoba eTnikurobaSi,urTierTSeTanxmebis maRali maCvenebelia. mag.,Camosuli svanebi ufro misaRebia, vidre gvardabrunebuliqarTvelebi.“l. m. _ svanebi rom Camosaxldnen da mogemataTqarTvelebi, Tqven rogori ganwyoba gaqvT? gixariaT?qarTveli respondenti _ ra Tqma unda. me,magaliTad, sigiJemde gaxarebuli viyavi, rom ai, amkuTxeSi qristiani xalxi naklebi iyo da isini romCamovidnen, Zalian gamixarda. cxonebuli mamaCemicgaxarebuli iyo. svaneTSi rom moxda warRvna datelevizorSi rom uyurebda, mamaCemi cxare cremliTtiroda. is Zalian kargi gulis kaci iyo (agrZelebslaparaks mamaze). . .qarTveli respondenti _ mamaCemi namdvilikomunisti kaci iyo. 5-6 weli jarSi gaatara, partiaSiciyo. imasac Zalian gauxarda svanebis Camosaxleba,imdenad, rom me 20 kaci davpatiJe kidevac. puri vWameTda gavicaniT erTmaneTi.l. m. _ ratom uxarodaT ase svanebis Camosvla?qarTveli respondenti _ qarTvelebi rom iyvnen.aq azerbai-januli garemocva iyo. xom naTqvamia: `racunda mtanjon mawamon, mainc davrCebi qarTveli”(meliqiSvili, 2008 _2010).eTnoumciresobis identoba mravalganzomilebiania.esaa ojaxi, skola, mikrosazogadoeba (naTesaoba),makrosazogadoeba (garemocva), Semdeg TviT eTnikurijgufi da Semdeg titulovani jgufi, rac, SesaZloa,TandaTan moqalaqeobis statusSic gadaizardos da`miiviwyos” (ufro sworad `miaZinos”) eTnikuri jgufisidentoba.imisaTvis, rom individma Tavidan aicilos eTnikurmikuTvnebulobasTan dakavSirebuli Tavisi gancdebi,is socialur identobas mimarTavs, mag., samoqalaqoidentobas, an Tavs miakuTvneben farTo, zeerovnulsazogadoebas: evropulobas, msoflios moqalaqeobasda a. S., anu deklarireben kosmopolitur identobas.arsebobs aseve situacia, rodesac individma anjgufma arasasurvel garemoSi jgufTaSoris keTildReobisstrategia unda SeinarCunos. am dros SeiZlebagamovlindes eTnikurobis kidev erTi forma.es aris misi nulovani done, anu SeiZleba eTnikurobaZalian sustad gamoixatos, an saerTod ar gamovlindes.ZiriTadad es gacnobierebulad xdeba. `me arvici vin var?” es iTqmeba siamayiT, anu aravin var,arc erTi eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgeneli; da amiTimas ki ar avlenen, rom es uaryofiTad axasiaTebTmaT, aramed imas, rom is sxvaze maRla dgas, _ “CemSiar aris nacionalizmi, Sovinizmi da a. S. da amitomme sxvaze maRla vdgavar!” qvecnobierad ki SeiZlebasul sxvagvar viTarebasTan gvqondes saqme da yvelaferipiriqiT iyos. aseTi ganwyobis mqone jgufebi,gansakuTrebiT eTnoumciresoba, romelsac identobagadastruqturebuli aqvs, inarCunebs pozitiur identobasda Tavisufldeba im uaryofiTi Semadgenelinawilebisagan, rac Tan axlavs eTnikurobas.rac Seexeba socialuri identobis ierarqias,aq yvelaze mniSvnelovani mainc SeiZleba aRmoCndesmcire jgufTan _ upirvelesad ojaxTan _ identoba.Tu socialuri identobis struqturidan ganvdevniT358 359


mis erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovan Semadgenel nawils_ eTnikur identobas _ aman SeiZleba daakargvinospirovnebas, erTis mxriv, mTlianobaSi `me” da, meoresmxriv, ama Tu im kulturasTan kavSiri. eTnikuriidentobis dakargvam SeiZleba adamiani miiyvanosnegatiur Sedegebamde, rac, magaliTad, rogorc aRwerseriqsoni, gamoixateba `zangis SegrZnebebSi” (“Внегритянском ощущении” — “Я никто”) `me aravin ar var“_ usaxelo, uarafro (Эриксон, 1996).pozitiuri identobis dros sakuTari jgufismimarT keTilganwyobas da prioritetulobas, sxvajgufTan Sedarebisas, SidaeTnojgufuri favoritizmiewodeba. anu es aris sakuTari jgufis upiratesobosgancda. Sidajgufuri favoritizmis cnobili magaliTiaeTnocentrizmi, sakuTari eTnikuri jgufisupiratesad aRiareba. `eTnocentrizmi aris adamianisdamaxasiaTebeli Cveva _ sakuTari eTnikuri jgufisaTvis,romelic garkveuli etalonisa da optimumisrolSia, damaxasiaTebeli tradiciebisa da RirebulebaTamixedviT~. cxovrebiseuli movlenebis aRqmada Sefaseba (Кон, 1983: 812).eTnocentristis SegrZnebiT, sakuTari kulturaaris norma, Rirebulebebi bunebrivi da swori, xolosxva kulturis elementebi _ arabunebrivi da araswori.eTnocentrists axasiaTebs siamaye Tavisi jgufiT,misi upiratesobiT da a. S. Tumca aqve aRiarebs sxvajgufis Tu kulturis wes-Cveulebebs, Rirebulebebsda normebs sakuTar kulturasTan mimarTebiT da,rogorc wesi, es sxva jgufi ZiriTadad dabal donezemoiazreba. mTlianobaSi, sakuTari tradiciebi dakultura Sefasebulia rogorc yvelaze swori,realuri, da amitom is unda iyos yvelasTvis misaRebi(mag., qarTvelebisTvis marTlmadidebloba). eTnocentrizmixels uSlis sxvadasxva jgufebis urTier-Tobas. amavdroulad, ganamyarebs Sidajgufur mobilizaciasda aZlierebs eTnikur sazRvars.eTnikuri sazRvris cneba ki eTnikuri jgufebisanalizisas da eTnikuri urTierTobis ganxilvisasaseve mniSvnelovani komponentia. . . eTnikuri sazRvariaRiqmeba ara rogorc teritoriuli sazRvari, aramedrogorc subieqturad gacnobierebuli da gancdadidistancia, romelic ganixileba erTaSoris urTier-Tobis konteqstSi. eTnikur sazRvars gansazRvravsjgufi, da am gansazRvrulobaSi pirveladi mniSvnelobaeniWeba im kulturul maxasiaTeblebs, romelsacTavad es jgufi gamoyofs da aniWebs markirebulmniSvnelobas.eTnikuri sazRvari aris azrovnebis aqti. misiSeswavlis saSualebaa eTnikuri identobis kvleva.eTnikuri jgufis markirebis maxasiaTeblebi, anu is,Tu romel maxasiaTebels aniWeben jgufis wevrebimniSvnelovnebis maRal xarisxs, istoriuli, politikuri,ekonomikuri pirobebisa da konkretuli situaciisSedegia (meliqiSvili, 2009: 249 _ 251).moTxovnileba imisa, rom sakuTari Tavi moiazroAdidjgufTan kavSirSi da pirovnuli gansazRvreba,romelSic erTdroulad aris mocemuliindividualuri da socialuri, ganapirobebs imas, racCveulebriv adamians aiZulebs eTnonacionalisturimowodebani pozitiurad miiRos. es aris bunebrivisocialuri moTxovnileba. es moTxovnileba imdenadZlieria, rom garkveul mdgomareobaSi uflebadarRveuladamians aiZulebs ara marto nacionalur,aramed eqstremistul mowodebebsac ki gamoexmauros.eTnocentrizmis gamovlinebis sxvadasxva mizezebiarsebobs. zogi amas kulturas miawers, magramzog SemTxvevaSi kulturaze metad masze (eTnocentrizmze)socialuri faqtorebi moqmedebs. saqarTveloSisxvadasxva eTnojgufebSi eTnocentrizmisgamovlinebas sxvadasxva mizezebi aqvs. igi dRemdeara marto umravlesobaSi, aramed eTnoumciresobaSicvlindeba. aseve sainteresoa mcire (konfesiuri Tu360 361


kuTxuri mikrokulturis matarebeli) jgufebi,romelTac adgilmonacvleobis gamo es grZnoba ufrometad uZlierdebaT. esenia aWarlebi walkaSi, imerlebimarneulSi, svanebi da raWvelebi qvemo qarTlSida sxv. yoveli es jgufi cdilobs, Tavisi meobasxvaze win wamoswios, rameTu adaptirebuli iyos imgaremoSi da, amave dros, moi povos sxvaze maRalistatusi, anu xazi gausvan Tavis “kuTvnil” dominantobas.amitom es jgufebi cdiloben Tavisi kulturaara marto SeinarCunon, aramed gaaZlieron kidec.amis gamo dominantobas ara marto deklarirebiT,aramed simboloebiTac tvirTaven. amis saukeTesomagaliTia igive svanuri koSkebi sasaflaoebsa Tugzebze; azerbaijanul sof. arsarvanSi aWarlebismeCeTSi siaruli; sof. wereTelSi imerlebis “gansaku-Trebuli misia”, rac “stalinis mier azerbaijanelebiTdasaxlebul regionSi gaqarTvelebis mizniT imerlebisCasaxlebaSi gamoixateba”. aseT SemTxvevaSi eTnocentrizmiver axerxebs pozitiuri statusis SenarCunebasda igi ara marto uaryofiT datvirTvas iZens,aramed zog SemTxvevaSi mebrZolis mdgomareobaSicki gadadis da Tavisi cxovrebisa da kulturis wesebssxvas axvevs Tavze. am SemTxvevaSi yoveli uaryofiTisocialuri movlena sxva jgufis bralia, iRviZebssiZulvili, qsenofobia. aseT jgufebs aqvT gamZafrebulisiyvaruli samSoblos mimarT. es aris gancdaimisa, rom ecilebian teritoriaSi, samuSaoSi, sameurneoyofaSi da a. S. aseT garemoSi izrdeba sxvis mimarTuaryofiTi ganwyoba, SeiZleba es “sxva” `Seamkon”yovelgvari uaryofiTi sityvebiT. Tavis Tavs kigandidebaSi uwyoben xels, miT umetes, Tu maTmxardamWerebi hyavT (mag., svanebze qvemo qarTlSiadgilobrivi qarTvelebi amboben: `amovisunTqeT, aqrom Camoasaxles, welSi gavimarTeT”). meores mxriv,uaryofiTi damokidebuleba aqvT aseve qarTvelebsgvarSecvlil qarTvelebisadmi _ “nasomxarebTan”(rogorc TviTon uwodeben) _ `eg ra qarTvelebiarian, ratom aiRes aseTi gvarebi _ Tavaduri”.Cven _ pozitiuria, isini _ negatiuri.mecnierebi (sociologebi, eTnologebi, fsiqologebi),romlebic Rrmad ikvleven am sakiTxebs, midiandaskvnamde, rom erTa daaxloeba-integracia sakmaodrTuli procesia da daaxloebis Sedegic ufro metaduaryofiTia (amis saukeTeso magaliTia sabWoTa kavSiriTavisi `Zmuri kavSiriT” da “сближением наций”). dromkargad gamoavlina, rogor gadaiqca sabWoeTis `ZmurikavSiri” antikavSirad da konfliqtis eskalaciiswyarod. amitom sazogadoebam unda miaRwios imas,rom es urTierTsapirispiro da gansxvavebuli miiRosrogorc aseTi, Tugind es moxdes kritikuli daSemoqmedebiTi midgomiT. amis ganxorcieleba ufrogaadvilebulia ekonomikurad gamarTul polieTnikurregionSi.eTnocentrizmi, d. macumotos mixedviT, warmoadgensnormalur fsiqologiur funqcias da Cvenicxovrebis aucilebel nawils. eTnocentrizmi arSeiZleba mxolod uaryofiTi niSniT warmovadginoT,es aris sakuTari kulturis filtris meSveobiTsamyaros Sefasebis tendencia. d. macumotos miaCna,rom amgvari filtrebi yvela adamians gaaCnia da,amdenad, samyaroSi Tu msofloSi yvela CvenTaganieTnocentristia (Мацумото, 2008: 104). socializaciisprocesSi yoveli CvenTagani iTvisebs Cvevis garkvulmodelebs, aRqmisa da interpretaciis Taviseburebas,rac kulturiT aris gansazRvruli. es adamianisganviTarebis bunebrivi procesia. amdenad, TavisTavadeTnocentrizmi arc cudia da arc kargi, is asaxavsrealobas, arsebul viTarebas (Мацумото, 2008: 104).rodesac Sens jgufs afaseb obieqturad da,amasTanave, ginda da cdilob, ~sxva” jgufis Taviseburebebiaseve Seafaso _ es aris keTilganwyobili damoqnili eTnocentrizmi.362 363


ormxrivi uaryofiTi stereoti pi _qsenofobiis safuZveli, anu saxelmwifoebrivieTikis krizisikacobriobis mravalsaukunovani istoriis gamocdilebamgviCvena, rom yvela formaciaSi, yvela etapze,sazogadoebas Tan axlavs socialuri winaaRmdegobebi.sazogadoebis mowyobis arakomfortulobis mizeziki sxva ara aris ra, Tu ara sazogadoebrivi moralismouwesrigebloba. kanonebs, wminda wignebs, tradiciebs,wes-Cveulebebs, revoluciebs, reformebs da sxv. sazogadoebaunda mieyvana samarTlianobasa da harmonias-Tan, magram idealuri sazogadoebrivi wesrigi miuRweveliaRmoCnda. amis mizezia is, rom TviT sazogadoebaaris dinamiuri, mudmivcvladi sistema da axali pirobebimudmivad moiTxovs axal kanonebs. Tu sazogadoebaSiar aris am cvlilebebis (anu axlis miRebis da ZvelisSecvlis) pirobebi, maSin Cndeba dapirispireba. mTavariki is aris, rom yvela cvlileba da axlis Semotana,iqneba es kanoni Tu sxva ram, unda efuZnebodes eTikurprinci pebs, magram amas ara marto oficialurimoxeleebi (prezidenti, parlamenti), anu isini, vincmarTaven, unda axorcielebdnen, aramed isini, vincmarTuli arian. anu politikaze zemoqmedebaSi TviTmoqalaqeebi unda iyvnen CarTuli.saxelmwifos qmnian adamianebi. da simdidre arisadamiani, rac ufro maRalia moraluri princi pebi,miT ufro meti TviTrealizaciis SesaZlebloba aqvTadamianebs, es ki amdidrebs saxelmwifos. magrammorali unda iyos ara marto deklarirebuli, aramedSesrulebadic. adamiani unda iyos ara marto homosapiens-i, aramed homo moralis-ic. morali ki arisadamianebs Soris urTierTobis qcevis wesi. igigulisxmobs moTminebas, pativiscemas, tolerentobas,samarTlianobas, sindisierebas, Riaobas, TanamSromlobas.samarTlebriv saxelmwifoSi unda moqmedebdesmoralur principebze dafuZnebuli kanonebi. rodesacsaxelmwifos kanonebi eyrdnoba morals, sazogadoebaSiigrZnoba ganviTareba da keTildReoba.moraluri keTildReoba saxelmwifos xdis sicocxlisunarians,xolo cocxali organizmisaTvis aucilebeliaukukavSiri. Tu saxelmwifo kanonebSi araris Cadebuli morali, batonobs agresia da Zaladoba.eTikur saxelmwifoSi xdeba yovelgvari socialuriwinaaRmdegobis daZleva da adamians eZlevaTviTrealizaciis saSualeba, rac sayovelTao keTildReobissawindaria. eTika unda iqces politikuriZalis iaraRad. sanam saxelmwifoSi iqneba `Cvenis”da `sxvisis” diferenciacia, eTikuri saxelmwifo verCamoyalibdeba. mravaleTnikur qveynebSi ki, umravlesobisda umciresobis dayofa swored disharmoniasqmnis. rodesac Seni `mes” Rirebulebas ufro maRlaayeneb, vidre sxvis `mes”, warmoiqmneba batonobismorali; Tu dabla ayeneb, maSin _ monis morali, daTu Cemi `me” Tanatolia sxvisi `mesi”, warmoiqmnebaharmonia.Cemi da sxvisi “me” sxva araferia, Tu arasazogadoebis amgvari dayofa _ “Cven” da “isini”,romelTa Soris xSir SemTxvevaSi aSkarad igrZnobadistancia, gaucxoeba da qsenofobia.qsenofobia (berZnulad qseno-sxva, ucxo dafobia_SiSi) niSnavs ucxo, miuCveveli vinmes an ramesmiuReblobas, autanlobas; ucxo aRiqmeba, rogorcgaugebari, miuwvdomeli, imitom rom saSiSi damtrulia. qsenofobia maRldeba msoflmxedvelobisrangSi. SeiZleba gaxdes erovnulobis, religiurobisan socialuri princi piT dayofis, mtrobis sababi.qsenofobias miT ufro axasiaTebs ucxos mimarTbunebrivi SiSi, rac ufro informaciuli izolaciispirobebSi xdeba, maSin rodesac ucnobia sxva jgufi,misi yofa da kultura. yalibdeba azri barbarosuli364 365


zne-Cveulebis Sesaxeb ucxos mimarT, zogjer xelovnuradavrceleben arasasurvel Worebs da sxv.jgufis mimarT qsenofobiis saerTo idea qmnis“mtris xats”, romelic SesaZlebelia Taobidan Taobasgadaeces (mag.: antisemitizmi, romelic jer kidevantikur xanaSi aRmocenda da ebraelebs sxva xalxismimarT araloialobaSi sdebda brals; Semdeg iyoqristianuli antisemitizmi, romelic II saukuneSiqristes araRiarebis da ebraelebis rogorc RmerTismkvlelis gamo Camoyalibda; Semdeg _ rasobriviantisemitizmi, romelic warmoiSva XIX saukuneSi,TiTqosda ebraelebis raRac biologiuri arasasurveliniSnebis gamo, ramac warmoSva holokosti. aseve“axali antisemitizmi”, anu antisionizmi, romelicmimarTulia ebraelTa mier Tavis istoriul miwazesaxelmwifos aRdgenisa da maTi gaerTianebis erovnulimoZraobis winaaRmdeg).istoriam gviCvena, rom sulac ar aris savaldebuloqsenofobias realuri safuZveli hqondes. isSeiZleba iyos lokaluri da aseve SeZleba moicvasmTeli qveyana. mag.: ruseTSi sxvadasxva mimarTulebisqsenofobia 70 _ 80 procents Seadgens. esaa evreo _azerbaijano _ kitaio _ gruzinofobiebi; agreTvenegro _ beJenofobia; aseve kavkasio _ islamofobia.“qseno” Zvel berZnulSi agreTve stumars niSnavs.Zvelma berZnebma kargad icodnen mniSvneloba gamoTqmisa_ “qsenus qseniZe kai siugar qsenos gesse _iyavi stumarmaspinZluri stumrisadmi, radgan SeiZlebaSen TviTon aRmoCnde stumari”, anu stumars undasce pativi (Мы и они, 2007).stumrebad adre ZiriTadad vaWrebi iTvlebodnen,romelTac Soridan mohqondaT saWiro da ucnaurinivTebi – aqedan modis maTi kargad daxvedristradicia.stumari aris stumari, is Soridan modis damere male midis. magram Tu stumari movida da aRarmidis Cndeba, upirvelesad sifrTxile, arakeTilmosurneoba,zogjer siZulvili ucxosadmi, romelicmovida da aRar midis. Semdeg es vrceldeba mosulebzean dampyroblebze. gansakuTrebiT mZafrdeba maSin,rodesac mosuli mravldeba da amiT icvlebademografiuli suraTi. umalve Tavs iCens qsenofobia(Мы и они, 2007).qsenofobia – mkveTrad dapirispirebuli “Cvenisini”_ yofs sazogadoebas. aq ikveTeba sxvisi saxe,xdeba Cvenianebis da sxvebis gamijvna. Cvenianebis dasxvebis gansxvaveba isaxeba kulturaSi, romelSicSedis naTesaoba, ojaxi, religia, materialurikultura da a.S., anu “Cvens” aqvs Tavisi samyaro, `maTac~Tavisi samyaro, romelic SefuTulia kulturiT.“Cven _ isinis” dapirispirebaze eTnikuri, socialuri,ekonomikuri, kulturuli distanciebi moqmedebs.kulturuli konfliqti, sxva konfliqtebisagangansxvavebiT, specifikuria swored Tavisi ideologiuriganpirobebulobiT, Sefasebis poziciebis SeuTavseblobiT,msoflmxedvelobrivi da religiuri normebiT,ganwyobis normebiT da ama Tu im socialurad mniSvnelovanimoqmedebis ganxorcielebis wesebiTa da a.S.kulturul konfliqtSi xdeba sakuTari Rirebulebebisgadasinjva da ucxo Rirebulebebis SefasebasakuTari Rirebulebebidan gamomdinare. swored amisgamo kompromisi konfliqtSi monawileTa SorisgaZnelebulia. kulturuli konfliqtis dros xdebakulturuli teqstebis gansxvavebuli Sefaseba dainterpretacia, romelTa upiratesoba is aris, romisini opozitivs warmoadgenen _ an `Cvenia~, an `sxvisi~_ da ara `Cveni da sxvisi~. arCeviToba, ra Tqma unda,yovelTvis `Cvenis~ sasargeblod ixreba. sazogadoebisyoveli jgufi icavs `Cvens~ da ewinaaRmdegeba `sxvas~.eTnikuri jgufi, rogorc eTnikuri daZabulobisfenomenologiuri velis koncepti, aris samyaroSiyvela cocxali organizmisTvis universaluri366 367


tendenciis _ samyaros `Tavisianebad~ da `ucxoebad~dayofis fsiqologiuri Sedegi, Cvens SemTxvevaSi _eTnikuri mikuTvnilebis safuZvelze. alternativa`Cven_isini~ jgufis kulturuli Sinaarsis organizaciisfsiqologiuri meqanizmia. eTnikuri sazRvari,rogorc socialur-fsiqologiuri warmonaqmni, asaxavs,Tu rogor xedavs jgufi Sinaganad Tavisi kulturulfsiqologiurigansxvavebulobisa da Tavisuflebisarealis farglebs. adamianis azrovnebaSi warmoqmniliwarmodgena sazRvris Sesaxeb asaxavs rogorcjgufTaSoris, aseve Sidajgufur fsiqologiurdistancias da es warmodgena praqtikulad ganxorcielebaspoulobs realur eTnosTaSoris urTier-TobebSi.eTnosTaSorisi urTierTobebis socialurfsiqologiurikoncefciisaTvis gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba aqvs `eTnikur sazRvars~. f. bartis azriT,eTnikuri jgufis arsebobis safuZveli aris misikulturis Sinaarsi, romelic jgufma Tavisad aqciagarkveul sazRvrebSi (Barth, 1969: 15-17). eTnikurisazRvari aris maxasiaTebeli, romelic eTnikurjgufs axasiaTebs ara rogorc teritoriul-administraciulwarmonaqmns, aramed rogorc adamianebiskulturul da socialur-fsiqologiur erTobas.f. bartis mixedviT, eTnikuri sazRvari asaxavserTi eTnikuri jgufis meoresTan urTierTobispirobebSi Sinagani socialuri konstruirebis ankulturul da fsiqologiur sxvaobaTa organizaciisSedegs (Barth, 1969: 15).tendencia `Cven_isini~ opoziciuria. es ki imasniSnavs, rom misi dominireba polarizebuls xdisnebismier, maT Soris eTnokontaqtur, situacias. ammniSvnelobiT eTnikuri sazRvari eTnokontaqturisituaciis mastruqturebeli (amgebi) princi pisrolSi gamodis.sxvebTan, rogorc `ucxoebTan~, damokidebulebaniSnavs, rom urTierTgageba garkveul farglebSiamoqceuli, rac asaxavs msjelobis, Rirebulebebis daqcevis wesebis sxvadasxvaobas. aqedan gamomdinare,urTierToba SezRudulia imdenad, rom ar daikargossaerTo gageba da saerTo interesi (Barth, 1969:15).gamoxatuli eTnikuri sazRvari aqveiTebs tolerantobasda zRudavs eTnosTaSoris urTierTobas.Tu eTnikuri sazRvris fsiqologiuri SinaarsiSeivso teritoriuli, konfesiuri da lingvisturixasiaTis moTxovnebiT, maSin igi mkveTr demarkaciulxazad gadaiqceva (mag.: javaxeTSi “somxebis sakiTxi”).eTnosTaSorisi daZabulobis zrdasTan erTad eTnikurisazRvari TandaTan ufro gamokveTil saxesiRebs da xSirad ufro realuri xdeba, vidre administraciuli,radgan eTnikur erTobaTa gamyofis funqciasrealurad swored eTnikuri sazRvari asrulebs.eTnikuroba emsaxureba SidaeTnikur integraciasda amiT imavdroulad xels uwyobs dezintegraciulitendenciebis ganviTarebas mTlianad polieTnikursazogadoebaSi. eTnikuroba kulturuli gansxvavebulobisfunqcias asrulebs, magram eTnikuri sazRvrebiufro mWidro da xelovnuri xdeba, rodesacjgufis eTnokulturul variaciulobas cvlis misimoTxovnebis winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTis zrda. amdros eTnikuri sazRvari ukve eTnikur SetakebaTaadgili gaxdeba da SesaZloa, TavdacviTidan dezintegraciisada gaucxoebis iaraRad iqces sazogadoebaSi.lokalur doneze (qvemo qarTli) qsenofobiaase gamoiyureba: kerZod, walkaSi axalCasaxlebulaWarlebsa da adgilobriv mosaxleobas SorismkveTri gaucxoeba SeiniSneba.gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba aqvs somxurmosaxleobas aWareli muslimanebis mimarT. aWarlebsTurqebTan hyavT asocirebuli da maT laparakSi368 369


uaryofiTi ganwyoba Cans. “egeni ra qarTvelebi arianena aqvT marto qarTuli”; `RmerTma ar qnas omi,Torem muslimans eklesiaSic rom Seaswro, iqacSemogivardeba da iqave gamogWris yelso. amas argaakeTebs arc berZeni da arc qarTveli” _ acxadebsinformatori._”armeni ambobs: RmerTma ar qnas, rom omi daiwyos,es aWarlebi Cvenze wamovlen, egeni xom musulmanebiarian. amitom ar undaT aWarlebis aq Camosaxleba.Cemi eri musulmanebisgan Zalian dazaralda. CemidedamTili yveba, TurqeTSi genocidi mogviwyesTurqebma. saSineleba trialebda. xalxi miwaSi Cafles,marto Tavebi uCandaT, Semdeg cxenebi miuSves dagadaTeles. Tqven ra ggoniaT, Turqebs saidan hyavTaseTi lamazi qalebi. es xom sul somxebi daqarTvelebi arian. ramdeni qali gaaupatiures. isinixom ar ekiTxebodnen, vin qarTvelia, vin somexi,amitomac hyavT aseTi qaTqaTa qalebi.”_ “Zalian ar momwons gza, rom akeTeben Turqe-Tidan.”_ “Turqebis Zalian meSinia, mTavaria, omi ariyos”._ “aWarlebi ar gvinda, eseni musulmanebi arian.magaliTad, avranloSi eklesias nakeli wausves. aaSeneSeni meCeTi, magram Cvens eklesias xels nu axleb.aSxalaSi da yizilqilisaSi somxebi cxovroben, aba,iq axlon xeli eklesias. aq am sakiTxze didi Sexla-Semoxla moxda. sofel gumbaTSi xatebs Seuracxyofamiayenes, es ambavi erTma berZenma aSxlel somxebsSeatyobina. somxebi Zalian gabrazdnen da uTxres:dagiWerT da eklesiaSi dagabavT. ase iqnebiT manam,sanam mamaliviT ar daiwyebT yivils. walkaSi 60wlis kaci cemiT mokles imis gamo, rom misi cxeniaWarelis bostanSi Sevida, magaTi xboebi ki CemsbostanSi tangos cekvaven. svanebi amas arasdros gaake-Teben. vici namdvilad, vicnob murmans, is Cem SvilTanerTad afxazeTSi ibrZoda. mis gamo me yvela svansvcem pativs. Cemi rZali margarita, miuxedavad yvelafrisa,aWarlebTan megobrobs” (meliqiSvili, 2008 _2010).lokalurad, am mocemul sociumSi rwmenis maRalmaniSnulma asaxva hpova bavSvebis aRzrdis xasiaTSic.mag., aWareli muslimani dedis mier bavSvis (qaliSvilis)damoZRvra. deda sruliad gaxsnilad, Riadsaubrobs, gvixsnis aRzrdis wess, Tu rogor eubnebaTavis pirvelklasel gogonas, rom ar unda miekaros“sxvas”, es ar SeiZleba, ar unda Seiyvaro da misT.manve aRniSna, rom es “aq” gaxda saWiro, rom Svilsauxsna, Torem “iq”, Tavis sofelSi (igulisxmebamuslimanuri garemo), amis aucilebloba ar aris.dawyebiTi klasis qarTuli skolis pedagogma,aWareli bavSebis bebiebisagan sayveduri miiRo, radganacgakveTilis dawyebis win bavSvebs locvas, mamaoCvenos, akiTxebda. aseve maT maswavleblisgan moiTxoves,ar esaubra saqarTvelos mefeebze (igulisxmeba maTierTguleba qristianobis mimarT), rac saswavloprogramaSia mocemuli. respodentis cnobiT, walkaSiaris aseTi SemTxvevebi: bavSvs (aWarels) aswavlianreligiis istorias da mSoblebi ki aRSfoTebulebiarian _ ratom aswavlian qristianobas. erT bavSvsgamocdaze Sexvda es sakiTxi da uari Tqva pasuxisgacemaze.saerTod iTvleba, rom migrantebi, rogorc wesi,arian ufro metad Zlierni, mamacebi, moxerxebulebi,imitom rom isini Tavisi miwidan ukeTesi cxovrebismosaZebnad arian wamosulebi. amitom yvelaferzewavlen, raTa daimkvidron Tavisi adgili, TundacdaCagron adgilobrivebi. magram rodesac qarTulsaxelmwifoSi qarTveli (aWareli, svani) tovebs erTadgils da gadadis sxva adgilze, romelic datovamosulma berZenma, ra Tqma unda, aq gaaTmagebuladiCens Tavs migrantis zemoT CamoTvlili Tvisebebi.370 371


gamonaTqvamebi: es Cveni qveyanaa; qarTveli kacisaTvisadgili ar aris. imaT samSoblo ori aqvT_Cven erTi;wavidnen samSobloSi da aqac aqvT miwa.qvemo qarTlis oficialuri struqturebis warmomadgenlebTanjgufur muSaobaSi gamoikveTa problemebida SiSi.qarTvelebis SiSi: teritoriuli mTlianobisdakargva, separatizmi, avtonomiebis Camoyalibeba,ltolvilebi sakuTar saxelmwifoSi, ruseTis gavlenisgaZliereba, konfliqtebi, qarTveli mosaxleobisCagvra-Seviwroeba, Camosuli qarTvelebis adaptirebisproblema.qarTvelebis gamonaTqvamebi: `azerbaijanelebssulSi sul saqarTvelodan gamoyofa ~uRitinebT”,moiTxoven borCalos mazras da arc ki ician raaris mazra, orientirebulni arian azerbaijanze,televizori azerbaijanis arxebze aqvT CarTuli”.`somxebi monoeTnikurni arian da cdilobensaqarTvelodan gamoyofas, ar arian tolerantebieTnikuri TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT azerbaijanelebismimarT, kompaqturad dasaxlebul adgilebSisxva erovnebis warmomadgenels ver itanen” (meliqi-Svili, 2008 _ 2010).s om xe bi sa da a ze rb a i j an el e bi s Si Si :erovnulobis dakargva, ar darCes meorexarisxovanmoqalaqed, asimilacia, Turqebis SiSi, qarTulifenomenis SiSi, marTlmadidebluri religiis gaZliereba,karieris (Tanamdebobaze vermosvla) mouwyobloba.gamokveTa ori axali problema. pirveli esaae.w. `культурная депортация”, rac gulisxmobs, qarTulisaxelmwifo politikidan gamomdinare (mTavari enisproblemaa), `TviTiZulebiT deportacias”; meore _`вынужденная миграция”, rac ekonomikur sakiTxs ukav-Sirdeba da samuSaos gamo iZulebiT ekonomikurmigrantebad gadaqcevas gulisxmobs.kulturuli deportacia, rogorc Cans, ukvemiRebuli terminia azerbaijanuli eTnoumciresobisTvis,xolo iZulebiTi migracia _ somxebisaTvis,romlebic, tradiciulad, jer kidev sabWoTa kavSirisdros, gadiodnen respublikidan droebiT samuSaoebze_`на заработки”, “на целину”. dRes savizo reJimi amisuflebas ar iZleva da iZulebulni arian samudamoddatovon saqarTvelo.rac Seexeba `SiSebsa da riskebs”: aq Cans SiSiarastabiluri garemos Seqmnisa zogadad yvelasTvis.teritoriebis dakargva _ qarTvelebisTvis, gaZeveba_ somxebisa da azerbaijanelebisaTvis.kargad gamoikveTa TviT eTnojgufebis miergaazreba imisa, rom eTnikuri umciresobis problemebismizezi ara qarTveli xalxia, aramed xelisufleba, racadre piriqiT gamoiyureboda. magram isic kargad aqvTgacnobierebuli, rom socialuri dapirispirebaSesaZlebelia eTnikurSi gadaizardos da amas Riakonfliqtic ki mohyves. socialuri problemebi kimravladaa: sabaJoze ganbaJebis problema. miwebisTavdapirveladve araTanabari ganawileba. walkaSiqarTveli ekomigrantebis problema, dakavSirebulisacxovrebel saxlebTan da miwis nakveTebTan. sazRvrisgamartivebis moTxovna monaTesave erTan urTierTobisaTvisda sxv.azerbaijanelebis identifikacia xdeba azerbaijanissaxelmwifosTan, rac dakavSirebulia eTnikurisazRvris da ara politikuri sazRvris aRqmasTan.azerbaijaneli Tavisi iridentuli swrafvebiTorientirebulia azerbaijanis saxelmwifosTan daidentobas ufro metad azerbaijanul saxelmwifosukavSirebs, vidre qarTuls. es arc aris gasakviri,radganac igi ukavSirdeba erTiani kulturuli sivrcisproblemas, rac TavisTavad arsebobs azrovnebaSi.am pozicias amagrebs saerTo istoriuli warsuli,saerTo warmomavloba, ena, sarwmunoeba da kultura.372 373


es ki sxva politikur sazRvrebSi arsebuli eTnojgufisaTvisqmnis diskomforts. mas surs am politikursazRvrebSi _ qarTul saxelmwifoSi _ iseve iyosyvelaferi, rogorc im politikur sazRvrebSi _azerbaijanul saxelmwifoSi. mag., mohyavT kanonebi,romlebic gansxvavebulia or saxelmwifoSi. politikurisazRvris aRqmis unari azrovnebaSi jerjerobiTgamagrebuli ara aqvT. rodesac es moxdeba, maSindaiwyeba maTSi moqalaqeobrivi azrovnebis Camoyalibeba.monawileTa gamonaTqvamebSi aSkarad SeimCnevasocialuri sakiTxebis mougvarebloba, vidre TiToeulijgufis eTnikuri mobilizacia. magram isic aRsani-Snavia, rom iseT mouwesrigebel socialur garemoSi,rogorsac monawileni warmogvidgenen, urTierTeTnikurimobilizacia namdvilad Wirs. eTnikurobaam SemTxvevaSi gvevlineba ganwyobis safuZvlad.aSkarad Cans, rom yovelive socialuri siduxWireerovnuli umciresobis mentalitetSi daiyvanebaeTnikurobaze. isini Tavs dabal safexurze mdgomadmiiCneven da saxelmwifosagan met yuradRebas iTxoven.eTnikuroba Cveni monawileTaTvis erTdrouladaris rogorc stabilurobis garantica da arastabilurobisgamomwvevi mizezic. komfortulad arianama Tu im jgufTan mikuTvnilobiT da amave mizeziTarakomfortulad _ socialur integraciaSi.eTnoumciresoba, gansakuTrebiT azerbaijanelebi,Tavs daCagrulad grZnoben. maT gamonaTqvamebSiigrZnoba ukmayofileba, ganpirobebuli erovnuliniSniT. mTavrobisagan uyuradReboba maTTvis Zneladasatania, radganac Tavs kanonmorCilebad da arCevnebSimaTdami erTgulebad warmosaxaven, xolomTavrobisagan mosalodnel ukukavSirs ver iReben.yvelaze daCagrulad ki Tavis Tavs migrantiaWarlebi warmogvidgenen. isini gamoxataven aRSfoTebas.maTi gadmocemiT, diskriminirebuli saqarTveloSi aris`umravlesoba”, anu qarTvelebi, mohyavT magaliTebisocialuri yofidan. gamoTqvaven ukmayofilebas, romyvelaferSi brals qarTvelebs sdeben. wina planzeaSkarad ixateba eTnonacionalizmi. monawileqarTvelebSi SeiniSneboda nacionalisturi ganwyobisgamovlena. is ki ara, zogierTis azriT, ~misaxedi~qarTvelebi arian da ara sxvebi. ~qarTvelebs rodisgveSveleba~, ~isini xom Tavs isedac kargad grZnoben~.problemebi regionSi uxvadaa: eTnonacionalizmi,enobrivi barieri, gulgrili damokidebuleba, informaciulivakuumi, ganaTlebis dabali done, Seusabamocxovrebis wesi, sxvadasxva kulturisa da religiisSeuTavsebloba, dasaqmebis problema, socialuriinfrastruqturis ganviTareba, profesionaluri unar-Cvevebis dabali done, komunikaciebi _ izolireba,sazogadoebis wevrobis arasrulfasovani SegrZneba_arasrulfasovnebis kompleqsi, motivaciis nakleboba.dRes kulturaTa Soris sxvaoba regionSiayalibebs mezobeli kulturis negatiur socialurxats. yoveli jgufi gamoimuSavebs sakuTar meqanizmebsreadaptaciis procesSi. eTnojgufebis kulturagaucxoebulia, daSorebuli da dapirispirebuli. aseTprocesSi rac ufro Sordeba jgufi mezobel kulturas,miT metad gansxvavebulad aRiqvams mas da miTufro metad gamoimuSavebs mtkice fsiqologiuridacvis meqanizms, iseTs, rogoricaa pozitiuri `Cven~da negatiuri `isini~.xdeba eTnikuri avto da heterostereoti pebisgamijvna, sulieri da fsiqologiuri sazRvrebisaRmarTva. amoqmeddeba istoriuli, socialuri dapolitikuri meqanizmebi urTierTgasamijnad. eTnokulturulisxvaoba gadaizrdeba politikur orientaciaTasxvaobaSi.TandaTanobiT yalibdeba `mtris xati~, romelicerTmaneTiskenaa mimarTuli.374 375


`mtris xati~ ayalibebs winaswar ganwyobiluaryofiT stereoti pul azrovnebas. es ki xelsuwyobs dehumanizaciis process, rac aadvilebsmowinaaRmdegis mimarT ara marto verbaluri, aramedkonkretuli fizikuri qmedebis ganxorcielebasac.saqme isaa, rom uaryofiTi stereoti pebi yuradRebasamaxvilebs mxolod uaryofiT mxareebze da qmedebebze.mexsierebaSic, cnobierebaSic mxolod uaryofiTigancda rCeba.`mtris xati~ ayalibebs jgufis qcevas da Rrmadidgams fesvebs socialur sistemaSi. igi aZlierebsjgufisSida mobilizacias da amas yvelaze ukeTesadswored `mtris xatis~ fenomeni akeTebs da, amave dros,aZlierebs opozitivs `Cven_isini~. sazRvari amopozitivs Soris sul ufro izrdeba. isini sulsxvani arian, ara iseTebi rogorc Cven, yoveli qceva`sxva~ jgufisa negatiur prizmaSi tardeba, maTaraferi aqvT dadebiTi, Tu sxva erovnebis arian,wavidnen Tavis istoriul samSobloSi. es gansxvavebada uaryofiTi stereoti pi mxolod imas emsaxurebasabolood, rom `sxva~ aris saSiSi `CvenTvis~. amitomagresia mis mimarT ara marto faruli, aramed RiacgamarTlebuli da misaRebicaa. aq dauSvebelia raimekoreqtivi, dadebiTi kritika, gansja, dafiqreba dasxva konstruqciuli azri Tu qmedeba.unda vaRiaroT isic, rom Cvens mcdelobasdagvefiqsirebina zemoT aRwerili situacia, dadebiTSedegs ver mivaRwieT. piriqiT, vnaxeT aWarlebisOojaxi,romelsac ar hqonda moSlili berZnebis mierdatovebuli salocavi kuTxe; aseve ojaxi, romelicuvlis da mfarvelobs ezoSi eklesiis yaidazeaSenebul mcire zomis samlocvelos.aWarlebi walkis regionSi dRes gamokveTiladuaryofiT poziciaSi imyofebian. isini arian “sxvebi”adgilobrivi xelisuflebisaTvis, berZnebisaTvis,azerbaijanelebisaTvis, somxebisaTvis. aseve muslimaniaWarlebisaTvis yovelive CamoTvlili ucxoa daarakeTilsasurveli. ormxrivi uaryofiTi stereoti piki safuZvelia socialuri distanciisa da qsenofobiis.dRes regionSi aWarlisaTvis darRveulia eTikurisaxelmwifos yvelaze mniSvnelovani safuZveli _adgilobrivi resursis gamoyenebis saSualebasicocxlis uzrunvelsayofad. amitomac ganawyenebuliamboben: “dagviTmon somxebma baTumi da qobuleTida aqeT wamovidnen, Cven ki iq gadavalT”, an _“maincdamainc aWareli kaci unda Camovides walkaSida icxovros, da somexi unda wavides aWaraSi? imitomgvWirs aseTi ambavi. axla Tu araferi ar gamova, 800kvamlia aWareli Tu 1200, yvelani avdgebiT, CavalT,davjdebiT baTumSi da gamogvinaxon adgili”. (meliqi-Svili, 2008 _ 2010).yvela qsenofobiur movlenas Tavisi realizaciissaSualeba aqvs. mTavari am movlenaSi arisverbaluri teqnologiebi, ufro metad ki zepirgadmocemebSi.zepir gadmocemebSi kargad Cans ukve mravalgzisdamkvidrebuli realoba _ adamianis socializaciisprocesi. am procesSi gamoiyofa ori tendencia:pirveli _ adamianis individualoba da meore _urTierToba sxva adamianebTan, radganac adamiani ararsebobs rogorc izolirebuli erTeuli da eswarmoudgenelic kia. amitom igi yovelTvis arisindividicaa da garkveuli sazogadoebis wevric.rogorc individs, mas axasiaTebs avtonomiuroba,suverenuloba, damoukidebloba, individualoba;rogorc sazogadoebis wevrs ki _ socialuri roli,socialuri statusi, koleqtiuroba. adamiani TavisTavSi itevs orive maxasiaTebels da es maxasia-Teblebi _ individualoba da koleqtiuroba _moqmedebs erTmaneTze _ adamiani sazogadoebaze,sazogadoeba _ adamianze. es urTierTobebi Tavis376 377


TavSi Seicavs interesebs. interesi ki is faqtoria,romelic aaqtiurebs pirovnebis qmedebas, daikmayofilosTavisi moTxovnebi da ganaviTaros TavisiSesaZleblobebi, anu realuri interesia adamianmaganaviTaros da Seicnos Tavisi Tavi. Tu es ar aris,masSi irRveva pirovnebis faqtori da amas igi mihyavsasocialur qcevamde. adamianebi yovelTvis verikmayofileben Tavis interesebs da xSir SemTxvevaSi,isini Tavisi interesebis sawinaaRmdego qmedebebsaxorcieleben.gadmocemebisa da ambebis moyolas yoveldRiurcxovrebaSi sakmaod didi adgili eTmoba. adamianebiyvebian yovelgvar istoriebs, e. i. im `saintereso”ambebs, rac maT gadaxdaT an raSic TviTon iRebdnenmonawileobas, undaT, sxva daarwmunon mis socialurmniSvnelobaSi. ase rom, adamianebi bavSvobidanveecnobian mraval rames da TandaTanobiT am `ambebis”saSualebiT yalibdebian Tavis garemoSi, kulturaSi.`ambebis” _ gadmocemebis moyolis amocanaa garkveuladdaagrovos am kulturis Sesaxeb codna.Tu am `ambebSi” aris laparaki im xalxze, angansakuTrebiT im qcevebsa da movlenebze, romlebicxels uSlian sazogadoebas yoveldRiuri amocanebisgadawyvetaSi, an warmoadgenen saSiSroebas, maSinSeiZleba dauSvaT, rom ambebis gmirebi, anu viszecaris laparaki, es aris is xalxi, romelic uqmnis`realur saSiSroebas” sxva jgufis idealebs damaT miznebs. aseTi ki SeiZleba iyos araZiriTadi,mosuli, migranti da sxva erovnebis warmomadgeneli.amitom, rodesac ZiriTadi, ~pirobiTad davarqvaT~, erisTu eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgeneli yveba raRacas`mosulze”, ~ucxoze”, es ar aris raime spontanurinaazrevis gadmocema, aramed igi yovelTvis gamsWvaluliawinaswari negatiuri, uaryofiTi ganwyobiT.swored aseT mosulebs, sxvas, migrants da a.S. aRiqvamengansxvavebulad, ucnaurad, saSiSad, gaugebrad. mravaleTnikur sazogadoebaSi isini warmodgebian, rogorcuaryofiT stereoti pebi.aseTi TxrobiT realizdeba subieqturad gadamu-Savebuli, erT-erTi forma socialuri informaciisa,romelic mimarTulia imaze Tu ra viciT Cven,adamianebma, romelime jgufis warmomadgenlebma, imaxal eTnikur umciresobaze, jgufze, mosulze,ltolvilze da a.S. da rogor aRviqvamT Cven maTmoqmedebebs.aseTi moTxrobebi axdenen Rirebulebebisa danormebis formulirebas, ris safuZvelzec xdeba`qcevis formebis damrRvevTa” Sefaseba. ase rom,yalibdeba bazisuri Sexeduleba da receptebi, Turogori damokidebuleba unda hqondeT da rogorireaqcia. aseTi Txroba Seicavs, `winaswar uaryofiTganwyobas”, romelic safuZvlad edeba ZiriTadijgufis Sefasebebs da reaqciebs.msjeloba _ diskursi axdens socialurirealobis konstruirebas da TamaSobs mTavar rolsideologiis Camoyalibebasa da gavrcelebaSi. polieTnikursazogadoebaSi, gansakuTrebiT sadac arianaxali migrantebi da TiToeuli eTnikuri jgufiCaketilia Tavis TavSi da Tavis kulturaSi,diskursSi zogjer SefarviT da zogjer aSkaradasaxaven negatiur damokidebulebas erTmaneTismimarT da xandaxan avlenen diskriminaciul damokidebulebas.swored es winaswari uaryofiTi ganwyoba, sanamvinme dasaxldeba Sens teritoriaze, gansazRvravsSemdgom damokidebulebas, gansakuTrebiT resursebisaTviskonkurenciaSi.erT-erTi arxi eTnikuri winaswari uaryofiTiganwyobis SeRwevisa socialuri urTierTobissakiTxSi aris yoveldRiuri verbaluri komunikacia.yoveldRiur saubarSi xalxi yveba sxvadasxvaistoriebs Tavis damokidebulebaze sxva jgufTan.378 379


ganixilaven eTnikuri jgufebis arsebobas Tavisaxlos, iZieben maT warmomavlobas, istorias da a.S.da saubrebSi avlenen diskriminirebul damokidebulebassxvis mimarT da, amave dros, amiT avlenen Tavisprioritetulobas. garda amisa, Sefarulad Tavidanda Semdgom Riad iZlevian rekomendaciebs. sxvawarmoCndeba, rogorc gansxvavebuli, cudi, uxeSi, bneli,uweso, gaunaTlebeli da a.S.aseTi saubrebis analizi ufro ukeT warmogvidgenssocialur situacias, xsnis winaswar uaryofiTadganwyobili saubrebis socialur funqciasda kognitikur strategias, romelsac gamoiyenebs erTijgufis warmomadgeneli, gamoxatavs ra Tavis mrwamssada azrs meore jgufze. erovnebaTSoris urTier-TobaSi uamrav winaaRmdegobasTan da konfliqtTanerTad arc Tu bolo adgili ukavia koliziebs axal_ migrirebuli jgufebis mimarT, an piriqiT. aseTdros TavisTavad iqmneba iseTi socialuri garemo,iseTi mizezebi, romelebic axdenen negatiuridamokidebulebis provocirebas. yoveli gaWirvebisada siZneleebis Tavi da Tavi sxva eTnikuri jgufia,‘gansakuTrebiT ki mosuli”. aseT dros, anu aseTidiskusiebisas gamoricxulia raime dadebiTi damokidebuleba,yovelive aris warmodgenili uaryofiTad.yoveli kulturis elementi gatarebulia negatiurprizmaSi. ena, qceva, religia, aRzrda negatiuriaspeqtebiT fasdeba. Zalian iSviaTia, rom raimesdadebiTi muxti etyobodes.xSirad socialuri gaWirvebis realur mizezebspolitikur situacias ar abraleben, aramed erTmaneTs.ufro metic, erTi eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlismier Cadenili realuri `danaSauli”, anu raime kanonisan eTikis normis darRveva gadadis mTeli eTnosisSefasebaze. ~es qarTvelebis bralia, an somxebis, anazerbaijanelebis, an berZnebis. isini saerTod aseTebiarian, anu sazogadoebis winaSe mdgomi problemebisgamomwvevad miiCneven im `mowinaaRmdege” jgufs,romelic SefasebaSi diskriminirebulia. samwuxarod,dRes walkis raionSi iseTi ganwyobaa, TiTqosyovelive aWarlebis “bralia”.aWarlebis saqonlisgan Sewuxebuli berZeniqali gveubneba:“barbara _ isini (aWarlebi) Cven xalxadac argvTvlian. ase amboben miwa Cvenia. saidan aris magaTi?egeni sul musulmanebi arian. me xom mTeli dRe arvudarajeb?! ramdenjer gamovdevno. me bevri adgilimaqvs, mindorSi rkinis Robes xom ar gavakeTeb.l. m. _ Tqven ratom abavT?barbara _ imitom, rom sxvis bostanSi ar Sevidnen.l. m. _ da, sad aris aWarlebis bostani? aqmarto Tqveni bostania.barbara _ da rad undaT magaT bostani? egenixom aqaurebi ar arian!l. m. _ da marto Tqven xarT aseT mdgomareobaSi?barbara _ yvela aseT dReSia, adamianadac ki argvTvlian.l. m. _ mere gamgeobas Seatyobine?barbara _ ra unda Sevatyobino, gamgeobac magaTiada miliciac, yvela. adre Cven moskovSi vwerdiTsaCivrebs. . . .”saqme isaa, rom sazogadoebis wevrebs, calkeulpirebs ar ZaluZT obieqturi mizezebis Zieba dasocialuri Tu politikuri movlenebis mravalsafexurianianalizi. amitom yovelive uaryofiTmovlenas eTnikuri niSniT, umTavresad ki kulturiT,gansazRvraven, Tundac is zogierT SemTxvevaSi mcdarian gazviadebulic iyos. amitom dRes mTavar “damna-Saved” migranti aWareli isaxeba. is aris “Turqi,muslimani, ena aqvs qarTuli, Torem ra qarTvelia,ukanonod Semosaxlda, qristianuli sarwmunoebissiwmindeebs da eklesiebs pativs ar scems, piriqiT,Seuracxyofas ayenebs da a. S.” amitom yvelaze meti380 381


gaucxoeba da qsenofobia aWarlisadmia mimarTuli,da unda vaRiaroT, rom sruliad usafuZvlod.gaucxoeba da negatiuri stereoti pebi erTmaneTismimarT araintegrirebul sazogadoebazemiuTiTebs. ormxrivi uaryofiTi stereoti pi qsenofobiissafuZvelia da saxelmwifoebrivi eTikiskrizisze miuTiTebs. es ki samoqalaqo sazogadoebisdamamuxruWebeli movlenaa.dasafiqrebelia dRes miRebuli erTaSorisiintegraciis sakiTxi. xelovnurad am fenomenisdanergva, raRac sabWoTa periodis “Zmur kavSirTanasocirdeba”.mecnierul doneze Seuswavlelad safuZvelSivemeryevi iqneba postkomunisturi integracia da perioduladamotivtivdeba is “sxvis” mier CadebulinaRmebi, romlebic aseve periodulad yovelidiskomfortuli Serxevis dros eTnikur afeTqebasgamoiwvevs.tolerantoba da socialuri distanciaSewynareba dajerebas ar hniSnavs, gindaTu ara, aramed pativsa, romliTac undamoeqceT sxvis azrs, Tundac Tqvens usiamovnos,Tqvens winaaRmdegs.pativiT moqceva kidev imas hqvian, rommTqmels, Tu gamkiTxvels sabuTi gauCxrikoT,sabuTi auwonoT Tqvens sakuTar sasworze,ase Tu ise sakuTari fasi dasdoT damisawyavi ise miuwyaT.yovlad sakadrisi saqcieli gonebagaxsnilisada marTla ganaTlebulis kacisasworad es gzaa da sxva arara.visac es ara sWirs, tyuilad Tavsa sdebsganaTlebaze, tyuilad abriyvebs TavisTavsacda sxvasac, ganaTlebuli varo. igi yovelgonebadaxSulzed uaresia.ilia WavWavaZekacobriobis mravalsaukunovani istoriis gamocdilebamgviCvena, rom yvela formaciaSi, yvela etapze,sazogadoebas Tan axlavs socialuri winaaRmdegobebi.sazogadoebis mowyobis arakomfortulobismizezi ki sxva ara aris ra, Tu ara sazogadoebrivimoralis mouwesrigebloba. kanonebis, wminda wignebis,tradiciebis, wes-Cveulebebis, revoluciebis, reformebisda sxvaTa arsebobas sazogadoeba unda mieyvanasamarTlianobasTan da harmoniasTan, magram idealurisazogadoebrivi wesrigi miuRweveli aRmoCnda. amismizezi aris is, rom TviT sazogadoeba aris dinamiuri,mudmivcvladi sistema da axali pirobebi mudmivadmoiTxovs axal kanonebs. Tu sazogadoebaSi ar arisam cvlilebebis pirobebi (anu axlis miRebis daZvelis Secvlis), maSin Cndeba dapirispireba. mTavariki is aris, rom yvela cvlileba da axlis Semotana,iqneba es kanoni Tu sxva ram, unda efuZnebodes eTikur382 383


principebs, magram amas ara marto oficialuri moxeleebi(prezidenti, parlamenti) anu is, vinc marTavs,unda axorcielebdes aramed is, vinc aris marTuli.anu politikaze zemoqmedebaSi TviT moqalaqeebi undaiyvnen CarTuli.saxelmwifosTvis yvelaze didi monapovari dasimdidre aris adamiani, radgan adamianebs SeuZliaTadamianuri urTierToba, rasac morals vuwodebT.rac ufro maRalia moraluri princi pebi, miT ufrometi TviTrealizaciis SesaZlebloba aqvT adamianebs,es ki amdidrebs saxelmwifos. magram morali arunda iyos ara marto deklarirebuli, aramed undaiyos Sesrulebadic. adamiani unda iyos ara martohomo sapiens, aramed homo moralis, radganac moraliaris adamianebTan urTierTobis qcevis wesi. igigulisxmobs moTminebas, pativiscemas, mimReobas, samarTlianobas,sindisierebas, Riaobas, TanamSromlobas.samarTlebriv saxelmwifoSi moqmedebs kanonebi,xolo eTikur saxelmwifoSi moralis princi pebic.principi yovelTvis ufro maRla dgas, vidre kanoni.rodesac saxelmwifos kanonebi eyrdnoba morals,sazogadoebaSi igrZnoba ganviTardeba da keTildReoba.moraluri keTildReoba saxelmwifos xdissicocxlisunarians, xolo cocxali organizmisaTvisaucilebelia ukukavSiri. Tu saxelmwifo kanonebSiar aris Cadebuli morali, batonobs agresia daZaladoba. eTikur saxelmwifoSi ki, xdeba yovelgvarisocialuri winaaRmdegobis daZleva da adamianseZleva TviTrealizaciis saSualeba, rac sayovelTaokeTildReobis sawindaria. eTika unda iqces politikuriZalis iaraRad. sanam saxelmwifoSi iqneba`Cvenis” da `sxvisis” diferenciacia, eTikuri saxelmwifover Camoyalibdeba. mravaleTnikur qveynebSiki, umravlesobis da umciresobis dayofa sworeddisharmonias qmnis. rodesac Seni `mes” Rirebulebasufro maRla ayeneb, vidre sxvis `mes”, warmoiqmnebabatonobis morali. Tu dabla ayeneb, maSin monismorali, da Tu Cemi `me” Tanatolia sxvisi `mesi”warmoiqmneba harmonia. or `me”-s Soris TanatoliurTierTobaSi arsebobs iseTi Rirebuleba, romelicxels uwyobs sazogadoebis met-naklebad harmoniularsebobas da eTikuri moralis SenarCunebas. es aristoleranoba.kacobrioba, Tavisi istoriis manZilze, miiswrafodamSvidobisaken, amave dros arcerTi religiaar qadagebda Zaladobas da oms, magram cxovrebaSimainc yvelaferi sul sxvanairad viTardeba. mravalsaukunovaniistoria dapirispirebebiTa da SetakebebiTaadatvirTuli. am situacias Tavs verc dResvaRwevT. politikosebi da TviT sazogadoeba ZaladobidanSeTanxmebaze gadasvlas ver axerxebs.eqstremizmi _ iqneba es eTnikuri, religiuri,rasobrivi Tu socialuri angrevs samarTlebriobassaxelmwifoSi da adamianis moralur _ sazogadoebrivsafuZvlebs aryevs.Mmagram, sabednierodeqstremizmis sapirispiro fenomenic arsebobs. esaaris toleratnoba. aratolerantoba arRvevsadamianTa individualur da koleqtiur uflebebs.adamianTa da kulturaTa sxvaobam SeiZlebagamoiwvios uTanxmoeba an dapirispireba, magram,rodesac amis mosagvareblad gamoiyeneba Zala _ esmiuRebelia. amitom, Cven ki ar unda SevcvaloTkultura an adamiani, aramed rogorc ЮНЕСКО-mSegvaxsena “ramdenadac omi iwyeba adamianis azrovnebaSi,amdenad adamianis azrovnebidan unda daiwyosmSvidobis Seqmna” (Democracy and...)rogorc ar unda gansxvavdebodes kulturulitradicia iqneba es erTi saxelmwifos SigniTsxvadasxva eTnikur jgufebs Soris, Tu sxvadasxvaqveynebs Soris, erTi ram mainc arsebobs _ tolerantobiskategoria.384 385


tolerantoba aris moTmineba sxvisi azrisadmi,rwmenisadmi, qcevisadmi. tolerantoba ar aris droSiSeuzRudavi kategoria, ar aris adamianis da sazogadoebisbiosocialuri maxasiaTebeli. tolerantobaar aris universaluri kategoria, is icvlebaistoriul aspeqtSi da kulturul tradiciebSi.tolerantoba aris aradiskriminacia, araqsenofobia,ararasizmi, arareligiuri eqstremizmi, aragenocidi. esaa sulgrZeloba, didsulovneba, moTmineba,urTierTgageba, SeTanxmeba (rogorc pirovnul, iseerovnul doneze), sxvaTa uflebebis pativiscema.unda vaRiaroT, rom dRes tolerantobas SeiZlebaiTqvas, rom pirdapiri Targmani (moTmineba) ar gaaCnia.igi imdenad mniSvnelovani socialuri movlena gaxda,rom terminis mniSvnelobac ki Secvala. tolerantobadRes ara Tu moTminebaa, aramed esaa mzaoba, Sengangansxvavebuli adamianebis qceva, Sexeduleba da sxvakeTilganwyobiT miiRo da im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu amukanasknels ar eTanxmebi. “moTmena” xdeba SenTvisuaryofiT konteqstSi. es iwvevs uaryofiT ganwyobas.“tolerantoba” ki gulis-xmobs imas, rom Sen amas argaakeTeb, magram aRiareb mis uflebas.dRes msoflioSi aratolerantoba problemaa.tolerantoba ar aris panacea yvela socialuriavadmyofobisagan. moTmineba es ar aris yvelafrisdaSveba, uflebis micema da yvelafris patieba. isTavis TavSi unda Seicavdes aqtiur qmedebas, gansakuTrebiTaratolerantobis mimarT.tolerantobis sazRvari Tavdeba iq, sadac iwyebapirovnebis an sazogadoebisadmi aSkara zaralismiyeneba Tu Seuracxyofa.oqsfordis leqsikonSi _ `mzaoba da SesaZleblobamiiRos protesti da Caurevlobis gareSe pirovneba ansagani”. ucxo sityvaTa leqsikonSi _ laT. Tolerans(tolerantis) momTmeni, Semwynarebeli, sxvisi azrebis,rwmenis Semwynarebloba.vimeorebT, tolerantoba sxvis pativiscemas,Tanasworuflebianobis aRiarebas da dominantobazeda Zaladobaze uaris Tqmas gulisxmobs. es ki arisTavisufali azrovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlena.anu sxvadasxva Sexeduleba ar unda daiyvanebodeserTferovnebaze, vinmes sasargeblod. tolerantobaTavisTavad pluralizms niSnavs.tolerantoba ar aris universalurad erTgvarovani.is ara marto sxvadasxva politikur, aramedkulturul da a. S. faqtorSi gansxvavdeba. is droSida sivrceSi ar aris gansazRvruli. is ar arisbiologiuri movlena. is aris SeZenili da ganzraxkultivirebuli ganwyoba, romelic rogorc reaqciarTuli sazogadoebis pirobebSi gamomuSavdeba. anutolerantoba (didsulovneba) aris rTul sazogadoebaSigamomuSavebuli xasiaTi, radganac amis gareSeadapturoba ver ganxorcieldeboda, sazogadoebamudmiv konfliqtur situaciaSi iqneboda. sworedaseTi di plomatiuri pasaJi gamomuSavdeba sazogadoebaSida pirovnebaSic, Tavis gadarCenis mizniT,da rom swored aseTi midgomaa gamoyenebuli da araZaladobrivi, miuTiTebs imaze, rom sazogadoeba arissicocxlisunariani.eTnikur urTierTobaSi tolerantoba mSvidobianiTanacxovrebis strategiaa. amave dros tolerantobaar aris yvelafrisadmi moTmineba, didsulovneba,miteveba da a. S. is arsebobs manam, sanam ar irRvevamisi CarCoebi _ sazRvrebi.mkveTr CarCoebSi tolerantoba ar jdeba. isSeiZleba erT socialur garemoSi gamoixatebodes,rogorc mimtevebloba, meoreSi _ didsulovneba,mesameSi moTmena. amitom xdeba, rom xSirad politikurian kulturuli stabilorobis rRvevisasirRveva tolerantobis CarCoebi da saukuneebismanZilze arsebuli fenomeni uceb icvleba da386 387


mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobis magivrad mkveTr Zaladobasda dapirispirebas viRebT.tolerantoba vlindeba or ZiriTad sferoSi:fsiqologiur doneze, rogorc Sinagani ganwyobapirovnebasa da koleqtivs Soris urTierTobaSi dapolitikur doneze, rogorc moqmedeba _ ganxorcielebulikanoniT, anda tradiciuli normiT (Тишков,2003, 315).tolerantoba rogorc ganwyoba nebayoflobiTiindividualuri arCevania. is adamianSi yalibdebasocializaciis procesSi, aseve informaciis miRebiTda cxovrebis piradi gamocdilebiT. rogorc moqmedeba_ esaa aqtiuri pozicia TviTSezRudvisa daganzrax arCevisa, es aris nebayoflobiTi TanxmobaurTierTmoTmenisa sxvadasxva dapirispirebul, uTanxmoebaSimyof subieqtebTan.politikur moqmedebaSi tolerantoba gulisxmobsan arSemCnevas (ignorirebas), an erT-erTi mxarisupiratesobis damkvidrebas, darwmunebas diskusiisgziT da Tavis mxareze argumentaciisa da demokratiuliprocedurebis meSveobiT momxreTa didinawilis mimxrobas (Тишков, 2003, 315).tolerantuli ganwyoba pirovnul da sazogadodoneze SeiZleba erTmaneTs ar emTxveodes. pirovnebamsazogadoebaSi SeiZleba gadawyvitos raime tolerantulimidgomiT (mag.: qorwineba sxvadasxva rasis anreligiis warmomadgenelTan), magram TviT piradadamis mimarT dadebiTad ganwyobili ar iyos. anuSinagani ganwyoba da garegani moqmedebis damTxvevatolerantobisas yovelTvis ar xdeba. pirovnebaSeiZleba grZnobdes erTs, magram demonstrirebaxdebodes meoris. amitom tolerantobis ganxorcielebasubieqtis xasiaTze didad aris damokidebuli.vis SeuZlia iyos tolerantuli, rogorcganwyobiT, ise moqmedebiT _ mxolod inteleqtuals.magram aratolerantobac sxvaTa Soris amave inteleqtidanmodis da ZaladobiT da dapirispirebismowodebebiT mTavrdeba.rogorc istoriam gviCvena, tolerantoba situaciurimovlenaa, Tu gindac es situacia saukuneebismanZilze gaiwelos. mkveTrad Camoyalibebuli tolerantuli,an aratolerantuli xalxi, sazogadoeba,eri, qveyana, kultura ar arsebobs. es marcvali yvelaxalxSi aris. situacia da eris istoria ayalibebsraRac gansakuTrebul mdgomareobas _ di plomatiurmobilurobas, Tavisebur strategias, lavirebas, romelicSesaZlebelia sazogadoebriv doneze Riad iyoswarmodgenili, magram pirvel doneze igi sulsxvagvarad arsebobdes, rac umetes SemTxvevaSidaxurulia.TiTqos daxuruli kulturis sistema ver undaaxerxebdes tolerantobas sxva kulturis mimarT,da Ria ki ufro toleratnulad fasdeba. miuxadavdimisa, rom qarTuli da masTan erTad eTnikuriumciresobis kultura koleqtiuri xasiaTisaa,tolerantobis sazomidan saqarTvelo ufro Riakulturis sistemisken ixreba.tolerantoba esaa gadarCenis taqtika. saqarTvelosTvistolerantoba iyo mcirericxovani erisgadarCenis gamocdileba, radganac saukuneebismanZilze, geopolitikuri mdebareobiT, mravaliZlieri qveynis interesebis qveS moxvedrili, uamraviTavdasxmiTi omebis gadamtani eri, iZulebuli iyomoTminebis, sulgrZelobis, mimteveblobis, arSemCnevistaqtika gamoemuSavebina. aseT pirobebSi, miuxedavadSida dapirispirebisa da dampyrobluri omebisaxalxs tolerantuli buneba unda gamoemuSavebina.amitom imedia, saqarTvelo, arasdros ar daTmobs ammonapovars. dRes tolerantoba ara gadarCenissaSualeba unda iyos, aramed saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebi388 389


yoveli adamianis Tu jgufis Segnebuli modelidemokratiulobis misaRwevad.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yvelaze metad tolerantobaeTnikur problematikasTan dakavSirebiT moiazreba.tolerantobis ganxilva, rogorc eTnosis arsebobissaSualeba, gulisxmobs eTnikuri realobis rogorctolerantobis ise aratolerantobis modelebiskonstruirebas, misi kanonzomierebis gamovlenas damaTi formirebis pirobebs.gamZafrebuli mgrZnobeloba sxva erovnebismimarT aratolerantobis safuZvelia. is SeiZlebarogorc mcire (msubuqi, qcevaSi gamouvlenelidiskomfortidan), ise farTe (diskriminaciuli,rasistuli, siZulvili) diapazoniT gamovlindes.erTaSoris urTierTobaSi tolerantoba gansakuTrebuliaqtualobiT xasiaTdeba. tolerantobaaCens sazRvrebs iq, sadac aris urTierTobaTa iseTiformebi rogoricaa nacionalizmi da multikulturalizmi.cnobilia, rom sadac nacioalizmia, iq arisaratolerantuloba da sadac multikulturalizmiaiq aris tolerantoba.nacionalizmi emyareba erTian nacionalurRirebulebebs, romlebic ganasxvaveben maT sxvisgan.nacionalizmi ers warmogvidgens, rogorc safuZvel-Sive bunebrivad (biologiurad) arsebuls, romelsacgaaCnia sxvisgan gansxvavebuli, magram TavisTviserTiani, mTliani maxasiaTeblebi.multikulturalizmis koncefciiT xdeba mcireeTnikuri jgufis suverenobis aRiareba. Tumca undaaRiniSnos, rom nacionalizmic da multikulturalizmicSeicavs urTierTobis struqturis erTida igive variants „Cven _ isini”.rogorc cnobilia Cven” arsebobs mxolod imitom,rom arsebobs “isini”. “Cven” ar aris damoukidebelirealoba, aramed is mxolod opoziciis gamoCenisTanaveCndeba.Tu nacionalizmi gulisxmobs struqturas“Cven” (erTiani, ZiriTadi eri) maSin, multikulturalizmiaris „Cven”-is Sebrunebuli (eTnikuriumciresoba, mravali) struqtura. nacionalizmiewinaaRmdegeba mTlianis daSlas, maSin, rodesacmultikulturalizmi qmnis SezRudvebs mravlisgaerTianebaSi (Кардинская 2002, 70-88.)moTmineba “sxvisadmi” aucileblad unda ganvixiloT,upirvelesad, rogors “sxvisi” realurobisdaSveba, romelic gansxvavdeba “me” an “Cven” arsebobisagan.aseTi tolerantoba aRmoCndeba, sapirispiroda xasiaTdeba gansxvavebiT “me” da “sxva”, “Cven” da“isini”.gansxvavebas SeuZlia urTierToba gansazRvrosxalxs Soris (“me”_ “sxva”), aseve politikur jgufebsSoris, sazogadoebebs, kulturebs, eTnosebs (“Cven”_“isini”) Soris. tolerantoba gulisxmobs struqturis“Cven//isini”-s Semagrebas. elementi “Cvenis”arseboba SesaZlebelia mxolod elementi “isinis”arsebobiT da piriqiT. radganac es elementebi ararseboben struqturis gareT, maT ara aqvT raimeSinaarsi da aRmoCndebian, realurobis carielaRniSvnad. arian ra carieli niSnebi “Cven” da “isini”arafriT ar gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan da sruliademTxvevian erTmaneTs. es aris ori erTnairi mxare,“Cven “ da “isinis” erTnairi poziciidan. maT SorisSeiZleba iyos distancia. vinc aris distanciisSemqmneli is ayalibebs “Cven”_”isini” elementebisurTierTobis pirobebs. aq ukve Tavs iCens realobisadmigansxvavebuli midgoma da SeiZleba gansxvavebulobazelaparaki.tolerantoba-gansxvavebuloba xels uwyobsideologiis Camoyalibebas, romelic aqtualizirdebadistanciurobis Sedegad. distancia ki qmnis sivrces“Cvensa” da “isinis” Soris. urTierTobis pirobebs390 391


karnaxobs erTi mxare, meore ki eqvemdebareba amukanasknelis mier dadgenil normebs, izRudebadadgenil sazRvarSi. radganac arseboba isazRvrebaerTis absoluturi poziciiT, is xdeba araTavisufali,damokidebulia dadgenil wesebze, romelic Tavis-Tavad aRmoCndeba aratolerantuli.miuxedavad tolerantobis gamocdilebisa, saqar-Tvelos sazogadoeba, radikaluri cvlilebebisa daaxali Rirebulebebisadmi mzad ar aRmoCnda. saxelmwifosCamoyalibebis procesi ZiriTadad ori gancdisfonze mimdinareobda. imedi da imedis gacrueba, ramac20 wlis manZilze mravali amboxeba Tu revoluciagamoiwvia. aman TandaTan moaxdina dapirispirebaTaobebs Soris. ~Cven viciT rasac vakeTebT dagavakeTebT ukompromisod” _ axalgazrdebi. ~iRupebasaqarTvelo, saiT miveqanebiT” _ ufrosi Taoba.dairRva harmoniuloba.aratolerantuli damokidebuleba Zveli tradiciebismimarTac igrZnoboda.antitolerantul movlenad unda CaiTvalosqarTuli da araqarTuli nacionalizmis afeTqebagardaqmnis Semdgom periodSi, ramac konfliqtebamdemiiyvana saxelmwifo (afxazeTi, oseTi).qarTvelebis nacionalizmi ki, romelsac TavisiuaryofiTi Sedegebi hqonda (konfliqtebi, samoqalaqoomi, mTavrobis ZaliT cvla da a. S.), SeiZleba iTqvasmale gamovida labirinTidan, da Tavi daaRwia amsituacias, yovel SemTxvevaSi, mas ar hqonia isnacionalisturi, Tu rasistuli gamovlinebebi, racmezobel ruseTSi ganviTarda. rusuli patriotizmisparalelurad, vlindeba rasistuli moqmedebebikavkasiuri da ebrauli warmoSobis xalxis mimarT. . . “moskovSi rusebSi Catarebuli gamokiTxvis mixedviT,hipereTnikuri TviTSegneba, iseve, rogorc sxva regionebSi,naklebad (1/5) gamovlinda, magram “kavkasielebis~mimarT SedarebiT uaryofiTi ganwyobis adamianTaraodenoba iyo Zalian maRali. 1995 wels moskovisrusebis 60% negatiuri ganwyoba gamoxata. amasTannaklebad ganaTlebul fenaSi aseTi ganwyoba 70%aRemateboda, umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqoneTa Soris ki50% uaxlovdeboda~ (Дробижева, 1997, 61).adamianebi da maTi uflebebis dayofa eTnikurobismixedviT, mxolod xels uSlis integracias dadezintegraciis xelisSemwyob faqtorad warmogvidgeba.`Cven” da `isini” eTnikurad sxvadasxvani, mxolodtradiciul kulturaSi unda gamoixatos da araiuridiul uflebebSi. es uflebebi yvelas erTnairadunda hqondes.demokratiul wyobaze postsabWoTa sivrcisgadasvla rTuli procesiT xasiaTdeba. es sirTuletolerantobasac Seexo. ~vardebis revoluciis”Semdeg reformebis droSi daCqarebisa da ukompromisodmisi bolomde gatarebis procesma gamoavlinaaratolerantuloba Taobebs Soris. ara da mSvidobianiurTierToba aucilebelia aseT pirobebSi, Torem~Riaobisken~ mswrafveli saxelmwifo SesaZlebeliapiriqiT ~daxurulobisken” mibrundes.saqarTvelos sazogadoebam axali gzebis ZiebaSimravali ram gadaitana, magram mainc ver moZebnafundamenturi idea, romelic gaaerTianebda xalxs _sazogadoebas. is ki ara, saxelmwifo moxeleebisa,mTavrobis da, Tu gnebavT, mecnierebis mierac ki,jerjerobiT ar Seiqmna sazogadoebis ganviTarebismisaRebi modeli an Teoria.globalizmisa da lokalizmis problemebisaxelmwifoSi Tavs ver aRweven anarqiul situacias.es procesi Zalzed Zneli dasaZlevia da sazogadoebisTvismtkivneulic ki aRmoCnda. erTis mxrivglobalizaciis Rirebulebebis SemoWra da meoresmxriv Sidalokaluri sazogadoebis ganviTarebisstruqtura droSi welavs erTiani, gamarTuli,misaRebi struqturis Camoyalibebas.392 393


erTi ram ki, rac saqarTvelos kulturas gaaCnda(iqneba es qarTveli Tu araqarTveli mosaxleoba),raRac momentSi kinaRam xelidan gagvisxlta. es exebaerTaSoris urTierTobis sakiTxs. magram is isev Taviskalapots daubrunda. magram axla tolerantobisTu, ufro sworad, aratolerantobis fenomeni TaobebsSoris aris SemoWrili da mas politikuri sarCulicki daedo safuZvlad.sikeTe da boroteba yovelTvis arsebobda. essapirispiro tendencia arc axla aris ucxo CvenisazogadoebisaTvis. me mgonia Cvens sazogadoebas arcimis pretenzia gaaCnia, rom sruli harmoniulobaiqneba odesme (amas qarTuli sazogadoeba kargadxedavs), magram Tu tradiciul tolerantul kulturasar davubrundiT, yvelaferi damangrevel Zalas TudavuTmeT, Cveni sazogadoeba ar gadarCeba. magramaseTi momenti saqarTvelos istoriis manZilzemravlad hqonia da imedia, rom axlac gaumklavdeba.magram amis misaRwevad isev tolerantoba _moTmena, aris saWiro. es ukanaskneli xom gadarCeniserT-erTi normaa. da igi religiur Tu filosofiurswavlebebSi warmogvidgeba, rogorc kacobriobisgadarCenis fundamenturi idea. religia mouwodebsmoTminebisken, roca adamians uWirs: mimarTe moTminebasda locvas. mahaTma gandis filosofiis mixedviTmoTmineba sazogadoebis sulieri uZlieresi ZalisxmevisrangSia ayvanili.sakvlev regionSi muSaobisas, miuxedavad eTnojgufebisarsebuli dapirispirebisa erTi ram maincSeigrZneboda _ es iyo tolerantoba, rogorc kulturisda Tu gnebavT mravalsaukunovani tradiciisfenomeni. Tumca ki tolerantoba Cvens SemTxvevaSiTavis umaRles rangs ver aRwevs, magram is maincarsebobs. (ix. nimuSi)t e s t i tolerantobaze. nimuSi:1. misaRebia Tu ara TqvenTvis Sereuli qorwineba?_ufro metad ar veTanxmebi. (2)2. Sereuli qorwineba qmnis did problemebs? _ufro metad veTanxmebi. (4)3. TvliT Tu ara, rom Seni erovnebis xalxi sxvazeukeTesia? ufro metad veTanxmebi. (4)4. SegiZliaT Tqveni ojaxis wevrad miiRonebismieri erovnebis adamiani? ufro metad arveTanxmebi. (2)5. gaqvT survili, rom Tqveni megobrebis wreSiSediodnen sxvadasxva erovnebis adamianebi? sruliadveTanxmebi. (6)6. qarTvelebi saqarTveloSi privilegirebulebiunda iyvnen Tu ara? veTanxmebi_qarTvelebi. (5); arveTanxmebi _ araqarTvelebi. (3)7. “mosulebs” unda hqondeT iseTive uflebebi,rogorc adgilobrivebs? ufro metad ar veTanxmebi. (2)8. saqarTveloSi mxolod marTlmadideblobisaRmsarebloba unda iyos? veTanxmebi-marTlmadideblebi(5); ar veTanxmebi-musulmanebi. (3)9. yovel religiur mimdinareobas aqvs arsebobisufleba? ufro metad _ar veTanxmebi. (2)10. gansxvavebT Tu ara saqarTvelos erovnulumciresobebs mimReobis mixedviT? (mag., “CemTvis misa-Rebia saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi berZeni, an somexi, vidreosi, an azerbaijaneli”). ufro metad _veTanxmebi. (4)qulebi: sruliad ar veTanxmebi _ 1 qulaufro metad ar veTanxmebi _ 2 qulaar veTanxmebi_ 3 qulaufro metad veTanxmebi _ 4 qulaveTanxmebi_ 5 qulasruliad veTanxmebi _ 6 qulaSedegi: tolerantulma ganwyobam miiRo 14 qula,aratolerantulma 28 qula.394 395


aseTi suraTi miuTiTebs daxurul, nakleb tolerantulsazogadoebaze, magram is mainc miekuTvnebanormas _ ”eTnikur indiferentulobas”. aseTi situaciaki tolerantulad iTvleba.t e s t i eTnikur distanciaze:vin ufro axlos aris TqvenTvis;CamowereT rigis mixedviT:me (qarTveli-ZirZveli mosaxle) _1. berZeni,2. qarTveli (svani _ ekomigranti), 3. qarTveli (aWareli_ekomigranti), 4. somexi, 5. azerbaijaneli.me (qarTveli-svani) _ 1. qarTveli (ZirZvelimosaxleoba) 2. berZeni, 3. qarTveli (aWareli _ ekomigranti),4. azerbaijaneli, 5. somexi.me (qarTveli _ aWareli) _ 1. qarTveli (svani),2. qarTveli (ZirZveli mosaxleoba) 3. berZeni, 4. azerbaijaneli,5. somexi.me (berZeni) _ 1. qarTveli (ZirZveli mosaxleoba),2. somexi, 3. qarTveli _ (svani-ekomigranti), 4. azerbaijaneli,5. qarTveli (aWareli-ekomigranti).me (azerbaijaneli) _ 1. berZeni, 2. qarTveli(ZirZveli mosaxleoba), 3. qarTveli (aWareli _ekomigranti), 4. qarTveli _ (svani _ ekomigranti),5. somexi.me (somexi) _ 1. berZeni, 2. qarTveli (ZirZvelimosaxleoba), 3. qarTveli (svani _ ekomigranti), 4.azerbaijaneli, 5. qarTveli (aWareli _ ekomigranti).miuxedavad aseTi distanciisa da tolerantulisuraTisa, sakvlev regionSi muSaobisas qarTvelebSiigrZnoboda survili eTnoumciresobis integrirebisada gansakuTrebiT qarTuli enis Seswavlis mowodebisa.ukmayofilebas gamoxatavdnen, rom eTnoumciresobaqarTulis arcodnis gamo informaciul vakuumSia.saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi mimdinare sakiTxebSi vererkvevian, xolo telearxebis (azerbaijani, somxeTi)yureba maT orientacias mimarTavs sxva saxelmwifoebisaken_ `cxovroben saqarTveloSi, magramcxovroben azerbaijanis cxovrebiT”. eTnoumravlesobisazriT, es orientacia ara Tu keTilsasurveliaqarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis, aramed SesaZlebeliaSemdgomSi aman safrTxec ki Seuqmnas saqarTvelos.qarTvelebis azriT eTnoumciresoba, qarTulenaze saubars Zaladobad aRiqvams. “ena ar esmiT dapasuxsac ver scemen”.rogorc aRmoCnda, azerbaijanul skolebSi mZimemdgomareobaa, radganac me 7-e, me-8-e klasis Semdegmcirdeba moswavle gogonaTa ricxvi. maT tradiciismixedviT gaTxovebisaTvis amzadeben. maTSi enisSeswavlis moTxovnilebac ki ar igrZnoba.erT-erT problemad, rogorc aRvniSneT, enisbarieri gamoikveTa, rac eTnoumciresobaSi xelsuwyobs migraciis survilis win wamowevas, mosaxleobaSisaerTo uinteresobas, frustracias, ukontaqtobas,qarTvelebis mier eTnoumciresobis Seviwroebisada asimilaciis SiSs.sakvlev regionSi, ena, rogorc socialurimovlena, sazogadoebis ukonfliqto Tanacxovrebisada simSvidis ZiriTad mastimulirebel saSualebadwarmogvidgeba.rogorc cnobilia, eTnosis erovnuli aRorZinebisperiodSi ena iZens eTnikuri Rirebulebis sabazomniSvnelobas. is ara marto kulturis, aramedpolitikuri interesebis mani pulirebis saSualebaxdeba da aamoqmedebs TviTSegnebas. magram realobagviCvenebs, rom mTeli am xnis ganmavlobaSi enismaxasiaTeblis determinacia igive darCa, misi intensiuricvlileba ar momxdara.erovnuli ideologia da grZnobebi xSir SemTxvevaSifokusirdeba enaSi. ena aRiqmeba rogorcmTavari eTnoganmasxvavebeli niSani da eTnikuriRirebuleba.`ena, mamuli, sarwmunoeba” _ didi ilias ampostulatSi ena, rogorc eTnikuri identobis erT-396 397


erTi maxasiaTebelia. igi aris eTnikuri TviTSegnebiserT-erTi elementi. ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobisperiodSi es postulati qarTvelebisaTvis simbolodacki iqca.bolo wlebSi ki enam miiRo socialuri da, amavedros, politikuri mniSvnelobac, rac ukavSirdebaqarTuli enis saxelmwifo enad gamocxadebas. es kiniSnavs enis aucilebel codnas im pirTaTvis, romlebicTavisi SromiTi saqmianobiT ukavSirdebasaxelmwifo struqturebs, samarTlis sxvadasxvainstitutebs, samedicino, ganaTlebas Tu sxva samsaxurebs.yovelive aman ki kompaqturad dasaxlebuleTnoumciresobebSi qarTuli enis arcodnis gamodaZabuloba gamoiwvia. sabWoTa periodSi erovnuliumciresobebi flobdnen rogorc mSobliur, iserusul enas, radganac warmoeba rusul enaze mimdinareobda.adre rusuli enis codna damatebiT saSualebasaZlevda erovnul umciresobas socialurwinsvlaSi, axla ki qarTuli enis arcodna amuxruWebsmaT karieras. ase rom, am faqtma, erovnul umciresobebSisocialuri daZabulobac ki Semoitana.mas Semdeg, rac qarTuli ena gamocxadda saxelmwifoenad, erovnul umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebseTnikuri niSniT diskriminaciis SegrZneba gauCndaT.Tvlian, rom adre enis problema ar arsebobda, xolobolo 15 wlis ganmavlobaSi ki enis problemam marginalebadaqcia eTnoumciresoba. isini Tavis TavSiCaiketnen, urTierToba daZabulia, sajaro samsaxurSimonawileoba SezRuduli aqvT. ufros Taobas erTmaneTisjer kidev esmiT, radganac sakomunikaciodrusul enas iyeneben, magram umcrosi Taoba, bavSvebi,qarTuli enis arcodnis gamo gaucxoebulni arian.araqarTvelebis mier qarTulis arcodnaGgaRizianebas iwvevs qarTvelebSi, romlebic kargadacnobiereben, rom enis codna xels Seuwyobs maTintegracias.miuxedavad yovelive zemoT Tqmulisa, Cvens mierSeswavlil polieTnikur mikroregionSi, aseTisituaciis arsebobis fonze, eTnojgufebi, gansxvavebulikulturiT, eTnikurobiT, konfesiiT, CaketiliTavis sazogadoebaSi axerxeben mdumare, erTmaneTiskulturis sazRvrebis gadaulaxavad, mSvidobianTanacxovrebas.Tu regionSi moxda socialuri problemebismogvareva, da “adamiani socialuri” metad iqnebauzrunvelyofili, “adamiani eTnikuri” ufro metadiqneba orientirebuli jgufTaSoris konsolidaciazeda maTi ganwyoba iqneba ara opozitiuri `Cven _isini”, rogorc dRes aris, aramed `Cven” da `araCven”,anu jgufTa Soris gansxvaveba ar gamoixateba imiT,rom `isini _ sxvebi” arian uaryofiTebi, aramed `isini_ sxvebi” arian sxvebi, magram imave rangSi da iseTebi,rogoric “Cven”. maSin erToba – sazogadoeba iqnebaim adamianebis organizebuli dajgufeba, romlebicerT garemoSi ganaxorcieleben socialur cxovrebas,rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs sazogadoebis myaristruqturis arsebobas. Cvens mier Seswavlili regionipolieTnikuria, magram igi jer kidev ar aris Camoyalibebuli,rogorc erTiani, mTliani sazogadoeba.misi erTianobis safuZveli aris mxolod teritoriuli(regioni qvemo qarTli) erToba da dResdReobiTara aqvs nebismieri sazoga-doebisaTvisaucilebeli struqtura. am struqturis gareSe kiwarmoudgenelia moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba,koleqtiuri saqmianobis procesis organizacia,konfliqtis regulireba, kulturis ganviTareba dasxv. rac TavisTavad xels uwyobs sazogadoebisSemdeg ganviTarebasa da evolucias.398 399


interviu #1dmanisilia _ batono XX, dResaswauli `pantianoba” adrecarsebobda?qarTveli respondenti _ Cems maxsovrobaSi es aryofila, pirvelad gaakeTes. es ra iyo, ar vici. es icianTviTon azerbaijanelebma. aq ra aris Cadebuli, RmerTmaicis. me eWvi maqvs Tu ara, es CemSi darCeba, magram esmTavrobis saqmea. es sityva ese iTqmis. magram erT mokleraRacas vityvi: visme raRaca rom ar awuxebdes, ai, amdResaswauls raze gaakeTebdnen?! e. i. viRacas raRacaawuxebs. ai, ubralod dafiqrdiT, ubralod dafiqrdiT,aseTi dResaswauli me ar maxsovs, ar gamigia. me aq davibade,aq gavizarde. es saxelmwifoebrivi saqmea. saxelmwifosyavs uSiSroeba, imaT gansazRvron. eh, me rac vici, rommogiyveT...............qarTveli kacis cxovreba ar iyo aq. ar iyo,rom damxvriton, iq vityvi me amas. TviTon Cveni uRirsiqarTvelebis mxridan.lia _ raSi gamoixateba?respon. _ raSi gamoixateba da, Cvensas rom gauSvebdnendireqtorad, kvdeboda da qarTvels ar iRebda samsaxurSi.iRebda azerbaijanelebs, isini fuls aZlevdnen. me da isviRac-viRaceebi “absaitSi” vrCebodiT.lia _ e. i. im wlebSi qarTvelebi aq ufro daCagrulebiiyvnen? axla rogor atyobT?respon. _ ra Sedarebaa kaco.lia _ amoisunTqeT? rogor grZnobT?respon. _ rogor Tu rogor vgrZnobT, imaSi vgrZnobT,rom warmoeba aRar aris, yvelas Tavisi aqvs, midi da mouareSens nakveTs da morCa. Tu Wama ar ginda, nu mouvli, nudaTesav, ijeqi da iyavi SenTvis. me aravin arafers armiSavebs, me ra unda damiSavon? nebismier sofelSi rommival, pativs mcemen, SeZlebisdagvarad Cais damalevineben,qaTams damiklaven. myavs amxanagebi, batkans damiklaven,bevri qeifi, puris Wama, Cais sma, ravi, yvelaferi, ra giTxraaxla, rom mtrulad ganwyoba... aseTi rame ar aris.guldami _ ai, svanebi rom Camosaxldnen da mogemataTqarTvelebi, Tqven rogori ganwyoba gaqvT? gixariaT?respon. _ ra Tqma unda. me magaliTad sigiJemdegaxarebuli viyavi, rom ai, am kuTxeSi qristiani xalxinaklebi iyo da isini rom Camovidnen Zalian gamixarda.cxonebuli mamaCemic gaxarebuli iyo. svaneTSi rom moxdawarRvna da televizorSi rom uyurebda, mamaCemi cxarecremliT tiroda. is Zalian kargi gulis kaci iyo(agrZelebs laparaks mamaze)..................mamaCemi namdvilikomunisti kaci iyo. 5-6 weli jarSi gaatara, inaurisdiviziaSi iyo, kgb-s ufrosi rom iyo _ inauri. partiaSiciyo. imasac Zalian gauxarda svanebis Camosaxleba. imdenad,rom me 20 kaci davpatiJe kidevac. puri vWameT da gavicaniTerTmaneTi.lia _ ratom uxarodaT ase svanebis Camosvla?respon. _ qarTvelebi rom iyvnen. aq azerbaijanuligaremocva iyo. xom naTqvamia: `rac unda mtanjon mawamon,mainc davrCebi qarTveli”. . . aq qarTvelebi miyvebian coladsomxebsac da qarTvelebsac. . . . politikaSi naklebad erevaxalxi. bevrs arc ainteresebs. . . . Tu Camoyalibda samxreToseTis da afxazeTis avtonomia da konfederacia, maSinesenic moiTxoven albaT, magram es soflis birJaze mdgarbiWebs ar ainteresebT. es sxvas ainteresebs. me Tu mkiTxav,sulac ar aris saWiro. exla miSaze me simarTles vityvi.guSin airCie da dRes eubnebi wadio, moSordio! esec xomswori ar aris, ma rad irCevdi?! ai rad irCevdi? TusimarTle giyvars, rato irCevdi? risTvis irCevdi?sigiJemde mivdivar kaco! aq bevrma misca xma, Zalian bevrma.azerbaijanelebsac Zalian moswons, mec momwons. sabWoTaperiodSi erovnebis mixedviT ufro daCagrulad vgrZnobdiTTavs, vidre axla. magram axla yvelaferi daangries,meurneobebi iseTi iyo da axla araferi ar aris. arcsamuSao aris. aq xalxi kartofiliT da bostneuliTcxovrobs (laparakobs kartofilze).lia _ soflebSi sicariele igrZnoba, xalxiwasulia?respon. _ zogi sad, zogi sad aris wasuli. gaWirvebulixalxia. ase Tu gagrZeldeba, aq aRaravin darCeba.sofeli rogor SeiZleba iyos umamamTavrod, unda yavdes400 401


patroni, xelmZRvaneli. sofeli upatronoa. . . soflispatroni, age, sarwyavi ara gvaqvs, imas mixedavs. sofelSibevri rame gakeTdeba. patar-patara raRaceebi ar aris?imas mixedavs. me ra, me sityva ginda miTqvia da ginda armiTqvia. me gamgebeli arc mimiRebs. magram soflisxelmZRvanels ufro miiReben. sakrebulo, sakrebuloa.soflis xelmZRvaneli sul sxvaa. is vinc aris exla, issami soflis xelmZRvanelia.lia _ samive sofels rom mixedos ar SeiZleba?respon. _ ver mixedavs.lia _ ratom?respon._ ratom da ver uwvdeba. diax, Zalian bevrisaqmea.lia _ ra iseTi problemebia, rom sami soflisTavkacma ver mixedos samive sofels?respon. _ rogor agixsnaT, ara, ara calke unda iyos.lia _ ratom? rogor agvixsniT amas?respon. _ rogor agixsniT? magaliTad, isini, marTalia,isinic qarTvelebi arian, magram isini sxva xasiaTis xalxia,Cven sxva xalxi varT. ai, qveviT azerbaijanuli sofelirom aris, isini sxva jiSis xalxia, Cven sul sxva. ai,rogor movrigdeT, erTi gamagebineT. amaSi me veravindamarwmunebs.lia _ ai, dagarwmunebT. sarwyavi Wirdeba yvelas.respon._ sarwyavi, ai, es aucilebelia.lia _ aba ra SuaSia azerbaijaneli da sxva gagebisqarTveli da sxva?respon. _ marto sarwyavze ar aris. am sofelSiunda gqondes Seni traqtori, unda gqondes Seni kombaini,Seni salewi manqana, Seni saToxni da dasamuSavebeli teqnika,mTeli ambavi.lia _ ganTiads aqvs?respon. _ ai, raT minda is, servisi rom qvia?lia _ me ramdenadac vici, sofelSi Zalian cotatraqtoria. sami traqtori misces dmanisis raions. TqvenggoniaT, rom Tqven sofels rom hyavdes Tavkaci, is iSovnidatraqtors?respon. _ ratom ara, iSovida.lia _ Tu ara aqvs saxelmwifos amdeni traqtori,ra qnas?respon. _ viyidiT, viyidiT, viyidiT.lia _ exla, Tqven rom SeagrovoT fuli da iyidoT?respon. _ ar SegviZlia.lia _ ratom?respon. _ araviTar SemTxvevaSi, eg ar SegviZlia. ai,xelmZRvaneli rom gvyavdes, is ityoda, biWebo, modiT TiToojaxidan amden-amdeni davdoT. rac iqneba, iqneba, davdoTda yvelaferi gadavdoT, gaviWirvoT da viyidiT. esxelmZRvanelobiT unda moxdes.lia _ ai, Tqven agirCion. ai, ise, Tqven rom TqviT,rogorc Tamadas irCeven. ar unda amas sadme raimeoficialuri gawera. SeagroveT fuli, wadiT da iyideTtraqtori.respon. _ ar moxdeba.lia _ ratom ar moxdeba? amixseniT, ar mesmis.respon. ar gesmiT, ai unda giTxra da unda gaigo.exla geubnebiT, rogorc magaliTs. ai, xandisxan romSevikribebiT, unda aRvniSnoT rame, magaliTad aRdgomaada unda viqeifoT. da erTi xelmZRvaneli Tamada undadavniSnoT. _ gogi Sen unda iyo Tamada. _ ar minda, ara, arviqnebi._ vano Sen unda iyo, petre Sen?_ ar minda, ar minda,ar minda. armindam Camoiara. bolos da bolos erTs virCevT.is unda iyos da morCa. rogorc ki davlevT erT-or Wiqasda iwyeba _ erTi sadRegrZelo maTqmevine, ra?! erTisadRegrZelo maTqmevine, ra?! kaco, me raRas mniSnavdiT,Tu sadRegrZeloebi Tqven unda geTqvaT, me raSi vyofilvarsaWiro? ai, egec asea.lia _ anu Tqven fiqrobT, rom Tu xelmZRvaneliiqneba oficialuri piri, maSin areuloba ar iqneba? anuTu ar iqneba oficialurad daniSnuli, saqmesac vergaakeTebs?respon. _ qalbatono, roca oficialuri daniSnulia,mTavrobisgan, iq policiac unda Caerios, iq prokuraturacunda Caerios, iq gamgebelia, misi moadgileebi da ase Semdeg.me verafers ver gavakeTeb.lia _ me mainc vfiqrob, rom am sam sofels erTiTavkaci hyavs, imas SeuZlia gauZRves yvelafers, magram402 403


Tqven ambobT, rom sul sxvadasxva xasiaTis xalxia. xasiaTigiSliT xels, rom erTi traqtori iyidoT samive sofelma?xasiaTi ra SuaSia?respon. _ aba, am sam sofelma erTi traqtori viyidoT,aba movrigdebiT? kargiT ra?!lia _ ratom ar morigdebiT?respon. _ uimeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! Zalian Sors xarT.lia _ ratom?respon. _ uf... uf.... uf.... ici ra? is traqtori romviyidoT, gana sayureblad gvinda, iman unda imuSaos. bijo,es erTi traqtori rogor SeZlebs sami soflis miwisdamuSavebas? erTi traqtoristi an misi Semcvlelic romdavayenoT, SeZlebs?lia _ traqtori raSi gWirdebaT? kartofils xomar Wirdeba traqtori.respon. _ kargi, ra? ai belarusi, 47 dasaxelebisoperacias akeTebs. gaTiqva, moxvna, daforcxva, miwis mixveta,daTesva, amoTxra. nu ra unda Tqvas enam?!lia _ `belorusi”, romelsac belorusia uSvebs?sadac lukaSenkoa? sadac TiTqos isev sabWoTa kavSiria?iqidan traqtori CamohyavT aq. da, Cven rom gagvekeTebinaquTaisSi Cveni traqtorebi?respon. _ Sen qveyanas rom eqneba qarxana, yvelaferirom eqneba. . . cudi iyo, mTel did ruseTs quTaisidan rommihyavda traqtorebi?. . . me sul sxvanairi kaci var. memiyvars Cemi qveyana, Cemi saqarTvelo. minda, rom quTaisictraqtorebs uSvebdes. quTaisi ki uSvebs saToxns, magramme ver SeviZine. saakaSvils venacvale, kargi kacia, aracdian.lia _ xels uSlian?respon. _ ara, rooooo?!guldami_ vin uSlis, vin?respon. _ me! (ironiiT) (viciniT yvela)lia _ maSin lukaSenko kargi kaci gamodis.traqtorebs uSvebs Zalian bevrs.respon. _ Zalian didebuli kacia. riT aris cudi?erTi rame maTqmevine. Zveli kacia, muSaobs, awyobili aqvssaqme. eseni kide male-male gamovlen da SevardnaZe uh. . .tyuila dameci da mamkali da im kacze cudi ar gavigo.lia _ visze?respon. _ SevardnaZeze.lia _ raTa?respon. _ egre.lia _ kargi iyo mainc?respon. _ venacvale imas.guldami_ yvela kargi yofila maSin?respon. _ ra, ara? SevardnaZe cudi kaci iyo? kaco,SevardnaZe ar iyo, rom erTimeores Wamdnen da yvelaferiCaaqro? vin Caaqro?! exla rom amboben, SevardnaZe daSevardnaZe... SevardnaZe aris foladis kaci. venacvalemagas!lia _ erTmaneTs Wamdneno, vin qarTvelebi daazerbaijanelebi?respon. _ ara, kaco. azerbaijanelebs daanebe Tavi.lia _ aba, qarTvelebi Wamdnen erTmaneTs? (icinis)respon. _ ara, ro?! isev qarTvelebi.lia _ ratom Wamen qarTvelebi erTmaneTs?respon. _ azerbaijanelebs venacvale, Zmao. kaci arviyo, tyuili giTxra, Cems xuT Svils geficebi. magaTvenacvale, magaT Sromas. wadi bazarSi, kvercxs vin yidis?_ azerbaijaneli yidis. qaTams vin yidis? _ azerbaijaneliyidis. Zroxas vin yidis? _ azerbaijaneli yidis. cxvarsvin yidis? azerbaijaneli yidis. kitrs? _ rac ginda. . .lia _ ratom iyo daZabuloba qarTvelebs Soris?ra undoda qarTvels qarTvelisgan?respon. _ erTi-meores Wamdnen. Zmas Zma ar unda damorCa.lia _ sxvadasxvanairio, ra ornairi qarTvelebiarian?guldami_ meqrTameoba iyo?respon. _ iyo, aba ar iyo?! erTi simarTle undagiTxraT. ai, aseTi sinamdvile vici, rom TbilisSi 83 naciacxovrobs daaxloebiT. ase maqvs gagebuli, Toremstatistikurad me ar damiTvlia. exla vekiTxebi immTavrobas, vinc idgnen saTaveSi. me movagrove es xalxi?me movagrove es sxvadasxva nacia? me movagrove? Tu papaCemmada mamaCemma? es moagrova gafuWebulma qarTvelebma.g a f u W e b u l e b m a (ambobs gawelviT da xazgasmiT).404 405


gafuWebulebma aiRo fuli da Caijiba. petrosiani romiyo, petriaSvilad gawera. poRosiani iyo _ imad dawera,amad dawera. wadi da umtkice. axla movida dro, gaiZaxian:me is ara var, me is ara varo. asaRebs Tavs, viTom qarTvelia,guliT da suliT is aris, rac unda. (`rac unda” ambobsCumad).lia _ da ras afuWebs es?respon. _ Zalian bevr rames.lia _ imis guli da suli ras gvifuWebs?respon. _ Zalian bevr rames.lia _ aqac arian etyoba “gadawerilebi”?respon. _ dmanisis raionSi? ramdenic ginda.lia _ bevria?respon. _ Zalian bevria.lia _ vinc somxebi iyvnen da qarTvelebad daewernen?respon. _ Zalian bevri arian, me giTxari (gabrazebulitoniT ambobs, xmas imaRlebs), danarCeni Tqven iciT.lia _ (siciliT) romel soflebSi arian?respon. _ arian kaco, arian (Serbilebuli toniT),mTeli didi dmanisi, vardisubani, maSavera. gadakeTebulebiarian, ma ra arian?lia _ da imaTsa da, rogorc Tqven TqviT, SedarebiT`namdvil qarTvelebs” Soris iyo daZabuloba?respon. _ ara.lia _ ara?respon. _ ara, ara. egeTi ram ar yofila. Zalianbevri megobrebic myavs, vmegobrob. magram me unda giTxraT,rom es Seqmna Cvenma qarTvelebma.lia _ ras giSaveben isini?respon. _ (gabrazebiT). kaco, ras uSavebda is, Tavisigvari hqonoda? hqonoda ra Tavisi gvari. Zalian gTxov,ra?!lia _ da rames akeTeben saeWvos?respon. _ (mawyvetinebs) Cems qarTul gvarze raTewereboda?!lia _ Tqven ggoniaT, isini imitom ewerebian, romrame gvimtron?respon. _ gvimtron, da gvimtres kidec da ufrometic.lia _ ra gvimtres?respon. _ kargi ra, Zalian gTxovT, ra?! modi, wavideTda tyvias guli mivuSviroT da Tavi moviklaT kaco.Zalianac kargad ician da me raze unda vilaparako esambavi, ai raze unda vilaparako? ai, rodis yofila, romkirakozovi baraTaSvili iyo kaco? kirakozovi baraTa-Svilad daewera, amaze didi sibrmaveee ginda kacocxovrebaSi? bolo da bolo ra amaze didi kacooooo?!mere ityvis baraTaSvili, rom es mamuli Cemia! ai, aseTirame gagigia kaco?! es xom arasworia kaco?!lia _da ar SeiZleboda kirakozovad darCeniliyo?respon. _ me ra vici, wadi imaT kiTxe?! ar erCivna!(damarcvliT) ar erCivna, imas ar erCivna!lia _ rame miiRo amis gamo?respon. _ ai, vin dawera, ratom dawera, ratom, ratom,ratom?! me ratom gamovdivar, mapatieT, gafuWebuli kaci?!lia _ batono giorgi, erTi wuTiT, ra SuaSia es?saerTod istoriulad ase iyo, rom terteram es xalxigaagrigoriana, anu religia Seucvala. da Tu grigorianelixar, e. i. somexs geZaxian. faqtiurad egeni xom qarTvelebiiyvnen da ai, igive is kirakozovi, romelic baraTaSviladgadakeTda (giorgi awyvetinebs)respon. _ rad daewera kirakozovada?lia _ TviTon ar daewera, terteram dawera.respon. _ ara, aq egeTi rame ar yofila.lia _ rogor ar yofila!respon. _ ar yofila?lia _ ra iciT, rom ar yofila?respon. _ rogor ar vici, kaco, ar vici gana Cemimama-papidan warsuli, me ar vici kaco?! egeTi rame aryofila aq.lia _ erTi es miTxariT, magaT sofelSi, sadaTegeTi xalxia, magaliTad vardisubanSi, romlebmacgadaikeTes gvari (respodenti awyvetinebs)respon. _ me giTxari, ara Zalian gTxov.lia _ ara, ara, ra minda gkiTxoT. eklesia aqvT?respon. _ ara, Zalian gTxovT. vardisubanSi?lia _ ai, am soflebSi, maSaveraSi da sxvaSi, eklesiaaqvT?406 407


espon. _ maSaveraSi ki.lia _ somxuri, grigorianuli?respon. _ wminda giorgis saxelobis Zveli eklesia,rogorc aq Cven sofelSi.lia _ e. i. gamodis, rom egenic qarTvelebi yofilanda maT Seucvales gvari da sarwmunoeba.respon. _ ho. vTqvi, aba. TviTon Cemi siZe imsoflidanaa, maSaveridan.lia _ ra gvarisaa?respon. _ aslaniSvili.lia _ adre sxva gvari hqonda?respon. _ nu egeni ewerebodnen aslaniancebad.lia _ hoda, eg Tqveni siZe xo qarTveli iyo,ubralod terteram gaasomxa.respon. _ kaco?lia _ ar gjeraT?respon. _ davaneboT Tavi am terteras, Zalian gTxovT.guldami_ Tqven Tu gagigiaT, rom terterebi iyvnenam soflebSi?respon. _ kaco, me momswrec var da minaxia kidec,Cveneburad mRvdeli.lia _ batono XXX Tqveni siZe axla qarTveliaTu somexi? Tqven rogor TvliT?respon. _ qarTvelia, qarTveli da qarTuli gvariaqvs aslaniSvili.lia _ adre xom ar iyo aslaniSvili. maSin somexiiyo da exla qarTveli gaxda, Torem is CemTvis qarTvelia.respon. _ bijo. isa da kidev sxvebi arian, marto isxom ar aris kaco. bevrma gadaikeTa gvari.lia _ es gadakeTeba marto Tqven ar mogwonT, Tusxva qarTvelebic cudad uyureben am saqmes?respon. _ kai kaco, ra, ar vici, ra vin rogor uyurebs,ar vici, magram me rogor uyureb, me is ki vici, me is kivici.lia _ rames aSaveben axla eg adamianebi, romlebmacgvari gadaikeTes? ra pretenzia SeiZleba gqondeT amxalxTan?respon. _ iciT ra, me erT rames getyviT, TqvenmeliqiSvili xarT. SeiZleba me ara var qarTveli, an Tqven,an Tqven. magram saerTo jamSi qarTvelebad viwerebiT,ara? Sen gulSi ra gaqvs, ai ra vici, ra vici?lia _ gulSi ra aqvs am xalxs, aq cxovrobT, ra,ver grZnobT?respon. _ me ra unda vigrZno? me ar vici, viRacamviRacas gvari gadaukeTa. iman jibeSi fuli Caido, me raunda vigrZno? yvelaferi TviTon mTavrobam amtkicos.exla ro opozicia gamodis da erTi-meores ejaxebian,erTi-meores Wamen, glejen, es rogor aris? isac Cemigadasawyvetia? isac Cemi gadasawyvetia?lia _ rogor ara, esec Tqven gexebaT, yvelas gvexeba.respon. _ ai, amitom Tavidan unda damijero da mecraRaca unda SemekiTxo.lia _ Tqven unda TqvaT Tqveni sityva.respon. _ me ra unda vTqva. me sityva vTqvi dagafrinda da wavida. gafrinda da wavida is sityva.lia _ unda iwvaloT, rom is sityva miitanoT, sadacsaWiroa.respon. _ vis unda mivutano, rogor mivitano, visTanmivitano. sadac mival, yvelgan Caketili avtomatiani dgasda vin sad gagiSvebs? ras gagiSvebs?lia _ iciT, me ra mainteresebs. es yvelaferi Tqvenrom ar mogwonT, ai, es gadakeTebuli gvarebi, miwis sakiTxsxom ar ukavSirdeba?respon. _ yvelafers ukavSirdeba es ambavi, yvelafersukavSirdeba. winaaRmdegoba ginda, ra ginda...lia _ ai, ra winaaRmdegoba aris?respon. _ Zalian didi.lia _ raSi?respon. _ raSi da didi winaRmdegobaa. iciT, TqveniseT rameze melaparakebiT, sasamarTlo ki ara var. CemisityviT, situacia ar gaswordeba. imitomaa ese areuldareuliqveyana. auries, dauries. me weRan imitom giTxariT,visac rogor unda, roca unda wagiyvanen, Txis fasadgagyidian, mere roca dasWirdebi raRacaSi, movlen, viRaceebsraRaceebs dahpirdebian...lia _ es rodis dasWirdebaT, arCevnebze?respon. _ albaT, kargad TqviT, aba sxva dros vinras gigonebs?!408 409


lia _ aba ra gveSveleba?respon._ erTi genacvale maTqmevine. erTi maTqmevine.saakaSvili, venacvale magasa, axali wlis molocva ginda,aRdgoma ginda, patara bavSvebiviT didi araferia, magramraRacas dagirigebs, patara pensias moumatebs 5 Tu 10laria.guldami_ da amiT kmayofili xarT?respon. _ Zalian kmayofili var! aqamde rom sularaferi ar gvqonda, is rogor iyo? 14 laridan 85 larsviReb. 100 dolari unda moecaT.lia _ ratom ar mogces?respon. _ kidev magari kacia, venacvale magasa.lia _ omi rom iyo, aman rogor imoqmeda mosaxleobaze?respon. _ cxare cremliT vtirodi, CemisTana kaci,wadi, sadac ginda ikiTxe, mTeli raioni micnobs...lia _ ai, omi rom iyo, es gadakeTebulgvarianixalxi iseve ganicdida, rogorc Tqven?respon. _ oh, ai, ena gamixmes, ena Tu tyuili vTqva,bevrisagan gamigonia: `gauSvi, erTimeore daWamono”. ai,esec uTqvamT.lia _ vin daWamos, rusebma da qarTvelebma?respon. _ ho.lia _ vin Tqva, magaT Tqves, gadakeTebulgvarianebma?respon._ ai, magaT.lia _ gasagebia. me ukve mivxvdi. imaT ar aqvT iseTiqarTuli suli (respodenti awyvetinebs _ hoda, morCa)patriotizmi, rogoric aqvT Tqveni gagebiT `namdvilqarTvelebs”?respon. _ erTad viwviT, erTad viwviT meca da isic.erTi fasi gvaqvs, SeiZleba imas ufro meti (gulisxmobs,rom is ufro dafasebulia, vidre ‘namdvili qarTveli”).lia _ azerbaijanelebi ase ar fiqroben?respon. _ ara, ara, davaneboT Tavi azerbaijanelebs.oqro xalxia, venacvale magaT, kargi xalxia.lia _ ber Zneb i rom wa vidn en a qeda n, ukandabrundebian?respon._ ara, iq kargad cxovroben.lia _ batono XXX, ara gaqvT survili aq metiqarTveli dasaxldes?respon. _ vaimeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee! neta Cems gulSiCaixedoT.lia _ ar SeiZleba am saxlebSi ltolvilebiCaasaxlon?respon. _ ramdenjer mifiqria, geficebiT. modi,dasaxldi, raaaaaaaa!lia _ ratom ar asaxleben. carieli xom arisgomareTi?respon. _ me ra vici. mTavrobis saqmea es. mTavrobissaqmeSi ki me vina var.lia _ rom Caasaxlon svanebi, aWarlebi.respon. _ ratomac ara, Caasaxlon, me yvelasTan kargadvar, bevri megobrebi myavs.lia _ ki magram, Tqven ratomRac aqauri gvargadake-Tebulebi ar mogwonT? (icinis)respon. _ ai, qalbatono lia, eg sakiTxi sul sxvaaris. aqauri gvargadakeTebulebi, me rom vTqva, CemganewyinebaT, ver gaigeben, ityvian _ Sen ra ginda, me rasdaviwer, rogor davewerebi, vin xar Sen? metyvian. magramme malaparakebs Cemi gulistkivili.lia _ batono XXX, amixseniT ratom gtkivaT guli,xom qarTvelia axla is?respon. _ vin aris qarTveli?lia _ ai, is gadakeTebuli gvariT, rames afuWebs?respon. _ erTi rame unda giTxra: ai, ZaRls romkudi moaWra, batkani gaxdeba?!lia _ ara (yvela icinis). xo, magram is kudmoWrilixom arafers gagifuWebs?respon. _ (adga, gavida da moitana ojaxis suraTebisalbomi) da daiwyo ojaxze laparaki. gayril colebzeda Svilebze.410 411


interviu #2dmanisilia _ ar gaqvT survili, rom svanuri koSki aaSenoTdmanisSi?svani _ survili didia, magram SeZleba unda amas.lia _ yvelam rom SekriboT Tanxa da aaSenoT. sadacki wavediT svanur soflebSi, Zalian bevr adgilze dgassvanuri koSki. dmanisSi ki, ara.svani _ magaze ki aris laparaki, magram Cven,svanebi, jer vibrZviT.lia _ ras ibrZviT?svani_ ai, magaliTad SarSan, mTeli sami TvevibrZodiT svanebi. SemosasvlelTan undodaT aegoT meCeTi.ager SuaSic da gasasvlelSic. jer amaTTan brZolaSivarT.lia _ vis unda aeSenebina?svani _ vis da TaTrebs.lia _ aqaurs Tu Camosulebs?svani_ iqidan afinanseben. Cven ager eklesiismSenebloba daiwyes, rezidencia aaSenes da finansebiSeuwyvites. safuZveli Cayares da... imaT xels uwyobsmTavroba da Cven ar gviwyoben xels.lia _ imaT uwyobs xels Tavisi mTavroba baqodan?amas gulisxmobT?svani _ ki batono. finansebi iqidan modis.lia _ da Tqven aq ar gexmarebian?svani _ gvexmarebian ki ara, xelis SeSlis metira xdeba?!lia _ da is rogor moaxerxeT, rom meCeTi aRaraaSenes?svani _ Cveni ZalebiT. Cven veubnebodiT, rom amazeajanyeba moxdeba, Setakebebi moxdeba.lia _ aaa, ase uTxariT? gaafrTxileT? ise aqvTsurvili gaakeTon aseTi rame?svani _ survili ra, iq ar iyaviT? (gulisxmobsdResaswaul `borCalobas”) Tqven ar usmendiT? qarTvelebirom gamoviden da taSi ar daukres? da gamgebeli gamovidada yvela imas aginebda (gamgebeli erovnebiT qarTvelia)da TviTon qarTvelebma imReres da icekves, erTi xeli ardaatyapunes? eg ra misaxvedri iyo? Tan amboben, saxeliunda SevucvaloT dmanisso.lia _ ra undaT rom daarqvan?svani _ xom ismendiT? borCalo, baSkiCeTi.lia _ rogor ggoniaT, ratom akeTeben amas?svani _ Tqven rogor ggoniaT?! Tqven rogorcggoniaT, ise mgonia mec?lia _ Tqven mainc fiqrobT, rom azerbaijanisrespublika ufro ereva am saqmeebSi, vidre aqauriazerbaijanelebi?svani _ adre me komunistebis dros, meurneobisdireqtorad vmuSaobdi aq. xSirad Tavs ver ikavebdnen daase ambobdnen _ iciT, ramdeni sisxla dagviRvria da oqromigvicia am teritoriisTvis?!lia _ raSi miuciaT oqro?svani _ miwebSi.lia _ ase amboben.svani _ ase, pirdapir.lia _ oqroTi gvaqvs nayidio?svani _ ki. SarSan omis periodSi, rusTavSi daTbilisSi sulguni wavuRe meomrebs, daxmarebisaTvis. Cemikooperativi maqvs. iq komisiis wevrebs vkiTxe, rogor arissaqme-meTqi? ase mipasuxes, neta sul daxociliyaviT, yveliki ara, is gavugzavnoTo?!lia _ amaT giTxres, azerbaijanelebma?svani _ me ki ar miTxres pirdapir, magram TavisTvisCaiburtyuna TaTrulad, me ki TaTruli mesmis, 15 weliaamaTTan var da ver gavigebdi.412 413


interviu #3meurneobalia _ Tqven Tqveni meurneoba gaqvT, ramdeni ZroxagyavT?qarTveli respondenti _ erTi, ocdaaTamde.lia _ da metis Senaxvis SesaZlebloba ar gaqvT?erTi asi rom gyavdeT?respon. _ amas Tanxa unda, genacvale.lia _ Tanxa risTvis aris konkretulad saWiro,saTibisTvis? saZovrisTvis?respon. _ ara, saTibi maqvs, saZovari maqvs. fermebicmaqvs. magram SarSanwin movyevi magar avariaSi, Zalianbevri motexiloba mqonda da RviZli gaxeTqili da racgvqonda, yvelaferi gayides Cemebma, rom gadaverCine, amitomaxla Tanxa ar maqvs.lia _ faqtiurad fermerul warmoebas eweviT. razegyofniT es Tanxa?respon. _ xelebi ar maqvs gawvdili. ojaxs vuvli.saZmo-saZmakacoSic ar viWrebi.lia _ e. i. SegiZliaT viRacas xeli gaumarToT?bavSvebs yofniT? CacmisTvis, skolisTvis?respon. _ bavSvebi ukve didebi arian da TviTonmuSaoben.lia _ rogor atyobT, axalgazrdebs undaTfermeroba? rogori swrafva aqvT? swavlisken xom araufro?respon. _ gareT dgoma urCevniaT, sxvaTa Soris.lia _ vin inaxavs imaT, gareT mdgomels.respon. _ mSoblebi. zogs maTxovroba ar scxvenia,zogs qurdoba.lia _ svanebi ase iqcevian? isini xom vaJkacuribunebisa arian?respon. _ ki arian, magram xari xarTan rom daaba, anznes icvlis, an fersao.lia _ svanebi?..respon. _ svanebi!.. svanebi yvelanairad jer zviadim,mere SevardnaZem, mere mxedrionma gamoiyena. rocasWirdebaT, svani, svanio! hoda, amasobaSi, svanur quds saxeliZalian daugdes. dmanisSi rom Camovida pirveli svani, aqaswavles yaCaRoba, qurdoba da mere daiwyes. svani arcyaCaRi iyo, arc qurdi da arc maTxovari.lia _ e. i. Tqven TvliT, rom gadmosaxlebis Semdegufro Seicvala es xalxi?respon. _ rogor, vTvli ki ara, ase iyo!lia _ axla rogorebi arian?respon. _ zogi kargi. zogi ayva imaT. aseTigzasacdenilebi yvelgan urevia.lia _ rogor fiqrobT, yvelas rom unda umaRlesisdamTavreba, aba am meurneobaSi viRa darCeba?respon. _ mere, umaRlesdamTavrebuli ar jobia? ufrokargad gaakeTebs saqmes.lia _ swavlis mere Tbilisidan dabrundebiansofelSi? Tu qalaqSi darCebian?respon. _ sad wavlen aba? Tbilisi daitevs amdenxalxs?lia _ magaliTad, azerbaijanelebma miTxres, romar gvinda Cveni Svilebi CvensaviT itanjebodnen,mesaqonleoba Zalian Zneli saqmea, mZime Sromaa. gvinda,rom iswavlon da sxva saqmes mohkidon xeli.respon. _ es erTi Zalian didi tyuili uTqvamT.imitom rom, me vuTxari, Tu ase gindaT, qarTuli maincaswavleT Tqvens bavSvebs-Tqo. rad gvinda mtris enao.lia _ ratom fiqroben, rom es mtris enaa.respon. _ ase gvTvlian, adgilebs vecilebiT.lia _ kidev erTi ram mainteresebs. ai, Tqven TqviT,rom isini amboben `oqroTi gvaqvs nayidio”, anu amiT amboben,rom mosulebi arian?respon. _ ara. amboben, rom aqaurebi arian da TanCveni nayidia da Tan Cveni naomariao.lavrenti_ naomarSi ras gulisxmoben?respon. _ Cven rom gvxocavdnen imas!lavrenti_ es rodis, am bolo xanebSi Tu adreistoriulad?respon. _ adre, istoriulad. exla ra...414 415


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d askvnis magiersamoqalaqo sazogadoebis mSenebloba demokratiuliganviTarebis gzaze mdgomi saqarTvelosTviserT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi amocanaa. sabWoTasocialur-politikuri da ekonomikuri infrastruqturistransformirebis miuxedavad, am mimarTulebiTgarkveul barierebi mainc arsebobs. demokratizaciisda samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTarebis procesebsmniSvnelovnad arTulebs qveynis polieTnikuroba,multikulturalizmi, umciresobaTa farTo speqtrTandakavSirebuli problemebi. aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiTgamorCeulia qvemo qarTlis regioni.istoriulad am mxareSi xSiri iyo ucxo eTnikurjgufTa migracia (gansakuTrebiT XIX saukunis pirvelinaxevridan) da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis nebayofilobiTiTu iZulebiTi gadineba. qarTvelebi dasxvadasxva eTnikur jgufTa warmomadgenlebi (azerbaijanelebi,somxebi, berZnebi, germanelebi, osebi, rusebida sxv) saukuneebis manZilze erTmaneTis mezoblad,ZiriTadad izolirebulad da kompaqturad saxlobdnen.dRes qvemo qarTlis yvela raioni (bolnisi,dmanisi, TeTriwyaro, marneuli, gardabani, walka)eTnikuri da religiuri niSniT gansxvavebuli mosaxleobiTgamoirCeva. aseTi viTarebis gamo araerTgvarovaniakulturaTaSorisi komunikacia, Sesabamisad,rTulia erovnul umciresobaTa integraciis procesic.miT ufro, rom qarTuli kultura, romelmac undamoaxdinos umciresobis homogenizacia saxelmwifoSidominant eTnosSi, aRniSnul regionSi garkveuliaspeqtiT wamyvani ar aris. amgvari viTareba Teoriuladda praqtikuladac seriozul winaaRmdegobebs qmnismcire jgufebis samoqalaqo integraciis politikisrealizaciisaTvis. amasTan, integraciis strategiisgatareba polikulturul sazogadoebebSi saWiroebswinaswar Camoyalibebul pozitiur multikulturulideologias.qarTuli saxelmwifo politika mimarTuliaumciresobaTa saxelmwifoebriv sivrceSi integraciisaken.qvemo qarTlSi es Znelad misaRwevi mizania,radgan regionis multikulturuli infrastruqturaaRniSnuli mimarTulebiT arc Tu saxarbielo suraTsiZleva. mudmivad mimdinare migraciulma da imigraciulmaprocesebma, erTi mxriv, kidev ufro gaamravalferovanaregionis eTnokulturuli mozaika da meoremxriv, gaaxangrZliva adaptacia-akulturaciis tempebi.qarTuli mosaxleobis migraciam da maTi saxiTadgilobrivebisaTvis “ucxo” elementis “SemoWram”regionSi manamde arsebuli balansi daarRvia.migrantebis axal kulturul garemosTanadaptacia kompleqsuri procesi iyo, sadac aqtiuradiyo CarTuli eTnocentristuli meqanizmebi, ramac,ZiriTadad sawyis periodSi, jgufTaSorisi dapirispirebagamoiwvia. iq sadac ramdenime TviTmyofadikulturis mqone jgufi Tanaarsebobs, maTi SeuTavseblobisalbaToba didia. interesTa gadakveTa iwvevskulturaTaSoris dapirispirebas da konfliqtsacki. sakvlev regionSi konfliqti SeiZleba ganxiluliqnas, ara marto rogorc kulturaTa Sejaxebis ankonkurenciis, aramed rogorc maT Soris komunikaciismoSlis Sedegi. adgilobrivma mosaxleobam qarTulijgufebis (svanebi, aWarlebi, imerlebi da a.S) regionSiSemosvla, qarTuli nacionaluri politikis strategiadaRiqva da maT keTilganwyobiT ar daxvedria.damxvduri jgufebi TavianT upiratesobas grZnobdnen,radgan regionSi umravlesobas warmoadgendnen dagarkveulwilad privilegirebuli iyvnen. isinimtrulad Sexvdnen sociums, romelic eTnikuri niSniT(qarTvelobiT) cdilobda pirveloba moepovebina da,ase vTqvaT, “CaeCoCebina” privilegirebuli jgufebi.adgilobrivebsa da Camosulebs Soris pirvel xanebSi418 419


xSiri iyo dapirispireba da konfliqti. urTierTobissawyis periodSi dapirispirebas eTnocentristulisafuZveli gaaCnda, did rols TamaSobda komunikaciisnakleboba, rasac qarTuli enis da axalmosuljgufTa kulturuli Rirebulebebis arcodna iwvevda.mogvianebiT, axalmosulTa damkvidrebis da regionisekonomikur da socialur yofaSi CarTvis SemdegviTareba Seicvala da uTanxmoebis gamokveTilfaqtorad materialuri interesebi iqca. mTavaridatvirTva ekonomikur problemebze, gansakuTrebiTki miwis sakiTxze modis, rac Tanabrad mniSvnelovania,rogorc qarTveli, ise araqarTveli mosaxleobisaTvis.momxdari jgufTaSorisi konfliqtis faqtebimowmobs, rom dapirispireba, romelsac eTnikurisarCuli ar aqvs, advilad SeiZleba gadaizardoseTnikur konfliqtSi. konfliqtebis CamoyalibebaZiriTadad xdeba iseT dasaxlebebSi, sadac xsenebuljgufebs Sexebis xSiri wertilebi gaaCniaT. arsebobsurTierTpretenziebi TiToeuli maTganis arasaxarbielomdomareobaSi yofnis Sesaxeb. bolo periodSisituacia ase Tu ise daregulirda, yofiT sakiTxebTandakavSirebuli uTanxmoebani, rasakvirvelia, arsebobs,magram masStaburi xasiaTi ar aqvs. amaSi garkveuliwvlili saxelmwifos mier gatarebul qmediT Ronis-Ziebebsac (kontrolis gamkacreba, kanonis amoqmedeba)miuZRvis.sakvlev regionSi kulturaTaSorisi kavSirebisefeqturoba, upirveles yovlisa, ganisazRvreba moqmedimxareebis mier verbaluri kontaqtis damyarebisSesaZleblobebiT. sabWoTa periodSi qvemo qarTlismravaleTnikuri sazogadoebis sakomunikacio enarusuli iyo. damoukideblobis mopovebisa da qarTulienis saxelmwifo enad gamocxadebis Semdgom, kulturulidialogis TvalsazrisiT aq axali problemebiwarmoiqmna, rac, upirveles yovlisa, jgufebs Soriskomunikaciis moSlaSi gamoixata. saxelmwifo enisarcodnis gamo erovnul umciresobebs gauWirdaTdamoukidebeli saqarTvelos socialur da politikurcxovrebaSi integrireba. qvemo qarTlSierovnul umciresobaTagan qarTul enaze gamarTuladsaubroben, ZiriTadad, dedaqalaqsa da polieTnikurdasaxlebebSi mcxovrebi umciresobebi, xolo izolirebulmonoeTnikur dasaxlebebSi qarTulis codnisdone Zalian dabalia. bolo periodSi saxelmwifoyuradRebas uTmobs qarTuli enis umciresobaTajgufebisTvis swavlebisa da saganmanaTleblosistemis harmonizacias. adgilobrivi da ucxouriinstituciebis bazaze SemuSavda specialuri programebi,ris safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli gaxda umciresobebisaTvisqarTuli enis SeswavlisaTvis xelisSewyoba da jgufTaSoris verbaluri komunikaciisganxorcielebis perspeqtivis uzrunvelyofa. dResviTareba Secvlilia ukeTesobisaken, Tumca mTelirigi sirTuleebi mainc arsebobs. araqarTvel mosaxleobaSiSeiniSneba qarTuli enis Seswavlis survilida zogjer, moTxovnilebac ki.kulturaTaSorisi kavSirebis realizaciasa daamis safuZvelze integraciis procesebis daCqarebasmniSvnelovnad uwyobs xels Sereuli qorwinebebi.magram faqti, rom regionSi Tavmoyrili ariansxvadasxva religiuri aRmsareblobis warmomadgenlebi,am formiT maT Soris kulturuli komunikaciiswarmatebiT ganxorcielebas arTulebs. amismizezi umciresobis izolirebulad cxovrebacaa.Sereuli qorwinebebis simciris gamo intereTnikurikomunikaciis es formaQsakvlev raionebSi ver CaiTvlebaintegraciis procesis damCqarebel faqtorad.religiaTaSoris komunikaciis gziT meorekulturis gacnoba da maT konteqstebSi CarTvaintegraciis strategiisTvis metad mniSvnelovanifaqtoria, magram sakvlev regionebSi eTnikurijgufebi am TvalsazrisiT met distancias iWeren420 421


erTmaneTisagan. Tumca, qvemo qarTlSi religiurniadagze ar momxdara arc erTi seriozuli konfliqti(Tu ar CavTvliT mcire SemTxvevebs walkis raionSi),rac imaze metyvelebs, rom ZiriTadad sxvadasxvareligiuri jgufebi tolerantuli arian erTmaneTismimarT. religiuri tolerantoba aRiniSneba gansakuTrebiTim mosaxleobaSi, romelic tradiciuladerTmaneTis mezoblad an Sereulad cxovrobda. igivetendencia SeiniSneba migrantebTan erTad mcxovrebSedarebiT axal Sereul mosaxleobaSi.integraciis TvalsazrisiT, viTareba qvemoqarTlSi dRes saxarbielod ver CaiTvleba, TumcaaSkaraa interkulturuli dialogis pozitiuridinamika. wlebis manZilze urTierTobam Zvel daaxal jgufebs amis gamocdileba SesZina. gamoikveTa,rom iq, sadac adgili aqvs yoveldRiur pirovnebaTa-Soris urTierTobebs, kulturaTaSorisi dialogiswarmarTva gacilebiT ioli da Sedegiania.qvemo qarTlSi adgilobriv da ucxo eTnokonfesiurjgufebs Soris kulturaTaSorisi urTierTobisasori tendencia SeiniSneba. erTi mxriv viTardebaintegraciuli procesebi, mimdinareobs kulturulelementTa urTierTgacvla, matulobs kontaqtebi,izrdeba orenovnebis albaToba, Sereuli qorwinebebisSemTxvevebi, SeimCneva kulturis elementTa SeRweva,rac SemdgomSi samoqalaqo integraciis safuZveliunda gaxdes. Tumca, amave dros aRiniSneba eTnikuriTaviseburebebis SenarCunebis tendenciac.eTnosocialuri araerTgvarovneba _ TavisTavadgulisxmobs mravalmxriv kulturul urTierTzemoqmedebaseTnikur da religiur jgufebs, calkeulsocialur fenebs, qalaqsa da sofels da sxva ti piserTobebs Soris. es procesi gansakuTrebiT aqtiuriae. w. “marginalur zonebSi” anu adgilebSi romlebicinterkulturuli kontaqtebis maRali sixSiriTxasiaTdebian. xsenebul konteqstSi qvemo qarTlimetad saintereso kuTxea, radgan esaa e.w. titularulimosaxleobisagan gansxvavebuli eTnikuri jgufebiT_ “erovnuli umciresobebiT” kompaqturad dasaxlebulimxare, sadac formaluri umciresoba (qveynis masStabiT),faqtiur umravlesobas (lokaluri masStabiT)warmoadgens (mag. marneulis raionSi azerbaijanelebiSeadgenen mTeli mosaxleobis 83,1%, dmanisis raionSi66,8%, bolnisis raionSi 66%, gardabanSi 45,1%)erovnuli umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebuliregionebi rogorc wesi madezintegrirebeliprocesebis da maSasadame, konfliqtis maRali riskismatareblad miiCneva da amitomac didi yuradRebaeqceva saxelmwifos mxridan prevenciuli RonisZiebebisgatarebas. SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas origansxvavebuli strategia _ I. eTnikuri asimilacia,romelic mimdinareobs Sida eTnikuri identurobiswaSlis gziT (am dros ZiriTadi aqcenti keTdebamaTi eTnokulturuli Taviseburebebis radikalurtransformaciaze); II _ integraciuli procesisgaaqtiureba jgufTaSorisi solidarobis gazrdisxarjze, rodesac saxelmwifo gamodis Sigajgufuriidenturobis dacvis garantad. ukanasknel xanebSiganviTarebuli procesebi mowmobs rom, qarTulmasaxelmwifom gezi meore strategiaze aiRo.rogorc cnobilia, eTnikuri kulturebi pirobi-Tad SeiZleba daiyos Ria da daxurul sistemebad.amasTan, Ria sistemebi xasiaTdebian axali dagansxvavebuli elementebis aTvisebisaken swrafviT,daxuruli _ piriqiT ewinaaRmdegeba urTierTobebs,romelTac SeiZleba sistemis cvlilebebi gamoiwvion.kulturuli urTierTqmedebis safuZveli ki aris arakulturuli izoliacia, aramed kulturuli Riaoba.mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis tolerantoba, mzaobayvela kulturaSi Taviseburebebis mosmenisaTvisa dagagebisaTvis. sakvlevi regionis eTnikuri da konfensiurijgufebi konservatiulobis maRali donis gamo422 423


SeiZleba ufro kulturis daxurul tips mivakuTvnoT,rac integraciuli procesis xelSemSlel faqtoradunda miviCnioT.aRsaniSnavia, rom “adgilnacvali” subieqtisruliad gansxvavebuli fsiqologiuri TaviseburebiTxasiaTdeba. es Tavad gadanacvelebis faqtiTaris gapirobebuli da mWidro kavSirSia adgilnacvalisubieqtis molodinebTan. axal sivrciT garemoSimoxvedrili socialuri subieqtebi upirvelesadyovlisa yvelaze mniSvnelovani RirebulebiTupirispirdebian urTierTs es Rirebuleba samSobloa.sazogadod mxolod geografiuli landSaftisSecvlac ki uqmnis adamians problemebs, igulisxmebaam procesis Tanmdevi fsiqologiur adaptaciasTandakavSirebuli problemebi: kulturis Soki, akulturaciisstresi, da sxva. dasaxelebuli faqtorebisgavlena gasaTvaliswinebelia regionis eTnikuriumciresobis integrirebis procesSi. axalmosaxleunda Seeguos im kanonebs, Rirebulebebs da rwmenebs,kulturul da adamianur Tvisebebs, rac am axalsociumSia dadgenili. amasTanave regionis rTuliekonomikuri foni, xelsayrel garemos qmnis eTnikurjgufebs Soris urTierTobis gamwvavebisaTvis dabiZgs aZlevs konfliqturi garemos Seqmnas.aRniSnulis garda, saxeze gvaqvs iseTi mniSvnelovanifaqtori, rogoricaa sxadasxva jgufis wevrTapirovnuli ganwyobebi. faqtobrivad, sacxovrebeliadgilis Secvlam qarTvelebis jgufebi _ svanebida aWarlebi _ eTnikur umciresobad aqcia. sazogadod,kategoria eTnikuri umciresoba, jgufebs Sorisfarul Tu gamovlenil dapirispirebas, “sxvebi”-smimarT gaucxoebas da diskriminacias gulisxmobs.samSoblos teritoriaze gadasaxlebis TanmxlebiaSinagani gancda, rom is ar aris xizani, sakuTarisamSoblos miwaze saqarTvelos teritoriis sruluflebianisubieqtia.rac Seexeba eTnikuri mravalferovnebas, igirTuli, gansxvavebuli kulturuli da tradiciuliRirebulebebis simravliT warmoCndeba, rasac TavisidadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxare aqvs. Rirebulebissimravle da sxvaoba enis da aRmsareblobis gansxvavebisfarglebSic ganapirobebs eTnikur jgufebsSoris gaucxoebas da urTierTis miuReblobis maRalxarisx. eTnikuri jgufebi erTi sivrcis farglebSimxolod Tanaarseboben da ar TanamSromloben,socialuri distancia didia anu minimaluri urTier-Tobaa.erT socioekonomikur garemoSi moqceul gansxvavebuleTnikuri jgufebs, romelnic mravalgvarisubieqturi da obieqturi faqtorebis zemoqmedebasganicdian, uyalibdebaT uaryofiTi socialuriganwyobebi. Camosaxlebuli svanebis yofis gansxvavebulimarkerebi, rogorc qarTuli, aseve azerbaijanelimosaxleobis mxridan, ganapirobebs gaucxoebisgancdas. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, iseve, rogorc yvelasxva analogiur viTarebaSi, gaZlierebulia e.w.eTnoafilaciuri ganwyobebi, anu moTxovnileba mieku-Tvnebode Sen jgufs _ qarTvelebs, azerbaijanelebs,berZnebs, somxebs. mravalsafexurian sociumSi, romel-Sic jgufebs Soris eTnikuri identobisaTvis umniSvnelovanesiniSnulebi (markerebi) aRmsarebloba daena gansxvavebulia, jgufebi markirebulni arian,rogorc “sxva” eTnosi da amdenad, ganwiruli arianmarginalur statusze, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu amjgufis romelime wevri materialur warmatebasmiaRwevs. am pirobebSi eTnikur jgufis wevrebisaTviseTnikuroba wina planze gamodis, rogorc identificirebissaSualeba. Tu ar gvaqvs saamiso pirobebi,anu ar dadgeba eTnikurobis identificirebis aucilebloba,es niSnebi wina planidan periferiaze gadainacvlebs;maSin gvaqvs eTnikuri indiferentizmi.424 425


qvemo qarTlSi socialuri distancia eTnikurjgufebs Soris zomieria. semantikur doneze igivlindeba keTilmezoblobasa da zomier pirovnulurTierTobebSi. Tumca xSirad ar icnoben, an TiTqmisar icnoben, sxva jgufebis wes-Cveulebebs da tradiciebs.gansakuTrebiT es exeba aWarlebisa da svanebisjgufebs. maT Sesaxeb msjeloben zedapiruli daformaluri niSnebis mixedviT. eTnikuri stereotipebimkveTrad diferencirebulia. amasTan, sakuTari jgufisstereotipebSi ufro metad kognituri nawili gamodiswina planze, xolo sxva jgufebis stereotipebSi kiwamyvania emociur-SefasebiTi nawili. es gansakuTrebiTkargad Cans svanebisa da aWarlebis heterostereotipebSi.gansakuTrebiT problemuria ekomigrantebSipirveladi, sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis moTxovnilebebisdaukmayofilebloba. interkulturulisensitiurobis TvalsazrisiT arsebuli viTarebabenetis interkulturuli sensitiurobis modelismixedviT eTnocentrizmis meore safexuris _ sxvaobebisganTavdacva, Sesabamisia. problemuria isic, rommosaxleobis didi nawili mxolod sakuTar enasflobs da faqtiurad ar arsebobs saerTo sakomunikacioena. Tumca, azerbaijanelebTan sakmaod maRaliasaxelmwifo enis Seswavlis instrumentuli motivacia.rac Seexeba ufrosi Taobis ZirZvel qarTvelebs,maT e.w. ambivalenturi ganwyobebi aqvT svanebismimarT: erTi mxriv, dadebiTi, radgan swored maTTanaris dakavSirebuli regionis qarTuli orientaciiskenSemobruneba da azerbaijanlebTan urTierTobebisdabalanseba da meore mxriv, uaryofiTi, radgansvanebi (maTi TqmiT) gansxvavebuli tradiciis, enisda qcevis normebis matareblebi arian da Tanaccdiloben dominanti roli daimkvidron raionSi.somxebi da qarTvelebi ZiriTadad erTmane-Tisagan izolirebulad cxovroben. es aris rogorcfizikuri, aseve sainformacio da fsiqologiuriizolacia. maT zomieri ganwyobebi aqvT erTmaneTismimarT, Tumca, erTmaneTis tradiciebisa da adaTwesebisSesaxebac naklebad ician. soflebSi mcxovrebmasomxebma qarTuli ena cudad an TiTqmis ar ician.maTi axalgazrdebi azerbaijanelebTan SedarebiTnaklebad motivirebulni arian iswavlon qarTuliena. saerTod, am sakiTxs didi sifrTxiliT ekidebian,radgan qarTvelebTan kulturul asimilaciasufrTxian.kvlevis Sedegebi cxadyofs, rom zemoT ganxiluleTnikuri umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebulraionebSi sWarbobs negatiuri eTnikuri stereotipebi da eTnocentrizmi; jgufebs Soris socialuridistancia didia, xolo interkulturuli sensitiurobanaklebad ganviTarebuli: ganxiluli eTnikurijgufebis umravlesoba interkulturuli sensitiurobisganviTarebis skalis mixedviT sakmaod dabal_ egocentruli fazis sxvaobebisgan Tavdacvis safexurzeimyofeba. es safexuri ki sakmaod Sorsaa srulfasovanieTnikuri urTierTobebis da kulturaTaSoris efeqturi komunikaciis, TanamSromlobisa daTanaarsebobisgan. amgvari fsiqologiuri klimati,cxadia, xels uSlis regionis sazogadoebis integraciasda aferxebs samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebasada ganviTarebas.kidev erTi xelisSemSleli piroba aris regionSimeurneobis problemebis mouwesrigebloba, romeliczogierT regionSi mwvave dapirispirebas iwvevs daromlis mougvarebloba SesaZlebelia Ria konfliqtSicki gadaizardos. yovelives ki Tavisi mizezihqonda.sabWoTa wyobis dros mosaxleoba jer kolmeurneobebSi,Semdgom sabWoTa meurneobebSi (meqanizebulisawarmo _ dafuZnebuli warmoebis saSualebebissaxelmwifo, saerTo saxalxo sakuTrebaze da sameurneoangariSze) iyo gaerTianebuli. saqarTveloSi 6426 427


ZiriTadi tipis sawarmo iyo: mevenaxeobis, mexileobis,merZeveobis, mekartofileobis, mecitruseobis,meCaieobis. maTgan pirveli oTxi ti pis sabWoTameurneoba qvemo qarTlSi warmatebiT funqcionirebda.maTSi dasaqmebuli iyo mosaxleobis didi nawili.kolmeurneobebisa da sabWoTa meurneobebis rentabelobasgansazRvravda miwis farTobebis avkargianobasTanerTad, is, rom am mxareSi mowesrigebuli iyosarwyavi sistema. kolmeurneebi Sroma dReebzeiRebdnen anazRaurebas, sabWoTa meurneobidan _sazRaurs. yovel ojaxs sakarmidamo 1 ha an 25/100 hamiwa eZleoda, romelzec moyavda bostneuli, xili.kolmeurneobebis farTobebze iTeseboda xorbali,qeri; mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani saqmianoba iyomesaqonleoba (Tumc, 1-3 suli saqonlis metis yolaar SeiZleboda).amJamad, qvemo qarTlis mTel teritoriaze ojaxsufleba aqvs iyolios SeuzRudavi raodenobissaqoneli, magram amisTvis saWiroa ojaxs hqondessamyofi saTib-saZovrebi.dRes mTavari problema da maTi sawuxari isaris, rom mosaxleobis umetes nawils sakuTrebaSigadacemuli 1 ha an 25/100 ha miwa (met-naklebic) saxnavsaTesida miwis nakveTebidan moweuli mosavaliojaxis moTxovnilebebs ver akmayofilebs. kidevufro mZime suraTia saTib-saZovrebTan dakavSirebiT.kmayofileba imiT, rom ojaxs SeuZlia iyoliosmravali suli saqoneli, azrs kargavs imiT, rom saTibsaZovrisis farTobi, romelic ojaxebs gadaecaT,ver gamokvebavs ara Tu mraval sul saqonels, aramedor-sam sulsac ki. mosaxleoba moiTxovs miwebisgadanawilebas, Tumca, eWvobs, rom es ganxorcieldeba,radgan miwis fondis umetesi nawili TavidanveSeZlebulTa _ adgilobrivTa Tu `mosul ucxoTa”xelSi aRmoCnda. axali mepatroneebi miwas ijariTgascemen adgilobriv ojaxebze. sakvirveli ki isaris, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi aravin icis mepatronisvinaoba (gamonaklisi SemTxvevebis garda), saqmianiurTierToba da xelSekrulebebi SuamavlebissaSualebiT myardeba. gansakuTrebiT mZime mdgomareobaSiaRmoCndnen ekomigrantebi, Tumc, maT Sorisacaris gansxvaveba _ isini, vinc ramdenime wliT adrearian Camosaxlebulni adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaganTiTqmis daclil soflebSi da miwis sakmaod didifarTobi Tavisufali daxvdaT, maT meti raodenobismiwa xvdaT wilad. amis magaliTad gamodgeba walkisr-is sof. qariaqi, saidanac adgilobrivi berZnebi dasomxebi gadasaxldnen sxva qveynebSi. Camosaxlebulisvani ekomigrantebi sakmaod didi farTobis nakveTebsdaepatronen _ 30,35 ha ergo ojaxs. saxelmwifosiniciativiT amave soflebSi mogvianebiT CamosaxlebulaWarel ekomigrantebs ojaxze mxolod 1/2 haargunes. maT gasaWirze mTxroblebi gulistkiviliTgviambobdnen: `miwis problema mosawesrigebelia. aqijaruli sistemaa. adre miwas kolmeurneoba ganagebda,axla _ meijare, romelic muSas unda asaqmebdes,sofels xels uwyobdes. is ki mxolod aqiravebsmiwas _ TviTon saxelmwifos 3 lars uxdis, Cven ki50-s gvaxdevinebs. xalxi dausaqmebeli rCeba. Tumeijare ramdenime muSas, ojaxs asaqmebs, 18% sofelsunda axmardes. isini ki arafers akeTeben. aseT meijaremiwa unda CamoerTvas. Tu ijariT ar aZleven miwas,maSin Tivas sadRac yidian. me riTi vixado, samuSaoTu ara maqvs. meijares urCevnia 4-5 muSa daiqiraos _moaTibinos da esec hyofnis. meijares miwa iq undamieces, sadac mosaxleoba ar aris. SarSan miwamouTibavi darCa da gadawva. glexi ki arafersdakargavs, mosavals moixmars an gayidis. aq TuaWarlebi momravldeba, TbilisSi puris fasi gaiafdeba.Cven moviTxovT miwis gadanawilebas. Tu essaqme ar mogvarda, aqedan wavlen aWarlebi”.428 429


walkis r-is erT-erT sof. teritoriaze moijarismier ijariT aRebuli miwis gamoyenebis sxva formaSeiqmna: iq mcxovrebi berZnebis STamomavalma 1997 w.kolmeurneobis miwis fondidan SemorCenili (rogorcTviTonve amboben `narCenebi”) saTibi 186 ha da saZovari_ 196 ha nakveTebi saxelmwifosagan ijariT aiRes damesaqonleobis ferma Camoayalibes _ sakuTariojaxisa da naTesavebis saqonels (30 suli) nayidiZroxebi da Sveduri buRebi (10) Semates da warmoebaSeqmnes _ awarmoeben, ZiriTadad, rZis nawarms,romelsac amave soflis saxeliT uweven realizacias.warmoebis saqmianobaSi CarTulia soflis yvelaojaxi (berZnebisagan TiTqmis daclil sofelSiCasaxlda qarTveli migrantebi (aWarelTa 2 ojaxi,svanebis 3 ojaxi. adre aq 100 berZnuli ojaxi cxovrobda,amJamad _ 17-20 ojaxia). saqme isaa rom am sofelSidaarsebuli kerZo meurneoba (150 suli msxvilfexasaqonliT), moixmars soflis mflobelobaSi arsebul,amJamad arendirebul, saZovrebsa da saTibebs, romelsacamave soflSi mcxovrebi ramdenime kaci emsaxureba.maT sakuTari meurneobis warmoeba ar SeuZliaT, radganacmiwa sakmarisi ar aris. ase rom sakmaod kargadda patiosnurad gamarTuli sawarmoo, ver akmayofilebsyvela moTxovnilebas da dRes sabWoTa periodSimacxovrebeli ojaxebis 20%-iT dasaxlebul sofelsdidi moma-vali ar uCans.sxva SemTxvevaSi miwas ijariT iRebs ojaxisakuTari moxmarebisaTvis. marneulis r-is erT-erTsoflis mcxovrebis ojaxs 5 ha saxnavi miwa aqvssaxelmwifosagan ijariT aRebuli _ Tesavs nesvs,sazamTros, pomidors da sxv. moSenebuli hyavs Rorebi,msxvilfexa saqoneli. mosavlis namats marneulSi(an TbilisSi) yidis.miwis naklebobas ganicdis qvemo qarTlis yvelaraionis mcxovrebi (miTumetes im pirobebSi, rodesacsamuSao ar aris da raime damatebiTi Semosavali araqvT). dmanis-bolnisis raionebis mosaxleobisZiriTadi sameurneo dargebia: miwaTmoqmedeba damesaqonleoba. ojaxze gamoyofili (saxelmwifosagan)1 ha saTibi 2005 w. daukanondaT, magram es sakmarisiar aris saqonlis (ZiriTadad, Zroxebis, zogierTshyavs cxvari, Txac) gamosakvebad. sakarmidamonakveTebze (1 ha, 25/100) moyvanili bostneuli (kombosto,Warxali, stafilo, lobio, mwvanili, misdeven mefutkreobasac)ojaxis saWiroebas xmardeba.bolnisis r-is cnobil, wiaRiseuliT mdidarsof. baliWaSi aseTive viTareba dagvxvda. mTxrobelTagadmocemiT: ~baliWelebs saxelmwifom miuzoma2000 kv.m saxnavi miwa, meti ara. aq ki miwa ar vargauwylod. erTxel movxaniT, orjer da araferigamovida, gvalva iyo _ wyali ki ar aris. visacsaSualeba hqonda miwebi SeiZines _ Cvenebmac dasxvebmac. Cven aravin arafers ar gvekiTxeba. ZirZvelisaqarTvelo aq aris da mainc aravis ainteresebs”.bolnisis r-is sof. kianeTis (somxuri sofelia)mosaxleobac gawvalebulia umiwobiT _ saxnav-saTesiarasakmarisia. mTel sofels mxolod 147 ha saZovariekuTvnis, aqedan zog mosaxles 5-10 ha Seusyidia, zogs_ araferi. ~soflisaa 40%, vinc iyida imaTia 60%saZovari. vTibavT sadac ki balaxia _ gzispirebzeTu xevebSi. amiT ki 1-2 saqonelsac ver gamokvebav.CvenTan kargi xili modis _ bali, atami da sxv. adregagvqonda gasayidad an kartofilze gasacvlelad(somxeTSi). samuSao ar aris _ fuli ar gvaqvs,axloblis gasvenebazec ver mivdivarT”. aseTivesayvedurebi ismis dmanisis r-is soflebis mosaxleobisganacgansakuTrebiT mZime mdgomareobaa gardabnis damarneulis raionebSi uwylobis gamo. qvemo qarTlissarwyavi miwebi irwyveboda arxebis saSualebiT;mTxrobelTa gadmocemiT, amJamad arxebSi wylisgamtaroba Seferxebulia da zogierT SemTxvevaSi,430 431


arxi saerTod ganadgurebulia. sof. sadaxloSi(azerbaijanuli sofelia) `soflis ojaxebze saxelmwifom1-2 ha gamoyo (zogma, visac fuli hqonda 20 haSeiZina, magram es erTeuli SemTxvevebia); am, isedacmcire farTobebze mosavlis moyvana SeuZlebelia,radgan aq miwebi sarwyavia; arxi, romelic md. debediswyliT sazrdoobda da s. sadaxlos awvdida wyals,ganadgurebulia _ arxis Semadgeneli seqciebidaangries, moi pares da wyali aRar mogvewodeba.gvalvebi anadgurebs mosavals. erT-erTisaTvisgamoyofili 12/100 ha-dan 6/100 sarwyavia, 6/100 _ urwyavi;meore mTxroblis 25/100-dan naxevarze meti urwyavimiwaa. sadaxlos saZovari ara aqvs. adre gvqondasaZovari, romelic 1936 wlidan somxeTma miiTvisa.tyec iyo, axla iq aRar gviSveben. CvenTan adre atmisbaRebi xarobda, modis kitri, pomidori. wyali romgvqondes, SeiZleboda bostneulisa da xiliskonservebis warmoeba. miwebi samarTlianad romganawilebuliyo yovel ojaxs 2500 kv.m unda rgeboda.axla ukve miwebi gayidulia da Cven veRarafersmiviRebT”miwac rom hqondes ojaxs _ problema iqmnebamis damuSavebasTan dakavSirebiT _ ara aqvT dasamuSavebeliinventari, teqnika, sasuqi da umuSevari xalximaT SeZenas ver axerxebs.gansakuTrebiT mZimea ekomigrantebis (aWarlebis,svanebis) mdgomareoba. saxelmwifos mier danapirebisaxlebis da miwis nakveTebis miReba Seferxda.aWarlebi, romlebic berZenTa saxlebSi Sesaxldnen(garkveuli SeTanxmebiT mepatroneebTan) maTivesakarmidamos amuSaveben, magram SesaZloa maTdaatovebinon saxl-karic da sakarmidamoc, maTi Sromada xarji miwis gasanayofiereblad, wyalSi Caiyaros.migratnTa TqmiT, `Tu ase gagrZelda, SeiZleba ukandabrundnen _ aWaraSi”.gansakuTrebuli daZabuloba dRes walkis raionSifiqsirdeba. garTulebulia berZenTa (walkis raioni)kuTvnili saxlebis Sesyidvis sakiTxi. es problemadRis wesrigSi didi xania dgas, magram misi gadaWrisgzebi kvlav ar Cans. mosawesrigebelia iuridiulimxare, radgan mravali saxli ukanonodaa dakavebuli.dacarielebuli Senoba-nagebobebis umravlesoba ukvengrevis pirzea misuli, upatronobis gamo faqtiuradganadgurebulia sacxovrebeli fondi.Sesaxlebis ramdenime forma fiqsirdeba:1. saxelmwifos mier organizebuli _ rodesacekomigrantebi saxelmwifos mier migrirebuli berZenimosaxleobisgan SeZenil saxlebSi Seasaxles.2. nawilobriv saxelmwifos mier Sesyiduli _rodesac Tanxis nawils ekomigranti ixdis (Tumca,rogorc wesi, es ukanaskneli ar aris oficialuradfiqsirebuli da mepatroneebs xelze araviTarisabuTi ar gaaCniaT).3. stiqiuri _ a) rodesac ekomigrantebi TviTneburadsaxldebian berZenTa sacxovreblebSi (maTnawils wasuli berZnis axlobelisTvis gadaxdiliaqvs e. w. “gasaRebis fuli” (500 laramde), anumopovebuli aqvs saxlSi droebiT Sesvlis ufleba).b) axalmosaxle molaparakebulia, berZen mepatronesTanmis saxlSi icxovros saxlisa da saflavebismovlis sanacvlod.g) axalmosaxle SeWrilia Tavisufal, magramdaketil saxlebSiTiTqmis yoveli ekomigranti droebiT macxovrebladiTvleba. (zogi am statusiT 20 weliacxovrobs).zemoxsenebul viTarebas Semdegi istoria aqvs:gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi, rodesac mimdinareobdaberZenTa repatriacia, maT saxlebis gayidvadaiwyes im droisTvis Sesaferis fasebSi (500 dolarisfarglebSi). maSin saxelmwifoSi ekomigran-432 433


tebisTvis am saxlebis Sesyidvis saSualeba Tu nebaar gamoCnda. Semdeg daiwyo ekomigrantebis, organizebulida paralelurad stiqiuri, Sesvla walkaSi,maTTvis saxlebi Seisyides mTlianad an nawilobriv.droTa ganmavlobaSi gaizarda “wiTeli zolidan”(gansakuTrebiT xulos raionidan) gadmomsvleliojaxebis ricxvi da saxlebis fasmac sagrZnobladmoimata. ekomigrantebs ar hqondaT Tanxis gadaxdissaSualeba da verc mTavroba axerxebda maTTvissaxlebis Sesyidvas. amasobaSi saberZneTSi migrirebuliberZnebi materialurad sakmaod momagrdnenda ukve saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier SeTavazebuliTanxa (2000 evros farglebSi) ecotavebodaT. umravlesobamamjobina sakuTrebis SenarCuneba da dRessaxls TiTqmis aRaravin yidis (Tu iyideba saSualod10000 dolaris farglebSi).situaciidan gamomdinare mwvaved dgas miwisproblema. droebiT Sesaxlebulebs, sakarmidamo miwadroebiT sargeblobaSi aqvT. umZimesi viTarebaasaZovar, saTib da saxnav miwebTan dakavSirebiT. ammiwebis umetesi nawili arendirebulia da kanoniTmaTi gasxviseba ar SeiZleba. aseulobiT heqtari miwisdamuSaveba ekomigrants SeuZlia mxolod safasuris,garkveuli Tanxis an naturaluri gadasaxadis,gadaxdis Semdeg. es yovelive kidev ufro amZimebsisedac dazaralebuli axalmosaxleebis mdgomareobas.ekomigrantebs sargeblobaSi aqvT mxolodsakarmidamo nakveTi (rogorc wesi gauformebeli, 600dan 2000-2500, an iSiaTad 3000 m-mde raodenobiT), racojaxis arsebobis minimums Zlivs akmayofilebs.adgilobrivi mmarTveloba ekomigrantebis miersxvisi miwis TviTneburad damuSavebas xSirad upirispirebskanons “kerZo sakuTrebis dacvis Sesaxeb”.ra Tqma unda, kanonis moxmoba sworia, magram ra qnasglexma, romelic DdRes “fermeris” magivrad TviTTavis Tavs “monas” uwodebs da arendatorebs ki“monaTmflobelebs”. amitom, dRis wesrigSi dgebaarendirebuli miwebis ijariT gacemis samarTlianobisgadasinjvis sakiTxi.araorganizebulma Casaxlebam gamoiwvia kideverTi problema. gaurkvevelia rogori fardoba undaiyos yoveli calkeuli soflis sakuTrebaSi arsebulimiwebis (saZovari, saTibi, saxnavi) farTobsa damosaxleobis raodenobas Soris. aris soflebi sadacmosaxleoba mcirea da miwebi ki Warbad aqvs, zoganki piriqiT, mravalricxovan soflebs mcire miwisfondi gaaCniaT.mosaxleobis racionaluri raodenobis regulaciasocialuri ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani faqtoria.mosaxleobisa da materialuri resursebisdisbalansi iwvevs winaaRmdegobebs da konfliqts.demografiuli mdgomareobis kontroli sazogadoebisSida prerogativaa. SeiZleba iTqvas isic, romdemografiul mdgomareobas saukuneebis manZilzeawesrigebda tradiciuli wes-Cveulebebi. adamianma,romelmac Seqmna TavisTvis da erTi sazogadoebisTvisdamaxasiaTebeli kultura da romelic am kulturistradiciebiT aRwevs socialur ganviTarebas, demografiasmniSvnelovani adgili dauTmo Tavis tradiciebSi.es aris ara marto sazogadoebis, aramed calkeuliadamianebis gadarCenis erT-erTi saSualeba.demografiuli suraTis Secvla, gansakuTrebiTki xelovnuri CareviT da winaswari Seswavlis gareSe,TavisTavad arRvevs bevr socialur movlenas, rasacSedegad mohyveba sxvadasxva saxis winaaRmdegobebi,romlebic Tavis mxriv amuxruWeben axali, jansaRipolieTnikuri sazogadoebis Camoyalibebas.mocemul etapze regionSi SesaZlebelia gamovyoTeTnikuri jgufebis Semdegi maxasiaTeblebi:1. TiToeuli eTnikuri jgufis “daxuruli“sistema ganapirobebs maT izolacias da minimalurkontaqts.434 435


2. socialuri distanciis da informaciis dabalmaCveneblebs aseve ganapirobebs enobrivi barieri.3. mniSvnelovani, SeiZleba iTqvas wamyvani,faqtoria gansxvavebuli aRmsarebloba.4. regionis mosaxleobis TanacxovrebaSimniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs da garkveulwiladgansazRvravs maTi urTierTobis xasiaTs socialurekonomikurifaqtorebi.jgufuri Sexvedrebis monawileTa gamosvlebSiaSkarad SeiniSneba socialuri sakiTxebis win wamowevistendencia, isini Tavs dabal safexurze mdgomadmiiCneven da saxelmwifosagan met yuradRebas iTxoven.eTnikuri mobilizacia maTSi SedarebiT naklebadigrZnoba. eTnikuroba monawileTaTvis erTdrouladaris rogorc stabilurobis garanti (jgufi gaerTianebuliatradiciuli kulturiT, rac maT komfortulgaremos uqmnis), aseve arastabilurobis gamomwvevimizezi (mag. eTnikuroba qarTveli ekomigrantebisnawils uSlis xels damkvidrdes axal garemoSi.gavrcelebuli mosazrebiT, ~misaxedi~ qarTvelebiarian da ara sxvebi _ ~qarTvelebs rodis gveSveleba?!”).e.i. individebi komfortulad grZnoben Tavsama Tu im jgufTan mikuTvnilobiT da amave mizeziTarakomfortulad _ socialur integraciis Seferxebisgamo.polieTnikuri regionis eTnikuri jgufebisobieqturi situaciebi aseTia: mZime socialuri dabunebrivi garemo, uaryofiTi stereoti pebis mqoneeTnikuri jgufebis Tanaarseboba, susti saxelmwifoebriviinstitutebi da informaciuli vakuumi.situaciis aRqma jgufebis SefasebaSi aseTia:usamarTloba, sakuTari Tavis, rogorc msxverplisgancda, adamianis da erovnuli niSniT diskriminacia.konfliqtur situaciaSi moxvedrili jgufebispozicia aRmoCndeba Semdegi: daikavon gamoTavisuflebuliniSebi (miwis nakveTebi). es pozicia dResar ris faruli da misi manifestacia xdeba verbalurad.Tavisi pozicia rom ufro damajereblad,sarwmunod da samarTlianad warmoudginos mowinaaRmdeges,jgufi misi argumentaciisTvis gamoiyenebsiseT Rirebulebebs, romlebic ama Tu im moTxovnisyvelaze arsebiT maxasiaTeblad iTvleba. am dapirispirebisaswina planze wamoiwevs iseTi sabazo maxasia-Tebeli, rogoric aris Rirebuleba `samSoblo~, racCvens SemTxvevaSi yoveli jgufis prerogativadSeiZleba CaiTvalos. es ki, rogorc wesi, eTnonacionalisturelfers iRebs, rac yofiTi konfliqturisituaciis gadazrdas iwvevs jer-jerobiT SefaruleTnikur dapirispirebaSi. miwaze yvela acxadebspretenzias. `es Cemi miwaa (igulisxmeba qveyana) dasxva aqedan unda wavides~; berZeni respodenti ambobs_ „miwa upirveles yovlisa me mekuTvnis (igulisxmebameurneobisTvis dasamuSavebeli) minda me aq TaTari?!(gulisxmobs mis sofelSi Casaxlebul azerbaijanels).regionis polieTnikuri sazogadoeba warmo-Cindeba integraciisa da moqalaqeobrivi azrovnebisnaklebi xarisxiT, socialuri, ekonomikuri dakulturuli distanciiT, mtris xatiT, eTnikuriidentobis ufro negatiuri (eTnocetristuli)formiT da tolerantobis dabali doniT.saqarTvelos regionebisaTvis ti puri problemebi_ mosaxleobisagan dacarieleba, stagnacia,gaucxoeba, soflis meurneobis dacema, infrastruqturismoSla _ qvemo qarTlSi specifikurviTarebas qmnis: (intensiuri migracia, jgufTaSorisenobrivi barieri, sainformacio vakuumi, gadauWreliyofiTi, socialuri da ekonomikuri problemebi,ganaTlebis arasaxarbielo mdgomareoba). mosalodnelianegatiuri Sedegebi: nacionalizmis da Sovinizmisgamwvaveba, kulturis krizisi da a.S.. araqar-Tveli jgufebi cxovrebis dabal dones saxelmwifosaganyuradRebis naklebobiT xsnian da sazRvar-436 437


gulisxmobs sazogadoebis myari struqturis arsebobas.Cvens mier Seswavlili regioni polieTnikuria, igijer kidev ar aris Camoyalibebuli, rogorc erTiani,mTliani sazogadoeba. misi erTianobis safuZveliaris mxolod teritoriuli (regioni qvemo qarTli)erToba da dResdReobiT ara aqvs nebismieri sazogadoebisaTvisaucilebeli erTiani socialuri struqtura.am struqturis gareSe ki warmoudgeneliamoTxovnilebaTa dakmayofileba, koleqtiuri saqmianobisprocesis organizacia, konfliqtis regulireba,kulturis ganviTareba da sxv.arsebobs integraciis ori aspeqti _ socialurida kulturuli. socialuri integracia gulisxmobs,process rodesac umciresobebi sazogadoebis ganuyofelinawili xdebian, TavianTi cxovrebis wesiT,kanonis morCilebiT, mravali socialuri da kulturulifaseulobis gaziarebiTa da socialuri yofisgaumjobesebisaTvis gaweuli erToblivi muSaobiT.integraciis amplituda erTian eTnosocialurorganizmSi integraciidan, socialuri organizaciissrul izolaciamde meryeobs. rac jgufebs Sorissocialuri da naTesaobiTi kavSirebis sixSiresa dasulieri kulturis sferoSi arsebuli nasesxobaSiaisaxeba. gamokvlevam aCvena, rom regionSi es procesimimdinareobs, Tumca didi aqtiurobiT ar xasiaTdeba.jgufTaSoris urTierTobaze Taviseburad aisaxeba,aseve, globaluri procesebi. ganxiluli gvaqvsramdenime aspeqti, romelic sxvadasxvanairad Seexomosaxleobis yvela jgufs. imis miuxedavad, romcalkeuli kulturuli sistemebi iswrafvian TviTmyofadobaizolaciis gziT SeinarCunon, saerTaSorisoda lokaluri komunikaciebis gaadvileba, interkulturuliurTierTobebis gaaqtiureba da sameurneoTu kulturuli xasiaTis kontaqtebi aisaxeba tradiciuliyofis da kulturis yvela mxareze. transforgareTekonomikur migracias politikur taqtikadmiiCneven, amitom mas azerbaijanelebi _ `kulturuldeportacias”, xolo somxebi _ `ZaldatanebiT deportacias”uwodeben.eTnikurobis politizireba saxelmwifosTviswamgebiani poziciaa, igi ufro mecnierebisa dakulturis sferos prerogativad unda iqces. dominantieTnosisa da umciresobebis eTnikur gansxvavebaTaignorireba sazogadoebaSi socialuri komfortisSeqmnis ZiriTadi piroba da samoqalaqo sazogadoebisCamoyalibebis safuZvelia. gardamaval etapze, problemadrCeba individualuri uflebebis uzrunvelyofa,maSin rodesac eTnikurobis ZiriTadipostulatebi TiTqmis yvela jgufs SenarCunebuliaqvs. anu dRes `adamiani eTnikuri” ufro metaduzrunvelyofilia, vidre `adamiani socialuri”.zemoxsenebul problemaTa miuxedavad, Cvens mierSeswavlil polieTnikur mikroregionebSi TavissazogadoebaSi Caketili jgufebi, Zlier gansxvavebulikulturiT, eTnikurobiT, konfesiiT, axerxebenerTmaneTis kulturis sazRvrebis gadaulaxavad,mSvidobian Tanacxovrebas. Tu moxda socialuriproblemebis mogvareba, da “adamiani socialuri”metad iqneba uzrunvelyofili, maSin “adamianieTnikuri” metad iqneba orientirebuli jgufTaSoriskonsolidaciaze. Sesabamisad, maTi ganwyoba mkafiodopoziciuri `Cven-isini”-dan, rogorc dRes aris,gadaiqceva ufro neitralur formulad _ `Cven” da`ara Cven”. jgufebis TviTidentificirebisas xazgasmaiqneba ara uaryofiTze, rom `isini” (sxvebi) arian,aramed imaze, rom `isini” arian sxvebi, magram imaverangSi da iseTive, rogoric “Cven” varT. aseTpirobebSi sazogadoeba iqneba im adamianebis organizebulidajgufeba, romlebic erT garemoSi ganaxorcielebensocialur cxovrebas, rac TavisTavad438 439


macias eqvemdebareba tradiciuli sistemis TiTqmisyvela elementi. globalizaciis gacxovelebuliprocesi, romelic adamianuri kontaqtebis da kulturulurTierTobaTa gaaqtiurebis fonze mimdinareobs,ganapirobebs adre SedarebiT izolirebuli kulturulisistemebis gaxsnas. yovelive amas emateba isgaremoebac, rom Tanamedrove teqnologiebi migraciaSiwasul adamianebsac ki (romlebic sakmaod mravalricxovaniarian) aZleven aq darCenil erTobiswevrebTan intensiuri urTierTobis saSualebas.savele eTnografiuli masaliT dasturdeba, romqvemo qarTlis polikulturul regionSi xdebakulturaTaSorisi urTierTobebis strategiis gamomuSaveba,rac socialuri distanciis garkveulSemcirebas ganapirobebs. amasTanave, gansxvavebulijgufebis Tanacxovrebis praqtika social-ekonomikurisgarda kulturuli xasiaTis kavSirurTier-Tobebsa da urTierTzegavlenaSic gamoixateba.zemoT ganxiluli socialuri, ekonomikuri dasxva faqtorebis mogvarebasTan erTad regionissazogadoebis integraciis, fsiqologiuri klimatisgajansaRebis, daZabulobis ganmuxtvisa da polieTnikurisazogadoebis mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobis erTerTmeqanizmad interkulturuli ganaTleba gvevlineba.arsebul viTarebaSi eTnikuri umciresobebissazogadoebrivi integraciisTvis metad mniSvnelovaniaara mxolod is, rom maT Seiswavlon saxelmwifoena da dauaxlovdnen qarTul kulturas, aramed maTitradiciebis, faseulobebis, cxovrebis wesisa da a.S.Seswavla, dominanti jgufis wevrebis mier. aucilebelia,sazogadoebis dominantur nawilSi umciresobismimarT fsiqologiuri mimReblobis ganviTarebada am TvalsazrisiT samoqalaqo cnobierebis donezeqveynis eTnikuri mravalferovnebis gaazreba. ammiznis miRwevis erT-erT saukeTeso meqanizmadinterkulturuli ganaTlebis sistemis ganviTarebada danergvaa miCneuli. interkulturuli ganaTlebamimarTulia rogorc umravlesobis, aseve umciresobebiswarmomadgenlebs Camouyalibos iseTi socialuricnobiereba da faseulobaTa sistema, romelicuzrunvelyofs sxvadasxva kulturaTa mSvidobianTanaarsebobas da maT warmatebul integraciaspolieTnikur sazogadoebaSi.440 441


INSTEAD OF A CONCLUSIONThe establishment of civil society is one of the most importantobjectives for Georgia following the path of democratic developmentafter gaining independence. Despite the transformation of the Sovietsocio-political and economic infrastructure some barriers still existin this respect. The processes of democratization and developmentof the civil society is significantly complicated by multi-ethnicenvironment, multiculturalism and the problems related to the widearray of ethnic minorities in the country. In this regard, Kvemo Kartliis a distinguished region.Historically the migration of foreign ethnic groups (especially sincethe first half of the 19 th century) and voluntary or forced resettlementof local population was frequent in the region. Georgians and therepresentatives of various ethnic groups (Azeri, Armenians, Greeks,Germans, Osetians, Russians, etc.) had lived in the neighborhoodmainly in isolated compact settlements for centuries. Today thepopulation of all districts in Kvemo (Lower) Kartli (Bolnisi,Dmanisi, Tetritskharo, Marneuli, Gardabani, Tsalka) is distinguishedby their different ethnic and religious orientation. Due to thissituation intercultural communication is not similar and, accordingly,the integration process of ethnic minorities is complicated. Thesituation is even more complicated by the fact that Georgians, whichare to maintain integration of the minorities into the state’s dominantculture, are not leading in some way in the region. Such conditions,both theoretically and practically cause serious problems forrealization of the policy of civil integration of the minorities. Besides,implementation of the integration strategy in poly-ethniccommunities necessitates preliminarily worked out positive multiculturalideology.Georgian state policy is aimed at integration of minorities into thestate space. It is a hard task in Kvemo Kartli, because the multiculturalinfrastructure of the region does not form favorableconditions in this direction. Permanent migration and immigrationprocesses have made the ethno-cultural mosaic of the region evenmore diverse and extended the adaptation-acculturation rates. Themigration of the Georgian population since the 1990’s and“intrusion” of “foreign” element in the region has upset the previousbalance in the region.The adaptation of migrants to the new cultural environment was acomplex process, where ethnocentric mechanisms were activelyinvolved; it inspired (mainly in the beginning) conflicts betweenthe different ethnic groups. In the areas where different ethno-culturalgroups coexist the probability of opposition between them is higher.Intersection of their interests causes inter-cultural confrontationsand even conflicts. Conflict in the research region could be regardedas a result not only of cultural clash or competition but, too, asdisruption of communication between them. The appearance ofGeorgian groups (Svans, Adzharians, Imeretians, etc.) in the regionwas perceived as a strategy of Georgian nationalistic policy andthus not endorsed by the locals. The local groups were aware oftheir advantages, for they were in the majority in the region andenjoyed certain privileges. They were hostile towards the group,who tried to attain the first place on the ethnic background (beingGeorgian) as if pushing away the privileged ones. Confrontationand conflict between the locals and migrated people were frequent.Initially the confrontations had ethno-centric basis; lack ofcommunication was also an issue. The latter was caused by the lackof Georgian language knowledge and ignorance of the newcomers’cultural values. Later, when these new groups settled firmly in theregion and were already involved in its economic and social life,the major factor of confrontation has become their material interests.Today the main focus lies on economic problems, especially landownership issues, which are equally important to the Georgian andnon-Georgian population. The past experience of inter-groupconflicts confirms that any confrontation having non- ethnic biascould be easily developed into ethnic conflict. The tension hasoccurred mainly in those settlements, where the mentioned groups442 443


interact frequently. There were and still are mutual claims from eachof the parties on their bad social and economic conditions. Recentlythe situation has become more or less stable. However, problemsrelated to everyday life still exist, but they are not common. This isdue to the Government’s effective measures (tightening of control,execution of law).The effectiveness of inter-cultural connections in the research areais firstly determined by the possibilities of establishing verbal contactbetween the parties. In the Soviet period the language ofcommunication in Kvemo Kartli’s multi-ethnic community wasRussian. After gaining independence and announcement of Georgianas a State Language (which caused disruption of communicationbetween groups), gave rise to new problems vis-à-vis inter-culturaldialogue. Due to ignorance of the state language it became difficultfor national minorities to integrate into the social and political lifeof the independent Georgian State. From national minorities inKvemo Kartli Georgian language is fluently spoken mainly byminorities living in the capital and poly-ethnic settlements, whilethe knowledge of the Georgian language is very poor in isolatedmono-ethnic settlements. Recently the state has focused on theteaching of the Georgian language to the minorities andharmonization of the education system. On the basis of local andforeign institutions special programs have been developed, whichsupport teaching Georgian language to minorities and facilitate theopportunity of establishment of verbal communication betweendifferent groups. Today the situation has been improved, althoughcertain difficulties still remain. There is observed Interest and evenneed for the Georgian language knowledge among non- Georgianpopulation.Mixed marriages significantly favor realization of inter-culturalrelations and acceleration of the integration process. However, thefact that the region is populated by the representatives of differentreligions hinders the dynamics of inter-cultural communication viamixed marriages. The reason could also be the isolated settlementof minority groups. Due to small number of mixed marriages thisform of inter-ethnic communication could not be regarded as a factoraccelerating the integration process in the research area.Acquaintance with alien culture through communication betweenthe representatives of different religious confessions andinvolvement in their contexts is quite important for the integrationstrategy; however, ethnic groups in the research area keep distancein this regard. Actually, no serious conflict on religious bias hasoccurred in Kvemo Kartli (exclusive of some minor cases in Tsalkadistrict), which proves that various religious groups are mainlytolerant towards each other. Religious tolerance is especially strongin the population traditionally living either in the vicinity of eachother or in mixed communities. The same tendency is observed inthe relatively new mixed communities formed after migration ofGeorgian groups.In terms of integration the situation in Kvemo Kartli could not beassessed as favorable, although some positive dynamics of interculturaldialogue is present. Due to their interrelations throughoutyears the old and new groups have acquired certain experience inthis respect. It became evident, that in the areas where dailyinterpersonal relationships were common, intercultural dialogueproved to be easier and more effectiveInter-cultural communication between the local and “foreign”ethno-confessional groups in Kvemo Kartli engenders twotendencies. On the one hand the development of integrationprocesses, exchange of cultural elements, increase of contacts,probability of bilingualism and mixed marriages are observed, thatcould serve the basis for further civil integration. On the otherhand, the tendency of preserving ethno-cultural specificities isevident.Ethno-social heterogeneity implies diversified cultural interactionbetween ethnic and religious groups, different social strata, thetown and the village and other types of social unities. This process444 445


is especially active in the so called marginal areas, i.e. areascharacterized by high frequency of inter-cultural contacts. In thementioned context Kvemo Kartli is fairly interesting, because it iscompactly populated by ethnical groups different from the so called“title population” – national minorities. In this region formalminority (at the state level) is a de facto majority (at local level)(i.e. in Marneuli district the Azeri share is 83.1 %, in Dmanisi –66.8 %, in Bolnisi – 66 %, in Gardabani – 45.6 %). .The regions compactly populated by the national minorities areconsidered the center of disintegration processes and high risk, sogreat attention is paid to the implementation of the preventivemeasures by state. Two different strategies could be used: I. Ethnicalassimilation through erasing of the internal ethnical identity (themain focus is on the radical transformation of their ethno-culturalpeculiarities); II. Activation of integration processes at the expenseof increase of the inter-group solidarity, when the state is theguarantor of the protection of the internal identity of the group. Therecent processes confirm that Georgia has chosen the latter strategy.As is well known, ethnic cultures could be conditionally dividedinto open and close systems. Open systems are characterized by thewill to incorporate new and different elements, while close – on thecontrary, are against relationships which could cause changes to thesystem. The basis of cultural interaction is not a cultural isolation,but cultural openness. The tolerance of the society, its openness tohear about and understand peculiarities of other cultures areimportant. Due to the high level of conservatism of the ethnical andconfession groups of the research region they could be more likelycategorized as close type, which is an impeding factor to integrationprocess.Noteworthy is that a resettled person is characterized by entirelydifferent psychological features that is caused by the change ofenvironment and is closely related to the expectations of the resettledindividuals. Individuals in a new environment confront each otherwith their most important values –that is the motherland. Generallyeven the changing of merely the geographic landscape causesproblems to an individual that are related to the consequent problemsof psychological adaptation: cultural shock, acculturation stress, etc.The mentioned factors should be considered in the process ofintegration of ethnic minorities in the region. The newcomer has toadapt to the, values, beliefs and rules, cultural and human specificitiesthat are accepted in the new society. Besides, the difficult economicbackground creates favorable environment for aggravation of interethnicrelations and triggers the conflict situation. Besides the abovementioned, significant are personal attitudes of the members ofdifferent ethnic groups.Actually, the change of the residence has turned the Georgian groups– Svans and Adzharians into ethnic minority group. Generally, ethnicminority as a category implies latent or manifested conflict betweengroups, alienation towards “their group” and their discrimination.The migration within a homeland is associated with emotion thatthe migrant is not a foreigner, but a full-fledged subject on his/hermotherland territory in Georgia.As regards ethnic diversity, it is represented by complex and differentvariety of traditional cultural values. Diversity of values and theirdifference in conditions of language and religious diversity stipulatesalienation between ethnic groups and the high level ofunacceptability. Ethnic groups just coexist within certain space anddo not cooperate. Social distance is great, resulting in minimalrelationship.Different ethnic groups within the similar socio-economicenvironment under the influence of various subjective and objectivefactors have negative social attitudes. Different markers of thelifestyle of migrant Svans cause alienation between them and Azeriesand local Georgians. In this case, as in any other similar situations,the so called ethno-affiliation (the need to be included in your group)is enhanced. In multi-layer society where the most important markersof ethnic identity —religion and language are different in differentethnic groups, the groups are marked as “alien” ethnos and are446 447


predestined to marginal status, even if some representative of thegroup achieves material success. In these conditions ethnicity is firstpriority for the ethnical group members, as the means ofidentification. If there are no such conditions (i.e. there is no necessityof ethnic identification), these markers move to the background.Then ethnic indifference comes to fore.Social distance between ethnic groups in Kvemo Kartli is moderate.At semantic level it is reflected in good neighboring and personalrelationships. However, they are mainly not familiar or slightlyfamiliar with the rules and traditions of the other group. It isespecially true for Svans and Adzharians. They are judgedsuperficially according to formal markers. Ethnic stereotypes arestrictly differentiated. The stereotypes of own group are mainlydominated by cognitive trends, while the stereotypes of other groups– by emotional-evaluative ones. It is especially obvious in Svan andAdzharian hetero-stereotypes. The most acute in ecomigrants is thelack of primary vital necessities. In terms of ethno-cultural sensitivitythe existing situation is categorized as the second step of ethnocentrismaccording to Bennet’s inter-cultural sensitivity model, i.e.self-defense from differences. Yet another problem is the fact thatthe majority of the population speaks only own language and thereis no common communication language. Although, instrumentalmotivation for the study of the state language is observed amongAzeries.As regards the “true” Georgians of the elder generation, they haveso called ambivalent attitude towards Svans: on the one hand, it ispositive, because the region has gained Georgian orientation due totheir migration; on the other hand, it is negative, because Svans (intheir opinion) have different traditions, language and rules ofbehavior and they strive to become dominant in the region.Armenians and Georgians are mainly isolated from each other. It isphysical as well as informational and psychological detachment.They have moderate feelings towards each other, although they knowless about each other’s traditions and rules. Armenians in villageseither badly speak or do not speak Georgian. The young are lessmotivated than Azeri in studying Georgian. Generally they havecautious attitude towards the language study, as they fear of culturalassimilation with Georgians.The results of the research confirm that negative ethnic stereotypesand ethno-centrism is dominant in the districts compactly populatedby the ethnical minority groups. Social distance between groups isgreat, while inter-cultural sensitivity less developed. The majorityof the mentioned ethnic groups could be categorized fairly low interms of development of inter-cultural sensitivity – that is the levelof self-defense from differences of the egocentric phase. This levelis quite apart from good ethnic relationships and effectivecommunications between cultures, cooperation and co-existence.Such psychological climate naturally hinders the integration of thesociety of the region and impedes the establishment and developmentof the civil society.The situation is the most tense in Tsalka district. The issue ofpurchasing of the Greek owned houses is complicated. This problemhas been on the agenda for a while, but there are no tangible meansof resolution yet. Legal framework should be facilitated, becausemany houses had been illegally seized. The majority of the emptybuildings are on the verge of destruction due to lack of maintenance.It could be said that housing fund has been depleted.There are several forms of settlement of the houses:1. Organized by state – when ecomigrants were settled in thehouses purchased by the state from the migrated Greekpopulation;2. Partially purchased by state – when part of the price is paidby the ecomigrant (however, the latter is not officiallyregistered and the owner has no document);3. Sporadic – a) when ecomigrants seize Greek houses (partof the migrants had paid the relatives of the Greek the so448 449


called “key money” – up to 500 GEL and earned the rightto temporarily live in the house);b) The newcomer has negotiated with the Greek owner tolive in the house and care for the residence and graves;c) The newcomer has seized the empty property, althoughalmost all ecomigrants are considered temporary residentsin the locked houses (some have lived with the status for20 years).The described situation has the following history:In the 90ies of the past century, when Greeks had been repatriated,they started selling houses according to fair prices of that period(within 500 USD range). Then ecomigrants had not had the meansor wish to purchase these houses. Afterwards ecomigrants startedcoming to Tsalka in an organized and at the same time chaotic way.They purchased whole houses or their parts. As time passed thenumber of families from the “red zone” (especially – Khulo district)had increased and the price for houses correspondingly increased.Ecomigrants could not afford to buy the property and the state didnot provide for the housing. Meanwhile the repatriated Greeks hadmaterially prospered and the sum offered by Georgian government(around 2000 EURO) could not satisfy them. The majority preferredto preserve some real estate and at present almost nobody sells ahouse (if they do, the price is around 10 000 USD).The land problem in the region is acute. The transients use the landtemporarily. The situation is especially tense in regard of pastures,grasslands and arable lands. The major part of the land is rented andit could not be sold. The ecomigrants could only cultivate hundredsof hectares of land only after paying the price – in cash or in kind.This situation only complicates the conditions of the alreadysuffering new settlers. Ecomigrants have in possession onlyresidential plot (as a rule, unregistered, from 600 to 2000-2500 orrarely 3000 Square meters), which only merely supplies the family’sminimal means of subsistenceLocal administration often outlines that illegal land tenure byecomigrants is against the law “on the protection of the privateproperty”. The execution of law undoubtedly is correct, but whatshould a farmer do who nowadays calls himself a slave and theleaseholders – “slaveholders”?! So the issue of the fairness of theleasing of the rented land should be revised.Unorganized settlement caused one more problem. It is vague whatthe proportion between the amount of land in possession of anindividual village (pasture, grassland, arable land) and the numberof population should be. There are villages with scarce populationand abundance of land, while densely populated villages are lackingit.Regulation of the rational number of population is a significant factorin social development. Disbalance of population and materialresources inspires confrontation and conflict. Control ofdemographic situation is the internal prerogative of the society. Itcould be said that demographic situation had been regulated bytraditions for centuries. An individual has allocated important placefor demography in his own culture it is one of the means of savingnot only entire society but separate individuals.Change of demographic situation, especially through artificialintrusion and without prior study, disrupts many social conditionscausing various confrontations, which, in its turn, hamper theestablishment of a healthy poly-ethnic society.The following characteristics of ethnical groups could bedistinguished in the region at this stage:1. Close system of each ethnical group causes its isolation andminimal contact;2. Social distance and low level of information is also causedby language barrier;3. A significant even leading factor is difference in religion;450 451


4. Socio-economic factors play significant role and at somelevel determine the nature of the relationships between thepopulations of the region.The participants of the group meeting outline social issues. Theyconsider themselves standing on lower level and demand moreattention from the state. Ethnic mobilization is less prominent inthem. Ethnicity is the warrantor of stability for the participants andat the same time it causes instability (i.e. ethnicity impedes some ofthe Georgian ecomigrants to settle in the new environment.According to a popular opinion, the Georgians should be cared aboutand not others). Thus, individuals feel comfortable as members of aconcrete group and at the same time – uncomfortable due toimpediment to social integration.Objective situation of the ethnic groups of the poly-ethnic regionis as follows: complex social and natural environment, co-existenceof ethnic groups with negative stereotypes, weak state institutionsand information vacuum.The perception of the situation in the evaluation by the groupsis as follows: injustice, perception of oneself as a victim,discrimination by ethnicity.The position of the groups with the experience of conflictsituations as follows: occupy released areas (land plots). Thisposition is not a secret today and it is verbally manifested. Torationalize own position and represent in a convincing and justmanner to the opponent, the group uses such value in rationalizingwhich is considered as the most intrinsic characteristic of the demand.In the confrontation such base characteristic as homeland is movedforward. And this could be the prerogative of any group in our case.So the situation gains ethno-nationalistic feature resulting in thetransformation of the conflict situation into yet latent ethnicalconfrontation. Everybody claims land. “This is my land (implyingthe country) and others should leave”; Greek respondent conveys –“the land is mine (agricultural land). Do I need a Tatar here?!(meaning Azeri who had settled in his village)?!”Poliethnic community of the region is characterized by lesser levelof integration and civil thinking, social, economic and culturaldistance, creation of enemy portrait, more negative form of ethnicalidentity (ethno-centric) and low level of tolerance.Problems typical to regions of Georgia – emptying from population,stagnation, alienation, agricultural decline, disrepair of infrastructure– form specific situation in Kvemo Kartli: intensive migration,language barrier between groups, information vacuum, unsolveddaily, social and economic problems, and bad educational situation.Negative outcome is anticipated: aggravation of nationalism andchauvinism, cultural crisis, etc. Non Georgian groups explain lowliving standards by lack of attention from the state and considereconomic migration abroad as political tactics, so Azeri calls it“cultural deportation” and Armenians – “compulsory deportation”.Politicization of ethnic problem is a bad choice for a state. Ignoringthe ethnical differences between the dominant ethnos and minoritiesis the main prerequisite for the establishment of social comfort andformation of the civil society. At the transition stage the facilitationof individual rights remains a problem, while main ethnic postulateshave been preserved by almost all of the groups. At present an “ethnicperson” is more secured than “social person”.Despite the above mentioned problems, the secluded in themselvesethnic groups with fairly different culture and confession living inthe poly-ethnic micro-regions, manage to peacefully co-exist withoutbreaching the cultural borders of one another. If social problems aresolved and “social person” is more successful, then “ethnical person”will become more oriented towards inter-group consolidation. Thus,their attitude will change from today’s severe oppositional “we-they”to more neutral formula “we” and “not we”. When identification ofthe group, the accent will be made not on negative, that “they” areothers, but –though “they” are others, they are at the same level andsimilar to “us”. In these conditions society becomes an organized452 453


group of those individuals, who will jointly conduct social life,which, in its turn, implies the existence of solid social structures.Our research region is poly-ethnic; it has not been formed yet as awhole society. The basis of unity is only territorial (region KvemoKartli) and does not have a united social structure necessary for anycommunity. Without these structures no demands could be met, noorganization of collective activity process undertaken, no conflictsettled or culture developed, etcThere are two aspects of integration: social and cultural. Socialintegration implies a process when minorities become indispensablepart of the community through their lifestyle, obedience to law,sharing of many social and cultural values and joint effort to improvesocial life. Integration amplitude fluctuates from integration intothe whole ethno-social organism to total isolation, which is reflectedby the frequency of social and blood relation ties between groupsand “borrowings” existing in the spiritual culture.Global processes have certain influence on the relationship ofdifferent ethnic groups. Despite the fact that some cultural systemstend to preserve through isolation, simplifying international and localcommunications, activation of inter-cultural relationships andeconomic or cultural contacts influence on traditional life and allfields of culture. Almost all elements of the traditional system aretransformed. Rigorous process of globalization, which occurs withinthe background of activation of human contacts and culturalrelationships, opens relatively more isolated systems. Moderntechnologies enable even migrated people (who are quite numerous)to intensively communicate with the remaining members of thegroup.Field ethnographic materials prove that inter-cultural relationshipstrategy is being developed in the poly-cultural region of KvemoKartli providing diminution of social distance. In addition, apartfrom social and economic realations the experience of co-existenceof different groups is conspicuous in cultural interrelations.Along with the solution of the above mentioned social, economicand other factors, inter-cultural education is regarded as one of themechanisms for the integration of the society in the region, makingthe psychological climate healthier, relieving tension and facilitatingpeaceful co-existence within the poly-ethnic society. In theseconditions for the integration of the ethnic minorities not onlystudying the state language and becoming familiar with Georgianculture are important, but also studying the minorities’ traditions,values, lifestyle, etc by the members of the dominant group.Development of psychological acceptance and perception of theethnic diversity of the country at the level of civil consciousness inthe dominant part of the society towards the minorities are necessary.Introduction and development of inter-cultural education system isconsidered as one of the best mechanisms to achieve the abovementioned goal. Inter-cultural education is oriented on the formationof social consciousness and system of values among therepresentatives of both majority and minority groups that willfacilitate peaceful co-existence and successful integration of differentcultures in poly-ethnic community.454 455

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