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5.3 Address Resolution

5.3 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)....................................................................................................58 5.4 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)....................................................................................59 5.5 Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)...............................................................................................................59 5.6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)..................................................................................60 5.6.1 Proses alokasi alamat jaringan.....................................................................................................60 6 Protokol Routing..........................................................................................................................................62 6.1 Autonomous System............................................................................................................................62 6.2 Tipe IP Routing dan Algoritma IP Routing..........................................................................................63 6.2.1 Static Routing...............................................................................................................................63 6.2.2 Distance Vector Routing...............................................................................................................64 6.2.3 Link State Routing.......................................................................................................................64 6.2.4 Hybrid Routing.............................................................................................................................64 6.3 Routing Information Protocol (RIP)....................................................................................................64 6.4 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).........................................................................................................65 6.5 Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)......................................................................65 6.6 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).........................................................................................................66 6.6.1 Konsep dan terminologi BGP......................................................................................................66 6.6.2 Operasional BGP..........................................................................................................................67 6.7 Proses Routing di sistem UNIX...........................................................................................................67 7 Transport Layer............................................................................................................................................68 7.1 Port dan Socket....................................................................................................................................68 7.1.1 Port...............................................................................................................................................68 7.1.2 Socket...........................................................................................................................................68 7.2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP)...........................................................................................................68 7.2.1 Format Datagram UDP.................................................................................................................69 7.2.2 Aplikasi yang menggunakan UDP...............................................................................................69 7.3 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)..................................................................................................70 7.3.1 Format Segmen TCP....................................................................................................................70 7.3.2 Interface Pemrograman pada aplikasi TCP..................................................................................71 7.3.3 Aplikasi yang menggunakan TCP................................................................................................71 8 Struktur dan Pemrograman untuk Layer Aplikasi.......................................................................................72 8.1 Karakteristik dari Aplikasi...................................................................................................................72 8.2 Pemrograman dengan Socket API........................................................................................................72 8.2.1 Struktur dan Penanganan Data.....................................................................................................72 8.2.1.1 Perubahan variable...............................................................................................................73 8.2.1.2 Penanganan alamat IP..........................................................................................................73 8.2.2 System Call..................................................................................................................................74 8.2.2.1 socket().................................................................................................................................74 8.2.2.2 bind()....................................................................................................................................75 8.2.2.3 connect()...............................................................................................................................75 8.2.2.4 listen()...................................................................................................................................76 8.2.2.5 accept().................................................................................................................................76 8.2.2.6 send() dan recv()...................................................................................................................77 8.2.2.7 sendto() dan recvfrom()........................................................................................................77 8.2.2.8 close() dan shutdown().........................................................................................................77 8.2.2.9 getpeername().......................................................................................................................78 8.2.2.10 gethostname().....................................................................................................................78 8.2.2.11 DNS – Mengirim ke “whitehouse.gov”, Dijawab “198.137.240.92”.................................78 8.2.3 Skenario penggunaan pemrograman socket.................................................................................79 8.2.3.1 Contoh Server Berbasis STREAM.......................................................................................81 8.2.3.2 Contoh Client Berbasis STREAM.......................................................................................82 8.2.3.3 Socket dengan DATAGRAM...............................................................................................83 8.2.4 Socket lanjutan.............................................................................................................................84 8.2.4.1 Blocking...............................................................................................................................84 4

8.2.4.2 select() – Synchronous I/O Multiplexing.............................................................................85 8.3 Remote Procedure Call (RPC).............................................................................................................87 9 Protokol Penamaan dan Direktori................................................................................................................88 9.1 Domain Name System (DNS)..............................................................................................................88 9.1.1 Hirarki Penamaan.........................................................................................................................88 9.1.2 Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN).....................................................................................89 9.1.3 Domain generik............................................................................................................................89 9.1.4 Domain Negara............................................................................................................................90 9.1.5 Pemetaan Nama Domain ke Alamat IP........................................................................................90 9.1.6 Pemetaan Alamat IP ke Nama Domain – pointer query...............................................................90 9.1.7 Pendistribusian Nama Domain.....................................................................................................90 9.1.8 Domain Name Resolution............................................................................................................90 9.1.9 Domain name full resolver...........................................................................................................91 9.1.10 Domain name stub resolver........................................................................................................91 9.1.11 Operasi Domain Name Server....................................................................................................91 9.1.12 Resource Record dari Domain Name System............................................................................92 9.1.13 Transport....................................................................................................................................92 9.1.14 Aplikasi DNS.............................................................................................................................93 9.2 Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS)...........................................................................................93 9.3 Network Information System (NIS).....................................................................................................93 10 Eksekusi Jarak Jauh...................................................................................................................................94 10.1 TELNET.............................................................................................................................................94 10.2 Remote Execution Command protocol (REXEC dan RSH)..............................................................94 10.3 Secure Shell (SSH).............................................................................................................................95 10.3.1 Sejarah SSH...............................................................................................................................96 10.3.2 Penggunaan SSH........................................................................................................................96 10.4 Virtual Network Computing (VNC)...................................................................................................96 10.4.1 Cara Kerja VNC.........................................................................................................................96 10.5 Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP).......................................................................................................97 10.5.1 Fitur............................................................................................................................................97 10.5.2 Contoh Aplikasi..........................................................................................................................98 11 Protokol Transfer File................................................................................................................................99 11.1 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)..............................................................................................................99 11.1.1 Sekilas tentang FTP....................................................................................................................99 11.1.2 Operasional FTP.........................................................................................................................99 11.1.3 Skenario FTP............................................................................................................................100 11.1.4 Contoh Penggunaan FTP..........................................................................................................101 11.1.5 Anonymous FTP.......................................................................................................................101 11.2 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)..............................................................................................101 11.2.1 Penggunaan TFTP....................................................................................................................101 11.3 Network File System (NFS).............................................................................................................101 11.3.1 Konsep NFS.............................................................................................................................102 11.3.1.1 Protokol Mount.................................................................................................................102 11.3.1.2 Protokol NFS....................................................................................................................102 11.3.2 NFS versi 4...............................................................................................................................103 12 Aplikasi Surat (Mail)...............................................................................................................................104 12.1 Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP).........................................................................................104 12.1.1 Cara kerja SMTP......................................................................................................................104 12.1.1.1 Format mail header...........................................................................................................104 12.1.1.2 Mail Exchange..................................................................................................................105 12.1.2 SMTP dan Domain Name System............................................................................................106 12.2 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME).............................................................................107 12.2.1 Header yang terdapat pada MIME...........................................................................................108 12.2.1.1 MIME-Version..................................................................................................................108 5

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