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5 years ago

zogadi da araorganuli qimia nawili meore (qimiuri elementebi)

zogadi da araorganuli qimia nawili meore (qimiuri elementebi)

H2SO4, H2S2O7, H2S3O10

H2SO4, H2S2O7, H2S3O10 (H2SO4·nSO3) narevi aris blanti zeTiseburi, haerze mbolavi siTxe _ oleumi. wylis moqmedebiT S-O-S bmebi ixliCeba da miiReba gogirdmJava: H2S2O7 + H2O → 2H2SO4 (SO3 xasiaTdeba wylisadmi gansakuTrebuli swrafviT, amitom gogirdmJavas miRebis mizniT wyalSi misi gaxsnisas igi reaqciaSi Seva wylis zedapirze arsebul tenTanac, ris Sedegadac miiReba gogirdmJavas “nisli”, romelic siTxiT aRar STainTqmeba. amis Tavidan asacileblad SO3-s xsnian konc. gogirdmJavaSi, romlis zemoTac haeri mSralia misi wyalwamrTmevi unaris gamo). gogirdmJavas marilebi: CaSO4•2H2O _ TabaSiri. 150 0 C-mde gacxelebisas TabaSiri kargavs kristalizaciuri wylis 3/4-s da miiReba gamomwvari TabaSiri anu alebastri. es ukanaskneli wyalTan Serevisas warmoqmnis comisebur masas, romelic swrafad magrdeba da kvlav TabaSirad gardaiqmneba. igi gamoiyeneba samSeneblo saqmeSi _ Semkvrel masalad, naZerwi samkaulebis, mcire zomis nakeTobebis dasamzadeblad, stomatologiaSi, qirurgiaSi da sxv.. MgSO4 _ magniumis sulfati. Seicavs zRvis wyali, ganapirobebs mis mware gemos. kristalhidrati MgSO4•7H2O, romelsac medicinaSi inglisur marils anu mware marils uwodeben, gamoiyeneba sasaqmebel da Sardmden saSualebad, 25%-iani xsnari _ hipertonuli krizisis dros. (NH4)2SO4 _ amoniumis sulfati. iyeneben azotian sasuqad. BaSO4 _ bariumis sulfati. “bariumis fafa” gamoiyeneba medicinaSi rentgenokontrastul nivTierebad. CuSO4• 5H2O _ Sabiamani. spilenZis ajaspi (ajaspebi liTonebis _ Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co sulfatebis kristalhidratebis teqnikuri saxelwodebaa) gamoiyeneba soflis meurneobaSi vazis daavadebebis sawinaaRmdegod. FeSO4•7H2O _ rkinis ajaspi. soflis meurneobaSi ixmareba mcenareTa mavneblebTan sabrZolvelad. uwylo sulfats Rebuloben SO3-is Sesabamis qloridebze moqmedebiT: CuCl2 + 2SO3 → CuSO4 + SO2Cl2 Na2SO4•10H2O glauberis marili, miRebul iqna pirvelad mecnier glauberis mier NaCl-ze gogirdmJavas moqmedebiT. uwylo Na2SO4 gamoiyeneba minis warmoebaSi. K2SO4 gamoiyeneba kaliumian sasuqad, agreTve ormagi marilebis (Sabebis) saxiT: K2SO4•Al2(SO4)3•24H2O _ kalium-aluminis Sabi (gamoiyeneba medicinaSi _ sisxlis SemaCerebel saSualebad); K2SO4• Cr2(SO4)3 •24H2O _ kaliumqromis Sabi. kaliumi SeiZleba SabebSi “Secvalos” natriumma an amoniumma. gogirdSemcveli sxva naerTebi +6 JangviTi ricxviT: wyalbadis trioqsofTorosulfati H[SO3F] da trioqsoqlorosulfati H[SO3]Cl siTxeebia. H[SO3F] wyalxsnarSi Zalian Zlieri mJavaa, hidrolizdeba nela, maSin roca H[SO3]Cl Zalian Cqara hidrolizdeba. natriumis trioqsosulfatis gogirdis fxvnilTan duRiliT miiReba natriumis sulfidotrioqsosulfati anu natriumis Tiosulfati: Na2SO3 + S → Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3 Seicavs sxvadasxva JangviTi ricxvis mqone gogirdis atomebs (-2 da +6) S -2 mis aRmdgen unars ganapirobebs. 46

H H O O +6 S O S -2 Na2S2O3 + Cl2 + H2O → Na2SO4 + S 0 ↓ + 2HCl ufro susti mJangavebiT Tiosulfatis daJangva sxvanairad midis: I2 + Na2S2O3 → 2NaI + Na2S4O6 es reaqcia udevs safuZvlad iodis raodenobriv gansazRvras (iodometria). wyalbadis Tiosulfati aramdgradia, miRebisTanave iSleba: Na2S2O3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2S2O3 H2S2O3 → S 0 ↓ + SO2↑ + H2O Tiosulfatebidan yvelaze mniSvnelovania natriumis Tiosulfati Na2S2O3 •5H2O; gamoiyeneba fotografiaSi, medicinaSi. Na2S4O6-is Sesabamisi mJava H2S4O6 miekuTvneba poliTiomJavebs. isini orfuZiani mJavebia zogadi formuliT H2SXO6, sadac X-ma SeiZleba miiRos mniSvnelobebi 3-dan 6-mde, SeiZleba metic. es mJavebi aramdgradia, mxolod wyalxsnarebSia cnobili. marilebi _ poliTionatebi SedarebiT mdgradia. O O S HO S S OH S O O tetraTiomJava H2S4O6 O O S Ho S S OH O O triTiomJava H2S3O4 naxazi 10. tetraedruli struqturuli erTeulebis makavSirebeli xidi SeiZleba iyos peroqsiduri jgufic: O HO S O O O S OH O O peroqsidigogirdmJava H2S2O8 naxazi 11. 47

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