ZQT-s_Lab-is_AKROBATSHI.pdf

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ZQT-s_Lab-is_AKROBATSHI.pdf

IV samuSao

navTobproduqtebis katalizuri

krekingi

navTobsa da misi gadamuSavebis produqtebs udidesi

mniSvneloba aqvs kacobriobisaTvis. garda ZravebisaTvis

aucilebeli sxvadasxva saxis sawvavisa, navTobisagan

Rebuloben amosaval nedleuls plastikuri masebis,

qimiuri boWkoebis, sinTezuri kauCukebis, gamrecxi

saSualebebis, spirtebisa da sxva mravalferovani organuli

naerTebis warmoebisaTvis.

uSualod navTobis gadamuSavebiT miiReba Txevadi

da airadi sawvavi, navTi, gamxsnelebi, sacxi zeTebi, konsistenciuri

sacxebi, parafini, vazelini, bitumi, sqelfisa,

individualuri naxSirwyalbadebi – eTileni, propileni,

benzoli, toluoli, qsilolebi da sxv., romlebic

mniSvnelovani nedleulia qimiuri mrewvelobisaTvis.

navTobi parafinuli, naftenuri da aromatuli

naxSirwyalbadebis rTuli narevia; mcire raodenobiT

Seicavs aranaxSiwyalbadovan nawils, magaliTad, gogirds,

naftenur mJavebs, mineralur nivTierebebsa da

sxv.

navTobsa da navTobproduqtebs amuSaveben fizikuri

da qimiuri meTodebiT. fizikuri meTodebi emyareba

gansxvavebas naxSirwyalbadebis fizikur TvisebSi, rogoricaa

duRilis temperatura, kristalizacia, xsnadoba

da sxv. fizikuri meTodebidan yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia

gamoxda.

35

navTobis gadamuSavebis qimiuri meTodebi gulisxmobs

mis rTul, qimiur, destruqciul gardaqmnebs,

romlebic SeiZleba ganicadon naxSirwyalbadebma temperaturis,

wnevis, katalizatoris gavleniT. qimiuri me-

Todebidan yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia sxvadasxva saxis

krekingebi. krekingis dros naxSirwyalbadebis molekulebi

ixliCeba ufro patara molekulebad. imavdroulad

mimdinareobs ufro msxvili molekulebis sinTezis

meoreuli procesebi: izomerizacia, polimerizacia,

ciklizacia, kondensacia da sxv. krekings, ZiriTadad,

navTobidan benzinis gamosavlis gasadideblad iyeneben.

praqtikaSi damuSavebulia Termuli da katalizuri krekingi.

Termul krekings atareben Sereul (Txevad da

orTqlis) fazaSi 350-500

36

0C-ze, 70 at wnevaze, an or-

Tqlis fazaSi ufro maRal temperaturasa da atmosferul

wnevaze. Tu krekings 670-7200C temperaturasa da

atmosferul wnevaze atareben, mas pirolizs uwodeben.

am dros navTobis naxSirwyalbadebi ufro Rrma qimiur

gardaqmnebs ganicdis.

navTobis Termuli krekingis produqtebia kreking-benzini,

kreking-airi da kreking-narCeni. atareben

sxva navTobproduqtebis krekingsac. magaliTad, mazuTis

Termuli krekingis dros miiReba: benzini – 30-35%,

airebi – 10-15% da narCeni – 50-55%. am dros miRebuli

benzinis oqtanuri ricxvi 70-mdea.

navTobis gadamuSavebis teqnologiaSi umniSvnelovanesi

miRwevaa kreking-procsebSi katalizatorebis gamoyeneba.

navTobproduqtebis katalizuri gardaqmna sa-

Sualebas gvaZlevs didi gamosavliT miviRoT ufro

maRalxarisxovani benzini (77-82 oqtanuri ricxviT),

msubuqi, C3-C4 Sedgenilobis najeri da ujeri naxSirwyalbadebis

narevi organuli sinTezisaTvis, navT-gazoi-

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