ZQT-s_Lab-is_AKROBATSHI.pdf

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ZQT-s_Lab-is_AKROBATSHI.pdf

gamo qloris warmoebis eleqtroqimiurma meTodma mTlianad

gamodevna misi miRebis qimiuri meTodebi.

eleqtrodebze mimdinare ZiriTadi procesebi.

NaCl wyalSi gaxsnisas disocirdeba:

NaCl � Na + + Cl -

H2O � H + + OH - .

wyalxsnari Seicavs Na + -is, Cl - -is, H + -isa da OH - -

is ionebs.

aseTi xsnaris eleqtrolizis dros Teoriulad

SesaZlebelia Na + -sa da H + -is kationebis ganmuxtva ka-

Todze da OH - -isa daNCl - is anionebisa – anodze. magram

am ionebidan sinamdvileSi romeli ganimuxteba eleqtrodebze

da ra TanamimdevrobiT es damokidebulia,

uwinares yovlisa, ionebis ganmuxtvis potencialze da

maT Tanafardobaze NaCl-is najer neitralur wyalxsnarSi.

ϕ + = − 0,415v-s da ϕ + =−2,71v-s.

radgan wya-

H Na

lbadis ions ufro dadebiTi ganmuxtvis potenciali

aqvs, aseTi xsnaris eleqtrolizis dros, miuxedavad

wyalbadionebis dabali koncentraciisa, foladis kaTodze

gamoiyofa mxolod wyalbadi, Semdegi reaqciiT:

2H + + 2e - → H2 (a)

Jangbadis ganmuxtvis wonasworuli potenciali

2 ( ) ϕ − =+ 0,82 v-s, qlorisa - ϕ 1, 33

O OH

Cl = + v-s.

2

anodze pirvelad ganimuxteba naklebad dadebiTi

anioni; maSasadame unda vifiqroT, rom am SemTxvevaSi

masze ganimuxteba hidroqsidis ionebi Jangbadis gamoyofiT.

magram iseT anodebze, rogoricaa naxSiri, grafiti,

57

platina Jangbadi gamoiyofa mxolod didi gadaZabviT

(Zabva aRemateba 1,36 v-s), rac ganapirobebs Jangbadis

ganmuxtvis potencialis Zlier gadidebas da amitom

anodze upiratesad Cl - -is ionebi ganimuxteba:

58

2Cl + 2e - → Cl2 (b)

pirveladi procesis (a) Sedegad kaTodTan rCeba OH - -ionebi,

romlebic Na + -is ionebTan wonasworobaSi warmoqmnian

natriumis tutes:

Na + + OH - → NaOH.

amrigad, NaCl-is wyalxsnaris eleqtrolizis

produqtebia qlori, wyalbadi da natriumis tute. eleqtrolizis

jamuri reaqcia SeZleba ase davweroT:

el.lizi

2NaCl + 2H2O Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH

ionebis ganmuxtvis Sedegad anodze umniSvnelo

raodenobiT Jangabadic gamoiyofa:

2OH - + 2e - → H2O + ½ O2.

gamoyofili Jangbadis urTierTqmedebiT anodis

naxSirbadTan midis meoreuli procesi:

C + O2 → CO2.

airadi qlori, ixsneba ra anolitSi, urTierTqmedebs

wyalsa da tutesTan da warmoqmnis natriumis

hipoqlorits, qloratsa da qlorids:

Cl2 + H2O HClO + HCl;

HClO + NaOH NaClO + H2O ;

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