daviT guramiSvili

literaturatmcodneoba.tsu.ge

daviT guramiSvili

adrian marino

komparativizmi da literaturis

Teoria

1


Adrian Marino

Comparatisme et théorie de

la littérature

Traduit du français par

Rusudan Turnava et Nino Gagochachvili

2

Presses Universitaires de France – PUF


adrian marino

komparativizmi da literaturis Teoria

frangulidan Targmnes

rusudan Turnavam da nino gagoSaSvilma

3


UDC (uak) 82.0

m-316

Ouvrage réalisé dans le cadre du Plan d’Aide à la Publication Mérab

Mamardachvili avec le soutien du Ministère Français des Affaires

Etrangères, de l’Ambassade de France en Géorgie et du Centre culturel

français Alexandre Dumas de Tbilissi.

wigni gamoica safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros,

saqarTveloSi safrangeTis saelCosa da Tbilisis

aleqsandre diumas saxelobis franguli kulturis centris

xelSewyobiT, merab mamardaSvilis saxelobis sagamomcemlo

programis farglebSi.

adrian marino

komparativizmi da literaturis Teoria

pirveli gamocema, Tbilisi, 2010

redaqtorebi:

irma ratiani, gaga lomiZe

mTargmnelebi:

rusudan Turnava, nino gagoSaSvili

stilisti: miranda tyeSelaSvili

ydis dizaini: solomon tabucaZe

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa: TinaTin duglaZe

© literaturis institutis gamomcemloba, 2010

tiraJi: 500 egzemplari

SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis instituti

kostavas 5, 0108 Tbilisi

http://www.iltinstituti.ge

ISBN 978-9941-0-2633-1

Adrian Marino

Comparatisme et théorie de la littérature

Translated by Rusudan Turnava and Nino Gagoshashvili

© Presses Universitaires de France – PUF

First Georgian Edition

4


SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba (literaturuli komparativizmi)

ganixileboda da axlac farTod aris gamoyenebuli,

rogorc istoriuli da istoriis Semqmneli disciplina,

romelsac upiratesad pozitivisturi orientacia aqvs.

erTi sityviT, saqme exeba saerTaSoriso literaturuli ur-

TierTobebis istorias (gavlena, moaruli Temebi, moaruli

tipebi da a.S.), literaturis tradiciuli istoriis met-naklebad

`kosmopolitur~ dargs. Cven ar uarvyofT amgvari

kvlevebiT mopovebuli dokumenturi masalis mniSvnelobas.

miuxedavad amisa, unda SevTanxmdeT, rom es mimarTuleba ve-

Rar akmayofilebs moTxovnebs.

SegviZlia Tu ara warmovidginoT literaturuli komparativizmis

sruli ganaxleba ise, rom man mxari gausworos

Tanamedroveobas da mis axal moTxovnebs? SeiZleba Tu ara

SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas mivceT mkacrad gansaz-

Rvruli specifikuri sagani, Sesaferisi meTodi, romelic am

miznidan gamomdinareobs da ar imeorebs romelime modur me-

Tods? am kiTxvebs dadebiTad vpasuxobT, risTvisac unda Sesruldes

ori piroba: 1) literaturuli komparativizmi gamoviyvanoT

istoriuli sanaxebidan da misi monapovari (romelic

mniSvnelovan dokumentur masalas warmoadgens) gardavqmnaT

Teoriuli xasiaTis, maSasadame, ganmazogadebel amdenive

wyarod da aTvlis wertilad, komparativizmi SemovabrunoT

literaturis Teoriisaken; 2) SevqmnaT mTlad axali,

zedmiwevniT komparativistuli suliskveTebisa da orientaciis

meTodi, romelic mofiqrebuli iqneba am Teoriuli miznis

Sesabamisad. `komparativizmisa da literaturis Teoriis~ avtors

es ori mizani aqvs danaxuli.

5


komparativizmi da literaturis Teoria

adrian marino

naSromi gamoqveynda lantris

erovnuli centris daxmarebiT

6


winasityvaoba

winamdebare ese literaturuli komparativizmis ganaxlebis

organizebuli mcdelobis meore ciklia. is agrZelebs

Cems naSroms `etiambli anu mebrZoli komparativizmi~ (parizi,

galimari, `eseebi~ CCXX, 1982). am disciplinis mier gaTelili

Zveli, pozitivisturi, `akademiuri~ gzebis mitoveba,

misi Semobruneba `Teoriuli~ da amasTanave `mebrZoli~ mimar-

TulebiT literaturis Teoriisaken, gardaqmnisa da gaTanamedrovebis

ormagi ZalisxmeviT literaturuli komparativizmis

pirdapir CarTva Cveni epoqis ideologiur sinamdvileSi –

aseTia Cveni Taosnobis piroba. SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

aRar iqneba literaturis istoriis an saerTaSoriso

literaturul urTierTobaTa erTi ubralo Tavi; amjerad

man SeiZina zusti, avtonomiuri sagani da sakuTari

meTodi.

Cven ganvizraxeT SevqmnaT literaturis Teoria, romlis

mizani da saSualebebi iqneba sagangebod da savsebiT `komparativistuli~.

Cveni Canafiqri, erTi sityviT, aseTia: SevTavazoT

axali midgoma literaturisa da `literaturulobisadmi~,

romelic ar gaimeorebs arc erT Tanamedrove meTods.

perspeqtivisa da meTodologiis amgvari cvlileba, vfiqrobT,

ufro metad Seesabameba, erTi mxriv, literaturis universalurobas

da im Teoriul Sexedulebebs, romelsac is

gvkarnaxobs; meore mxriv, esadageba dargis avtonomiurobas.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, da, albaT, swored amaSi mdgomareobs

Cveni wamowyebis erT-erTi “siaxle”, komparativizmis

ganaxleba Cafiqrebulia TviT komparativistuli tradiciis

wiaRSi, misi `wyaroebis~ xelaxali wakiTxviT da misi ramdenime

ZiriTadi hipoTezis safuZvelze, romlebic TviTon arian

hermenevtikulad gansazRvruli am tradiciis SigniT. yvela

komparativistuli adrindeli Tvalsazrisis xelaxla mopoveba,

ganviTareba da gamTlianeba, Sesabamisad, axali sinTezis

saxiT, iqneba isini fragmentuli Tu SemTxveviTi – ai, ris

gakeTeba gvindoda. Cveni samuSao hipoTeza – es aris literaturis

komparativistuli TeoriisTvis sakuTari sferos

gansazRvra. axali komparativizmisTvis saukeTeso Sansia, saxe

Seucvalos amosaval wertils, gamovides sxva principebidan,

imoqmedos sxva meTodebiT; azrovneba mimarTos `Teoriulisa~

da `zogadisaken~, ganimsWvalos am moTxovnilebebiT da gamovides

farTo asparezze. es ar niSnavs `saboloo~ gadawyvetilebebis

miRebas, radgan Cven sistematurad unda SeviswavloT

is pirobebi da perspeqtivebi, romlebze dayrdnobiTac SeiZ-

7


leba marTlac Seiqmnas `Teoria~ da Tundac `komparativistuli

poetika~ (ratomac ara?) mokled, es unda iyos Tavidan

bolomde xelaxla gaazrebuli da xelmeored gansazRvruli

komparativizmis Teoriis da meTodis patara fsevdodiskursi.

Cveni, aRmosavluri kritika (ufro zustad, ruminuli),

`marginalur~ mdgomareobaSia. miuxedavad didi naklovanebisa

(razedac ar vamaxvilebT yuradRebas), mas aqvs Tavisi upiratesobac,

rac sakmaod mniSvnelovania. pirvel rigSi, Cven Sev-

ZeliT damoukideblobis SenarCuneba sxvadasxva inteleqtualur

manerasTan da yvela `modur~ meTodTan mimarTebiT

(romlebic, sxvaTa Soris, ukve avlenen sisustis niSnebs); Cven

maT vafasebdiT Soridan, viCendiT aucilebel TavdaWerilobas.

meore mxriv, ramdenadac is ar ekuTvnis gaqvavebul da

myarad dafuZnebul komparativistul tradicias (aseTia dasavleTis

mdgomareoba, sadac Trgunaven mraval iniciativas),

aRmosavleTis kritikas ufro advilad SeuZlia ganaxorcielos

tabula rasa, daiwyos nulidan da aaSenos sakuTari Senoba

zedmeti kompleqsebisa da SiSis gareSe. mesame mxriv, imave

adgilobrivi `ukmarisobis“ gamo (dogmadqceuli sauniversiteto

da literaturuli kritikis Teoriuli tradiciis

ararseboba, Sors yofna dedaqalaqebidan, sadac gamefebulia

eTnocentrizmi, evrocentrizmi) am kritikas SeuZlia gaixsnas

ufro Tavisuflad da ufro farTod, rodesac is namdvilad

ixsneba literaturisa da literaturis Teoriis globaluri

xedvisaTvis. igi Tavis simdidres iRebs iq, sadac poulobs,

myarad ikidebs fexs universalur ganzomilebaSi, sakuTar

universalur garemoSi. es imas niSnavs, rom is zogjer ufro

advilad gamodis sinTezis iniciativiT, iqamde midis axali

safuZvlebiT da `ufro maRali~ TvalsazrisiT. ase rom,

`patara literaturebs~ iwveven literaturis Teoriis sagnisa

da meTodis gansazRvrisadmi miZRvnil did paeqrobaSi

monawileobis misaRebad. maTi inteleqtualuri xvedri ar

aris mudmivad da Zalauneburad imis gameoreba, rac `didma

literaturebma~ ukve `Tqves~, aramed zogjer maT ekisrebaT

iseTi iniciativis gamoCena, Tundac didi riskis da safrTxis

fasad, romelic CaerTveba WeSmaritad zogad Teoriul proeqtSi.

sxvaTa Soris, SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobisadmi

interesi xSirad ufro gamoxatulia aRmosavleTis qveyneb-

Si, vidre did dasavleTevropul literaturebSi, sadac pozitivistur-istoriuli

pozicia amowuruli Cans, axali meTodebis

CarTvam ki jer kidev ver gaaZliera es literaturebi.

Cveni ese mTavrdeba SeniSvnebis mdidari maragiT, romelic

ormagi daniSnulebisaa: 1) TiToeuli problemis sistemu-

8


i dosies SemoTavazeba, sakiTxis mdgomareobis dokumenturi

Cveneba, rasac `damowmebis~ xasiaTi aqvs. Cveni azriT, es aris

komparativistuli Teoriebisa da meTodologiebis yvelaze

metad srulyofili sacnobaro aparati, rogoric ki xelmisawvdomia

amJamad frangul enaze. 2) amave dros naSromis

dokumenturi infrastruqturis Camoyalibeba, mudmivi mimoqceva

Cvens wyaroebs, hipoTezebsa da pirovnul mosazrebebs Soris,

hermenevtikis gziT.

Cveni `bibliografia~ gamdidrda, gansakuTrebiT germanuli

nawili, profesor gerhard r. kaizeris (giseni) stumarTmoyvareobis

wyalobiT. Cven SevZeliT aseve sainformacio sta-

Jirebis gavla miunxenSi. maSasadame, Cven ormagad varT davalebuli

da Cveni madliereba gaormagebulia.

did madlobas vuxdiT da madlierebas gamovxatavT, aseve,

qalbaton irina mavrodinisa da baton pier rivas mimarT,

romlebmac inebes da gaaswores Cveni naSromis franguli

enobrivi stili, agreTve qalbaton dorina radus, romelmac

itvirTa am teqstis dasabeWdad momzadeba. bolos mivesalmebiT

baton pier oster susuevs da beatris didies, romlebic

ar Semoifarglnen mxolod interesiT da meti yuradReba

gamoiCines Cvens mimarT.

a.m.

kluJnapoka, 4 Tebervali, 1983.

9


I

komparativistuli poetika

literaturuli komparativizmis safuZvliani aRdgena moiTxovs

ara marto axal, aSkarad mebrZol orientacias, aramed agreTve

Zireul gardaqmnas Teoriis da `poetikis~ ganxriT. es operacia

gulisxmobs Tanamedrove komparativizmis Teoriuli da me-

Todologiuri aparatis gadamwyvet reformas, iseve rogorc misi

`gaaxalgazrdavebis~ Sesaxeb yvela Tvalsazrisis mkacr kritikas.

Cveni Taosnoba awydeba mraval winaaRmdegobas, romelTagan,

albaT, umniSvnelovanesia gavrcelebul formulirebaTa dogmaturi,

Seuvali, winaswar gansazRvruli xasiaTi. roca amboben:

`SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba aris~ an `ar aris~, SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba (miuxedavad sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebebisa)

`rCeba~ an `unda darCes~ iseTad, rogorc es iyo gansazRvruli

aqamde; is `unda iyos~ esa Tu is, arsebobs mxolod

erTi `swori komparativistuli perspeqtiva~ da aqedan gamomdinare,

`orTodoqsuli mimarTulebidan gadaxvevebi...~ da a.S. 1 , maSin

gvaqvs ufleba vikiTxoT: romeli avtoritetis doqtriniT (an

sxva ramiT) damtkicda es gancxadebebi? romeli principebi da

argumentebia gadamwyveti? ramdenad kanonieria Teoriulad amgvari

dogmaturi komparativizmi? SeiZleba daisvas sxva Seki-

Txvebic. sakuTari Sexedulebebis gasamarTleblad iSvelieben

agreTve praqtikas, tradicias, pragmatizms. 2 es faqtobrivi

mdgomareoba, romelic momdinareobs tradiciidan (magram aseve

ganpirobebulia inerciiT, CveulebiT, rom araferi vTqvaT inteleqtualur

sizarmaceze), aseve sakamaToa. aqedan gamomdinare

ibadeba kiTxva: vin gadawyvita erTxel da samudamod, rom komparativizmi

`aris...“? gana arsebobs SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

gaqvavebuli, ne varietur gansazRvreba? sawinaaRmdego SemTxvevaSi

TavisTavad igulisxmeba, rom SeiZleba gavakritikoT yvela

dogmaturi, bundovani an usafuZvlo gansazRvreba, rogoric

ar aklia SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas. aba, vin `daamkvidra~

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis sagani da meTodi? da

Tu es koncefcia, ise rogorc literaturuli kvlevis sxva samu-

Sao koncefciebi, mxolod terminologiuri pirobiTobaa, berketia,

SeTanxmebuli, istoriulad daTariRebuli formulaa da Tu

is viTardeba istoriis Sesabamisad, maSin xom SeiZleba misi gadafaseba,

sxva gadawyvetilebebis SemoTavazeba? aseTia yvela

komparativistis postulati, vinc eTanxmeba rene ueleks, etiambls

da sxvebs, 3 romelTa xma ufro metad ismis kvlav. Cveni

Taosnobac, agreTve, am `reformistul~ perspeqtivaSi Caewereba.

10


1. Tandayolili krizisi

meore sakiTxi: SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis Tandayolili

`krizisi~, romelic ZiriTadad momdinareobs misi

memkvidreobiTi dogmatizmidan, ar uwyobs xels saqmis mogvarebas.

gvaxsovs rene uelekis pozicia (1958) (`ar aris gamokveTili

sagani da specifikuri meTodologia~) 4 an etiamblis –

(1963). `....aris raRac, rac moikoWlebs Cvens disciplinaSi~.

`Tavisi gaubedavi meTodiTa da gaurkveveli miznebiT. 5 SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba, mokled rom vTqvaT, mudam

gzaabneulis mdgomareobaSia. Tu sauniversiteto komparativizmi

ase Tu ise avlens garkveul (magram Zalian formalur)

Tanmimdevrulobas, kritikosebi periodulad xazgasmiT miuTi-

Teben `misi sagnis uwonadobasa da orazrovnebaze~, rom is

`danawevrebulia~ da mudam `gzajvaredinze~ imyofeba da a.S. 6

sxvebi ar eTanxmebian, aSkarad da arc Tu umizezod, SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis, rogorc disciplinis, `avtonomiurobas~,

specifikuri meTodis uqonlobas. 7 bolos, yvelafer

amas davumatoT `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

saerTaSoriso asociaciis (A.I.L.C.) 8 yrilobebi~, rac sityvasityviT

aRniSna erTma saqmeSi Caxedulma damkvirvebelma.

TviT `komparativizmi~ da `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba~

mTlad `krizisulia~ mxolod im faqtis gamo, rom...

`SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba ar aris literaturuli

Sedareba~, 9 rac savsebiT marTalia. Tu Sedareba universaluri

meTodia, Zalian didi xnis win cnobili, yvela mecnieris-

Tvis saerTo da a.S. (amas davubrundebiT), marTlac, ra safuZvelze

unda ganvsazRvroT da movnaTloT `axali~ disciplina

aseTi Zveli terminiT, aseTi gacveTili, ase naklebad

specifikuri terminiT? amitomac iqneb sjobs, Cven TviTon

vTqvaT uari masze, gamovricxoT `komparativizmidan~? es did

uxerxulobas qmnis: sityva unda mivaweboT sagans Tu piriqiT?

da mere rogor? `orazrovani saxelwodebaa, TiTqmis gaumar-

Tlebeli, aSkarad~. am disciplinas `arasworad daarqves saxeli~,

`es unda vaRiaroT~. 10 Tundac ase iyos. arc Tu `idealuri~

etiketia? ra Tqma unda. magram riT SevcvaloT is?

samwuxarod, ukve Zalian gviania misi Secvla. amis dadastureba

gulsatkenia, magram savsebiT gasagebi. 11 ar ikmarebs ase-

Ti ironiuli SekiTxva: rogoria `Sedarebis~ wili SedarebiT

literaturaTmcodneobaSi 12 (magram ironia aq savsebiT gamar-

Tlebulia)? unda vipovoT ufro ukeTesi termini an axali

SinaarsiT, Tavidan SemuSavebuli, ufro akuratuli da zusti

mniSvnelobiT davtvirToT Zveli saxelgatexili, magram gav-

11


celebuli termini. es aris semantikuri operacia, romelic

Zalian dagvexmareba gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, ra gasakviria, rom `komparativizmis~

TviT gansazRvrebac ki isev rCeba Zalian arazusti,

13 ganwiruli uTavbolo dasawyisisTvis, gatyavebuli absolutur

da metadre Zalian xelsayrel gawevgamowevaSi? es

gansazRvreba uaxlovdeba unapiro ekleqtizms an meryeobs

uSeRavaTo winaaRmdegobasa da brZnul skepticizms Soris.

amis Sedegad, termini iqneboda `usagno~. ar arsebobs `sakuTriv

disciplina~. 14 sabolood, Zalian moqnili gansazRvrebis

Semdeg, romelic cdilobs yvela daakmayofilos, aseT sifrTxiles

iCenen: `TiToeul mkvlevars isRa darCenia, CamoaSoros

am gansazRvrebas is, rac zedmetad eCveneba da amgvarad

miiRos Sesaferisi forma~. 15 rogorc Cans, ironia yvelas ar

moswons, radgan sxva komparativistebi, aseve akademiurebi,

acxadeben, rom miuxedavad yovelgvari SesaZlo CamoWrisa da

Sesworebisa SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba upirobod

rCeba `kiTxvebisa da problemebis gaurkvevel Rrublad~. 16

u.CerCilis maxvilgonivruli gamoTqmisa ar iyos, es aris

`idumalebiT moculi gamocana~. miuxedavad amisa, sityvebisa

da azrTa TamaSis miRma mTavari kiTxva dasmuli rCeba: Tu

`sityva~ ganicdis endemur `kriziss~ da Tu arc erTi gansaz-

Rvreba ar aris misaRebi, 17 vin gviSlis xels, rom sityvasac

da sagansac axali gansazRvreba movuZebnoT: e.i. komparativistuli

problematika axleburad ganvsazRvroT? Tu termini

pirobiTia, ratom ar unda CavanacvloT igi sxva pirobiTi,

magram ufro adekvaturi da Tanamedrove terminiT? ase rom,

aRar unda viaroT Zveli, gaTelili gziT.

2. gadasalaxavi dabrkoleba

amisTvis unda gadavlaxoT, sul cota, oTxi dabrkoleba:

a) literaturuli komparativizmi ganisazRvreba, rogorc

`literaturis Seswavla saerTaSoriso TvalsazrisiT~,

rac warmoadgens farTod gaziarebul koncefcias 18 da ar

qmnis problemas, magram am principis interpretacia dasabuTebas

moiTxovs. vfiqrobT, sadavo ar aris, rom amgvari Seswavla

Semoifargleba cnobili `gavlenebiT~, `urTierTgacvliT~,

`kavSirebiT~ da a.S. yvelaferi es sinamdviles Seefereba, amas

aravin uaryofs, magram miuRebelia am tipis gamokvlevebis-

Tvis damaxasiaTebeli wmindad istoriuli da martivi midgoma.

faqtobrivad, mas komparativizmi dahyavs mxolod `saerTa-

12


Soriso literaturul urTierTobaTa istoriamde~. 19 es aris

arsebiTad kanonieri sfero, Tumca is zRudavs SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas,

dahyavs is `literaturis istoriis

martiv da daqvemdebarebul dargamde~. am SemTxvevaSi germanuli

gamoTqma Vergleichende Literaturgeschichte (SedarebiTi literaturis

istoria) (da misi ekvivalentebi) SeiZleba ufro zusti

iyos. gadaWarbeba iqneboda Tu am dromoWmul SezRudvas, rogorc

gansakuTrebul Tvisebas, mivawerdiT `frangul skolas~

(gavrcelebuli saxelwodebis mixedviT), radgan aseTi Sez-

Rudva Zalian xSiria da TiTqmis yvelgan gvxvdeba. 20 am gamokvlevaSi

istoriul tradicias didi adgili uWiravs. SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba Tavidanve gaazrebulia, rogorc

istoriuli disciplina; es koncefcia jer kidev sicocxlisunariania

Tanamedrove komparativizmis sxvadasxva did seqtorSi.

SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom is kvlav gabatonebulia

tradiciul komparativizmSi, ramdenadac am koncefcias emxroba

`yvela istoriulad moazrovne mkvlevari~ (all historically

minded individuals) .21¹ literaturuli istoria, romlis sagani Zalian

gafarTovda, mainc rCeba literaturul istoriad (sagani,

meqanizmi, meTodi). maSasadame, yvela, visac h.r. iausis

msgavsad, komparativizmi warmoudgenia istoriuli `paradigmis~

(Historismus) 22 ilustraciad, savsebiT marTalia. “Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneoba~, romelic aRiarebulia `disciplinad~

anu `istoriuli xasiaTis mecnierebad~, aseTi gansaz-

Rvrebis Sesabamisad Tavs uyris saerTaSoriso kolokviumebs,

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis saerTaSoriso asociaciis

(A.I.L.C.) yrilobebs da a.S. amiT ar gvinda literaturuli

istoriis mniSvnelobis sakamaTod gadaqceva an misi ugulvebelyofa,

magram imisaTvis, rom ar akeTebdes usasrulod

sxvis saqmes da ar darCes mudmivad `damatebis~, `damxmares~

mdgomareobaSi da a.S., komparativizmma unda scados `paradigmis~

Secvla. man unda ipovos sxva gza, itvirTos pasuxismgebloba

da imavdroulad, daZlios tradiciuli istoria. Tuki

erTmaneTisagan ganasxvaves literaturuli istoria (genetikuri,

movlenebze damyarebuli da a.S.) da literaturis istoria

(literaturulobis, mwerlobis, formebis, Janrebis istoria,

nawarmoebebis istoria avtorTa `saxelebis gareSe~ da a.S.),

ratom ar SeiZleba gayofis msgavsi operaciis Catareba istoriuli

midgomis mqone da ~Sinabera~ komparativizmis SigniT?

meore mxriv, SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis mibma `mentalobis

istoriis~ 23 buqsirze, arc es aris gamosavali: Tu

aqamde komparativizmi literaturuli istoriis erTi Tavi

iyo, axla is gadaiqceva, ubralod, istoriis (kulturis is-

13


toriis, azrovnebis istoriis da a.S.) erT Tavad. avtonomia

isev daikargeba.

b) am tipis literaturuli istoriografiis metad sadavo

pozitivisturi safuZvlebi, romelsac didxans hqonda upiratesoba,

kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs tradiciuli komparativizmis

TviT statuss. unda dasjerdes Tu ara, an unda Semoifarglos

Tu ara is faqtebis da faqtobrivi urTierTobebis

SeswavliT? `faqtSi~ igulisxmeba dokumenturi moculoba da

`urTierTobaSi~ – genetikuri, mizezobrivi mimarTeba, isic

agreTve aucileblad dokumenturi. es Zalian viwro koncefcia

jer kidev avtoritetulia. Cven darwmunebuli varT, rom

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis sagani `ZiriTadad~ aris

sxvadasxva literaturis nawarmoebebis `urTierTmimarTebis

Seswavla~. 24 saqme exeba literaturul kontaqtebs, interferencias,

literaturuli monacemebis wriul brunvas, rac

mTavrdeba iseTi movlenebiT rogoricaa `gavlena~, `interteqstualoba~,

`miraJi~ (saidanac Cndeba axali ganStoeba: `imagologia~),

urTierTobebi, romlebic TiTqos yovelTvis mizezobrivia

or an mraval erovnul literaturas Soris. 25 ai,

gamoCnda sityvagasaRebi: SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

`aris saerTaSoriso sulier urTierTobaTa, faqtobrivi kav-

Sirebis Seswavla, romelic arsebobda baironsa da puSkins,

goeTesa da karlails Soris da a.S.~ 26 am kategoriul da Seuval

gansazRvrebas mainc hyavs bevri momxre. miaCniaT, rom

istoriuli urTierTobebi unda Seiswavlon metadre da meti

araferi! nebismieri sxva midgoma garda `kontaqtebis~ (contactological)

Seswavlisa gamocxadebulia `meTodologiurad saeWvo

midgomad~. 27 maSasadame, is winaswar dagmobilia.

aseT SemTxvevaSi, aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, mTavari

kiTxvebis gvariani raodenoba Cndeba erTbaSad. SedarebiT

literaturaTmcodneobaSi `faqtis~ cneba terminis mxolod

mkacrad pozitivisturi mniSvnelobiT ganisazRvreba? is mxolod

`kontaqtebs~ aRniSnavs _ teqstebs, `Suamavlebs~, avtorebs

Soris rogorc xorcSesxmul pirovnebebs Soris, romlebic

mogzauroben, werilebs weren erTmaneTs, Targmnian, kiTxuloben,

eqcevian `avlenis~ qveS da a.S.? ki magram, invarianti,

anu paralelizmi, rogorc movlena, e.i. Seqcevadoba (recidivi)

gana ar aris agreTve faqti im pirobiT, Tu mas faqtad

miviCnevT yvelaze mkacri filologiuri ganxilviT? amitom

vambobT, rom ori teqsti, romelTa Soris arasodes yofila

pirdapiri kontaqti, magram `emTxveva~ erTmaneTs ama Tu im xarisxiT,

orive warmoadgens faqts, metadre, am sityvis yvelaze

orTodoqsuli gagebiT! Tuki aris, rac TavisTavad Cans,

14


faqtobrivi kavSirebi gavlenis, moaruli nawarmoebebis, Temebis

saxiT da a.S., arsebobs aseve faqtobrivi kavSirebi teqstebis

agebulebis, mniSvnelobis da a.S. doneze. maSin ra ufleba

aqvT, gamoricxon es ukanaskneli kavSirebi komparativizmidan?

ar aris aucilebeli iyo didi swavluli (komparativisti)

imis misaxvedrad, rom faqtobrivi kavSirebis Seswavlas

(rac mizezobrivi da dokumenturi xasiaTisaa) mivyavarT

mxolod iseT empiriul dakvirvebebTan, romelTac ar gaaCniaT

didi perspeqtiva. maTgan ar gamomdinareobs araferi zogadi,

arsebiTi, sakuTriv `literaturuli~; araferi garda

ufro da ufro did gorglad Sekruli informaciisa, romelic

Zalian xSirad kargad Semowmebulia, mSvenivrad aris

klasificirebuli, magram elodeba Sefasebas, warmoCenas da

sabolood raime `TeoriaSi~ CarTvas. amis gareSe es informacia

darCeba daufasebeli codnis maragad da samudamod gadaeketeba

gza fenomenologiisaken, morfologiisaken da literaturis

aqsiologiisaken (ufro maRal dones Tu SevexebiT).

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

`krizisTan~ dakavSirebuli polemikis Sedegad,

zogjer pozitivizmisTvis savaldebulo gaxda ukan daxeva,

Tumca amas ar mohyolia namdvilad gadamwyveti antipozitivisturi

demarSi. miuxedavad amisa, es mkveTri Semobruneba

unda Caiweros axali komparativistuli orientaciebis aqtiv-

Si. rene uelekis mier micemulma niSanma (antifacturalism, scientism,

etc.) 28 gamoiRo nayofi da ai, iwyeben kidec didi enTuziazmiT

`faqtobrivi kavSirebis~ Canacvlebas `RirebulebaTa kavSirebiT~,

`ufro afaseben Sinagan kavSirebs, vidre garegans~. 29 pozitivizmi

gamocxadda `anaqronizmad~ 30 (1972 weli). komparativizmi

Semoifargla `avtorebs Soris urTierTobiT~ da

`literaturul movlenebs Soris pirdapiri kavSiri~ mar-

Tlac miCneul iqna `ukidures pozitivizmad~. 31 imave reaqciam

iCina Tavi rumineTSi, sadac pozitivizmTan dapirispireba daiwyo

60-iani wlebidan (tudor vianu), aseve ungreTSi, aRmosavleTis

sxva qveynebSi 32 . miuxedavad amisa, partia aris ki

mogebuli? ver vityviT, rom mogebulia, radgan komparativizmis

erT-erT saymawvilo sens, `miTs naTesaobis Sesaxeb~ isev

TavgamodebiT icaven maT winaaRmdeg (rogoric aris rolan

barti, magaliTad), visac misi damsxvreva surs.... 33

g) saidan modis es veluri winaaRmdegoba? Zalian advili

asaxsnelia: istoriuli da pozitivisturi komparativizmi

aris dasavluri sauniversiteto tradiciis pirdapiri da metad

gansakuTrebuli nayofi. komparativizmi gamovida asparezze,

rogorc `kaTedra~, rogorc wmindad da bunebrivad

15


akademiuri disciplina da is ganagrZobs am suliskveTebiT

mSvidad arsebobas. `programebi~, `saxelmZRvaneloebi~, `swavlebis

ciklebi~ da a.S., yvelafers emCneva mkacrad didaqtikuri

sauniversiteto saqmianobis uwmindesi beWedi da sxva

araferi. sxva tipis komparativizmis, sxva orientaciis dagegmva

Znelad warmosadgenia (an SeuZlebelic) komparativistebisaTvis,

romlebic mxolod profesorebi arian. ase rom,

`paradigmis~ yovelgvari cvlileba, nebismieri msxvili mutacia

moiTxovs gansxvavebuli Tezisis Semotanas: komparativizmi

aris agreTve sxva ram, vidre ubralo sauniversiteto disciplina

SeiZleba iyos, misi arsi ar aris didaqtikuri moRvaweoba,

igi gansxvavdeba sxva `sauniversiteto~ specialobebisagan.

sanam ar daZleven arsebul saazrovno da kulturul

Cvevas, TvalTaxedvisa da meTodis Secvla praqtikulad SeuZlebeli

iqneba. komparativizmi aris, agreTve (unda iTqvas,

rom umTavresad aris), mebrZoli `ideologia~ da ideebis `Teoria~,

`sistema~ da aramarto `raRac pedantoba~. am dargSi

SeiZleba muSaobdnen, aseve, kritikosebi, mwerlebi, publicistebi,

Tavisufali moazrovneebi, bolos da bolos, isini, vinc

ar aris profesori da araviTari survili ar aqvs gaxdes

profesori. amis gamo nuTu unda aekrZaloT maT

komparativistoba?

problemis Cvens mier gamoyenebuli gadmocema SeiZleba

uazrobad mogveCvenos, magram udavo faqtebi Cvens winaSea:

komparativizmis, rogorc `saswavlo sagnis~, rogorc `akademiur

da samecniero~ (scholarly), standartul saxelmZRvaneloebSi

mocemuli disciplinis~ 34 statusisa da organizaciisaTvis

zrunva rCeba ara marto dRis wesrigSi, aramed komparativistuli

saqmianobis gulisgulSi. gegonebaT, saqme exeba misi

arsebobis WeSmarit mizans, mis sasicocxlo centrs. aba,

sxvagvarad rogor aixsneba mravalricxovani saCivrebi akademiuri

komparativizmis dasacavad, rac zogjer namdvili traqtatis

ganzomilebas iZens. 35 iqneb es aixsneba im TvalsaCino

roliT, romelsac swavleba mudam TamaSobda SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

saerTaSoriso asociaciis (A.I.L.C.) yrilobebsa

da Sekrebebze? 36 anda ras emsaxureba `instituciuri

komparativizmis~ 37 organizaciaze, administraciul wesrigsa

da marTvaze zrunva? aRar CamovTvliT maT, visac mtkiced

swams, rom SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba SeiZleba ganviTardes

mxolod `institutebis~ saSualebiT, an kidev hgonia,

komparativizms mxolod misi, rogorc `akademiuri disciplinis~

38 statusis fxizlad dacva gadaarCenso...

16


d) mowinaaRmdegeTa Soris arian iseTebic, vinc uaryofs

ara mxolod literaturul istorias da mis motivacias

mTlianad, aramed agreTve isini, visac SeuZleblad miaCnia

masalis seriebad da kategoriebad dayofa da aqedan gamomdinare,

literaturul nawarmoebTa nebismieri `ganzogadeba~.

literaturuli nawarmoebi gaazrebulia rogorc individualuri,

ganumeorebeli, `originaluri~ realoba, romlis

moqceva gansazRvrebis CarCoebSi SeuZlebelia. am konkretul

wertilSi esTetizmi da impresionizmi iWreba Tanamedrove

new criticismsa da `axal kritikaSi~. Tu nawarmoebi an literaturuli

teqsti xelSeuxebeli da unikaluria, imavdroulad

is aris Seudarebeli (ar SeiZleba misi Sedareba) da maSasadame

arc ganzogadebas eqvemdebareba. aseT wess rom misdevdnen,

literaturis Teoriebi moklebuli iqnebodnen yovelgvar

seriozul safuZvels. gamocdileba gviCvenebs: is, visac

gamaxvilebuli aqvs `originalurobis~ SegrZneba da vinc

`unikalurisadmi yuradRebas~ gadaaqcevs Tavis devizad, mas

ar ainteresebs arc istoriuli komparativizmi da arc literaturis

Teoria.

3. istoriuli Tu Teoriuli Tvalsazrisi

yvelaferi, rac zemoT aRvniSneT, TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs,

rom SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba dabadebidanve imyofeba

mudmivad afeTqebis, Sinagani konfliqtis, gaorebis safrTxis

winaSe. es `krizisi~ sinamdvileSi ufro Rrma gaugebrobis

gamomxatvelia. igi moicavs, SeiZleba iTqvas, struqturulad

da periodulad literaturul istorias da literaturul

kvlevas erToblivad. saqme exeba, marTlac, arsebiTi

xasiaTis polemikas pozitivistur-istoriuli midgomis Taobaze,

romelic, rogorc viciT, `faqtobrivi kavSirebis~ Seswavlas,

rogorc komparativizmis kerZo sferos, upirispirebs

literaturul-kritikul da Semfaseblur Tvalsazriss. es

ukanaskneli dasaSvebad miiCnevs da moiTxovs kidec Sedarebas

istoriuli kavSirebis gareSe, iseve rogorc ganzogadebas da

mniSvnelovan dasabuTebas. maSasadame, erTi mxriv `faqtis~

upiratesoba, meore mxriv `teqstis~ an literaturuli `Semoqmedebis~

upiratesoba, aqedan gamomdinare yvela SedegiT. amas

mosdevs fundamenturi rRveva da meTodebis mwvave Sejaxeba:

erTi mxriv _ istoriuli meTodebi, meore mxriv _ Teoriuli

da formaluri meTodebi. es imitom xdeba, rom literaturuli

nawarmoebebisadmi kritikuli da esTetikuri midgoma gu-

17


lisxmobs da warmoadgens literaturis `ideis~ an `literaturulobis

ideis~ dazustebis bunebriv mcdelobas. mokled,

aseT midgomas mivyavarT literaturis Teoriisaken. vin vis

emorCileba? istoriuli analizi xorcieldeba `TavisTvis~

Tu is amzadebs masalebs ganzogadebisa da gansjisaTvis?

swored amaSi mdgomareobs SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

`krizisis~ arsi, romelmac unda airCios da kidev

erTxel gansazRvros Tavisi Tavi: istoriuli disciplinaa is

Tu esTetikur-Teoriuli, `centridanuli~ Tu `centriskenuli~?

akademiuri, istoriuli midgomis damcveli, pozitivisturi

Tu `formalisturi~ da `poetikuri~? eqstensiuri Tu

intensiuri? `dinamikur~ Sedarebebs iyenebs Tu `statikurs~. 39

metad niSandoblivia, rom igive arCevani, romelmac marTlac

Zalian swrafad miiRo `frangul~ da `amerikul skolebs~

Soris dapirispirebis forma – `istoriul-pozitivisturi~

midgoma da/Tu `kritikul-interpretaciuli, Sinagani~ _ TiTqmis

yovelTvis dakavSirebulia SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

saerTaSoriso asociaciis (A.I.L.C.) yvela yrilobasTan.

rogorc Cans komparativizmis TviT `momavali~ amgvarad

aris mibmuli am gadamwyveti kiTxvis pasuxze. 40 is faqti,

rom am kiTxvam mtkiced gaikvlia gza TiTqmis yvelgan am bolo

dros: dasavleT germaniaSi, amerikis SeerTebul Stateb-

Si, SveicariaSi (Werkimmanenz Historiographie), aRmosavleT evropaSi,

41 misi aqtualurobis maCvenebelia.

es kamaTi, romelic kvlav ar cxreba, 42 principulad gadawydeba

mxolod ori ZiriTadi gardaqmnis safuZvelze.

a) kritikuli qmedeba (kritika) unda gaviazroT, rogorc

istoriuli, Teoriuli da Semfasebluri Tvalsazrisebis sin-

Tezi. Tu kritikis sagania nawarmoebis `pirovnuloba~ (agebuleba,

xasiaTi, Rirebuleba), am ukanasknelis gacnobiereba SeiZleba

mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu erTdroulad gamoviyenebT,

rogorc istoriuli xasiaTis wyaroebs – mibaZva, droSi

damTxveva (=literaturuli istoria), aseve Teoriuls –

literaturul kategoriebs, rogoric aris stili, mimdinareoba,

`literaturis~ idea (=literaturuli Teoria); es kategoriebi

iZleva Rirebulebis Sefasebis saSualebas (kritikuli

Sefaseba). istoriuli midgomis upiratesoba aucileblad

unda uarvyoT. Zveleburma literaturulma istoriam, sxvaTa

Soris, mogvca yvelaferi, ris mocemac SeeZlo. saWiroa sxva

gzebisa da gadawyvetilebebis gamonaxva.

b) komparativizmi, Tavis mxriv, unda ganisazRvros (moxdes

misi identifikacia), ZiriTadad, iseTi kritikuli qmedebis

mixedviT, rogorc zemoT ganvmarteT. yvelaferi, rac exe-

18


a mibaZvebs, saTanadod dasabuTebul faqtobriv kavSirebs,

momdinareobs (saerTaSoriso) literaturuli istoriidan.

konceptualuri aparati, romelic marTavs `komparativistuli~

operaciebis erTobliobas, imave wyaros (an imave gagrZelebas)

poulobs literaturis TeoriaSi. sabolood, komparativistul

safuZvelze SemuSavebuli Rirebulebis Sefaseba

(kritikuli Sefaseba) arsebiTad arafriT gansxvavdeba nebismieri

sxva literaturuli Sefasebisagan.

met-naklebad erTguli komparativistebi am radikalur

gadawyvetilebas saerTod upirispireben sam pozicias. pirveli,

gansakuTrebiT tradiciuli pozicia, sufTa wylis ubralo

uaryofaa: isini uars amboben komparativizmis `asimilaciaze~

literaturul kritikasa da istoriasTan. 43 meore pozicia

gvTavazobs kompromisul gadawyvetilebas, sakmaod advils:

SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas ganixilavs, rogorc

`saSualo~ anda saTadarigo disciplinas, damxmares

literaturuli istoriis an kritikis mimarT 44 an kidev miiCnevs

`superdisciplinad~ (atrofia Tu supertrofia?), romelic

akontrolebs or `qvedisciplinas`: esTetikurs da kulturul-istoriuls.

45 am poziciaSi pozitivizms miniWebuli

aqvs `dokumentalistis` roli (bibliografia, masalebi literaturis

TeoriisaTvis da a.S.) cxadia, es aris sapatio roli,

magram ueWvelad mcire da meorexarisxovani. mesame, namdvili

pozicia eyrdnoba prestiJul kritikul da filosofiur tradicias.

mas mivyavarT Zmebi Slegelebis da kolrijis intuiciamde,

romlebic jer kidev maSin mixvdnen, rom literaturuli

istoria SeuZlebeli iyo `ucxourTan Sedarebis~ gare-

Se, iseve SeuZlebeli, rogorc literaturuli kritika `Teoriisa~

da `principebis~ gareSe. 46 gamoTqma `comparative criticism~,

sxvaTa Soris, gamoCnda daaxloebiT 1790 wels. sent-bevi

`SedarebiT literaturul istoriaze~ laparakobda 1868 wlidan,

maSin, rodesac renanisTvis nebismieri kritika ganuyofelia

Sedarebisagan. 47 rodesac gamosces `Journal of Comparative

Literature~ (1903), b. krosma kategoriulad moiTxova istoriulkritikul

SefasebasTan, rogorc nebismieri srulyofili kritikuli

midgomis Semadgenel nawilTan komparativizmis arsebiTad

gaigiveba. es Zireuli erTianoba miCneulia nawarmoebis

`yvela mimarTebiT~ 48 Seswavlis Sedegad. bolos gavixsenoT,

rom `CvenSi (mxedvelobaSi gvyavs rusi formalistebi) Teoria

da istoria ganuyofelia~. 49

profesionali komparativistebi am mimarTulebas emxrobian

nela, Wirveulad da mxolod SemTxvevidan SemTxvevamde.

isini sabolood akeTeben principul gancxadebebs, romlebic

19


jer saqmed ar qceula, magram es mainc winsvlaa. mkvlevarTa

jgufi dabneulad mihyveba ramdenime did winamorbeds, romelTa

Soris ar unda daviviwyoT j.seintsberi 50 saukunis dasawyisSi.

aseTia sinamdvile. Tu qronologias davicavT cota-

Ti mainc, sul pirvelad unda davasaxeloT rene ueleki Seer-

Tebuli Statebidan. mas ver warmoudgenia `komparativizmi...

kritikis da esTetikis gareSe~. misi azriT, `kritika Tan

sdevs yovelgvar literaturul diskurss~, `Teoria, kritika

da literaturuli istoria erTmaneTSia gadaxlarTuli~. 51

safrangeTSi am TvalsazrisiT, mSvenieri da martosuli

mkvlevaria etiambli. is gvTavazobs, `SevqmnaT iseTi SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba, romelic istoriul meTods daukavSirebs

kritikul azrovnebas, sociologis sifxizles –

esTetikis Teoretikosis gambedaobas da amgvarad, erTi dakvriT

uzrunvelyofs Cvens disciplinas sapatio sagniT da Sesaferisi

meTodebiT~. 52 50-iani wlebis ramdenime germaneli

mkvlevari ukve daviwyebulia: literaturuli istoria Tavis-

Tavad `komparativistulia~, igi ganuyofelia literaturuli

kritikisagan. 53 mokled, Vergleichende Literaturwissenschaft da Literaturwissenschaft

an Allgemeine Literaturwissenschaft erTi saerTo sxeulis

nawilebia, Tumca am sami cnebis gaerTianeba SeiZleba

`tavtologiad~ 54 CaiTvalos.

zemoT CamoTvlili pirveli nabijebi, axali midgomis

dasawyisi, simarTle rom vTqvaT, jer kidev Zalian moridebuli,

wyvetili da marginaluria. Tanxmobas gamoxataven xmadabla

da erTi xeliT morTmeuli meoreTi gaaqvT: Cveni disciplina

`moicavs, kerZod, kritikis, Teoriisa da literaturuli

istoriis aspeqtebs...~, komparativizmi aris, agreTve, `literaturuli

kritikis erTi waxnagi~ 55 da a.S. miuxedavad amisa,

literaturuli kvlevebis bazisis (komparativistul-Teoriul-kritikul-istoriuli)

erTianobis Tezisi Cvens winaSea, is

ganuwyvetliv viTardeba (unda gvaxsovdes fransua Jostis

gamonaTqvami – `komparativizmi, rogorc literaturuli kritikis

novum organum~) rogorc dasavleTSi, aseve aRmosavleT-

Si. 56 SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis axali Jurnalebis

– Neohelicon (1973), Canadian Review of Comparative Literature / Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneobis kanaduri Jurnali (1974), Mainzer

Komparatistische Hefte (1978) – statia – programebSi aRiarebulia

es Tezisi, Tumca zogjer naZaladevad. sabolood, Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneobis saerTaSoriso asociaciis wesdebebis

axal teqstSi SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis gamokvlevebi

xelaxla ganisazRvra, rogorc `literaturuli

istoriis, literaturis Teoriis Seswavla da teqstebis in-

20


terpretacia saerTaSoriso komparativizmis mixedviT~. kvlav

tavtologiaa gamoyenebuli, magram am gancxadebaSi unda davinaxoT

saerTaSoriso komparativistuli organos didi keTili

neba, romelic bolos da bolos daiZra dakarguli drois

saZieblad....

4. komparativistuli „poetikisken“

maSasadame, SesaZlebelia (Teoriulad) komparativizmis

`krizisis~ daZleva TviT misi met-naklebad tradiciuli koncefciis

doneze. miuxedavad amisa, es ar niSnavs mTavari,

namdvili, komparativizmis Zireul ganaxlebasTan dakavSirebuli

`krizisis~ gadawyvetas. amas vambobT, radgan Cveni problema

gulisxmobs, agreTve, Tu ZiriTadad ara, komparativizmis

Semobrunebas radikalurad Teoriuli mimarTulebiT,

`komparativistuli poetikisTvis~ Sesaferisi wesdebis Seqmnas,

iseve rogorc im pirobebis Seswavlas, romelSic SesaZlebeli

iqneba misi Camoyalibeba. TviT `krizisidan~ gamosuli

komparativizmi kvlav eZebs Tavis sagans, radgan igi ganagrZobs

ganzavebas sakuTriv kritikaSi, romelic literaturuli

istoriis, Teoriisa da kritikis Semadgeneli nawilia,

anda – im esTetikaSi an literaturul TeoriaSi, rogori

saxiTac isini arseboben dRes. srulyofili, avtonomiuri

komparativizmi, romelic Cveni mizania, unda gaTavisufldes

am daqvemdebarebisagan, gamoacxados Tavisi avtonomiuroba da

damoukidebloba, SemogvTavazos specifikuri gadawyvetilebebi.

Tu ideologiuri brZola mTavari SesaZleblobaa (rac,

vfiqrobT, davamtkiceT), 57 `Teoriad~ da `poetikad~ gardaqmna

sxva SesaZleblobas warmoadgens. es jer kidev dasamtkicebelia.

saqme exeba mniSvnelovan mutacias: faqtobrivi (kerZo)

kavSirebidan struqturul (universalur) kavSirebze gadasvla,

`unikaluridan~ – `sagvareuloze~, faqtebis erTobliobis

gardaqmna Teoriulad da meTodologiurad mwyobr

sinTezad.

literaturis komparativistuli Teoriis Seqmnis mcdeloba,

`komparativistuli poetikis~ elementebis SemoTavazeba,

Tundac monaxazis doneze, ar aris ioli operacia. didi

da patara `poetikuri~ tradicia, didostatebisa da epigonebis

tradicia, sruliadac ar midis `komparativistuli~ mimar-

TulebiT. Zalian gaZnelda sayrdenis, miTiTebis, savali bilikis

povna am mimarTulebaSi. meore mxriv, poetikis Tanamedrove

specialistebi sul ar icnoben komparativizms an mo-

21


urideblad acxadeben mas `gardacvlilad~. 58 axlaxan gadavxedeT

Tormetiode germanul Literaturwissenschaft-is Sesavals

ise, rom arsad ar iyo moxseniebuli SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba.

igive mdgomareobaa Tanamedrove poetikebSi,

sadac gamotovebulia komparativistuli kriteriumi. yovel

SemTxvevaSi, ar SeimCneva araviTari SesaZlo kavSiri `poetikis~

Tanamedrove meTodologias an `literaturaTmcodneobis~

(germanul yaidaze, albaT) meTodologias da komparativizms

Soris; es ukanaskneli moxseniebulic ki ar aris,

rogorc `meTodi~ sxva meTodebs Soris. miuxedavad amisa, misi

SesaZleblobebi ar aris amowuruli, jer Sorsaa iqamde. poetikis

istorikosebi aseve duman am sakiTxze. amgvari uyurad-

Reboba, cxadia, miuTiTebs aRiarebis dakargvaze. amas emateba

is seriozuli siZneleebi, rac unda gadalaxos literaturis

Teoriam, Tu mas surs gamoiyenos `klasikuri~ komparativizmis

jer kidev sasargeblo mdidari monacemebi. es Teoria apirebs

maT `eqspluatacias~ da gardaqmnas saerTo, universaluri

Teoriuli mimarTulebiT, iseTi sagangebo meTodiT, romelic

TviTon aris dasazustebeli. sabolood unda ganvasxvavoT

da Zalian garkveviT, Teoriuli komparativistikis Teoriuli

safuZvlebi da misi Camoyalibebis teqnikuri da praqtikuli

SesaZleblobebi, unda ganvasxvavoT es `Teoria~ da

misi ilustracia Sesaferisi `praqtikiT~. magram amisaTvis sa-

Wiroa Tavdapirvelad Teoriuli inventaris momzadeba, rac

sawyis wertilTan migviyvans. saboloo angariSiT yvela am

siZneles axali gadawyveta unda movuZebnoT.

gaviTvaliswinoT agreTve erTi gaugebroba, romelic SeiZleba

seriozuli aRmoCndes. komparativisti Teoretikosis

winaSe ar dgas poetikis specialistis Canacvlebis sakiTxi,

arc arsebuli Teoriebisa da meTodebis moSlis, Secvlis,

miT ufro gauqmebis problema. misi amocana ufro martivi da

imavdroulad gabedulic aris: saqme isaa, rom axalma komparativistma

unda SemogvTavazos alternativa, samuSao hipoTeza

e.i. iseTi perspeqtivis mqone Teoria da meTodi, romelic

damoukidebelia: ar Seereva sxva Teoriebsa da meTodebs, magram

arc gaimeorebs romelime met-naklebad modur koncefcias

(struqturalisturs, semiotikurs da a.S.). misi virtualuri

roli gulisxmobs mxolod dapirispirebasa da Sevsebas,

agreTve urTierTkontrols. amjerad literaturis Teoriamde

unda mivideT sxva gziT, sawyis wertilad unda avir-

CioT sxva hipoTezebi, xelaxla aRmoCenili da xelmeored

gansazRvruli sxva komparativistuli tradicia. savaraudod,

aseTia Cveni Taosnobis `originaluroba~.

22


komparativizmis garkveuli `poetikuri~ (poetikasTan dakavSirebuli)

tradicia, romelic ar unda gavazviadoT, magram

arc unda davamciroT, mainc arsebobs. saqme exeba intuiciis

impulsebs, brmad Ziebas, Sewyvetil dasawyiss, magram

yvelaferi es qmnis erT mokrZalebul mimarTulebas. termini,

iseve rogorc `SedarebiTi poetikis~ winaTgrZnoba, yvela niSnis

mixedviT Tavdapirvelad Tavs iCens germaniaSi gasuli saukunis

bolos (moric haupti). esTetikosebi miznad isaxaven

poeziis Teoriis Seqmnas komparativistul safuZvelze, induqciis,

paralelizmis da Sedarebis gziT (moric karieri). komparativizmis

zogierTi pioneri (lui pol betci) imeorebs sityvas

da sagans, gzadagza aZlevs mas mokle tipologiur da

`formalur~ orientacias (metrikis formebi, saxeebi da a.S.). 59

spekulatiurma esTetikam da tradiciulma ritorikam iseve

daiWira warmmarTveli pozicia cnebis saTaveebTan safrangeT-

Si, akademiuri da brma eruduciis zonaSi (`Cveni gamokvlevebi

SedarebiT poetikaSi~, `esTetikis wesebi... qmnian SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis ZiriTad elements~). 60 erTi Rirseuli

winamorbedi gaxlavT rusi a.n.veselovski misi `istoriuli

poetikiT~ (`istoriuli da SedarebiTi poetika~ 1894, 1899;

`Temebis poetika~, 1897-1906). es poetika saerTaSoriso literaturul

process ganixilavs erTianobaSi, cnobili literaturebis

udides raodenobaSi dadgenili istoriuli paralelebis

saSualebiT miiswrafis `yvelaze sruli ganzogadebisaken,

rac ki SesaZlebelia~. 61 aRniSnuli poetikis saboloo mizani

– `poeziis arsis garkveva misi sakuTari istoriiT~ gaimeora

zogierTma Tanamedrove komparativistma, romelTac isev surT

daibrunon, am gziT mainc, literaturuli istoria. 62 winadadebebi

SeiZleba movida, agreTve, `SedarebiTi esTetikis~

mxridan, magram unayofod; miuxedavad amisa, literatura dawinaurda

dapirispirebul xelovnebis dargebs Soris, raTa

aRmoeCinaT `saerTo arsi~. 63 es meTodi gameordeba. amas davinaxavT

qvemoT, magram es aris mcdari gza, ris gamoxatulebasac

warmoadgens komparativizmis erTi Tanamedrove Semadgeneli

nawili (`xelovnebis dargebis Sedareba~).

Tanamedrove komparativizmis mier `poetikuri~ (poetikas-

Tan dakavSirebuli) Tvalsazrisis miReba nela mimdinareobs.

es procesi SemTxveviTi xasiaTisaa, ar isaxeba misi gagrZeleba

da moklebulia Sesaferis meTodologiur Zalisxmevas.

saqme exeba, gansakuTrebiT, principul gancxadebebs, iqneba es

axali literaturuli meTodebis zewoliT Tu pozitivizmis

aSkara marcxiT, istoriuli meTodis mobezrebis gamoc. maSasadame,

unda vaRiaroT, rom garkveuli `Teoriuli~ miswrafe-

23


a cxadia, Tumca is aris wyvetili da ar gaaCnia mwyobri doqtrina.

rac Seexeba sakuTriv gadawyvetilebebs, isini ar scildebian

epoqis dones: `Semoqmedebis~, `literaturuli Janrebis~

an `stilistikuri~ Teoria da a.S. aseTia saxeldobr, Jan

hankisis 64 mier SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis saerTa-

Soriso asociaciis (A.I.L.C., 1958) meore yrilobaze warmodgenili

cnobili moxseneba, romlis saTauri aris swored `literaturis

Teoria da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba~.

rogorc Cans, franguli komparativizmi ganviTarebas

iwyebs mxolod 60-iani wlebis dasasruls. swored amaSi

mdgomareobs `krizisis~ sasargeblo zemoqmedeba. zogierTi

mowodeba `SedarebiTi esTetikis kvlevebis sasargeblod, cota

ufro adrec gaisma. 65 es gamokvlevebi ufro zusti gaxda

marsel bataionis xelmZRvanelobiT, romelic, albaT, SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis yvelaze gaxsnili universiteteli

iyo safrangeTSi. is moiTxovs veselovskis `istoriuli

poetikis~ ukan Camotovebas iseTi `poetikiT~, romelic gavrceldeboda,

agreTve, arasaleqso literaturuli formebis

mimarT. mokled, mas surs, rom orientacia aiRon `literaturaTa

zogadi mecnierebisaken anu zogadi poetikisaken~. meryeoben,

jer ar gadadian sapirispiro mxares, magram nabiji sanaxevrod

gadadgmulia: `komparativizms sWirdeba zogadi literaturul-Teoriuli

azrovnebis foni: Tundac mas ar gaaCndes

literaturis Teoria (ratom ar unda gaaCndes? – vityodiT

Cven) gansakuTrebuli brwyinvalebiT, is mas met-naklebad

gulisxmobs~ (xazgasma Cvenia). 66 etiambli gansakuTrebuli

brwyinvalebiT imeorebs da aviTarebs am Teziss: termins –

`literaturis Teoria~ is amjobinebs – `SedarebiT poetikas`,

romelic ufro Seesabameba komparativizmisTvis dasaxul

axal miznebs: `literaturuli formebis komparativistuli

Seswavla~, Janrebis istoria, `literaturebis SedarebiTi istoria,

diax, magram agreTve da upiratesad SedarebiTi esTetika~.

67 misi leqciebi, magaliTad `le babelien~ (`babiloneli~),

exeba `SedarebiTi poetikis sakiTxebs~, rogorc `nebismieri

momavali poetikis Sesavali~. 68 am principis gaziareba,

magaliTad, h.r. iausis mier, romelic emxroboda `SedarebiTi

poetikis, ritorikisa da esTetikis Camoyalibebas~, 69 niSandoblivia:

Tu komparativizmi ver Secvlis literaturuli

kavSiris esTetikas, is mainc SeuZlia, rom misi dasayrdeni

gaxdes. tradiciuli germanuli komparativizmi, meore mxriv,

yovelTvis cdilobs `Sedarebis Teoriisa~ da `literaturis

Teoriis~ 70 gaerTianebas. sakiTxi, marTlac, mxolod sinTezis

saSualebiT SeiZleba gadaiWras. sxvaTa Soris, swored aseTia

24


axaldamTavrebuli (da brwyinvale) gamokvlevis daskvna: `SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis da literaturis Teoriuli

kvlevis miznebi principulad identuria~. 71

rac Seexeba aRmosavleTis komparativizms (romelic arasodes

gamogvvrCenia mxedvelobidan), arc is ambobs uars `Teoriulobaze~.

rumineTSi 1937 wlidan Camoyalibebulia azri

`SedarebiTi literaturuli esTetikis~ Sesaxeb, Tumca is sakmaod

orazrovania, Tu uTavbolo 72 ara. budapeStis Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneobis konferenciis dros (26-29 oqtomberi,

1962), `SedarebiTi poetika~ azustebs Tavis sagans Janrebis

Teoriis, stilistikis, metrikis, SedarebiTi Targmanis

mimarTulebiT 73 . kidev ufro damuSavebuli Teoriebi (CexeTSi)

moiTxoven interliteraturuli (literaturaTSorisi) kvlevidan

(kontaqtebi erovnul literaturebs Soris) intraliteraturul

(Sidaliteraturul) kvlevaze (literaturis, rogorc

movlenis, warmoSoba da tipologia) gadasvlas. es ukanaskneli

gza, romelic gulisxmobs ganzogadebas, warmoadgens

im Sinagani kanonebis `aRmoCenis~ mcdelobas, romlebic

axasiaTeben literaturis fenomens da `am fenomenis genetikuri

da tipologiuri Tvisebebis analizs~. masSi imanenturi

kanonebis arseboba yvela SemTxvevaSi postulatad aris miCneuli

74 . aseve, poloneTSi `SedarebiT poetikas~ hyavs Tavisi

mimdevrebi. 75

miuxedavad amisa, specialistebi sakmaod didi Tavsatexis

winaSe aRmoCndnen (Tavsatexi evfemizmia). kiTxva romelic

ganuwyvetliv ismeba, saocrad martivia: riT daviwyoT? romel

Teorias mivemxroT? ras niSnavs zustad `SedarebiTi poetika?~

pasuxi didxans iyo moridebuli da tradiciuli: XIX

saukunis bolos ukve moiTxovdnen `SedarebiT leqswyobas~;

eZebdnen `gadasvlas stilistikidan literaturul mecnierebaze~,

erTgvar `poeturi stilis da poetikis Teorias~, amas-

Tanave, metrikis formebs, erTgvar `vergleichende Poetik~-s 76 da

a.S. am mimarTulebiT viTareba didad ar Secvlila Cvens epoqaSi:

isev moiTxoven `stilistikas~, Tanac romelime vosleris,

romelime Spiceris, romelime hacfeldis didi avtoritetiT.

`istoriuli stilistika~ 77 kvlav ganixileba, rogorc

`literaturis istoriuli da SedarebiTi kritika~. 78 metrika

da prosodia, ra Tqma unda, ar aris dRevandeli terminebi,

magram is faqti, rom isini `kooptaciiT aris Seyvanili~ komparativizmSi,

miCneulia am disciplinis ganaxlebad. 79 ritorikasTan

gaerTianeba axla miRebuli Cans, rac aZlierebs

amgvari komparativistuli programisaken miswrafebas. germaniaSi

Zlieri stilistikuri tradiciebi amave mimarTulebiT vi-

25


Tardeba, 80 maSin, rodesac SeerTebul StatebSi stilistika

`Raribad aRar ixseneba~: amieridan is mTlianad Caewereba

komparativistul `sauniversiteto disciplinebs~ Soris. 81

Janrebis tradiciuli kvleva, rac SecdomiT monaTles

`SedarebiT poetikad~, 82 garkveul imedebs aCens. yvelaze radikaluri

Cans etiamblis programa. is moiTxovs `Janrebis es-

Tetikas~, romelic ganxorcieldeba literaturuli Janrebis

SedarebiTi kvleviT civilizaciebis rac SeiZleba did raodenobaSi,

`Tundac am Janrebs da civilizaciebs hqondeT an

ar gaaCndeT faqtobrivi kavSirebi~. 83 komparativizmis mier

Janrebis Teoriis aneqsia da gansakuTrebiT epikuri Janrebisa

_ aneqsia, romelic aRiniSneba XIX saukunidanve, 84 _ wamoWris

ramdenime axal problemas. es ukanasknelebi moiTxoven gansakuTrebul

gadawyvetas imasTan SedarebiT, vidre amas gvTavazobs

tradiciuli ritorika Janrebis warmoSobis, ganviTarebisa

da universalurobis sakiTxebze, TiToeuli Janris `invariantebTan~,

Janrebis terminologiur da/Tu obieqtur gansaz-

RvrebasTan, axali Janrebis gamoCenasTan dakavSirebiT, maT

Soris aris audiovizualuri sakiTxebi da es sakiTxebi monacemTa

raodenobis cvlilebas iwvevs. (es iyo azeleferonSi

zogadi SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis franguli sazogadoebis

– (S.F.L.G.C.) kolokviumis msjelobis sagani 1979

wlis 23 ivniss) da a.S. jer kidev Zlieri tendencia, romelic

gulisxmobs `Janrebis Teoriis (TviT SedarebiTi Teoriis)~ 85

warmoCenas, rogorc savsebiT damoukidebeli Teoriisa, ise,

rom is ar gadaizrdeba literaturis (zogad) TeoriaSi, ar

gvaZlevs pasuxs am ZiriTad kiTxvaze. es exeba, sxvaTa Soris,

yvela Tvalsazriss Temebisa 86 da literaturuli tipebis

Sesaxeb, romlebic miCneulia, aseve, avtonomiur sferoebad.

dasaxeleba `Teoriuli~ aq mainc SesaZlebelia. 87 anTropologiam,

arqetipologiam, miTokritikam amaSi unda iTamaSon TavianTi

roli. is faqti, rom komparativizmi ukve gaixsna warmosaxviTis

anTropologiuri kvlevisaTvis (aris amis ramdenime

mcdeloba), aseve aRsaniSnavia. 88

imave SeniSvnas imsaxurebs komparativistuli midgoma poeturi

formebisadmi _ termini, romliTac aRniSnuli iyo

gamoxatvis formaluri saSualebebis mTeli erTobliobis

Seswavla erT-erT pirvel komparativistul programaSi. 89 ma-

Ti unikaluroba da erTgvarovneba, individualoba da kategoriis

xasiaTi teqstebis analizidan gamomdinare, `klasikuri~

komparativistuli midgomis safuZvelze aCens axal kiTxvas:

sad mTavrdeba Sedarebisadmi dauqvemdebarebeli? sad iwyeba

Sesadarebeli (Sedarebisadmi daqvemdebarebuli, rac eqvemde-

26


areba Sedarebas)? rogor amovicnoT poeturi formebi erovnuli

da enobrivi sazRvrebis miRma? SeiZleba Tu ara `Sesadarebeli~

daiyos ramdenime did kategoriad, rac Znelad sa-

Targmnia sxva enebze, rogoric aris, magaliTad, Form, Gestalt,

Fügung, Haltung? 90

ver vityviT, rom franguli komparativizmi, TviT yvelaze

tradiciuli, ar icnobda amgvar demarSs: `gamoxatvis erTi

da imave saSualebebis xmarebis Sedareba sxvadasxva qveynis

mixedviT (....) damaxasiaTebeli unda iyos SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobisTvis~.

an kidev: `surs Tu ar surs mas, SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba meordeba SedarebiTi stilistikiT,

romelic saswaulebrivad SemoqmedebiTi da nayofieria.

es ukanaskneli Suqs mohfenda nawarmoebebs Soris kavSirs da

maSasadame, TviT misaRebi nawarmoebis Sinagan xasiaTs~. 91 miuxedavad

amisa, did uxerxulobas qmnis is, rom ar arsebobs

am gamokvlevebis `ganmazogadebeli~ Tanxvedra: gamokvlevebi

tardeba cal-calke da `sakuTar TavSi~. etiamblis reaqcia,

romelic Tu ver asabuTebs, daJinebiT moiTxovs mainc aseTi

aucilebeli defisis gavlebas Janrebis, stilebis, struqturebis

poetikebis Seqmnas (maT Soris metrikis, saxeebis, Targmnis

xelovnebis) da `zogadad literaturis sinTezur Seswavlas

Soris~, 92 ver qmnis aminds am dargSi. SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobisa

da literaturuli teqstebis formalur

analizs Soris (Tanamedrove) kavSirebis Tavmoyra-dazustebas,

93 rac, sxvaTa Soris, naTeli da safuZvliania, mainc

ver mivyavarT iseTi `komparativistuli poetikis~ hipoTezamde,

romelic erT organizmad gaaerTianebda formaluri Ziebebis

mTel erTobliobas.

bolos da bolos aris axali sakvlevi gza, romelsac

sruliadac ar amouwuravs SesaZleblobebi; es aris literaturuli

Teoriebis, ideebis, koncefciebis, mokled rom

vTqvaT, `poetikebis~ Sepirispireba. es is sferoa, romelic

dasaxelebulia adreul komparativistul naSromebSi, 94 magram

Semdeg daviwyebas mieca. rodesac am sferos kvlav mimar-

Taven, is ar scildeba saerTod bilateraluri (ormxrivi)

urTierTobis, literaturul Teoriebs Soris faqtobrivi kav-

Sirebis kvlevis farglebs. masSi mZlavrobs istoriuli midgoma.

95 SedarebiT literaturul kritikas da literaturuli

ideebis kritikas 96 moaqvs mniSvnelovani Teoriuli da meTodologiuri

danamati, Tundac es iyos mxolod aucilebeli

`sistemuri~ orientaciis xazgasma. rodesac profesionali

komparativistebi hkideben xels saqmes, isaxeba ori gamosavali:

1) aRiareben saerTaSoriso Tvalsazriss (faqtobrivs Tu

27


arafaqtobrivs), magram literaturuli Teoriebis Sedarebas

ar mivyavarT aucileblad `erTiani (unificirebuli) Teoriisaken~;

dapirispireba moiTxovs, upirveles yovlisa, SedarebiTi

Teoriebis `Sesabamisobis~ (relevanturobis) xarisxis

Semowmebas epoqebisa da zonebis mixedviT; 97 2) ufro gabeduli

da swori mimarTuleba unda iyos literaturuli Teoriebis

Tanxvedrebisa da cdomilebebis (konvergenciis divergenciis)

Seswavla garkveuli raodenobis orientirebis mixedviT

(tradicia, siaxle, forma, Sinaarsi da a.S.). 98 Sedegad miviRebdiT

sqemas, romelic literaturis SesaZlebeli gansazRvrebis

tolfasi iqneboda garkveuli hipoTezebisa da naTeli,

obieqturi, meTodurad Seswavlili parametrebis Sesabamisad:

araviTari ekleqtizmi, arc nazavi, aramed namdvili kritikuli

sinTezi, romelic sakuTar kanons emorCileba. `Sedarebi-

Ti poetikis~ yvela am RonisZiebisa da monaxazis an ufri

sworad, nawyvetebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa maTi viwro eTnocentruli

da evrocentruli safuZveli. Tu poetika mimar-

Tulia universalurobisaken, maSin is unda dafuZndes, Seimosos

da dakanondes marTlac universalurad. amitom aris

aucilebeli dialogi da Sepirispireba yoveli mxaris eqstraevropul

da eqstradasavlur, sxvadasxva literaturul

naazrevs Soris, mokled, unda gaixsnas WeSmaritad universaluri

`poetika~. cnobilia evrocentrizmis winaaRmdeg mimar-

Tuli polemika, romlis did winamorbedad gvevlineba etiambli.

99 ukve yvelaferi cxadi xdeba. aRar SeiZleba literaturuli

Teoriebis Seqmna mxolod dasavlur safuZvlebze dayrdnobiT.

gvesaWiroeba iseTi literaturuli Teoria, romelic

gascdeba `Cvens kulturul tradiciebs~ da gaiTvaliswinebs

agreTve sxva kulturebisa da literaturebis kuTvnil

`paradigmebsa~ da Teoriul Rirebulebebs. 100 aseTia an TiTqmis

aseTia saRi azri. es ar niSnavs faqtebs Soris meqanikuri

da zedapiruli kavSirebis damyarebas nebismier fasad anda

dasavlur da aRmosavlur literaturul esTetikas Soris

arsebuli didi gansxvavebebis ugulebelyofas; magaliTad, mimezisi,

romelic gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs evropul azrovnebaSi,

sul ar arsebobs klasikur iaponur kritikaSi. 101 SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis erT dasacav sityvaSi (romelic

SezRudulobiT xasiaTdeba) moiTxoven mxolod aristoteles

da sanskritis poetikebis daaxloebas. 102 miuxedavad

amisa, farTo asparezia gadaSlili iseTi tipis msgavsebisa

da damTxvevis gamovlinebisaTvis, rogoric aris rasa/gemovneba

an Cinuri poetika/simbolisturi poetika. 103 am mimarTulebiT,

sinTezis gzis CaTvliT, saWiro iqneba `literaturis savara-

28


udo universaluri Teoriis~ Seqmnis SesaZleblobis Zieba,

imis garkveva, Tu `romeli kritikuli koncefciebia universaluri~,

aucilebelia `mokle lirikuli Janris~, `realizmis

tipebis~ da a.S. `SedarebiTi poetikis~ (crosscultural poetics) arsis

dadgena. 104

davuSvaT es Zalian Znelia, davuSvaT, rom dasavluraRmosavluri

poetika jer Zalian norCia. miuxedavad amisa,

cxadia, diplomiani komparativistebis umravlesobas ar exaliseba

Teoriuli kvleva da namdvili dabrkolebac amaSi

mdgomareobs. empiriuli praqtikis mqone istoriuli disciplina

– tradiciuli Sinaarsis Tanamedrove komparativizmi,

sazogadod, moklebulia Teoriul cnobismoyvareobas da mowodebas.

erTi amgvari germanuli Jurnali, sxvaTa Soris, soliduri

gamocema (Arcadia), gvTavazobs ukiduresad araTeoriul

programas. rainis gadaRma erTmaneTs (metad gamomwvevi

sasowarkveTili toniT) ekiTxebian: `aqvs Tu ara SedarebiT

literaturaTmcodneobas Tavisi sakuTari Teoria~ da termini

Allgemein (=zogadi) aris Tu ara `uSinaarso etiketi~. 105 safrangeTSi,

aseve, acxadeben, rom komparativizmma sabolood

aiRo xeli `sinTezis Seqmnis mcdelobaze~, 106 Tumca poziciis

amgvari daTmoba Znelad asaxsnelia. Tanamedrove komparativistuli

literaturuli Teoriis arasaimedo mdgomareoba,

rom ar vTqvaT, `katastrofuli~ (`dawvrilmanebuli~, `ad hoc~,

`improvizebuli~, `dauzustebeli~ da mets aRar gavagrZeleb),

mainc iwvevs aSkarad uaryofiT reaqcias. 107 amdagvari reaqcia,

samwuxarod, savsebiT samarTliania. komparativizmi warmoudgenelia

Teoriis gareSe, Tavisi sakuTari literaturis Teoriis

gareSe; es ukanaskneli unda Seiqmnas. 108

29


II

universaluri literatura

anu literatura

`poetika~ anu literaturis (namdvili) komparativistuli

Teoria moiTxovs aTvlis axal wertils, kargad morgebul,

sruliad ganaxlebuli gansazRvrebis mqone axal safuZvels,

romelic upasuxebs sammag amocanas: 1) `universaluri~ literaturis

gansazRvreba unda iyos realuri, is unda iyos `universaluri

literaturis~ kargad dasabuTebuli koncefcia; 2)

komparativizmi unda ganvasxvavoT Sedarebis eqskluziuri

ideisagan da davakavSiroT (gavuTanabroT kidec) `universaluri

literaturis~ sistemur SeswavlasTan, romelic, mokled

rom vTqvaT, ubralod, literaturaa; 3) am mizniT unda

moviZioT `universaluri literaturis~ adreuli gansazRvrebebi,

im elementebis erToblioba, romelic win uswrebs literaturis

globalur gagebas (istoriuls, morfologiurs

da, sabolood, Teoriuls); es elementebi xom erTi mimarTulebiT

moZraoben `universaluri literaturisaken~...

1. „universaluri literaturis“ aRmoCena

mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT da vecadoT, Teoriul sibrtyeze

gadavitanoT universaluri literatura, romelic

Sedgeba literaturebis erTobliobisagan; swored es Taosnoba

aniWebs saqmes sul sxva ganzomilebas da mimarTulebas.

sxvaTa Soris, aseTi gafarToeba gardauvalia: `universaluri

literatura~, Tavis mxriv, ise rogorc yvela sxva literaturuli

idea, aris istoriuli kategoria. maSasadame, sruli

ufleba gvaqvs, axali formulireba mivceT `universaluri

literaturis~ Zvel gansazRvrebas, zustad ise, rogorc tradiciuli

komparativizmis mimarT moviqeciT. valdebuli ar

varT SevinarCunoT dromoWmuli gansazRvrebebi, romlebic

ver uZleben analizs.

ganzraxuli ar gvaqvs `universaluri literaturisTvis~

istoriuli xasiaTis miniWeba, miT ufro, rom es ukve ganxorcielda,

maT Soris Cveni TvalsazrisiTac. 1 miuxedavad amisa,

Zalian mokled unda SevajamoT is monacemebi da `niSnebi~,

romlebic erTianobasa da sayovelTaobaze metyveleben da

gamomdinareoben literaturis `universalurobis~ tradiciidan;

am SemTxvevaSi winaprebi, rom ar vTqvaT winamorbedebio,

30


arian, upirveles yovlisa, respublica litteraria-s mimdevrebi da mexotbeebi.

es aris renesansisa da humanizmis mier Camoyalibebuli

koncefcia, romelic memkvidreobiT miiRo XVIII-XIX saukuneebma

(mogvyavs erTi ubralo orientiri: F. Gr. Klopstock, Die

deutsche Gelehrtenrepublik, 1774). civiltà letteraria-s cneba (da misi semantikuri

veli sxvadasxva enaSi) arsebobs dRemde. `literaturis

respublika~ (esec SemorCenili gamoTqmaa) axla ukve

niSnavs: komunas, erTobas, solidarobas, urTierTgacvlas, saxelis

moxveWas, kosmopolitizms, `literaturebis~ progresul

da ormxriv gaxsnilobas yvelgan. XIX saukuneSi es idea

kidev ufro dazustda da mwvervals miaRwia goeTes Weltliteratur-iT,

romelmac, rogorc cnobilia, es termini iRblianad

`wamoayena~: (evropuli) literaturebis Zireuli erTianobis

koncefcia, maTi yvela mimarTulebiT Tavisufali TanamSromloba

urTierTgacvlis gziT, Targmanis, mimteveblobis da

Tanaziari codnis, agreTve konstruqciuli Sejibris saSualebiT.

mogvianebiT es movlena miiCnies `bunebriv

simptomad~. 2

faqtobrivad, saqme exeba, upirveles yovlisa, gamokve-

Til evrocentristul tendencias, rac Zalian TvalsaCinoa

novalisTan (Die `Christenheit~ oder `Europa~, 1799), fr. SlegelTan

(Europa, Eine Zeitschrift...1800), sxvebTan da rac goeTem gamoiyena

da ganaviTara ise, rom Tavisi didi saxeli mianiWa mas. `universaluroba~

im epoqaSi gulisxmobda, upirveles yovlisa,

`evropul literaturas~ (maZini, vilmeni), romelic yvelaze

metad cnobili da misawvdomi iyo. TviT kinesTan `Tanamedrove

literaturaTa erTobliobis~ (1838) dacva exeba mxolod

did dasavlur literaturebs. 3 sxvadasxva teritoriaze arsebuli

literaturebis erT sxeulad Sekvris suliskveTeba,

rasac erTvis imis Segneba, rom literatura erTiania, unitarulia,

Tundac evropis perimetriT ifarglebodes, yvelaferi

es aZlierebs rwmenas, rom TiToeuli erovnuli literatura

sazrdoobs saerTo principebis garkveuli raodenobiT (ganaTleba,

gemovneba, `poezia~ da a.S.). es ukanaskneli principebi

uzrunvelyofs literaturaTa erTobliobis aramarto metnaklebad

mWidro da `kosmopolitur~ mTlianobas, aramed,

amasTanave, garkveul identurobas, esTetikur `erTgvarovnebasac~

ki. am sagnebze msjeloba TandaTanobiT Rebulobs literaturis

(zogadi) Teoriis formas, Tumca igi jer kidev

fragmentulia.

Tu ganmanaTleblobis epoqis met-naklebad dawinaurebulma

kosmopolitizmma safuZveli Cauyara literaturuli

esTetikis sust erTianobas (miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba am

31


momentis damcireba), Tu XIX saukunis didi literaturuli

mimdinareobebi ganavrcoben da aRrmaveben amave tendencias

saerTo `poeturi xelovnebisaken~, Tavisi pikis momentiT –

simbolizmiT, romlis zemoqmedeba aRiares `planetis yvela

literaturaze~, 4 maSin XX saukunis avangardistebis damsaxurebaa

(sakmaod uCveulo damsaxureba) yvela esTetikuri „izm“isTvis

saerTo mniSvnelis moZebna da masze Teoriuli msjeloba.

cnobilia aseTi sinqronulobis motivacia msoflio

doneze: zeitgeist-is mZafri aRqma, `axali azrovneba~ an `universaluri

azrovneba~, ase qebuli futuristebidan da apolineridan

moyolebuli, 5 Tanamedrove gamoTqma – kacobriobis

universaluri erTianoba (rogorc cnobilia, dada ekuTvnis

`yvela erovnebas~) 6 da a.S. saerTaSoriso poeturi Semoqmedeba,

Tavis mxriv, iqneba `axali universaluri poezia~. 7 igi iyenebs

im poetur kavSirs, romelic `msoflio kavSirs~ uwodebs

Tavis Tavs da zogjer `Camosxmulia~ aTasgvari nawilebisagan

(zaumi, konkretuli poezia da a.S.) `Tanamedrove~ poetika anu

`avangardi~, romelic sul ufro ganzogadebulia, ayalibebs

am internacionalisturi miswrafebebis mTlianobas. maT

dasturi da stimuli misca am bolo aTwleulebis globaluri

masStabis sxva movlenebma, romelTagan ori mainc sakmaod

msxvilia: masmediis gavrceleba `post tipografiul~ sazogadoebaSi,

aRmosavleTis qveynebis CaTvliT, romelic saSualebas

gvaZlevs `vicxovroT~ erTdroulad da mravalmxrivad

mravalricxovan samyaroebsa da kulturebSi; meore msxvili

movlena gaxlavT Targmanebisa da erToblivi gamocemebis `saerTo

bazari~, romelic axorcielebs, ZiriTadad mainc, Zvel

ocnebas universalur literaturaze. 8 `saerTaSoriso literaturuli~

Jurnalebis gamocema amave `universalur~ moZraobas

miewereba, romlis xorcSesxma momavlis saqmea.

2. ra aris universaluri literatura

gasarkvevi dagvrCa, upirveles yovlisa, Tu zustad ras

gulisxmobs `universaluri literatura~, ra mniSvnelobas

unda atarebdes es Sesityveba imisaTvis, rom Seiqmnas literaturis

Teoria? dasabuTebuli da operatiuli gansazRvreba,

albaT, unda Sedgebodes Semdegi elementebisagan:

a) universaluri literatura – erTi da ganuyofeli –

rogorc (logikuri) koncefcia, Sedgeba literaturebis er-

Tobliobisagan anu `jamisagan” gamonaklisis gareSe. es Tvalsazrisi,

romelic mTeli msoflios literaturebs erT

32


mTlianobad ganixilavs, gadaWriT emijneba literaturis istoriul

da pozitivistur perspeqtivas.

pirveli mniSvnelobiT, romelic aris yvelaze ufro

tradiciuli da gavrcelebuli, `mTlianoba~ gulisxmobs raodenobriv

`jams~, dedamiwis literaturebis `ariTmeTikul~

Sekrebas. es perspeqtiva sakmaod gamyarda XVIII saukunidan,

amitomac ukve mihyves xeli am tipis farTo kvlevebs: franCesko

saverio kvadrios Della storia e della ragione di ogni poesia (1739-

1752), romelic SezRudvebis miuxedavad, im epoqaSi cnobili

yvela literaturis universaluri panoramis Seqmnis mcdelobas

warmoadgens. es idea XIX saukuneSi gaimeores kosmopolitma

kritikosebma, rogoric aris J.J. amperi, h.m. posnetis an

S. leturnos tipis evolucionistebma, agreTve istoriuli

poetikis avtorebma, rogoric aris a.n. veselovski. 9 namdvili

komparativistuli Semecneba bevrad ufro axalia.

ufro Zveli anglosaqsuri gansazRvrebebiT, romlebic

TariRdeba saukunis dasawyisiT, wamoyenebulia azri, rom

`universaluri literatura niSnavs mxolod yvela literaturis

saerTo jams~. 10 rene ueleki, am koncefciis Tanamedrove

momxre da yvelaze TvalsaCino atlantis okeanis gaRma,

isic agreTve am gzas irCevs: universaluri literatura ar

SeiZleba darCes iq, sadac goeTem datova is. man unda moicvas

`xuTi kontinenti, axali zelandiidan islandiamde~ _ mokled,

`mTeli literatura~. 11 `es azri ukve avtoritetulia da

rogor Cans, gabatonebulic xdeba. es moiTxovs literaturis

Seswavlas, `rac SeiZleba farTo zonebSi~, `rac SeiZleba didi

moculobiT~, dasavluri memkvidreobis miRma. 12 aqedan momdinareobs

Weltliteratur-is mTavari revizia misi istoriul-geografiuli

CarCoebis garRveviT da Sedegad mosdevs amgvari

gaxsnis yvelaze aqtiuri momxris, etiamblis survili – `gauRon

mTels planetas evraziis es pawia naxevarkunZuli~, romelsac

ewodeba evropa. amgvarad, universaluri literatura

Rebulobs (namdvil) msoflio moxazulobas da zomebs. universaluri

literatura agebulia `erovnuli literaturebis

erTobliobisagan~, `yvela literaturisagan, romelTa werilobiTi

forma SemogvrCa an mxolod zepiri, amasTanave yvelaferi

es enobrivi, politikuri da religiuri Cagvris gareSe.

13 `universaluri literatura~, romelic ekumenizmis namdvili

literaturuli gamoxatulebaa (rac samyaros oTx ZiriTad

geografiul mxareSi kiTxvis procesis gavrcelebas

mohyva), etiamblis mixedviT, aris am `raodenobrivi~ koncefciis

yvelaze radikaluri da sruli varianti. erT-erTi bolo

franguli saxelmZRvanelo, agreTve, iwonebs `am kanonier gam-

33


edaobas~, Tumca naklebi enTuziazmiT, rogorc Cans; SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba ganixilavs mimarTebas, kavSirs

`msoflios yvela literaturas Soris. udavod, aseTia misi

bunebrivi memkvidreoba~. 14 sxva gansazRvrebebi, kidev ufro

yovlismomcveli (aseTi tipis: `sinTezi~, `organuli sxeuli~ 15

da a.S.) unda gamovricxoT maTi metismetad `gamaerTferovnebeli~

(`unifikatoruli~) xasiaTis gamo. TavisTavad cxadia,

aRmosavleTis qveynebSi universalurisaken miswrafeba kidev

ufro TvalsaCinoa. iqauri mTavari ideebia: erovnuli literaturebis

universaluri literaturis `CarCoSi Casma~ da

`dialeqtikuri kavSiri~ – universaluri literatura/erovnuli

literatura. 16

universaluri literaturis eqstensiuri da raodenobrivi

Sinaarsi (saerTaSoriso literaturul urTierTobaTa er-

Toblioba, `patara~ da `didi~ literaturebi, msoflios yvela

literatura) ormagdeba meore kriteriumiT, xarisxobrivi

anu Sefasebis kriteriumiT: nawarmoebebis an, ufro sworad,

`Sedevrebis~ erToblioba, romelTac aqvT drois mier gamocdili

universaluri Rirebuleba, aRiareba da masStabi. rodesac

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba problemas CaeWideba,

is aRmoCndeba xolme ori sruliad sapirispiro da TiTqmis

SeuTavsebadi gadawyvetilebis winaSe: erTi mxriv, yvela Sedevri,

rogorc `saunje~, `ganZi~ da, meore mxriv, maTi saer-

TaSoriso asparezi da warmateba. es ori orientiri TiTqmis

arasodes Cndeba wyvilad. Love story `universaluri~ wignia? is

ukve kargad daviwyebuli Cans. SeiZleba principulad SevTanxmdeT

imaze, rom xarisxi unda iyos `gadamwyveti faqtori~. 17

ki magram, rogor ganvsazRvroT is? namdvil xarisxs warmateba

da aRiareba erovnul sazRvrebs gareT gaaqvs, es ar aris

pativiscemis gamo, gayidviT an recenziebiT miRweuli warmateba,

aramed aris gonebagamWriaxi adamianebis mxardaWera, SeiZleba

iTqvas, maTi mxardaWera, vinc warmoadgens kacobriobis

rCeul esTetikur sindiss. es koncefcia, marTali rom

vTqvaT, ar aris `elituri~, ufro metad `klasikuria~, im

sxvadasxva gonebis konsensusia, romlebic iziareben RirebulebaTa

erTian, stabilur da universalur sistemas. es aris

literatura aRmatebiT xarisxSi, Seqmnili `brwyinvale gonebis

adamianebis~ mier, `saukeTeso literatura, rac ki Seqmnila

mTels msoflioSi~ (meTiu arnoldi), `klasikosebis saunje~,

`udidesi wignebis samefo~, mokled, `Sedevrebi~. aseTi

gansazRvrebiT universaluri literatura awesebs `samagali-

To nimuSebs~, romlebic Seesabamebian `universalur normas~,

`saukeTeso nawarmoebebis kanons~. amerikuli sauniversiteto

34


kursebi `diadi wignebis~ Sesaxeb am koncefciiT aris

STagonebuli.

advili gasagebia, Tu ratom iyo xarisxis kriteriumi

ara Tu mimzidveli, aramed Zalian mimzidveli aRmosavleT

evropis komparativistebisaTvis. maTi literaturebi, zogjer

Zalian daufasebeli, am SemTxvevaSi aRwevs umaRles dones.

aqedan momdinareobs aseTi didi mxardaWera `Sedevrebis~ universalurobisadmi,

`saukeTeso avtorebis~, `goliaTebis~,

`mwvervalebis~, `sayovelTaod cnobili~ nawarmoebebis mimarT

yuradReba, TviT bestselerebis mimarTac. am dros gadamwyveti

sityva yovelTvis aseTia – `universaluri literaturuli

Rirebuleba~. 18 mis nawarmoebebs ixsenieben rogorc dasayrdens,

moTxovnis, reabilitaciis sagans, zogjer RvarZlis

sagansac ki.

b) universaluri literatura, rogorc raodenobrivi da

Tvisobrivi jami, saerTo memkvidreobaa, kacobriobis warmomadgenlobiTi

da sanimuSo memkvidreoba. es aris literaturis

`panTeoni~ (an `pandemoni~), romelic mTlianad `adamianTa

modgmis~, msoflios ukvdavi `klasikosebis~ `idealur biblioTekebSia~

Caketili. universaluri nawarmoebebis, agreTve

personaliebis `istoriisa~ da `leqsikonebis~ sul ufro

mzardi seria cdilobs axlodan Tu Soridan Semoimtkicos

da inventarizacia gaukeTos am saerTo memkvidreobas. aseTi

qmedebis mTavari azria msoflio literaturebis monawileoba

kacobriobis `kanonieri sacavis~ SeqmnaSi. yoveli literatura

ekuTvnis mTel msoflios, romelic erTia yvela

xalxisTvis.

amgvari msjeloba, cota romantikuli, mesianisturic ki,

gamoxatavs kargad dasabuTebul sicrues. `universaluri literaturis~

koncefcias, cxadia, aRar SeuZlia `didi~ dasavluri

literaturebis (evropulis da amerikulis) Targze gamoWrili

darCes. aqedan momdinareobs `patara~ literaturebis

aRiareba im, ase vTqvaT Teoriuli gansxvavebebis gauqmebiT,

romlebic maT aSorebs `did~ literaturebs. yvelafer

amas mosdevs aRmasvla komparativistuli da Teoriuli kvlevis

horizontisaken. `patara~ literaturebis universalur

ganzomilebaSi moqceva (istoriuli da esTetikuri motiviT,

rogorc erTobliobis Semadgeneli nawilebisa), amis Sedegad

maTi aRorZineba da xelmeored mopoveba SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobisaTvis,

aseTia `universaluri literaturis~

axali koncefciis is pirveli da umniSvnelovanesi Sesworeba.

droa Tavi davaneboT viTomda saxaliso evfemizmebiT

TamaSs mowyalebisa da zrdilobis gulisTvis, SevwyvitoT

35


damamcirebeli mfarvelebis mier naZaladevi qebis dros warmoTqmuli

sityvebiT TamaSi: `patara~, `mcire~, `marginaluri~

(an `marginalizebuli~), `naklebad bunebrivi~, `msofliosTvis

ucnobi~, `TiTqmis uCveulo~, `naklebad cnobili~. unda uarvyoT,

TiTqos arsebobs Zireuli gansxvaveba `didi` da `patara~

literaturebis Rirebulebebs Soris. am mimarTulebiT

vxedavT aRmosavleT evropis qveynebis, mesame samyaros da

aRmosavleTis sul ufro mzard reaqcias. TiToeuli am literaturaTagan

darwmunebulia, rom erTdroulad `Rebulobs~

da `gascems~, monawileobs saerTaSoriso literaturuli ur-

TierTgacvlis did procesSi, msoflio literaturuli Sromis

ganawilebaSi.

universaluri literatura TviT misi universalurobis

faqtis gamo kacobriobisTvis saerTo movlenaa, misi arsi

(struqturuli, morfologiuri, fenomenologiuri) moiTxovs

da amarTlebs literaturis, rogorc ganuyofeli mTelis Teoriul

gansazRvrebas. es aris saukeTeso sinTezuri da imedismomcemi

perspeqtiva, radgan yvelaze ufro ganzogadebulia.

am struqturul monacems realurad aqvs Tu ara safuZveli

(SemoTavazebuli axsna-ganmartebebi met-naklebad metafizikuria:

`universaluri goneba~, `universaluri adamianoba~,

`kacobriobis erToba~ da a.S.), aq es ar gvainteresebs. davimaxsovroT

mxolod is, rom msgavsi koncefcia gamovida

mzis sinaTleze da yvelaze Ria komparativizmma is SeiTvisa,

miiRo.

literatura amgvarad xdeba universaluri “poeturi”

Tvisebis gamomxatveli, romelic gonebis Tanaziaria. es Tviseba

qmediTia nawerebisa da literaturebis erTobliobaSi,

miuxedavad maTi geografiuli mdebareobisa. es Tezisi sakmaod

momwifda XVIII saukuneSi iseT moazrovneebs Soris, rogoric

arian riCard herdi “Dissertation of the Idea of Universal Poetry

(1766), goldsmiTi, smoleti, romelTaTvis poezia ise moZravia

`rogorc gadaadgilebis universaluri saSualeba~. 19 Zmebi

Slegelebi gaxdnen romantikul poeziasTan asimilirebuli

`universaluri progresuli poeziis~ (Ath.Fragm., 116) da

`mTels kacobriobaSi gavrcelebuli poeturi niWis~ Teoretikosebi.

`is xalxebic ki, romelTac barbarosebs da velurebs

vuwodebT, ar arian am mxriv zeciuri saCuqris gareSe dar-

Cenili~. 20 aseve moulodnelad Cndeba literaturuli (universaluri)

intuicia rogorc organuli erToblioba: `didi,

mwyobri, erTgvarovani erToblioba, romelic Tavis TavSi

moicavs mraval mxatvrul samyaros..~ 21 gavixsenoT agreTve

goeTe da Weltliteratur. misTvis msoflio literatura warmoad-

36


gens potenciur Semoqmeds da kacobriobis saerTo memkvidreobas,

artistul makrokosmoss, `xelovnebis idealur korpuss~

(ideale Kunstkörper). 22 es did Targze gamoWrili mxatvrulliteraturuli

erToblioba, miuxedavad organicizmis (Warbi

organizebulobis) mkveTri elferisa, kargad gamoiyureboda

da moculobiTic iyo. mas acocxlebda literaturis universalurobis

mZafri SegrZneba da Tavisufali sunTqva, romelic

mogvianebiT nel-nela Sewyda.

frangi Tanamoazreebi arian edgar kine, J.J. amperi (`arsisa

da warmomavlobis erTianoba~), renani (`arsebobs mxolod

erTi literatura, radgan yvela literatura cocxlobs

grZnobebisa da azrebis saerTo maragiT~). 23 Tu calke gamovyofT

winamorbedebs, (magaliTad, J. teqsti), 24 SeiZleba iTqvas,

rom komparativistebi mxolod bolo dros miemxrnen am

Tvalsazriss da isic mxolod iseTi mowinave pirovnebebis

saxiT, rogoric etiamblia. 25 saxelmZRvaneloebSi am sakiTxebze

aseTive daskvnaa mocemuli: `literaturis saerTo fondi...

aris Weltliteratur~, `literatura, rogorc adamianis azrovnebis

gansakuTrebuli daniSnuleba~. 26 SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

`krizisi~ aiZulebs mkvlevarebs, xelaxla Camoayalibon

misi sagani identifikaciis mizniT. saxeldobr, rene

uelekis azriT, literatura unda iyos `erToblioba~ imisaTvis,

rom SesaZlebeli gaxdes `msoflio literaturis WeSmaritad

universaluri Seswavla~, ris safuZvelic iqneboda `nawarmoebebis

integraluri sistema~, `mTeli literaturuli

Semoqmedebis erTianoba~. 27 daskvna TavisTavad Cndeba: arsebobs

mxolod erTi poezia, erTi literatura, romlis Sedareba

SeiZleba yvela epoqis mixedviT. aseTia literaturis

SedarebiTi poetikis safuZveli sruli saxiT.

aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi komparativistuli

azrovneba adasturebs am daskvnas. es faqti, sxvaTa Soris,

gardauvalia, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT universaluri literaturis

identur struqturas. aRmosavleTis komparativistuli

azrovneba aseTi xasiaTisaa: msoflio literaturis Seswavlas

cdiloben (yovel SemTxvevaSi socialistur qveynebSi)

istoriuli filosofiis farglebSi da misive xerxebiT, romelic

veRar iqneboda evolucionisturi, aramed deterministuli

da metadre, materialistur-marqsistuli. es tendencia, an

ase vTqvaT, es postulati ukve sagrZnobia XIX saukuneSi a.n.

veselovskisTan, romelic aris pioneri, mogvianebiT ki, XX

saukuneSi, v.m. JirmunskisTan. orive `literaturuli procesis

erTianobis~ 28 momxre Teoretikosebi arian. maT mier Semotanil

postulats mimdevrebi da epigonebi gaimeoreben ufro

37


ideologiuri da dogmaturi terminebiT. miuxedavad amisa, gaugegebaria,

ra roli SeiZleba Seasrulon erovnuli xasiaTis

gansxvavebebma da zogjer dapirispirebebma `universaluri

kulturuli procesis~, am `sistemis~ erTianobaSi an rogor

unda moergon mas? 29 `kompromisuli~ gadawyvetileba (literaturuli

procesis erTianoba, magram erovnuli variantebiT)

mxolod elementaruli monacemia da sxva araferi. ra doneze

xorcieldeba es dialeqtika faqtobrivad? 30 Tu universaluri

literatura ar warmoadgens erovnuli literaturebis meqanikur

jams, maSin zogadi movlenebis gamoxatva, TavisTavad,

ufro mniSvnelovani aRmoCndeba, vidre erovnul TaviseburebaTa

warmoCena. ungreli komparativistebi daJinebiT moiTxoven

amas da samarTlianadac. 31 rumineTSi miaCniaT, aseve, rom

universaluri literatura Sedgeba `msgavsebaTa jamisagan~,

e.i. yvela erovnuli literaturis `saerTo~ elementebisagan. 32

erovnuli gansxvavebebi, rasac aravin uaryofs, sul sxva

safuZvels emyareba.

3. universaluri literaturis „mowinaaRmdegeebi“

principulad uaryofiTi reaqcia, zogjer Zaladobrivi,

romelic gamoiwvia literaturis radikalurad axleburma

gaazrebam da formulirebam, Zalian advilad asaxsnelia: is

pirdapir ejaxeba sauniversiteto tradiciebsa da rutinas,

literaturuli gamokvlevebis gabatonebul da konformistul

koncefciebs, SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis gayinul

da dromoWmul Teoriebs. aqedan gamomdinare, axalma

midgomam gza unda gaikafos winaaRmdegobis ganuwyvetel cecxlSi

ufro adre, vidre komparativizmis `kriziss~ da mis

Sesaxeb polemikas Seexebodes.

erTi mxriv, ityodiT, rom upirveles yovlisa arian mudmivad

damTrgunveli erovnuli da regionaluri Taviseburebebis

da tradiciebis damcvelebi: `erovnuli winaaRmdegobis~

es Tema, romelic upirispirdeba Tanwyobas, meqanikur Tavmoyras,

erTgvarovnebas da aqedan gamomdinare, literaturis mier

saxis dakargvas, Zalian vrcelia imisaTvis, rom am CarCoebSi

gavixsenoT, Tundac mokled. davimaxsovroT mxolod ZiriTadi:

madam de stalidan sismondimde, tomazeodan maZinimde

(am moazrovneebma gauxsnes gza literaturis universalurobis

gagebas), Jidamde da Tanamedrove anTropologebamde,

vinc xazgasmiT aRniSnavs kulturebis `daSorebas gansxvavebis

gamo~ (`diferencialur daSorebas~), rom erTi wuTiTac

38


aravis warmoudgenia erovnul TaviseburebaTa waSlis SesaZlebloba.

33 zeerovnuli Teoriis Seqmnis miznad dasaxva ar

niSnavs erovnuli sinamdvilis gasaqrobad muSaobas, ise rogorc

universaluroba ar warmoadgens individualobaze Tavdasxmas.

es elementaruli sakiTxia, magram komparativistebis

garkveuli nawili ewinaaRmdegeba amas imisaTvis, rom Tavidan

aicilos TiTqosda momakvdinebeli `safrTxe~; misgan Tavis

daRwevis mizniT, komparativizmi unda emsaxuros mxolod

erovnul literaturul istorias da a.S. 34 es aris yvela

`erovnuli~ literaturis istorikosis sayvareli Tezisi,

romlebic ase Tu ise SeniRbuli arian SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

`specialistebad~...

aranaklebad Seurigeblebi arian evrocentrizmis Tavgamodebuli

momxreebi, goeTes da dasavleT evropis istoriografiuli

tradiciis TavdebobiT. Cvens droSi maT mxars uWeren

e.r. kurciusi da misi mowafeebi, romelTa Tanaxmadac, ar

unda gavideT dasavleTis istoriisa da kulturuli erTobis

gareT. 35 Cven ukve ganvixileT (da uarvyaviT) aseTi mikerZoebis

ideologiuri meqanizmi. 36 unda gavixsenoT, rom am ideologias

namdvili mowinaaRmdegeebi hyavs mxolod sami mimar-

TulebiT: avangardis mxridan `poetikis~ CaTvliT (Cexi formalistebis

Tezisebi uaryofda `evropul egocentrizms~ 1929

wlidan). 37 aRmosavleT evropis literatorebis saxiT, romlebic

arian da Tavs acxadeben kidec evropelebad da bolos,

sxvebTan erTad, laTinuri amerikis saxiT, romelic aris evropis

miRma mdebare qveynebis literaturebis macne (am SemTxvevaSi

Cndeba imis safrTxe, rom erTi SemzRudavi regionalizmi

Seicvalos meoriT). 38 tradiciuli komparativizmi metnaklebad

rCeba `evropuli Weltliteratur-is~ Zvel poziciaze. 39

aseTi reaqciebi mniSvnelovanwilad aris gapirobebuli

fsiqologiuri SekavebiT, cruwmeniT da azrovnebis Cvevebis

barieriT. planetis sigrZe-siganeze gafarToebuli literatura

aSinebs, uxerxulobas uqmnis, gzidan gadahyavs, abnevs adamianebs.

maSin amoefarebian xolme erovnul Taviseburebebs,

yvelaze metad evropuls, da didi rwmeniT amboben, rom

Weltliteratur ar aris... gaero. metadre etiamblis pozicia miCneulia

`utopiad~, maSin rodesac sxvebi, ufro gulmowyaleni,

amboben, rom es avtori aris `erTsa da imave dros STambeWdavi,

paradoqsuli da utopiuri~ da rom is mainc qmnis `nayofier

utopias~. 40 amgvari Tavazianoba bevria da araerTgzis gadadis

SeuracxyofaSi: `aseTi bavSvuri Sexeduleba, ase fantastikurad

utopiuri...“ gasul saukuneSi gamoTqmebi ufro

keTilSobiluri iyo: `mSvenieri sityva, grandiozuli ocne-

39


a...~ 41 amas emateba `snobizmis~ braldeba, mTeli rigi Sepasuxebani,

romlebic ukve ganvixileT: enobrivi dabrkolebebi, Zalauneburad

SezRuduli kompetencia, universitetebis jer kidev

tradiciuli da eTnocentruli organizacia da a.S. 42 magram

mTavar winaaRmdegobad rCeba `universaluri literaturis~

Teoriuli da maSasadame, TavisTavad cxadia, zeistoriuli

statusi; rogorc Cans, am termins (`universaluri literatura~)

brWyalebi isev sWirdeba....

4. „aRmosavluri literaturis“ aRmoCena

gansazRvrebis dasabuTeba da misi logikurad warmoCena

ar kmara am konkretul SemTxvevaSi. viciT, rom saqme gvaqvs

Zlier kulturul tradiciasTan, romelic Tavisi uflebidan,

faqtobrivad, `universalurobidan~ gamoricxavs evropis gareT,

dasavleTs miRma arsebuli literaturebis mTels er-

Tobliobas. protestis nacvlad unda gavixsenoT meore tradicia,

romelic evropis miRma mdebare literaturebis mimarT

iRebs pasuxismgeblobas. erTi sityviT, aucilebelia, rom Teoriuli

winadadebebi dadasturdes da Seimosos analitikuri

TvalsazrisiT. maSasadame, unda gadavideT literaturis universalurobis

pragmatul ganxilvaze. faqtobrivad, Sesamowmebeli

gvrCeba ormagi gaxsniloba, romelsac mohyveba ormagi

aRqma. yvelaferi es migviyvans ZiriTad daskvnamde: aRmosavleT

da dasavleT evropis literaturebis igiveoba (identuroba)

`aRmosavleTis~ da `dasavleTis~ mier erTmaneTis aRmo-

Cenis safuZvelze. es simboluri, paradigmuli situacia gansazRvravs

`universalur literaturas~, magram ar kmara misi

arsebobis mtkiceba da aRiareba. unda davamtkicoT, rom misi

arseboba efeqturia, radgan literaturis `universaluroba~

wydeba am doneze.

es araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar niSnavs evropaSi aRmosavleTmcodneobis

istoriis da aRmosavluri literaturebis

aRmoCenis Tundac zerele mimoxilvis gakeTebas, rac, rogorc

cnobilia, TariRdeba XVIII saukuniT. magram niSandoblivia

imis dadastureba, rom SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

TiTqmis yvela istorikosi, yovel SemTxvevaSi isini, vinc yvelaze

ufro darwmunebulia aRmosavleT evropisaken gzis gaxsnis

aucileblobaSi, aRmoaCens Tavis winamorbeds aRmosavluri

literaturebis Zvel momxreebs Soris herderis meTaurobiT,

romelic Morgenländer-is aseTi moyvaruli iyo. 43 Cinuri

literatura kooptaciiT mTlianad aris Seyvanili `lite-

40


aturul respublikaSi~. 44 aRiareben im faqts, rom `aziasa da

afrikaSi arian iseTive niWierebi (ingenious), `rogorc sxvagan~,

45 rac dRes savsebiT cxadia. islandiuri literatura

1773 wels aRiarebul iqna `mTlianad 46 Weltliteratur-isTvis mniSvnelovan

SenaZenad~ da es gaxlavT mxolod saxeldaxelo magaliTebi.

Zmeb Slegelebs didi dafaseba aqvT maTi naSromebidan

da Targmanebidan gamomdinare, radgan maT daZlies ber-

Znul-laTinuri tradicia, `umaRlesi donis romantizmi~ aRmosavleTTan

gaaigives. 47 goeTes afaseben ara marto misi gan-

Tqmuli sityvebisaTvis – `aRmosavleTi da dasavleTi aRar

aris gayofili~, 48 aramed agreTve misi aRmosavluri STagonebisa

da TargmanebisTvis. garda amisa, mas miaCnda, rom germanuli

suli SeiZleboda gaemdidrebina aRmosavlur sulierebas.

sxvaTa Soris, es sityva Zalian swrafad gavrcelda

da am Temaze floberis ironia gvxvdeba mis romanSi `buvari

da pekiuSe~: `...ori modgma bolos da bolos SeduRabdeba~. 49

`klasikosebs~ Soris homerosis gverdiT sent-bevi aRiarebs

`CvenTvis didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ucnob am sam homeross~:

valmiki, viasa, firdousi. `kargia gemovnebis TvalsazrisiT, _

acxadebs is dasamSvideblad, _ sul cota imis codna mainc,

rom aseTi adamianebi arseboben. 50 TviT aRmosavleT evropis

qveynebSi, rumineTSi, magaliTad, modernizaciisa da evropisaken

gamalebuli swrafvis fazaSi, XIX saukunis pirvel aTwledebSi

aRmosavluri literatura aRiarebulia, rogorc

aucilebeli faqtori `adamianTa modgmis~ gasacnobad. 51

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis pirveli Jurnalebis

gadafurcvlisas maSinve TvalSi gvxvdeba erTi faqti: ma-

Ti programebi ufro mowinave iyo, vidre aseTi komparativizmi:

`faqtobrivi kavSirebi~ an `gavlena~, rac mowmobs seriozul

ukan daxevas am principuli orientaciebidan. hugo

melcl de iomnicis komparativizmi da `poliglotoba~ gamoxatavda

mzadyofnas egzotikuri xalxebis, egviptologiis da

asirologiis misaRebad. maqs koxi iziarebda aRmosavleT da

dasavleT evropaSi erTi da imave formebis da wriulad

moZravi movlenebis arsebobas, maSin rodesac luipol beci

iTvaliswinebda (principulad mainc) `aRmosavluri literaturis

did nawils~. s.e. vudberis, Tavis mxriv, miaCnda rom,

`aRmosavleTis Zveli literaturebis gamovlineba didi movlenaa

msoflios istoriaSi~. 52 SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

pirvel TeoriebSi indoeTi da CineTi ukve aRiarebuli

iyo universaluri literaturis Semadgenel nawilebad. 53

samwuxarod, sakmaod Rrma ufskruli gaCnda da xangr-

Zlivma siCumem daisadgura am dasawyisis Semdeg rene uelekis

41


(da sxvebis) gamoCenamde, romelmac anglosaqsuri mxridan daadastura

gaxsniloba `araevropuli~ an `aRmosavluri~ literaturebis

mimarT da zogadad gamoavlina `msoflio literaturis

universalurad, WeSmaritad SeswavlisaTvis mzadyofna~.

54 es paeqroba, gansakuTrebiT bolo aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi,

mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli etiamblis naSromebTan

Tu ara, mis saxelTan mainc, romlis wyalobiTac araevropuli

literaturebi farTod gaRebuli karidan Sevidnen ara

marto komparativistikaSi (frangulSi), aramed agreTve enciklopediebSi

(Encyclopaedia Universalis) da koleqciebSi (`aRmosavleTTan

Sexvedra~ iuneskos xelSewyobiT, `pleada~; aRsaniSnavia

agreTve ciurixis – Manesse Bibliothek der Weltliteratur). `saukunis

sami meoTxedis ganmavlobaSi yvelaferi ise xdeba, _

azustebs etiambli, _ TiTqos SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

gulisxmobdes dasavleT evropis mwerlebs Soris faqtobrivi

kavSirebis Seswavlas; amasTanave, dasavleT evropa

Zveli koloniuri imperiebis metropoliebamdea dayvanili~.

aqedan gamomdinare, `Cveni saukunis erT-erT damsaxurebad

imis Segneba mainc unda CaiTvalos, rom aRmosavleTi ufro

mets imsaxurebda, vidre gaqceuli mogzaurebis literaturaa,

aRmosavleTi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre gulCvili turistis

cnobismoyvareoba~. 55 es regioni aRmosaCeni, Sesaswavli,

evropul literaturul wyobaSi CasarTavia da es kvleva unda

gagrZeldes msoflio masStabiT. es aris TviT literaturis

universalurobis da gaxsnilobis paradigma. mokled rom

vTqvaT – es aris namdvili universaluri literaturis aRmo-

Cenis paradigma, radgan es literatura SeuzRudavia da ar

aRmerTebs evropas...

mogvianebiT `evropuli SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis~

(Comparative European Literature) 56 mSvenier Senobas aqa-iq bzari

uCndeba. ryevebi, urwmunoba, livlivi, Tavdapirvelad TviT

`evropis~ da `dasavleTis~ cnebebis gamo. sadamde unda gavavrcoT

is (evropa)? atlantis okeanedan uralamde, general de

golis gamonaTqvamis mixedviT? zogierTi sarwmunoebrivi

mosazrebis Tanaxmad, `dasavleTi, albaT, SeiZleba moicavdes

agreTve ruseTs da amerikas, magram azias – ara~. mainc unda

mivesalmoT `dasavleTis adamianis~ 57 am gaxsnilobas, gafar-

Toebis survils, Tundac mas akldes srulyofa, ar iyos dasrulebuli.

zogierTi frTxili Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, universaluri

literaturis `guli~ unda iyos evropuli literatura,

romlidanac is SeZlebda ganviTarebas, rogorc `organizmi~.

58 es midrekileba igrZnoba universaluri literatu-

42


is TviT saukeTeso istoriebSi, sadac aRmosavleTis mimarT

gaxsniloba yovelTvis momdinareobs dasavleTis mxridan. 59

swavleba da komparativistuli saxelmZRvaneloebi sakmaod

nela dgeba namdvili, Tanmimdevruli universaluri literaturis

poziciebze. pirveli saerTaSoriso komparativistuli

bibliografia da pirveli “traqtati”, romlebSic Tamamad,

programis mixedviT CaerTo aRmosavluri literaturebi

(aris agreTve adrindeli mcdeloba), gamoCnda 1960 da 1961

wlebSi. 60 swored amave epoqaSi iwyeba Cinuri literaturis

ganxilva `universaluri literaturis konteqstSi~. 61 miTiTebis

mizniT, aseve SeiZleba gavixsenoT `enciklopediebisa~ da

`leqsikonebis~ garkveuli raodenoba (`pleada~, aleqs preminjeri,

gero fon uilperti da a.S.). am saqmianobis gaaqtiurebas

adasturebs agreTve `konferenciebisa~ da `simpoziumebis~

ricxvis gazrda islamur an Cinur Temebze an kidev SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis saerTaSoriso asociaciis yrilobaze

warmodgenili urTierTobani, saxeldobr, VII yrilobidan

(monreali-otava, 1973), sadac mTeli ganyofilebebi mieZRvna

amerikul, afrikul, aziur, Emerging and Neglected

literaturebs. 62

proeqtis ganzomileba isev iwvevs SiSs. komparativizmSi

aRmosavluri literaturebis Semotana, es xom SeuZlebelia!

ase rom, Cafiqrebuli `idealuri biblioTeka~ SeiZleba iyos

mxolod ganuxorcielebeli Mammutwerk-i! aqedan gamomdinare,

unda SemovifargloT evropuli literaturiT 63 an aRmosavluri

literatura SeviswavloT calke, specialuri disciplinebis

farglebSi. 64 nuTu Cinuri literatura universaluri

literaturis nawili iqneba? es `gazviadeba da provokaciaa~

(citata!) iranulic da grenlandiuric? 65 ra sibecea!

am saqmiT yvelaze dainteresebuli aRmosavleli komparativistebis

Tvalsazrisi cota gansxvavebulia. ueWvelia:

zogjer Tavisi cnobismoyvareobiT, kompetenturobiT isini

uTanabrdebian da win uswreben kidec yvelaze niWier dasavlel

mkvlevarebs. rodesac vakvirdebiT ananda k. koomarasuamis

komparativistul naSromebs xelovnebis istoriaze (romelic

exeba uSualod sami didi kulturis wyaroebs: evropuli,

arabuli da induri) 66 an kidev hajime nakamuras gamokvlevebs

ideebis istoriis dargSi, 67 maSinve gveqmneba warmodgena

maT did codnaze, ise rogorc ukve miRweul warmatebebsa da

am gaZlierebuli komparativizmis mier gaxsnil axal perspeqtivebze.

ufro axali publikaciebi, rogoric aris Tamkang

Review (taipei, taivani, 1970) an yvelaze Zveli: hikaku bungaku

(Journal of Comparative Literature), hikaku bungaku kenkiu (Studiebi

43


SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobaSi, tokio), kargad cnobilia

specialistebisaTvis. aseTi tipis erTi Jurnali aris

alJirSi, mere – indoeTSi (Jadapour Journal of Comparative Literature),

axlaxan samxreT koreaSi gamosces – Journal of Comparative

Literature and Culture.

ueWvelia: aRmosavleTs ar surs dasavleTisagan izolacia

da mowyveta, 68 arc universaluri kulturidan da literaturidan

gamoricxva. protesti da moTxovnebi amasTan dakav-

SirebiT modis yoveli mxridan: aziidan da CineTidan, filipinebidan,

moTxovnebi afrikuli literaturebis dasacavad da

a.S. 69 ai, kidev ufro mniSvnelovani, magram iSviaTad gaTvaliswinebuli

faqti: arsebobs literaturis mTlianobis tradiciuli

aRmosavluri gageba, romelic pirdapir an SeparviT

iyo dadasturebuli iseTi moazrovneebis mier, rogoric arian

iu Si an lao Zi. 70 Tagori, Tavis mxriv, qmnida iseTi `universaluri

literaturis” koncefcias, romelic goeTes koncefciis

badalia yovel mxriv (misgan damoukideblad). 71 aRmosavleT-dasavleTis

erToba da Tanaziaroba gacxadda agreTve,

sxva faqtebTan erTad, imave Tagoris SexvedriT (simboluriT)

romen rolanTan. 72 arc mesianuri da paTetikuri SeZaxilebi

aklia am saqmes; `zangebs~ mouwodes Seerwyan universalur

kulturas misi gamdidrebis mizniT; iaponeli komparativistebi

laparakoben `erT msoflio erovnebaze~, iseve rogorc

afrikelebi da afrikanistebi. 73 dasavleT-aRmosavleTis

gaTanabrebis, erTgvarovan formaSi moqcevis (unifikacia, homogenizacia)

procesis momxreTa ricxvi sul ufro izrdeba. 74

rac Seexeba aRmosavluri kulturis TviTmyofadobis aRmoCenis

(misi identobis aRmoCenis) ideas, romelsac biZgi misca

Zlierma dasavlurma gavlenam, is ukve eWvs aRar iwvevs. yvelaferi

gvaZlevs safuZvels vifiqroT, rom msoflio doneze

gamobrZmedili literaturuli erTobis Segneba amJamad warmoadgens

mtkice rwmenas, moqmed ideas.

5. universaluri literaturis erTianoba

zemoT gansazRvruli poziciebidan naTelia, rom `universaluri

literatura~ dinamikuri koncefciaa, romlis Sinaarsi

da mniSvneloba ganuwyvetliv farTovdeba. is gamomu-

Savda ramdenime `didi~ dasavluri literaturis safuZvelze,

SemoierTa egzotikuri anu `aRmosavluri~ sfero Tavis erTian

sxeulSi. evropuli literatura, rom araferi vTqvaT `dasavlur

literaturaze~, aRar aris da arc SeiZleba iyos

44


`universaluri literatura~. es ukanaskneli martivad erwymis

literaturaTa erTobliobas, romelic aucileblad, ueWvelad

eyrdnoba dasavleT-aRmosavleTis kavSirs, aqedan gamomdinareobs

radikalurad axali literaturuli xedva. dasavleT-aRmosavleTis

`Sexvedrebisa~ da `Suamavlobis~ (literarische

Vermittlung) gariJraJidan dawyebuli, komparativizmis debiutamde

(Slegeli, goeTe, hameri, pergstoli) 75 didi idea

amoizarda: universaluri literatura `msgavsia (alike) aRmosavleTsa

da dasavleTSi~. 76 saqme exeba, bolos da bolos,

erTaderT da did literaturas.

istoriuli midgomis momxre pozitivistma komparativistma,

rogorc viciT, miatova es imedismomcemi daskvna da mas-

Tan dakavSirebuli kvlevis wesi. am TvalsazrisiT, is ver gauZlebs

aRmosavleTmcodneebTan, kulturisa da religiis istorikosebTan

Sedarebas. im epoqaSi, roca met-naklebad komparativistul

istoriul-literaturul kvlevebSi `faqtobrivi

kavSirebi~ batonobda, mainc iyvnen dainteresebuli (da sakmaod

Zlierad) dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis zogierTi filosofiuri

`poziciis~ raobiT (p. masoniurseli), orive zonis

saerTo safuZvliTa da ritorikuli analogiebiT (d. masinioni),

`TanxvedrebiTa~ da paralelizmebiT (l. renu), romanis

JanrSi saerTo gamocdilebiT (a. levi). amave mimarTulebiT

iqna mimarTuli Zalisxmeva iranul-islamuri filosofiis

`universaluri filosofiis ciklSi integraciisaTvis~. 77 aseve,

klasikur komparativistul kvlevasTan SedarebiT bevrad

ufro mowinave poziciebze idgnen eseistebi da poetebi, romlebsac

garkveuli upiratesoba hqondaT maTi, ase vTqvaT, `koloniuri~

gamocdilebis gamo. es exebaT, magaliTad, ernest

fenolozas, ezra faunds, t.s. eliots anglosaqsebs Soris.

maTi amocana iyo `ori tipis (kulturis) momavali gaerTianeba~,

Cinuri da dasavluri werilobiTi niSnebis Sesabamisoba-

Si moyvana, Zirebis povna CineTsa da egvipteSi, ar daeSorebinaT

azia evropisagan 78 da a.S.

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis mkveTri Semobruneba

bevrad ufro axali movlenaa. yvelaze ufro gamocdilebi

aRar davoben `araevropuli literaturebis~ (SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

saerTaSoriso asociaciaSi gavrcelebuli

Sesityveba) CarTvis aucileblobaze, araevropuli kulturebis

wlidan wlamde ufro TvalsaCino gavlenasa da wonaze,

universaluri literaturisadmi erTdroulad siRrmiseul

da garegan (intensiur da eqstensiur) gaxsnilobaze. es

damokidebuleba Cans TviT yvelaze tradiciul saxelmZRvaneloebSi,

romlebic TavianT bolo gamocemebSi amas agreTve

45


adastureben, magram zogjer mcire ukmayofilebac vlindeba:

`amgvar gaxsnilobas sul aRar eyoleba mowinaaRmdege~. 79

meore mxriv, roca amJamad ganixilaven am principis aRiarebis

sakiTxs, kidev erTxel irkveva tradiciuli hipoTezebisa

da meTodebis sruli ukmarisoba, iseve rogorc zogier-

Ti mowonebuli gadawyvetilebisa. marTlac, SeiZleba Tu ara

vaiZuloT komparativistebi, integralurad waikiTxon dasavleTis

da aRmosavleTis literatura, rogorc pozitivisturi,

aucilebeli winapiroba maTi gaTanabrebisa maTi erTiani

gansazRvrebidan gamomdinare? am TvaslazrisiT `utopiurobis~

braldeba savsebiT gamarTlebulia. problemis mogvarebis

dasawyisi mocemulia ramdenime didi sinTezis magaliTze,

romelic moicavs folklorul literaturebs (metadre zepirs):

semiturs, afrikuls, indurs, polineziurs da a.S. 80 am

doneze ufro advilad aRmosaCenia stereotipebi da Seqcevadoba,

modelebi da invariantebi, literaturis mdgradi

struqturebi. es is gzaa, romelsac komparativistebi ar gayvnen,

radgan mas sWirdeboda adekvaturi Teoria da meTodologia,

romelsac is savsebiT moklebuli iyo (da jer kidev

moklebulia). amgvari komparativizmis yvelaze Ria da sazriani

warmomadgenlebi diametralurad sapirispiro poziciaze

dganan: isini aRiareben, logikuri debulebis saxiT, `literaturas,

rogorc erTian fenomens, rogorc saerTaSoriso da

intralingvistur erTobliobas~ da komparativistikis miznad

Tvlian mis Seswavlas. 81 miuxedavad amisa, aravin zrunavs im

meTodze, romelic Camosayalibebelia da misaRebia am miznis

misaRwevad. igi aSkarad aRwerilobiTi (morfologiuri) da

Teoriuli xasiaTisaa. Tu `universaluri literaturis~ da

`literaturis~ gansazRvrebebi aRiarebulia alternatiulad,

erTmaneTis Semcvlelad, urTierTSesaferisad, maSasadame

cnobilad 82 da sabolood identurad, problema SeiZleba

gadawydes mxolod `literaturis iseTi Teoriidan~ gamomdinare,

romelic globalur realobas warmoadgens. misi sagani

Seqmnilia msoflio literaturebis erTianobiTa da erTobliobiT,

e.i. ubralod literaturiT, msazRvrelis gareSe. es

daskvna warmoadgens im Teoriuli nagebobis saZirkvels da

mTavar gasaRebs, romelic qvemoT unda avagoT.

46


6. universaluri literaturis Teoriisken

sakiTxavia, komparativizms Tavisi saxiT, rogoric is iyo

aqamde, SeuZlia Tu ara SemogvTavazos namdvilad am problemis

Sesaferisi gadawyveta, romelic, faqtobrivad, mas aRemateba

da Tan Zalianac. `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis~

dasabruneblad, anu misi mniSvnelobis aRsadgenad, Cvens wina-

Se gadaSlili axali perspeqtivebis TvalsazrisiT, ver vxedavT

sxva saSualebas, garda imisa, rom mivmarToT misi istoriuli

tradiciis gansakuTrebul aspeqts; ufro zustad rom

vTqvaT, unda mivmarToT tradiciuli koncefciis (iseTis, rogoric

aris `universaluri literaturis istoria~) zogierT

Teoriul niuanss, romelasc, Tu sworad wavikiTxavT, jer

kidev SeuZlia daiwyos da gaaadvilos kidec literaturisadmi

garkveuli Teoriuli midgoma. es imitom, rom Tu aris

`universaluri literatura id est~ literatura~ da Tu am

universalur literaturas anu literaturas aqvs istoria,

literaturis (universaluris) istorias safuZvlad unda daedos

ganmazogadebeli hipoTezebis garkveuli raodenoba,

TvalsaCino an nagulisxmevi (eqsplicituri an implicituri).

saqme exeba, upirveles yovlisa, TviT universaluri literaturis

koncefcias (kvlevis upirates sagans), magram agreTve

mraval sxva cnebas, rogoricaa `epoqebi~, `periodebi~, `mimdinareobebi~,

`Janrebi~, `stilebi~ da a.S. yvelaferi es saWiroebs

sammagi erTianobis mxedvelobaSi miRebas, romelsac

qmnis sxvadasxva done: agebulebis, koncefciisa da terminologiis.

es faqti aSkaraa. maSasadame, SeiZleba fiqri, daskvnebis

gakeTeba, romlebic exeba literaturis Teorias, universaluri

literaturis istoriis mixedviT, an mis gareSe.

Tu SesaZlebelia daskvnebis gakeTeba `kulturis~ sferoSi,

rac ase xSirad xdeba, ratom ar SeiZleba imaves gakeTeba

`esTetikis~ TvalsazrisiT. maSasadame, arc `sinocentrizmi~,

arc `evrocentrizmi~, 83 aramed, ubralod, integraluri, globaluri,

ra Tqma unda, idealuri `universaluroba~, magram

Teoriulad misaRebi.

Cveni amocana aq ar aris universaluri literaturis istoriis

koncefciis istoriuli aspeqtis Cveneba. sxvaTa Soris,

es operacia nawilobriv wamowyebulia; arc imis mtkicebas

vaprebT, rom literaturis istoria `ibadeba~ erTgvarad

komparativistuli saxiT. kargad cnobilia: SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

pirveli an erT-erTi pirveli gansaz-

Rvreba (1854) aris swored `SedarebiTi literaturuli istoriis~

gansazRvreba (vergleichende Literaturgeschichte), 84 formulire-

47


a, romelsac didi momavali eqneba mas Semdeg. Cveni azriT,

ufro mniSvnelovania ori mTavari cnebis dakavSireba (an

gancalkeveba), romlebic gaTamaSebulia germanuli sityvis –

allgemeine-s semantikaSi. es aris, erTi mxriv, msoflios literatura

(Literatur der Welt), romelsac albaT sjobia davarqvaT

`zogadi literatura~ (allgemeine Literatur) da Weltliteratur goeTes

gagebiT (erTi an mravali erovnuli literatura, romelic

gaxsnilia gacvlisTvis, urTierTgavlenebisTvis da a.S.). 85

maSasadame, sruli da zusti gansazRvreba iqneboda allgemeine

Weltliteratur, gamoTqma, romelic faqtobrivad, Literatur-is tolfasia

(da imaves niSnavs). ase rom, istoriaze an am `universaluri

literaturis~ aRweraze gadasvla niSnavs Tavdapirvelad

literaturis gansazRvrebis problemis gadawyvetas, Semdeg

ki literaturis Teoriis gansazRvras.

aseTi unda iyos universaluri literaturis pirveli

namdvili istorikosebis azri, romlebic, sxvaTa Soris, am

literaturis erTianobis pivel Teoretikosebs Soris arian.

es literatura xom miCneulia erTsa da imaved dasavleTsa

da aRmosavleTSi. fridrix Slegelis magaliTi naTlad adasturebs

amas. misi TvalsazrisiT, saqme ar exeba mxolod civilizebuli

xalxebis literaturebis raodenobrivi jamis warmodgenas,

rogorc `didi mTlianobisa` (ein grosses Ganzes), aramed,

agreTve, rogorc struqturuli da formiseuli erTianobis

warmodgenas (ein einzigen innigverbundenen Gebäude und Gebilde), 86

rac kargad metyvelebs mis globalur koncefciaze literaturis

Sesaxeb.

zogadad Tu visaubrebT, yovelTvis (da es xdeba XVIII

saukunidan), roca universaluri literaturis istoria ir-

Cevs istoriul, sivrciT da esTetikur kategoriebs, is kars

uRebs samomavlo ganzogadebas sakiTxisadmi midgomis erT an

meore doneze. pirvel klass (istoriuls) ekuTvnis ukiduresad

farTo da gamaerTianebeli koncefciebi, rogoricaa `klasikuri~

da `Tanamedrove~ literatura. meore klass (geografiuls)

ekuTvnis `aRmosavluri~, `evropuli~ literaturis

koncefciebi da a.S. mesame klass (yvelaze mniSvnelovans) –

`romantikuli~, `popularuli~, `primitiuli~ literaturis

koncefciebi da a.S. kidev ufro `Teoriulia~ iseTi koncefciebi,

rogorebicaa, `mxatvruli literatura~, `schöne Literatur~,

`natifi xelovneba~, poeziis CaTvliT; es koncefciebi erTsa

da imave princips emorCileba. yvelaferi es, cxadia, kargad

aris cnobili, albaT, garda im didi masalisa, romelic nagulisxmevia

(garda implikaciebisa). es imitom, rom, `mTeli poeziis~

(ogni poesie) istorias qmnian ise, rogorc kvadrio, an

48


`literaturuli movlenebisas~ (le vicende della letteratura) ise, rogorc

denina, an, kidev, `poeturi xelovnebis zogad istorias`

(allgemeine Geschichte der Dichtkunst, 1776), 87 yvela es warmmarTveli

idea (poezia, literatura, xelovneba, poetika) pirdapir an

iribad aris garantirebuli, gansazRvruli, damtkicebuli.

kidev metic: es ideebi warmoadgenen garkveuli esTetikuri

azrovnebis sistemis, met-naklebad SemuSavebuli literaturis

Teoriis nawils. marTlac, aq aris literaturis Teoriis

preistoria an Sesavali. misi Teatraluri rampa aris

swored universaluri literaturis istoria misi maxasiaTebeli,

aRmosavlur-dasavluri komparativizmis CaTvliT. amgvari

dakvirveba, sxvaTa Soris, ar gamorCenia XVIII saukunis

aRmosavluri kvlevebis didi pioneris gamWriaxobas: es gaxlavT

uiliam jounzi. misTvis aRmosavluri literaturebis

kvleva `xsnis axal da vrcel sferos gansjisaTvis, spekulaciisaTvis~.

miT ufro, rom amgvari azrebi Suqs hfens literaturis

arss, identobas (`erTi da imave saxeebis gameoreba~,

`msgavsebani~). 88 msgavsi pozicia gamoCnda herderTan, romlis-

Tvisac, magaliTad, ebrauli poeziis suliskveTeba biZgs aZlevs

`poeziis zogad ganxilvas~ (allgemeine Betrachtung über die

Poesie). 89 amgvarad, literaturis didi Teoriuli sinTezis gza

gaxsnilia.

man kidev unda gaiaros ori TvalsaCino etapi: pirvel

rigSi moqceva (konversia), ase vTqvaT, literaturis (universaluris)

istoriis STanTqma literaturis Teoriis mier. aqedan

gamomdinareobs am ori mcdelobis identifikacia: literaturis

Teoria Camoyalibebulia misi sakuTari istoriiT da

piriqiT. am Teziss eqneba warmateba hegelis did sistemaSi,

magram is ukve Cans da Zalian naTlad, fridrix SlegelTan, 90

germaniaSi, J.J. amperTan safrangeTSi. 91 meore mxriv, xdeba gadasvla

poetikisaken, romelsac ar gaaCnia sazRvrebi da romlisTvisac

poeziis `universaluroba~ unda gadaizardos `namdvil

universalur sistemaSi~ TviT imave Slegelis sityvebis

Tanaxmad (Ath. Fragm., 434: das wahre Weltsystem der Poesie). ase rom,

vTqvaT, met-naklebad `kosmiuri~ harmonia `kanonebiTurT~ da

a.S. am or princips SeiZleba mohyves `Teoria~, `filosofia~

an `wminda poetika~ (Ath. Fragm. 252), romlis mxolod erT Tavs

da erT fragments Seadgens `mecniereba evropuli literaturis~

Sesaxeb.

aRniSnuli viTareba rogor gagrZelda, es kargad aris

cnobili: literaturuli esTetika TandaTanobiT xdeboda

mxolod Teoriuli (spekulaciuri), Semdeg `pozitiuri~, masSi

ramdenime iniciativam poetikurma, `komparativistulma~ (kari-

49


eri) an `istoriulma~ (veselovski), ver hpova gagrZeleba.

`universalur literaturaze~ dafuZnebuli literaturis

gansazRvrebis Teoriuli gadawyveta kvlav ver xerxdeba, miuxedavad

aSkara Tu Sefaruli moTxovnisa. es mdgomareoba

ucvleli darCa Cvens dromde. viciT, rom komparativistikaSi,

romelic ormagad `istoriulia~, rogorc meTodologiuri

mimarTuleba da rogorc daTariRebis wyaro, Weltliteratur miCneulia

sxvadasxva literaturis raodenobriv jamad, romelic

zogjer aRiqmeba `kanonikuri~ xarisxis matareblad (`didi

wignebi~), magram Tan axlavs Zlieri javSani Teoriis an literaturuli

`sistemis~ winaaRmdeg, rac aqedan gamomdinareobs.

zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, miT ufro mniSvnelovani

iqneba yoveli gaxsna `SedarebiTi poetikis~ mimarTulebiT,

romlis aTvlis wertilia `universaluri literatura~

– erTaderTi operatiuli gamonaTqvami dRemde. aq gabatonebulia

farTod gaSlili evropuli foni. `ganazogadeben”, magram

mxolod ramdenime didi dasavluri literaturis safuZvelze:

arkveven SesaZlebelia Tu ara `sinTezuri` zogadi poetika,

magram wyaroebi isev eTnocentruli 92 rCeba. miuxedavad

amisa, xvdebian, rom namdvili `SedarebiTi poetika~ ar SeiZleba

iyos Semofargluli erovnuli sazRvrebiT, arc evropuli

poetikuri `korpusiT”, piriqiT, is unda iyos `universaluri

poeziis berketi”. 93 aqedan modis alterenativa: `Komparatistik~

an `Absolutistik~ (= literaturis Teoria, Literatur Kunde,

`gramatologia~ da a.S.)? 94 sanatrel mTavar gasaRebad rCeba

kvlav infrastruqturis problemis mogvareba da misi amosavali

wertili.

am mxriv etiamblis pozicia aris yvelaze ufro Sedegiani,

radikaluri da naTeli. didi xania ukve, rac is ganuwyvetliv

acxadebs, rom arsebobs „...istoriuli SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba,

diaxac, magram aris agreTve da metadre,

SedarebiTi esTetika...~ 95 erovnuli literaturebis `SedarebiTma~

Seswavlam, romelTa erToblioba qmnis universalur

literaturas, `sabolood literaturisagan zogadi literaturis

Camoyalibebis saSualeba unda mogvces~. 96 yvelaferi

kidev erTxel TamaSdeba am ormag doneze: Teoria da praqtika.

kvlav ismis kiTxvebi: gana saWiroa `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis”

gardaqmna mecnierebad literaturis Sesaxeb,

romlis sagania `es umaRlesi literaturuli erTeuli: Weltliteratur?~.

97 komparativistebi gauTaveblad usvamen erTmaneTs SekiTxvebs,

zogjer dakompleqsebuli arian, zogjer SeSfoTebuli

am amocanis winaSe, romelic logikurad avlens Tavis

Zalas, magram awydeba mTeli maTi saqmianobiT gamowveul ba-

50


ierebs. ar aris gasakviri, rom garda ramdenime principuli

SeTanxmebisa, gadamwyveti nabiji jer ar gadadgmula. sakiTxi

kvlav rCeba dRis wesrigSi bevri kiTxvis niSniTa da orWofobiT,

isic im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saqme ar exeba, ubralod,

wminda uars...

aTiode welia, miuxedavad zemoT aRniSnulisa, garkveuli

konsensusi gamoCnda. `SedarebiTi esTetika~, saerTo jam-

Si, Tu praqtikad ara, SesaZleblobad mainc aris aRiarebuli.

mas zogadi esTetikisagan ganasxvavebs is faqtori, rom `misi

kriteriumebi gamomdinareoben nawarmoebTa yvelaze didi er-

Tobliobidan, rac ki SesaZlebelia~. imavdroulad “igi ar eyrdnoba

mxolod erTi qveynidan, erTi istoriuli periodidan,

erTi civilizaciidan aRebul magaliTebs...“. 98 maSasadame, xelmeored

vubrundebiT `universalizmis” Teziss, amjerad, mTeli

pasuxismgeblobiT. misi momxreebi ekuTvnian komparativistebis

bolo talRas da amitomac zogjer moiTxoven `universaluri

literaturis~ `saerTo poetikas~, zogjer `Weltliteratur-is

zogad sinTezs~, an kidev `mTeli literaturis~ Teorias.

99 es Tanxvedra (konvergencia) niSandoblivia. argumentacia,

sazogadod, ori mimarTulebiT midis: 1) wamoayeneben erT

udavo koncefcias (`universaluri literatura~), romelic

miCneulia damtkicebulad; am koncefciis Sesabamisi erovnuli

nimuSebi mxolod damxmare xasiaTs unda atarebdes;

2) gvTavazoben aseve, rom arsebobs `universaluri literatura~,

magram amis damtkiceba moiTxovs aRwerilobiT da

analitikur mimoxilvas da am mimoxilvam aucileblad unda

`gaiaros~ aRmosavleT-dasavleTis gzaze.

sxvaTa Soris, aRmosavluri literaturebis komparativizmis

horizontze gamoCena gadaiqca am disciplinis ganaxlebis

brwyinvale nimuSad, romelic moiTxovs amave Targze

gamoWril, Sesabamisi ganzomilebis Teorias. Tundac am orientacias

erqvas `kulturuli fardobiToba (relativizmi)~, 100

an ufro zustad da ubralod – `literaturuli kritika, romelic

universalurobisaken miiswrafis”, 101 mTavaria is, rom

monacemebi, kategoriebi da `aRmosavluri~ literaturuli

Teoriebi sul ufro metad aris miRebuli ara marto rogorc

TavisTavad SesaZlebeli da moqmedi, aramed amave dros Sesadareblad

vargisi da sabolood, msgavsebis niSniT aRbeWdili

– homologiuri movlena. es imas niSnavs, rom maTi `universaluroba~,

rac maTive literaturebis savsebiT aRiarebuli

universalurobis gagrZelebaa, mwyobrSi mihyveba sayovel-

Taod miRebul literaturis Teoriebs. am sferoebis dapirispireba

arsebiTad gadaizrdeba ormag operaciad: jer erTi,

51


ormxriv Sesworebebad, iseTi empiriuli faqtebis safuZvelze

Setanil Sesworebebad, rasac SeuZlia principis Secvla orive

mimarTulebiT, 102 meore saxis operacia gulisxmobs sxvadasxva

identobis dadgenas, romelic mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia.

magaliTad, SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT erovnulisa da

universaluris literaturuli mimarTeba (erovnuli/universaluri),

romelic TvalsaCinod aris gadmocemuli IX saukunis

iaponur kritikul teqstebSi; es aris `sacdeli da formalisturi~

periodi iaponur literaturaSi da a.S. 103 CineTSi

aris `primitivizmi~, romelic axlos dgas evropulTan, maSin

rodesac Cinuri Teoriebi narativsa da istoriografiaSi `gamosadegia

universalur doneze~. 104 msgavsi cdebi unda Catardes

arabuli poeziis mimarT 105 da a.S.

aseve unda aRiniSnos, rom tolobis niSani komparativizms,

universalur literaturasa da literaturis Teorias

Soris gavlebulia, agreTve, aRmosavleTis komparativistebis

mier maTi dasavleli kolegebis amave qmedebis paralelurad.

maT universalistur midrekilebas aqvs, sxvaTa Soris, ideologiurad

Zalian zusti motivacia. masSi mudmivad xazgasmulia

sami idea: `mTeli literatura~ (mis erTobliobaSi)

damokidebulia istoriulad gansxvavebul pirobiT formebze;

`literaturis Teoria aucileblad emyareba erTze met literaturas;

amieridan literaturis Teoria ganuyoflad aris

dakavSirebuli komparativistuli meTodebis gamoyenebasTan~. 106

zemoT aRniSnulze Tanxmoba farTod aris gaziarebuli,

axla isRa dagvrCenia, ufro konkretulad da meTodurad ganvsazRvroT

es sami sfero; unda moiZebnos agreTve maTi Seer-

Tebis Teoriuli safuZveli. eWvs aRar iwvevs, rom mTeli

msoflios literaturebi qmnian erTobliobas, romelsac

hqvia, ubralod, `literatura~ da es `erToblioba~ moiTxovs

ganxilvas da xelmeored gansazRvras. Tu es arsebiTi Tviseba

mravalgzis iyo dadasturebuli warsulSi, araferi gviSlis

xels, rom kidev erTxel CamovayaliboT sxvagvarad. bolos

gvinda vTqvaT, rom am safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli da swored

am safuZvelze unda arsebobdes literaturis Teoria an WeSmaritad

universaluri poetika, romelsac SeimuSaveben sinqronulad,

`universaluri literaturis~ Sesaxeb codnis gafarToebasTan

erTad.

52


III

literaturis Teoria

Cveni Tezisi literaturis komparativistuli Teoriis

Sesaxeb ukve sakmaod motivirebuli gveCveneba imisaTvis, rom

axla pirdapir gadavideT mis ganxilvaze. miuxedavad amisa,

Cven ar ugulvebelvyofT amgvari wamowyebis siZneleebs, rac

ukve aRvniSneT (gv. 15); magram gvjera, rom SeiZleba naTlad

ganvsazRvroT aramarto literaturis komparativistuli Teoriis

zogadi arsi, am problemis nebismieri komparativistuli

gadawyvetis pirobebi, aramed amasTanave, arsebobs misi

ganxorcielebis `teqnikuri~ SesaZlebloba. mokled gavixsenoT

Cveni amosavali wertili: 1) saerTo azris Tanaxmad, literaturis

komparativistul Teorias aqvs Tavisi specifika,

Tavisi daniSnuleba da damoukidebeli saboloo mizani. 2) es

Teoria unda aigos sakuTar tradiciaze dayrdnobiT, mavne

meqanikuri gadaxvevebis gareSe, romlebic momdinareobs ama

Tu im kulturuli gamocdilebidan. is ar unda imeorebdes

romelime `Tanamedrove Teorias~, magram ar aris gamoricxuli

zogierTi aucilebeli da sasargeblo kavSiri, monacemTa

Sepirispireba Tu gavlena. 3) literaturis Teoriis sagania

literatura, romlis statusi emTxveva `universaluri literaturis~

statuss: yvela literaturis erTianoba.

marTlac, Tu integraluri literaturuli erToba amgvarad

aris agebuli, ra unda iyos imaze normluri da logikuri,

vidre saubari, ubralod, sakuTriv `literaturaze~ da

universaluri literaturis (saxeldobr, yvela literaturis

erTobliobis) gaTanabreba `literaturasTan~ yovelgvari specifikis

gareSe? arsebobs mxolod `erTi poezia, erTi literatura,

romlis Sedarebac SeiZleba yvela epoqaSi~ da es

literatura, rogorc `zogadi~ movlena, aris mxolod literatura

(just literature 1 itself, all literature). es gamonaTqvamebi ukve

Sablonad 2 iqca. es aris SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

Teoriis mTavari gasaRebi, misi ZiriTadi koncefcia, misi warmmarTveli

idea, rom bolos da bolos SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

icvleba Sinaganad. sabolood SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba niSnavs, ubralod, literaturis Seswavlas

yovelgvari enobrivi gansxvavebebis gareSe, literaturis

agebulebis, universalurobis da stabilurobis koncefciaze

dayrdnobiT.

yvela am hipoTezas didi Sedegebi mosdevs:

53


1. komparativistuli wanamZRvrebi

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis Cveulebrivi naSromebi

momdinareobs literaturuli Teoriidan, romelic Sem-

Txvevebis umravlesobaSi implicituria da masSi aSkarad

aris evrocentrizmis, eTnocentrizmis wili. saqme exeba am

mdgomareobis `moSlas~ da eqsplicituri literaturis Teoriis

SemuSavebas, romlis Sinaarsi iqneba zogadi, e.i. universaluri

da ormagi safuZvliT: a) sayrden da sakontrolo

wertilad unda hqondes literaturebis erToblioba im meTodis

mixedviT, romelic dasazustebelia; b) miznad isaxavs

iseTi literaturis Teoriis an Teoriuli sinTezis Seqmnas

mainc, romliTac SeiZleba naTlad gamoCndes saboloo saxis

literaturis agebuleba da sistema, misi morfologia da fenomenologia,

mokled literaturis esTetika da `arsi~ (ubralod,

itself da a.S.).

samagierod, rac TvalSi gvxvdeba SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

Tanamedrove mdgomareobaSi, es aris Zalian

aSkara kontrasti universaluri literaturis, rogorc movlenis,

Teoriul aRiarebas, ase vTqvaT, misi momxreebis garkveul

`universalistur~ miswrafebasa da am universalur

literaturaze morgebuli literaturis Teoriis naklebobas

Soris: ar arsebobs yvela cnobili saerTo faqtis gaerTianebis

mcdeloba, romelsac SeuZlia warmoSvas literaturis

kargad dasabuTebuli koncefcia da Semdeg literaturis

Tanmimdevruli Teoria.

cxadia, rogorc yovelTvis, arc winamorbedebis da Sexebis

wertilebis nakleboba igrZnoba, magram sakvanZo sakiTxi,

romelic or safexurad moqmedebas moiTxovs, aseTia: 1) universaluri

literaturuli istoriidan `universaluri literaturis

Teoriaze~ gadasvla (Weltliteratur Wissenschaft), `universaluri

literaturis mecnierebaze~ (Wissenschaft von der Weltliteratur),

im operaciaze gadasvla, romelic araerTgzis gauTvaliswinebiaT

3 da 2) es `Teoria~, zemoT mocemuli da komparativizmis

tradiciuli saxeldebis mimarT yvelaze adekvaturi

etiketis mixedviT, ubralod, gavuTanabroT literaturis Teorias,

rogorc aseTs, rac jer ar gakeTebula. aRiareben universaluri

literaturis arsebobas, magram jer ar aRiareben

(universaluri) literaturis Teorias.

komparativizmidan literaturul esTetikaze Sedegiani

gadasvla, sabolood da srulad xdeba mxolod am stadiaze;

es procesi sakmaod gviandeba, radgan SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

programuli sinTezi iwyeba pirveli statia-

54


manifestebidan, romlebic daiwera XIX saukunis bolo aTwledebSi.

am periodamde ganixilavdnen mxolod literaturis

istoriuli da socialuri evoluciis zogad kanonebs.

esTetikuri kanonebi, rodesac maTi arseboba mxedvelobaSi

iyo miRebuli, mxolod igulisxmeboda. Zalian iSviaTad Riad

(ufro metad SemTxveviT) laparakobdnen `xelovnebasa da literaturaSi~

kanonebis arsebobaze. 4 amis Sedegad, `kanonis~

koncefcia daviwyebul iqna, SemorCa mxolod da nayofi gamoiRo

ganmazogadebelma da universalurma elementma;5 es ukanaskneli

TiTqosda amzadebda niadags Teoriul-esTetikuri

naadrevi ganzogadebisTvis (eqstrapolaciisaTvis). `istoriul

poetikasTan~ (am axali fazis pirveli stadia), cxadia, yvelaze

axlos dgas renani, roca is aqebs vulfs imisaTvis,

rom `man erTi da imave kanonebiT axsna homerosi da „ramaiana“,

„nibelungebi“ da „Sah-name“, „romansebi sidze“, sagmiro

poemebi, Sotlandiuri da skandinaviuri sagmiro simRerebi”. 6

`SedarebiTi poetikis~ proeqtis qmediToba da upiratesoba

(saxeldobr, etiamblis proeqtisa) kidev ufro naTlad

Cans, Tu mas SevadarebT winamorbed iniciativas, dawyebuli

franguli yaidis SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobidan. es

ukanaskneli travmirebuli iyo lansonizmiT (cudad gagebuli

lansonozmiT) da pozitivizmiT, romlebmac frTebi Seukveces

yovelgvar Teoriul aRmafreanas. miuxedavad amisa, ukve gauCndaT

winaTgrZnoba, rom SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

ar aris wminda da martivi `filologia~ da maSasadame, manac

unda dasvas sakuTari Tavis winaSe `Teoriuli sakiTxebi da

zogadi problemebi~. 7 ramdenime aTwleulis Semdeg, Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneoba moiTxovs ganzogadebas, universaluri

literaturis sinTezsac ki.

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba miubrunda literaturis

gansazRvrebas da gamococxlda `ganzogadebisaken Zlieri

miswrafebiT~. 8 maSasadame, udavoa, rom am programam gamoiwvia

garkveuli principis aRiareba. am aRtyinebiT miaRwies

naTeli da zusti poziciebis dakavebas: SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

warmoadgens gansakuTrebuli xasiaTis sagans,

romelic Sua gzazea literaturis istoriasa da literaturis

Sesaxeb mecnierebas Soris. sxvaTa Soris, is Tanda-

TanobiT eufleba literaturul Teorias. 9 da mainc, Tanamedrove

franguli komparativizmis saxelmZRvanelo, Tundac is

aRiarebdes `literaturuli filosofiis~ kanonierebas da

komparativisti miaCndes `ganzogadebaTa specialistad~, 10 faqtobrivad,

ar asaxavs araviTar zust gadawyvetilebas, arc

erT kargad gansazRvrul mizans.

55


anglosaqsuri komparativizmis globaluri mimoxilva

saSualebas gvaZlevs Tvali mivadevnoT erTgvar vardnas (involucias),

did daSorebas, yovel SemTxvevaSi, zogierT orientirsa

(ukve XIX saukuneSi naCvenebs) da momdevno komparativistul

mimdinareobas Soris (ase vTqvaT, baldensperjerkares

tipis, cocxlebs rom ar SevexoT). posnetis mier Semo-

Tavazebul evolucionizms, sul cota, Semdegi upiratesoba

hqonda: komparativizmis safuZvelze SemuSavebuli misi `kanonebi~,

an e.w. `kanonebi~ miesadageboda literaturas (da mis

evolucias) 11 rogorc unitarul, universaluri koncefciiT

da principebiT marTul fenomens; es perspeqtiva Semdeg daikarga.

miuxedavad imisa, rom is Zalian sakamaTo iyo, mainc

gvTavazobda literaturis globalur `Teorias~. meore winamorbedi,

aseve miviwyebuli, Carlz Consi Sekfordi, romelic

laparakobda agreTve `kanonebze~. misi mosazrebebi ufro na-

Teli iyo, radgan iTvaliswinebda `yvela drois erTi da imave

universalur principebs~, `literaturis filosofias~, SemuSavebuls

komparativituli gziT. 12 amerikuli literaturaTmcodneobis

pirveli Jurnalis programa, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobda

literaturis komparativistul Teoriebs da cdilobda

literaturis Teoriisa da kritikisaken mimarTuli

sferos Semofargvlas. 13

yvelaferi, rac xdeba Semdeg, ZiriTadi monaxazis saxiT

imeorebs im mcdelobas, romelic TandaTan saerTo gaxda komparativistTa

jgufisaTvis: mowodebebi, dabejiTebiT moTxovnac

ki imisa, rom `RmoaCinon yoveli literaturis miRma mdebare

zogadi kanonebi~, 14 eraturis `ogadi principebi~ magram

laparakoben yovelgvari Teoriuli gegmis gareSe, romelic

am survilis gansaxorcieleblad aris saWiro. sibejiTe, romliTac

ubrundebian aRniSnul sakiTxs, mowmobs, rom tradiciuli

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis dro amoiwura, Tanamedrove

komparativistuli azrovneba ara marto egueba da

Rebulobs literaturis Teorias, aramed daJinebiT moiTxovs

mas. komparativistikaSi dasaSvebad miiCneven, rom es disciplina

SeiZleba ukeTes poziciaSi aRmoCndes, sxva dargebTan

SedarebiT, `literaturis zogadi Seswavlis~, literaturis

zogadi Teoriis~ amosawyebad, raTa gaxdes `yovelgvari literaturis

Teoriis mTavari laboratoria~. 15

es gadawyvetileba mniSvnelovan mxardaWeras poulobs

ara marto anglosaqs 16 komparativistebs Soris, aramed agreTve

germanel komparativistebs Sorisac, romlebic eyrdnobian

bevrad ufro mniSvnelovan filosofiur da esTetikur tradicias.

igi TavisTavad airekleba iseT koncefciebSi, rogo-

56


icaa: `yvela drois poeziis Sinagani erTgvarovneba~ da poezia,

rogorc `Taurfenomeni~ (Urpoesie); Tezisi, romelic erTdroulad

exeba Weltliteratur-s¹7, `literaturuli Semoqmedebis

TviT bunebas~, literaturas, rogorc `absoluturs~ da `totalurs~

(Eine Literatur ist keine Literatur) an literaturis uamravi

formis `fundamentur erTobas~, aseve `erT da ganuyofel

literaturas~, mxatvrulad da istoriulad ganuyofels, 18

mTlianad gankuTvnils `literaturis zogadi TeoriisaTvis.”

(Allgemeine Literaturwissenschaft). 19 am rwmenas Zalian axlos mivyavarT

zogierT ideasTan, romelic CvenTvis Cveulebrivia.

miuxedavad garkveuli dogmatizmisa da sqematurobisa,

ideebis urTierTgavlenas ganuxrelad mivyavarT msgavs gadawyvetilebamde

aRmosavleT evropaSic. amosavali wertili, misi

erT-erTi saukeTeso gamonaTqvamis mixedviT, aris universaluri

literaturis `istoriuli, ideologiuri da mxatvruli

evoluciis Zireuli erTianoba~. 20 swored amaSi mdgomareobs

`literaturis adekvaturi koncefciis~ dakanoneba, `literaturis

zogadi problemebis~, `literaturis imanenturi kanonebis~

aRmoCena. mokled, `literaturis Teoriis~ aRmoCena.

mas aqvs unari SemogvTavazos `erTiani~ (unitaruli) koncefcia

`literaturuli Semoqmedebis integralurobaze~, daadginos

`literaturis universaluri Tvisebebi~, safuZveli Cauyaros

zogad mxatvrul ideals da msoflio literaturis es-

Tetikur RirebulebaTa sistemas, warmoaCinos `universaluri

literaturis mxatvruli saxe~. 21 bolos vityviT, rom rekomendacias

winaswar uweven `universaluri literaturis zogad

konspeqts~, romelic eyrdnoba yvela `Sedevrs~. 22

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis mier `poetikis aRmoCenis

TariRi aseve Soreulia: is Tavidanve mosdevs komparativistikas.

misi tradiciuli mniSvnelobebidan ori mainc

(literaturis Teoria da literaturis normatiuli kodi) Seesabameba

komparativizmis yvelaze `klasikur~ mniSvnelobas.

erTi mxriv, samarTlianad aRniSnaven, rom wminda erovnuli

`poetika~, mxolod erTi erovnuli literaturidan gamomdinare,

SeuZlebelia da `mecniereba literaturis Sesaxeb~ yovel-

Tvis iyenebda `komparativistul~ meTodebs, rodesac cdilobda

`zedrouli esTetikuri sistemis Seqmnas, romelic dafuZnebuli

iyo literaturuli Janrebis saerTo faqtorebze,

formalur kanonebze~. 23 meore mxriv, imedi aqvT, rom `esTetikuri

kanonebis~ msgavsad ganaaxleben, magaliTad, dramatuli

Janris kanonebsac. 24 es sakmaod sakamaTo normatiuli orientacia,

ekuTvnis agreTve etiambls: `roca momzadebuli eqnebaT

sakuTari poetika, komparativistebi SeZleben daexmaron

57


adamianebs yvelaze naklebad yalbi faseulobebis SerCevaSi,

ufro sarwmunos uqonlobis gamo. 25 Tundac `poetikis~ yvelaze

aqtualur gansazRvrebebsa da programebSi ar iyos komparativizmis

araviTari xseneba, 26 es ar cvlis saqmis viTarebas;

komparativizmis poetikasTan SeerTeba uzrunvelyofilia

TviT misi Teoriuli miznebiT. yvelaze gamocdili poetikosebis

msgavsad, agreTve literaturis Teoriis momxre komparativistebi

cdiloben SeimuSaon sqemebi da kategoriebi nebismieri

literaturuli diskursis struqturaze mosargebad,

Tundac `literaturulobis~ Sesaferisad. rusi formalistebisagan

gansxvavebiT, romlebic erTmaneTs aSorebdnen `komparativistul

poetikas~ (an istoriuls) da `Teoriul poetikas~,

27 Cven migvaCnia, rom es ori sfero ara marto avsebs,

aramed erwymis erTmaneTs, bolo analizis Tanaxmad. am sakiTxs

davubrundebiT.

2. literaturis Teoriis statusi

rogoria zustad literaturuli Teoriis statusi im

komparativizmis TvalsazrisiT, romelic Cven ganvsazRvreT?

sazogadod, `Teoria~ gulisxmobs inteleqtualuri wyobis or

tips: 1) farTo mniSvnelobiT: meToduri da sistematuri koncefcia

codnisa da kvlevis sferoSi, axsna-ganmartebiTi an

aRwerilobiTi xasiaTis, romlis mizania obieqturi codna da

kontroli (`politikuri Teoria~, `valutis Teoria~); 2) viwro

mniSvnelobiT: mecnieris an filosofosis Tezisi an savaraudo

koncefcia, romelic exeba sadavo sakiTxs (`darvinis

Teoria~). literaturis Teoriebi, cxadia, moergeba orive situacias,

magram termins saxeli Seulaxa `mecnieruli~ an

`logikuri~ Teoriis cnebis didma prestiJma, romelic miCneulia

erTaderT qmediT an `Tanamedrove~ cnebad.

aqve unda davazustoT: literaturis Teoria (komparativistuli)

ar eswrafvis logikur-maTematikuri an zusti statusis

miRebas. amis mizezi sakmaod martivia: misi sagani (`literatur~)

gverds uvlis yovelgvar `mecnierul~ midgomas, am

terminis Tanamedrove kategoriuli mniSvnelobiT. kategoriul

mniSvnelobas aqvs Tavisi gamarTleba sakuTari wyaroebis

doneze, magram literaturas ar aqvs da es termini (literatura)

ar gansazRvravs logikuri arsis mqone realobas.

ase rom, maincdamainc ar erideba gamanadgurebel braldebas,

romlis mixedviTac is aris `winaremecnieruli~ an `mecnieruli~

da rac ar unda iyos, literaturis Teorias ar SeuZlia

win gauswros misi sagnis mocemulobas: 1) romlis koefici-

58


entic Sefasebulia, rogorc ganusazRvreli, upirveles yovlisa,

gamomdinare misi gansazRvrebis wesidan, ise rogorc

misi aRqmis maneridan (`gemovneba~, `emocia~, `eniT uTqmeli~

da a.S.); 2) romelic arasodes aris `sruli~, romelic `Tvi-

Ton iqneba~ yovelTvis da romlis cvalebad kanonebs sWirdeba

axsna; 3) arasodes SeiZleba misi mTlianad dadastureba an

Semowmeba logikuri an epistemologiuri xasiaTis mkacr pirobebSi,

rasac moiTxovs mecnieruli eqsperimenti. es niSnavs,

rom literaturis logikuri Teoriebi, faqtobrivad, bolomde

arasodes Seesabameba sinamdviles, romelic mouxelTebelia.

am mkacri Tvalsazrisis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, ar arsebobs

28 (da arasodes iarsebebs) literaturis namdvili `mecnieruli

Teoria~, radgan misi kriteriumebi am SemTxvevaSi araadekvaturia

29 da misi statusi ar SeiZleba iyos wminda logikur

kanonebTan asimilirebuli. 30 meore mxriv, arc `tradiciul~

da `Tanamedrove~ literaturis Teoriebs Soris gavlebuli

paralelebia damajerebeli, Tumca es paralelebi

ukiduresad zustia formaluri logikis mixedviT. magali-

Tad, `tradiciuli~ Teoriebis mTavari ganmasxvavebeli niSani,

saxeldobr, maTi `normatiuloba~ `aRwerilobiTobis~ sapirispirod,

31 aRar miesadageba `Cvens~ komparativistul literaturul

Teorias, romelic uaryofs aseve yovelgvar kanonikur,

normatiul Tvisebas. am sqemis mixedviT, metadre komparativistuli

poetika iqneboda `Tanamedrove~ radgan isic, aseve, garkveulwilad

mimarTulia aRwerisaken, rasac qvemoT davinaxavT.

es imas ar niSnavs, rom literaturis Teoria, Tavis

mxriv, ar mihyveba sakuTar wessa da logikas. is unda iyos

mwyobri TavisTavad, mkafio da `Sejerebuli~ `koordinirebuli~.

misi agebuleba moiTxovs `sistemas~, `modelsac~ ki (am

sakiTxs davubrundebiT). komparativistuli Teoria awesrigebs,

erTgvarovans xdis da ajgufebs (unifikacias da klasifikacias

ukeTebs) monacemebs, romlebzedac iRebs pasuxismgeblobas,

misi Sinagani kriteriumebis da sabaziso hipoTezebis

mixedviT. mas aqvs `centri~ da `periferia~. es Teoria er-

Ti da imave sistematuri debulebis mixedviT aerTianebs mis

mier Tavmoyrili movlenebis `klasis~ erT, sxvadasxva an yvela

aspeqts. is yvela viTarebaSi gvTavazobs racionalur da

universalur suraTs. es ar aris `impresionistuli~ daudevroba.

is, sxvaTa Soris, mTavar rols TamaSobs literaturul

kvlevaSi: Teoria yovelTvis win uswrebs meTodologias,

mas aZlevs mizans da safuZvels; is xsnis perspeqtivebs,

xelmZRvanelobs da mimarTulebas aZlevs sxvadasxva mcdelobas

(demarSebs). es aris “Tvalsazrisi, romelsac aucileb-

59


lad moaqvs axali sinaTle, axali literaturuli `aRqma~. 32

misi evristikuli unari (siaxleTa maZiebeli disciplinis

unari) aranakleb mniSvnelovania: aseTi (an kidev sxva saxis)

literaturuli Teoriis wyalobiT, Cven CavwvdebiT literaturis

zogierT aspeqts (da xelovnebis aspeqtebs) Zalian

zusti xerxiT. 33 igi gvawvdis aucilebel operatiul miTiTebebs.

bolos gamovyoT literaturis Teoria (terminis ontologiuri

mniSvnelobiT) literaturebis Teoriisagan (terminis

fenomenologiuri mniSvnelobiT). 34 `SedarebiTi~ literaturaTmcodneobis

Teoria mTlianad Tavsdeba am bolo kategoriaSi.

`SedarebiTi poetikis~ bedi (romelic aris an TiTqmis

aris literaturuli Teoriis sinonimi), ZiriTadad, cnobilia

CvenTvis. komparativizmis mier `literaturis Teoriis~ miReba

expressis verbis-is statusiT, misdevs imave gzas da cxadia, imave

miznebs isaxavs. swored amaSi mdgomareobs, amasTanave, TviT

Literaturwissenschaft-is, rogorc terminis daniSnuleba, romelic

daaxloebiT 1842 wels Seqmna t. mundtma 35 da misi Teoriuli

konotacia progresiis wesiT Zlierdeba. dRes, sazogadod,

aRiareben, rom literaturis Teoria aris `literaturis

principebis, misi kategoriebis, kriteriumebis Seswavla~ da

a.S. 36 magram aq truizmi moCvenebiTia, radgan komparativizmze

dayrdnobiT amgvari Seswavla xdeba eqspliciturad (garegnulad)

da programulad `universaluri~. Tu arsebobs mxolod

erTi literatura, SeiZleba arsebobdes mxolod erTi literaturuli

Teoria: literaturis Teoria, sul ubralod. 37

saboloo angariSiT, ikveTeba principuli Tanxmoba SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobis da literaturis Teoriis

igiveobis Sesaxeb: literatura ganmartebulia, rogorc `xelovneba~,

magram xelovneba universaluria; maSasadame, masSi

ganxorcielebulia an ganxorcielebadia msoflios yvela literatura.

38 dasanania, rom es Teoriuli da meTodologiuri

migneba, romelic faseulia da gadamwyvetic ki, jer ar aris

gamoyenebuli ise, rogorc mosalodneli iyo TvalsaCino da

Tanmimdevrul gamokvlevebSi. magram am ideis Sinagani dinamizmi,

romelsac sakuTari avtonomia aqvs, TavisTavad warmoadgens

mniSvnelovan winsvlas. es imiT aixsneba, rom `mTeli

kacobriobisTvis gamosadegi literaturis filosofiis~ 39 er-

TaderT proeqts warmoadgens samudamod miRebuli memkvidreoba.

`formulirebis~ pirobebi, ra Tqma unda, dasadgenia. sxva

SemTxvevaSi, risTvis unda Seiswavlon yvela literaturis saerTo

(an zogadi) problemebi, Tu ara imisaTvis, rom miiRon,

zustad rom vTqvaT, `literaturis Teoriis principebi~ (an

Principles Criticism) an kidev saerTo `esTetikuri mniSvneli? 40 mi-

60


uxedavad garkveuli TavSekavebisa, rac SeiZleba aixsnas istoriuli

TvalsazrisiT~, 41 Teoriuli, `universalisturi~ miswrafeba

sul ufro TvalsaCino xdeba Tanamedrove komparativistikaSi.

ase pirdapir, `literaturis Teoriis mTlianad~ 42 an misi

`mTavari da sistematuri~ aspeqtebis Seswavlis moTxovna ganxorcielebis

saSualebebze zrunvis gareSe, am etapze mainc, ar

aris sakmarisi. miuxedavad amisa, es imis niSania, rom literaturis

universalurobis gageba TandaTan zogadi sinamdvile xdeba.

igi Cveni epoqis, Cveni Zeitgeist-is ideologiuri aspeqtis nawilia.

SedarebiTi poetikis `miznebi amJamad moicavs mxolod

sakvlevi winadadebebisa da gegmebis CamonaTvals, rac mocemulia,

rogorc ritorikisa da `formalisturi~ poetikis avtonomiebis

alternativa. `SedarebiTi poetika~, ZiriTadad, SeiZleba

daviyvanoT `formebisa da Janrebis~ iseT Teoriamde

(romelic)... zustad iTvaliswinebs yvela literaturas~. am

kuTxiT es terminebi erTmaneTs akontrolebs. 43 es Teoria,

stilistikis, metrikis, saxeebis SedarebiTi Seswavlis da

sxva `formaluri~ kvlevebis daxmarebiT, poeziis eqstensiur

gansazRvrebamde miva. masSi erTnairad iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli

ioane qrizostomis `homiliebi”, `odisea~, `tanka~ da `haiku~.

44 amis misaRwevad faqtobrivi kavSirebi (pozitivisturi)

Zireulad Seicvala struqturuli kavSirebiT, rac savsebiT

cvlis perspeqtivas da `komparativizmis~ wils.

zogierTi cnoba enaTmecnierebidan da gramatikidan xels

Seuwyobs am mosazrebis ukeTesad morgebas da gagebas. mas Zlieri

analogebi aqvs `universalurobis~ gagebasTan enaTa umravlesobaSi,

45 `enasTan~, rogorc sistemasTan, romelic upirispirdeba

`metyvelebas~, an yvela enis `abstraqtul mdgomareobas-

Tan~, rac naTlad aris gamoyofili maTi `konkretuli mdgomareobidan~.

`translingvistika~, romelic ar Seiswavlis yovel gamonaTqvams,

rogorc konkretuls, aramed misi gamoyenebis kanonebs,

46 aseve SeiZleba davimowmoT, ise rogorc unda mivmarToT

(albaT gansakuTrebiT) `universaluri gramatikis~ metad tradiciul

ideas, romelic exeba ara marto prozis Seswavlas, aramed

yovelgvari simboloebis gamoyenebas.47 ratom ar unda arsebobdes

disciplinaTa zRvarze `literaturis~ (universaluris)

gramatika (universaluri)? literaturis zogadi Teoriis

Sesabamisad, aseTi gramatikuli analizi iqneba `totaluri~,

Tu mas Seqmnian yvela literaturis safuZvelze, Zvelis

Tu axlis, dasavluris Tu aRmosavluris. am Tamam, magram Zalian

kanonier mosazrebas gauCnda momxreebi TviT literaturis

vrcel qronikebSi (etiamblis TezisebTan dakavSirebiT). 48

61


3. aucilebeli ganzogadeba

Cven ukve mravalgzis Segvxvda termini “zogadi”. amdenad,

unda vcadoT misi SemosazRvra da axlo xediT gansazRvra.

ase unda moviqceT miT ufro, rom komparativistuli literaturis

Teoriis kritika yovelTvis mdgomareobs `zogadis~

daJinebul uaryofaSi, am sityvis ukiduresad kninobiTi mniSvnelobiT.

miuxedavad misi semantikuri arasrulfasovnebisa

da zogjer `universalurTan~ aRrevisa, romlis sinonimic is

sabolood xdeba, `zogadi~, `ganzogadebuli~, `ganzogadeba~

gadaiqca... sayovelTaod gamoyenebul, aucilebel terminad.

`zogadi~ (ganzogadebuli) gamoxatavs mdgomareobas, Tvisebas

an moqmedebas, romelic exeba yvela SemTxvevas an yvela individs

yovelgvari gamonaklisis gareSe~. kerZo SemTxvevebis

did umravlesobaSi SemCneuli saerTo Tvisebebi `ganzogadebis~

saSualebiT ukavSirdeba erTsa da imave ideas (rogorc

aRniSnaven leqsikografebi). xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom

ganzogadebis procesi, romelic exeba mTel klass (is, rac

ekuTvnis klasis yvela individs), faqtobrivad, miesadageba ama

Tu im klasis mxolod did umravlesobas. swored ase yalibdeba

koncefciebi, maT Soris literaturulic. arsebobs agreTve

tendencia, rom tipizacia, idealizacia, simbolizacia da a.S.

miCneul iqnas `mxatvruli ganzogadebis~ calkeul formebad.

am terminis ase gafarToeba, meore mxriv, momdinareobs misive

semantikuri agebulebidan. literaturuli Teoriebis dargSi

aranakleb sayuradReboa mkveTrad gamoxatuli midrekileba

myisieri, empiriuli, veluri ganzogadebisaken. mourideblad

gadasvla zogad daskvnebze, mxolod ramdenime magaliTis

safuZvelze, sakmaod gavrcelebul meTodad gadaiqca.

kavSiri zogadsa (universalurs) da kerZos (individualurs,

gansakuTrebuls) Soris, romelic gansazRvravs yovelgvar

farul Tu aSkara eqstrapolacias, naadrev ganzogadebas

(ix. gavrcelebuli SemTxveva: literaturuli gansaz-

Rvreba `erovnuli~ Rebulobs ipso Facto `universaluris` ganzomilebas

da mniSvnelobas.), moiTxovs ramdenime dazustebas.

es kavSiri, upirveles yovlisa, aris dialeqtikuri. igi moicavs

dapirispirebas da monacvleobas, urTierTganpirobebas,

Seqcevadobas, urTierTmonacvle poziciebs, urTierTSevsebas

(komplementarulobas). zogadi (universaluri) ekuTvnis nebismier

sivrces, nebismier dros da sakuTari Tavis identuria.

igi aris erTdroulad TiToeul literaturul nawarmoebSi

da yvela literaturul nawarmoebSi, maSasadame mTel literaturaSi

anu literaturaSi. literaturis Teoria eyrdnoba

62


(da imavdroulad naTels hfens) yoveli literaturuli nawarmoebis,

yoveli literaturis `zogad~ elements. es `zogadi~

elementi, romelic arsebobs calke da yovelTvis mimar-

Tulia zeindividualuri, zeerovnuli, zedrouli planisaken,

garkveul zRvarze uTanabrdeba TviT literaturul `zogads~.

yvelaferi es cnobilia, SeiZleba Zalian kargadacaa

cnobili, magram kargia misi mokled gaxseneba da aRniSvna,

isev am gardamaval etapze, rom komparativistuli literaturis

Teoria arc zogad elements ugulvebelyofs. misi sagania

`zogadi mecniereba literaturis Sesaxeb~, literatura

mTlianad da ara misi adgilobrivi an kerZo saxeoba. maSasadame,

uazroba iqneboda gansazRvrebisa da meTodis Zieba yoveli

literaturuli nawarmoebisaTvis an yoveli leqsisaTvis. 49

nuTu unda ugulvebelvyoT kerZo, individualuri, literaturuli?

uSualo literaturuli praqtikis doneze, es, samagierod,

erTaderTi sagrZnobi realobaa. misi kerZo Taviseburebis,

misi `pirovnebis~ mignebisa da gansazRvrisaTvis

aucilebelia zogad kriteriumTan mimarTebis dadgena. es dapirispireba

yovelTvis gardauvalia; igi gansazRvravs ker-

Zosa da zogads Soris (kerZo/zogadi) mimarTebis TviT statuss,

ris Sedegadac operireben mxolod da mxolod dakonkretebuli

zogadiT da gankerZoebuli universaluriT. 50 swored

am CarCoSi (romelic gulisxmobs mudmiv dapirispirebas

da Sedarebas), mxolod am farglebSi, romelic gveZleva istoriuli

da pirdapiri empiriuli gamocdilebiT, xdeba gasagebi

esa Tu is Tavisebureba da SesaZlebelia gansxvavebis aRqma.

universaluris kerZod dakonkreteba cnobili iyo Zalian

didi xnis winaT, induri klasikuri gramatikis CaTvliT. 51 am

mxriv ar unda CamovrCeT. amasTanave, SeiZleba Rirdes imis

gaxseneba, rom es mimarTeba naTlad aris gansazRvruli komparativizmis

horizontze gamoCenis droidan XVIII saukuneSi:

kacobriobis idea gulisxmobs Sedarebas – `zogadi~/`adgilobrivi~,

erT sqemaSi ewereba agreTve induri da nebismieri sxva

literatura; romantikuli esTetika aRiarebs, aseve, universaluri

arsis da erovnuli gamoxatulebis arsebobas da a.S. 52

Tanamedrove komparativizmi myarad dgas am mimdinareoba-

Si. erTi mxriv, udavoa misi erTaderTi Tezisi: msoflio literaturaSi

SeuZlebelia istoriuli an sxva kvlevebis warmarTva

erovnuli literaturis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe; Ti-

Toeuli Teoria unda sazrdoobdes `konkretuli~ kerZo gamokvlevebiT

da a.S. albaT es aris erTi da imaves gameoreba,

Sabloni. 53 kargad aris cnobili, rom arsebobs koleqtiuri

Temebi da maTi individualuri xorcSesxma, yoveli miTi kom-

63


inaciis istoriuli nayofia, zogadisa da kerZos dapirispirebis

tipobrivi magaliTia da a.S. 54 magram, mere mxriv, Tu

literaturuli kvleva mTlianobaSi damokidebulia ormag

memkvidreobaze (ganmazogadebel da ganmasxvavebel memkvidreobaze),

sadac Sedareba `gardauvali~ xdeba, rogorc gancalkevebisa

da daaxloebis sagangebo meTodi, 55 Tavdapirvelad es

Sedareba kargavs yovelgvar komparativistul specifikas da

Semdeg xdeba literaturis nebismieri Teoriis ZiriTadi Semadgeneli

nawili. an kidev, kerZo aris Seuqcevadi, absoluturi,

ganumeorebeli da am SemTxvevaSi Sedareba usargeblo,

Seuferebeli da uazroa. garda amisa, TiToeul literaturul

nawarmoebSi aris agreTve saerTo elementebi da maSin

Sedareba SeiZleba gadaiqces universalur ganzogadebul berketad.

maSasadame, kidev erTxel, termini `komparativizmi~ aRmoCnda

arazusti, umarTebulo da susti.

ganzogadeba, rogorc erTi da imave ideis irgvliv saerTo

Tvisebebis Sekrebisa da `naRebis moxdis~ operacia, moiTxovs

agreTve dakvirvebas. saqme exeba ara mis `reabilitacias~,

aramed mxolod misTvis saWiro pirobebis, misi saboloo

miznis dazustebas. ratom ganazogadeben da rogor ganazogadeben?

imitom, rom sWirdebaT upirveles yovlisa, koncefciebi

da zogadi codna; imitom, rom `universalurisaken~

midrekileba `savaldebuloa~ `WeSmariti inteleqtualisaTvis~

(eigentlichen Gelehrten) (rac odiTganve cnobilia: novalisi);

bolos da bolos imitom, rom esTetika (literaturuli da

a.S.) sazrdoobs TeoriiT da miznad isaxavs misi Sinagani bunebidan

gamomdinare, saerTo struqturebis dafuZnebas (rac

TavisTavad cxadia) da a.S. 56

rac Seexeba ZiriTad meqanizms, is warmoadgens mxedvelobaSi

miRebuli monacemebis daaxloebas, kavSirs, integracias

yovelgvari gansxvavebis sapirispirod. misi nayofia abstraqcia

(kategoriebi, kanonebi da a.S.), erTsa da imave dros

transistoriuli, transkulturuli da transmorfologiuri

inteleqtualuri konstruqcia. ganzogadeba ar `emTxveva~ nawarmoebs

an nawarmoebTa nakrebs. igi gvTavazobs mxolod gasagebsa

da erTgvarovans, raRac globalurs, rac `uxilavi~

darCenila saganSi Tu saganTa jgufSi. is, rac ganisazRvra,

rogorc `struqturalisturi kvleva~, am tipis azrovnebaa. 57

mis Zlierebas ganapirobebs simwyobre, logikuri struqtura,

Sedegi da Sinagani Rirebuleba. zogierTi epistemologis azriT,

swored amaSi mdgomareobs misi vargisianobis `testurobis~

pirveli kriteriumi. 58 aqedan momdinareobs misi `genetikuri~

xasiaTi. mas SeuZlia Seavsos raime erTobliobis xvre-

64


lebi, dafaros TeTri laqebi sistemis rukaze, Secvalos or

an mraval termins Soris im korespondenciis mkrTali an

gamotovebuli terminebic ki, romelic funqcionaluria. amgvarad,

ganzogadeba aris safexurebrivi, mzardi, is Tovlis

gundas hgavs, maqsimaluri gafarToebis SesaZleblobamde. komparativistebi

TandaTan eCvevian msgavs mdgomareobas. 59 cnobilia,

rom yoveli Teoria, TviT yvelaze ufro pirovnuli, subieqturi,

miiswrafis universalurobisaken, Tavisi `absolutisaken~

da amgvari ukiduresoba gardauvalia. es imas niSnavs,

rom ganzogadeba TavisTavad SemTavsebluria, krebiTia, igi

yovelTvis mimdinareobs ufro da ufro farTod da aRmaval

doneebze, magram imavdroulad aris fragmentuli, droebiTi

da gaumjobesebadi. mxolod erTi magaliTi: `sagmiro poeziis~

gansazRvreba, romelic evropul magaliTebzea morgebuli

da didxans sargeblobda avtoritetiT, unda gafarTovdes

imisaTvis, rom SeiTavsos agreTve Cinuri klasikuri eposi. 60

aqedan gamomdinare, zogadma gansazRvrebebma da Teoriebma saxe

unda icvalos, gaxdes advilad adaptirebadi, gamoavlinos

moqniloba da dinamiuroba: es aris sifrTxile mimarTuli

gaqvavebisa da dogmatizmis winaaRmdeg. bolo komparativistuli

`talRa~ iwyebs am pirobebze daTanxmebas, Tumca es pirobebi

minimaluria. 61 Tanamedrove literaturuli Teoria moiTxovs

aseve `adaptirebis unaris mqone koncefciebs~. 62

amave dros, xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom komparativizmi,

TviT yvelaze tradiciulic, yovelTvis sargeblobda (da

Zalian farTod) erTgvari kategoriiT, romelsac uwodebda

`zogads~. es iyo savaldebulo, SeiZleba iTqvas, savsebiT bunebrivi

procedura. amgvari ganzogadeba moicavs yvela cnebas,

romelic miRebulia istoriis dargSi (`mimdinareoba~,

`periodi~ da a.S.), teritoriasTan dakavSirebiT (“zona” da

a.S.), stilis Sesaxeb (`baroko~, `manierizmi~, `ganmanaTlebloba~

da a.S.). saqme exeba, faqtobrivad, istoriul urTierToba-

Si CarTul an iqedan gamomdinare ganzogadebas. rogorc viciT,

aseTi ganzogadeba didi xania dasabuTebuli da ganxorcielebulia

farTo masStabiT. memkvidreobiT miRebul am

terminologiur aparats, Tavis mxriv, saxes ucvlian misi semantikisadmi

gansakuTrebuli moridebis gareSe, rac xSirad

iwvevs aRrevas. yvelaferi es savsebiT bunebrivi Cans da aravin

uyurebs eWviT aseTi `ganzogadebis~ kanonierebas. samagierod,

saqme fuWdeba da pozitivisturi komparativizmi yalyze

dgeba, roca ganzogadeba miznad isaxavs faqtobrivi kavSirebis

gadalaxvas, faqtebis ignorirebas an gverdis avlas: gana

arsebobs maradiuli `modernizmi~, Tundac `avangardi~? an

65


transistoriuli `baroko~ Tu arsebobs? an kidev, ai gaugonari

daudevroba! – arsebobs Tu ara `universaluri literatura~,

romelic ar ganirCeva `literaturisagan~? Tu aRiareben

iseT farTo da erTmaneTTan axlos mdgom kategoriebs, rogoricaa

`sasuliero~ da/an saero, `zepiri~ da/an `werilobi-

Ti~, rom araferi vTqvaT `erovnul~, `evropul~, `aRmosavlur~

da a.S. literaturaze, gaugebaria, WeSmaritad... zogadi

literaturuli `ganzogadeba~, e.i. `universaluri~, ratom ar

SeiZleba iyos, aseve, winaswar mofiqrebuli da kanonieri,

cxadia, im pirobiT, rom unda Seicvalos Tvalsazrisi da

meTodologiuri aparati.

4. zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba

ar unda gamogvrCes, agreTve, rom komparativistikaSi arsebobs

`ganzogadebis~ garkveuli tradicia, TviT termini

`zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba~ jer kidev mowonebiT sargeblobs.

ufro metic: miuxedavad yvelafrisa, zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba

warmoadgens yvelaze vrcel `Teoriul~

sawyiss, romelic aqamde yofila komparativistul praqtikaSi,

magram igi jer kidev Zalian SezRudulia. Cveni azriT, es

metad CamorCenili stadia mravali eWvisa da gaugebrobis wyaroa,

rasac naTeli unda moefinos. es bundovani, cudan gansazRvruli

gamoTqma erTdroulad bevr rames gulisxmobs.

Cven Tanaxma varT, rom es aris `zogadi da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba~,

magram ra azriT aris `zogadi~ da ra

azriT – `SedarebiTi~?

Zalian adre, gasul saukuneSi, es cneba niSnavda mxolod

literaturisadmi globalur midgomas: `literaturis

es propedevtikuli kursi iyo Zalian zogadi da Zalian enciklopediuri~.

63 aRniSnuli momentisaTvis ar iyo gamokveTili

araviTari zusti an sagangebo mimarTuleba. nabiji maSin

gadaidga win, rodesac germanuli enis semantikis wyalobiT,

`msoflios literatura~ an `universaluri literatura~ TandaTan

xdeboda `allgemeine Literatur~. 64 Ees aris ukve `zogadi literatura~

– literaturebis an saerTaSoriso literaturuli

movlenebis jami, romlis erTianoba veRar unda daisvas

kiTxvis niSnis qveS. amave dros, am epoqaSi istoriisa da pozitivizmisadmi

midrekilebis gamo, `zogadi literaturis istoria

an... Weltliteratur-is istoria~ 65 gadaiqceva mxolod erT

disciplinad. aqedan daiwyo mzardi, Zalian neli, magram uwyveti

universalisturi midgomis damkvidreba, romelic daupi-

66


ispirda literaturis `zogadi~ masalis dayofas erovnuli

literaturebis mixedviT. am ideebs, romlebic TandaTan met

aRiarebas poulobs bolo aTwleulebSi moRvawe komparativistebs

Soris, mivyavarT im daskvnamde, rom `erTi da ganuyofeli

literatura iqca Cveulebriv, banalur gamoTqmad~. 66

swored es aris winamdebare eses perspeqtiva.

garkveuli winsvla aris aRwerilobiTi da metadre istoriuli

sinTezis mimaraTulebiT, magram yvelaferi, isev da

isev, terminologiur gaugebrobas efuZneba. `zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba~

jer kidev ar niSnavs `literaturis (zogad)

Teorias~, aramed mxolod `faqtobrivi kavSirebis~ Seswavlis

stadiaa: `binaruli kavSirebis daZleva~, kvlevis gafarToeba

literaturuli analogiebisa da paralelizmebis

erTobliobaze dayrdnobiT an am tipis sxva mimarTebebis

safuZvelze. 67

azrovnebis manera kvlav pozitivisturia da ewinaaRmdegeba

Teorias, magram vlindeba garkveuli winaswari xedva: es

aris gamokvlevebis `wyeba, romelic exeba mravali literaturisaTvis

saerTo faqtebs; es literaturebi ganixileba an ma-

Ti erTmaneTze damokidebulebis an damTxvevebis TvalsazrisiT~

da isini inarCuneben `silamazes da mimzidvelobas, miuxedavad

gansxvavebuli idiomebisa. imavdroulad, aseT Tvalsazriss

yvelaze didi adgili uWiravs~. 68 es aris, avad Tu

kargad, esTetikur-literaturul erTianobamde da universalurobamde

misvla mimdinareobebis, tendenciebis, Temebis, formebisa

da literaturuli stilebis gavliT, romlebic gadalaxaven

erovnul sazRvrebs. mokled rom vTqvaT, es niSnavs

`zogadi literaturaTmcodneobis~ WeSmarit sagnamde miRwevas.

kidev ufro imedis momcemia gzis gaxsna analogiebisaken,

69 damTxvevebis, paralelizmebis da sinqronizmebisaken. es

aris is movlenebi, romlebic Sors gascda `gavlenebis~ sferos.

sayuradReboa, agreTve, zeerovnuli sinTezis idea. 70 zogadi

literaturaTmcodneoba iqneb unda yofiliyo Sedarebi-

Ti literaturuli kvlevebis sinTezi da dagvirgvineba: saer-

TaSoriso tipebi, Temebi, Janrebi. 71 garkveul zRvarze SeiZleboda

sinTezis am saSualebebis ganWvreta. 72 `zogad literaturaTmcodneobas~,

anu general literature-s, kvlav iTvaliswineben

am gansazRvrebiT; SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis yvela

Sesavali bolo `traqtatebamde~ mis Temebs gadmoscems mokled.

73 masze isev laparakoben sauniversiteto wreebSi, sadac

darwmunebuli arian, rom SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

`ar unda daSordes zogad literaturaTmcodneobas~. 74 es

tendencia gulisxmobs am ori disciplinis srul da martiv

67


identifikacias, ramdenadac miCneulia, rom maTi miznebi, Ziri-

Tadad, erTi da igivea. komparativizmis erT-erTi pioneris

(luipol becis) 75 es intuiciuri migneba, yovel SemTxvevaSi, 76

sabolood damtkicebul iqna mogvianebiT, rogorc cnobilia,

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis saerTaSoriso asociaciis

axali wesdebebiT, romlebsac saxe Seucvales IX yrilobaze

(1979). garkveuli evolucia amave mimarTulebiT bolo xans

SeiniSneba safrangeTSic, sadac administraciuli RonisZiebiT

gadawyda `zogadi da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

evropuli kavSiris~ Camoyalibeba; es gaerTianeba gameorda

`zogadi da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis franguli

sazogadoebis~ 77 sxvadasxva samuSao dokumentSi. axali

sintagma amkvidrebs ara marto erTi mimarTulebiT Tavmoyras

da urTierTSevsebas, aramed metadre meTodologiur sinTezs,

romelic TviT sagnis bunebidan momdinareobs. sxvaTa Soris,

`praqtikulad qreba yovelgvari gansxvaveba~, ise rogorc am

ori terminis Tanamedrove gamoyenebaSi. 78 komparativizmi da

`ganzogadeba~ amieridan erTia mxolod.

ratom ar mivmarToT maSin sxva termins? `SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas~

isev Seesabameba misi saxeli? Tu `ganzogadeba~

bevrad ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre `Sedareba~? iqneb

sjobs sxva saxelwodeba mieniWos am axal komparativizms,

romelic aRwerisa da ganzogadebis unars iCens da wyvets im

jaWvs, romelic mas genetikur da istoriul komparativizmTan

akavSirebda? es kiTxva marTlac unda daisvas da etiamblma

ar daayovna – erT-erTma pirvelma gaakeTa es. 79 meryeobam

`SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobasa~ da `zogad literaturaTmcodneobas~

Soris, rac aSkarad gamoikveTa, terminebisadmi

undobloba gauCina komparativizmis erT-erT wamyvan

mecniers, marsel bataions: `Sedareba aris mxolod erT-erTi

saSualeba imisa, rasac Cven vuwodebT SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas,

romelic cudad gamoxatavs saTqmels. xSirad vfiqrob,

rom zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba ukeTesi iqneboda, magram

amis Semdeg maSinve vxedav im uxerxulobas, rac mosdevs am

axali terminis gamoyenebas, romelic ganzogadebaze miuTiTebs

da ara cocxal nawarmoebebs Soris konkretul kavSirebze~. 80

miuxedavad amisa, `konkretuli~ kavSirebi ar gamoricxavs

`abstraqtul~ kavSirebs, riTac `ganzogadeba~ yovelTvis sazrdoobs.

am ukanasknels maxvili `fardobiTidan~ `absoluturisaken~,

e.i. ZiriTadisaken gadaaqvs, rasac mosdevs Zveli gansazRvrebis

kanonieri revizia. Tu erovnuli literaturis da

misi kavSirebis istoria qmnis Relativistik-is sferos, Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneoba mizandasaxuli ganzogadebiT mi-

68


iswrafis, rom SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi (erTi sakmaod axali,

magram uSedego SemoTavazebis Tanaxmad), Absolutistik gaxdes.

iseTi termini, rogoric aris `absoluturi literaturaTmcodneoba

Zalian uaxlovdeba TviT disciplinis Sinaars~,

81 romelic cdilobs gaxdes mecniereba zogadi literaturis

Sesaxeb, Tavisi gansazRvrebiTa da aRwerilobiT. es

aris, ZiriTadad, zeistoriuli, ganmazogadebeli azrovnebis

manera, romelsac mivyavarT literaturis totaluri koncefciisaken.

winadadeba, romelic miznad isaxavda sxva terminis

SemoRebas, romelic kidev ufro ukeTesad moergeboda am Sinaarss

– Generalistica 82 aseve uaryofil iqna.

ar igrZnoba sawinaaRmdego azrebis nakleboba da zogierTi

maTgani seriozulia. upirveles yovlisa, arsebobs ase-

Ti mudmivi gaugebroba: `zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba~

`universaluri literaturis~ sagani Tu meTodia (Seswavlis)?

ZiriTadad ra tipis meTods gulisxmobs is: istoriuls Tu

aRwerilobiT-fenomenologiurs? Tu sagans qmnian `saerTo~

faqtebi, es ukanasknelebi istoriuli rigisa arian Tu esTetikuri

rigisa? es konfliqti, romelic gaiziara TviT van

tigemma. 83 maSinve gastexes welSi im disciplinas, romelmac

Tavidanve gadauxvia gzas an ver azustebs Tavis sagans.

vinaidan SeuZlebelia erovnuli literaturis Seswavla `komparativistikis~

sazRvrebs iqiT, romlis ganfeniloba iWreba

TviT `zogadi literaturaTmcodneobis~ sferoSi, es gansxvavebebi

aRmoCndeba xelovnuri da arapraqtikuli. aseTi viwro

mniSvnelobiT, TviT es termini iqneboda uarsayofi. 84 meore

mxriv, Tu `zogad literaturaTmcodneobas~ iseTi miznebi

aqvs, romelTac araviTari saerTo ar aqvT literaturis istoriasTan,

rogorc tradiciuli komparativistikis saganTan,

maSin umjobesi iqneboda am ori sferos mkacrad gamijvna:

`ganzogadeba~ daeTmoba `esTetikas~ da es ukanaskneli savsebiT

gaZevebuli iqneba komparativistikidan, rac ganxorcielda

kidec. 85 Tavi unda davaRwioT da rac SeiZleba swrafad am

daupatiJebel stumars! – aseTi iyo sakiTxisadmi damokidebuleba.

es viwro Tvalsazrisi TiTqmis ar aris daZleuli, radgan

namdvil `komparativizmisa~ da `ganzogadebis Teoriis~

`Senadnobs~ – e.i. `SedarebiT poetikas~, romlis ZiriTadi hipoTezebi

da meTodebi sagangebod komparativistulia, jer kidev

bevri aklia ganxorcielebamde. es Zalian kargad Cans

standartuli reaqciebis garkveuli raodenobis saSualebiT,

romlebic pirdapir ayeneben kiTxvis niSnis qveS `ganzogadebis~

statuss. Tavdapirvelad ganvixiloT, Tu rogor miiRes

komparativistebma `ganzogadeba~. marTalia, maT is aRiares,

69


magram mxolod garkveuli istoriuli da sxva kanonebis saxeliT,

romelTa wmindad filosofiuri an ideologiuri Sefardeba

uaryofs erTdroulad rogorc esTetikis avtonomias,

aseve komparativistuli Tvalsazrisebis Sinagan Tvisebas,

yovelTvis sxvagan rom aris mimarTuli. 86

esTetikosebi, Tavis mxriv, rogorc Cans, (ufro sworad,

marTlac arian) ukeTes poziciaSi arian am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.

kargi iqneba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom terminis `literatura~

(=literaturis Seswavla) erT-erTi Zveli mniSvneloba

moicavda agreTve `principebs~, anu `literaturis elementebs~,

e.i. literaturis zogad Teorias. es orientacia ukve

dazustebuli iyo XVIII saukuneSi da grZeldeboda momdevno

saukuneSi. 87 `zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba~ mxolod Caer-

To am procesSi, Taviseburad gaagrZela es tradicia. mas mivyavarT

problemis realuri gadawyvetisken: zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba

gzas uxsnis literaturis zogad Teorias

da sabolood ganicdis asimilacias – nawilobriv an mTlianad

erwymis am ukanasknels (literaturis zogad Teorias).

germanuli komparativizmis filosofiuri tradiciebi

ufro xelsayrelia `TeoriebisTvis~, vidre zogadi xasiaTis

SexedulebebisTvis. amis dadasturebaa `Teoriis, istoriisa

da kritikis~ Zireuli sinTezi, romelic, romantizmis epoqidan

dawyebuli, Kunstlehre-s 88 ganStoebad miCneuli literaturuli

gamokvlevebis safuZvels warmoadgens. es triada meordeba

Literaturwissenschaft-is farTo ganyofilebebSi imis CaTvliT,

romelic Seesabameba komparativistul orientacias. 89

Cveni azriT, kidev ufro mniSvnelovania vergleichende-s asimilacia

allgemeine-sTan (gvinda SevinarCunoT germanuli terminologia),

rogorc unitaruli (erTgvarovani) disciplinisa,

romlis mizania poetikis an literaturis zogadi Teoriis

Seqmna. maSasadame, SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba qmnis

ara marto sabaziso literaturul koncefciebs da adekvatur

meTods, aramed gansakuTrebiT disciplinis Teoriuli

safuZvlebis kritikas, romelsac `literaturis~ axali koncefciis

Seqmnis Tu ara, zogadad literaturuli azrovnebis

Camoyalibebis unari mainc aqvs. aseTi azrovneba ki yovelTvis

komparativistulia (KurtWais). 90 swored ase miiRweva TiTqmis

sruli identifikacia, rasac axorcielebs `zogadi~ da, imavdroulad,

`SedarebiTi~ `mecniereba literaturis Sesaxeb~,

romlis daniSnuleba unda iyos `totalizacia~ (gamTlianeba)

– (Ergänzungsfunktion). 91 unda davasaxeloT agreTve Tanamedrove

poetika (Emil Staiger, Grundbegriffe der Poetik, 1946, Roger Caillois,

Esthétique généralisée, 1962). erT-erT laTinoamerikul poetikas

70


(Jose Antonio Portuondo) Zalian msgavsi mizani aqvs: literaturuli

xelovnebis Teoria, romelic unda moicavdes yvela literaturis

struqturas. 92 rac Seexeba sxva poetikas, isev kuburs,

igi zustad imave mizans isaxavs: `zogadi literaturis

zogadi Teoria~. 93 es aris bolomde miyvanili msjelobis savsebiT

logikuri daskvna.

Tanamedrove komparativistika, misi ramdenime progresuli

miRweviT, imave mimarTulebiT midis, magram isev da isev

meryeobs. aris gadaWarbebis SemTxvevebic. acxadeben, rom termini

`literaturis Teoria~, rogorc viciT, marTlac zogjer

gamosayenebeli da miRebuli, `uCveulo~, `problemuri~, pedanturi

da esTetikurad `SezRuduliao~. am termins bevrad ufro

amjobineben ufro pretenziul da mkacr – `literaturis

filosofias~. 94 magram am SemTxvevaSic ki mizani rCeba daqvemdebarebuli

da gverdiTi: es aris erT-erTi sxva miznebs Soris

da meti araferi, is liberaluradaa gankuTvnili Sagrenis

tyavSi gamoWrili komparativizmisaTvis. namdvili progresi

iqneboda miznebis ierarqiulad ganlageba da metadre, sagangebo

Semobruneba Teoriisaken. es moZraoba TiTqos sabolood

ramdenime Tanamedrove poziciaSi ikveTeba. am SemTxvevaSi

aRiareben ZiriTad gantolebas: erTmaneTis ekvivalenturia

– general literature, poetics da theory of literature; literaturis

`saSualo enis~ aRwerilobiTi `ganzogadeba~ miCneulia savsebiT

SeasaZleblad da sasurveladac ki; maSasadame, komparativizmisa

da literaturis Teoriis miznebi aRiarebulia identur

miznebad. 95 am profilis bolo germanul JurnalSi statia-programa

Riad uWers mxars komparativizmis gadaqcevas `namdvil

zogad literaturaTmcodneobad~ (wirklich allgemeine Literaturwissenschaft),

romlis sagani aucileblad iqneba `universaluri

literatura~ an `literatura~. es gulisxmobs im SemTxvevasac,

Tu `universaluri literatura~ ar aris saZiebeli sakuTar

TavSi, aramed mxolod `literaturebSi~ (erovnul literaturebSi

da a.S.) (nie als solche sondern nur in `Literaturen~ sich zeigt). 96 magram

Tu eZeb rames, unda icode ras eZeb, gqondes, sul mcire, konceptualuri

sqema `zurgs ukan~. amis Sesaxeb qvemoT visaubrebT.

safrangeTSi poetikis specialistebma gauswres komparativistebs

_ yovel SemTxvevaSi, maTi `SedarebiTi poetikis

centriT~ da maTi `SedarebiTi poetikis rveulebiT~ (1/1973). 97

`komparativistuli poetikis~ ratifikacia sabolood miRweulia:

nihil obstat-ic ki miiRo `zogadi da SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

franguli sazogadoebisagan~. 98 yvelaze imedismomcemi proeqtebis

avtorebi dainteresebuli arian SedarebiTi poetikis

`universaluri meTodebiT~ da `yvelaze zogadi principebiT~. 99

71


Tu gadavxedavT tradicias am dargSi, daskvnisTvis vipoviT

mxolod ori naTeli da efeqturi programis mqone pozicias.

`zogadi literaturaTmcodneobis~ Zvel, uaryofil

mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT 100 garkveuli meryeobis Semdeg,

rene ueleki veraviTar gansxvavebas veRar xedavs (semantikurad

mainc) zogad literaturaTmcodneobasa da literaturis

Teorias Soris, `poetikas~ Tu literaturis `principebs~ Soris.

101 rac Seexeba etiambls, is gabedul gadawyvetilebas Rebulobs

`Zveli yaidis SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobasa~

da `momavlis zogad literaturaTmcodneobas~ Soris, 102 rac

imas niSnavs, rom is `zogadi literaturaTmcodneobidan~ gadadis

`esTetikasa~ da `ritorikaze~. 103 misi mravalricxovani

gancxadebebidan unda davimaxsovroT es ukanaskneli, yvelaze

sxarti da zusti: erovnuli literaturebis SedarebiTma Seswavlam

`zogadi literaturaTmcodneobisa da literaturis

Teoriis Seqmnis saSualeba unda mogvces sabolood~. arsebi-

Tad saqme exeba `yoveli literaturis mkacrad analitikuri

Seswavlidan zogadad sinTezur Seswavlaze gadasvlas. 104 filosofosebi,

romlebic romantizmis safuZvlebTan arian dakavSirebuli,

emxrobian Tavis droze zedapirulad moxazul

am Canafiqrs. 105

5. dapirispireba da uaryofiTi Sefaseba

gadaWarbebuli iqneboda gvefiqra, rom komparativistuli

literaturis Teoriis miRebuli gansazRvreba srulyofilad

Camoyalibebuli da damtkicebulia. sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebebis

garkveuli raodenoba, romelTa Soris zogierTi seriozuli

Cans, kidev erTxel unda ganvixiloT, raTa naTeli

movfinoT maT motivacias. es xels Seuwyobda ara mxolod

dasaSvebi, aramed praqtikuli, kontrolirebadi `Teoriis~ Camoyalibebas

misi safuZvlebisa da gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT.

eWvgareSea: komparativistul `ganzogadebaTa~ qedmouxreli

mowinaaRmdegis namdvili saxelia istoriuli midgomis

damcveli pozitivizmi, rac ukve aRiniSna. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT

pozitivizmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli obieqturi faqtisa

da `faqtobrivi kavSirebis~ kults, `mecnierul~ neitralurobas,

`Tezisebze~, abstraqtul `principebsa~ da `Rirebulebebze~

nebayoflobiT uaris Tqmas, istoriuli tendenciis mqone

pozitivizmma, romelic miCneuli iyo komparativizmis miznad

da gamarTlebad, yvelaferi gaakeTa zogadi midgomis dasaTrgunad.

Cven gagvafrTxiles sakmaod didi xnis win: `SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneoba ar aris zogadi literaturaT-

72


mcodneoba~, 106 maT Soris arc van tigemis metad SezRudul

variantSi. es ukanaskneli akeTebs sawinaaRmdego azris citirebas,

moixmobs `literaturis Sesaxeb mecnierebis~ momxreTa

Tvalsazriss: `istoriul meTods ar Seswvs Zala, mecnierulad

Seiswavlos literatura~ (miSel dragomiresku). 107 `literaturis

Seswavlis istoriuli meTodis~ mimarT undobloba

mainc rCeba gadamwyvet momentad. lansonizmma Tavisi

rwmeniT `mecnieruli codnis simtkicisadmi~, Tavisi winaaRmdegobiT

`ganmazogadebeli formulirebis~ gamoyenebis mimarT,

`sarwmunos, utyuaris~ ZiebiT, romelic “sustdeba ganzogadebis

matebis kvalobaze, 108 literaturis kvlevas mxolod

empiriuli, araTeoriuli orientacia misca. aqedan momdinareobs

interesis dakargva an zizRi, viTarebis Sesabamisad,

`spekulaciis” yovelgvari mcdelobis mimarT, Tundac es

exebodes literaturul kategorias, `klasicizmis~, `romantizmis~

cnebebs da a.S. maTTvis momakvdinebeli safrTxe iqneboda

`abstraqciaze, pirobiTobaze an CamonaTvalze gadasvla~

109 da es safrTxe Tavidan unda aecilebinaT, radac ar

unda dajdomodaT. es xmebi, zogjer mbrZanebluri, saerTod

sakmaod sasacilo da saxaliso, odnav CaxleCili, kvlav ismis:

`araviTari nimuSebi, araviTari winaswargaazrebuli ganzogadeba...~

110 vnaxoT, rogori Sedegi mohyva amas...

pirveli da umniSvnelovanesi Sedegi, romelic ganapirobebs

momdevno Sedegebs, aris yovelgvari ganzogadebis wmindad

da martivad akrZalva, radgan ganzogadeba ganixileba,

rogorc komparativistikisTvis SeuZlebeli da SeuTavsebeli

procesi. uari unda vTqvaT `ganzogadebaze~ (sityva yovelTvis

brWyalebSia moqceuli ironiulad), `raTa davubrundeT ufro

Cveulebriv komparativistul saqmianobas~. 111 es aris wminda

da martivi winaaRmdegoba Teoriis nebismieri formisadmi. ma-

Sasadame gamoacxadeben, rom komparativizmi ucxoa literaturis

TeoriisaTvis. `es saSiSi filosofiuri abstraqcia~ aRmoCndeba

`gulubryviloba da Sarlatanoba~. 112 amasTan dakav-

SirebiT etiambls sifrTxilis mSvenieri gakveTili Cautares

mecnieruli principebis dacvis moTxovniT: `komparativistika-

Si yovelTvis ismis kiTxva, SeiZleba Tu ara (WeSmaritad) zogadi

literaturuli eseebis SeTxzva~. aq ar mTavrdeba etiamblis

codvebi: is Zalian midrekilia `sinTezuri kritikisaken~.

aqedan gamomdinareobs Semdegi rCeva: `amjerad unda SevwyvitoT

amgvari ganzogadebani~. cxadia, literaturaTmcodneobis

(SedarebiTis) profesorisTvis (namdvili profesoris-

Tvis) aseTi ganzogadeba seriozulobas moklebuli Cans, 113

73


zemoT aRniSnulis meore Sedegia TavisTavad ganmazogadebeli

bunebis mqone gansazRvrebebis gadaWriT uaryofa an

ukiduresi undobloba maT mimarT. magaliTad, `amao~ iqneboda

romantizmis 114 an literaturis Zireuli principebis gansaz-

Rvra rom gvindodes. `TviT zogadi literaturaTmcodneobis

idea xelovnuria da ufro metad warmoadgens adamianis Teoriul

Sexedulebas vidre grZnobad sinamdviles~. misi ambiciebi

`gadaWarbebulia~. 115 `zepirsityvieri gansazRvrebebis an

Teoriuli konstruqciebis~ 116 ukugdeba, sxvaTa Soris, damaxasiaTebelia

im literatorebisaTvis, vinc ver gascda, an visac

ar surs gascdes materialuri monacemebis stadias an wminda

gankerZoebul aRweras, rac erTaderT miznad aris miCneuli.

ramdenadac yoveli literaturuli azri gulisxmobs

garkveulwilad Sekvecas, saerTo da/an `universaluri~ elementebis

aucilebel gaerTianebas, maTi homogenurobis dadgenas,

Cven aseTi `gaTanabrebis~ winaaRmdeg erTgvari protestis

mowme vxvdebiT. maSasadame, SeuZlebeli iqneboda da ver moviTxovdiT

`yvela saxis zepiri poeziisaTvis gamosadeg ganzogadebaTa

serias~, yvela teqstis, rogorc erTi sxeulis

ganxilvas pindares odebidan dawyebuli, kedlis politikur

warwerebamde. 117 amave dros, miuxedavad yvelafrisa, arc ki

uCndebaT kiTxva, Tu rogor Camoyalibda da ratom iyeneben

iseTi cnebebs, rogoric aris `zepiri poezia~ an `teqsti”,

romelTa gareSec am winadadebebis gaazreba SeuZlebeli iqneboda.

kidev erTxel gaTamaSda pozitivisturi refleqsi: cdidan

gamomdinare Tu vimsjelebT (anu praqtikulad), yovelTvis

iqneba zepiri leqsi an teqsti, romelsac ver moergeba ama Tu

im TvalsazrisiT SerCeuli gansazRvreba, maSin rodesac unda

iyos sruli sizuste mecnieruli kanonebis msgavsad, rac

gamoricxavs gamonakliss da a.S. swored aRniSnul viTarebas

mosdevs meryeoba da sifrTxile, naxevrad miRebuli zomebi

da didi TavSekaveba. zogjer ganzogadeba xdeba literaturuli

`gvarebis~ da `Janrebis” doneze, magram ukan ixeven, Tu

yvela Janris gansazRvreba xdeba saWiro. saubroben literaturuli

nawarmoebis `agebulebaze~, magram ver bedaven mis

gamoyenebas yvela literaturuli nawarmoebis mimarT (araerovnuli,

aRmosavluri da a.S.). es naxtomi `ucnobisaken~, `sicarielisaken~

anaTemas imsaxurebs maTgan (pozitivistebisagan).

maTi azriT, Teoriebi, gansazRvrebebi, ganzogadebani,

rogorc Cans, Zalian arazusti da damyolia, cvalebadia. darwmunebuli

arian, rom `SeTanxmeba advilia bundovani ideebis

fonze~ da nebismieri `universaluri Teoria~, maSasadame, `Teoriulad

naklebad naTeli da naklebad operatiulia~. 118 sam-

74


wuxarod, es ukanaskneli SeniSvna gakeTebulia absoluturad

Teoriul, abstraqtul narkvevSi, romelSic ar gvTavazoben

arc erT konkretul magaliTs! mokled, yvelafers akeTeben

imisaTvis, rom CanasaxSive Caklan yovelgvari Teoriuli azrovneba.

amgvari araspekulaciuri mentalitetiT arasodes Seiqmneboda

aristotelizmi, platonizmi, Tomizmi, hegelianizmi,

marqsizmi! ar iqneboda araviTari xelovnebis Teoria an xelovnebis

zogadi filosofia; didi xania cnobilia, rom mis

safuZvels warmoadgens ars una specie mille. literaturuli Teoriebi

gana `saSineli gammartiveblebis~, `gamanadgurebeli

ganmazogadeblebis~ Seqmnilia? miuxedavad amisa, maTi Teoriebi

ar aris ufro zogadi, vidre mimezisi, forma an arsi, ma-

Tive pirvel Tu meore variantSi. es an unda miiRo, an unda

uaryo. magram, upirveles yovlisa, unda ganisazRvros kvlevis

plani, daisvas kiTxva – seriozuli ganzogadebis romel

doneze mimdinareobs kamaTi. tipologia, morfologia, fenomenologia

(danarCens aRar CamovTvli) nuTu unda gamoiricxos

kanonieri literaturuli azrovnebidan? yvelaferi es gvafiqrebinebs,

rom Tavis poziciebze gamagrebuli pozitivisturi

komparativizmi moqmedebs daxurul sivrceSi, mTlianad izolirebulia

epoqis inteleqtualuri garemosagan, misi azrebis

mimdinareobisa da filosofiuri tendenciebisagan. kidev gavixsenoT

es anbanuri WeSmariteba: sxvadasxva kulturas da literaturis

mTlianobaSi, Tu maT esaWiroebaT zusti istoriuli,

dokumenturi an TviT faqtologiuri kvleva, nebismier SemTxveva-

Si, miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba moklebuli iyvnen sxvadasxva

saxis spekulacias, Teorias da axal meTodologias. pozitivizmis

Sejaxebas komparativizmTan mainc aqvs `erTi damsaxureba~:

aSiSvles mis ganvlil miznebs, mis Secdomebs da saz-

Rvrebs. es aadvilebs kamaTs da sabolood, maT gabaTilebas.

Tu `Teoriis~ dosie aRar aris sakamaTo, zogierTi faqtobrivi

sabuTi kidev moiTxovs Seswavlas. Zalian Zlieri da

dauZlevelic ki rCeba nawarmoebis individualuroba, misi

originaluroba yovelgvari ganzogadebis pirispir. `genia~

mudam `gaugebaria~. esTetikuri emocia yovelTvis `auwerelia~.

miuxedavad amisa, unda SevTanxmdeT: esTetebs, `unikaluris~

Tayvanismcemlebs maincdamainc ar sWirdebaT Teoria, es

maTi uflebaa; magram maTi reaqcia kanonieri da qmediTia

mxolod nawarmoebis pirveladi aRqmis planSi. gulgriloba,

sibrmave, uunaroba, xiblis an Teoriuli kulturis uqonloba

ar gvaZlevs imis uflebas, rom azrovneba, gonebrivi aqtivoba

avukrZaloT vinmes, romlis kanoniereba codnis sxva doneze

ganisazRvreba. TviT b. kroCem, literaturuli nawarmo-

75


ebebisadmi savsebiT individualuri kritikuli midgomis yvelaze

erTgulma momxrem, 119 uyoymanod Seqmna (esTetika, poeziisa

da literaturis Teoria) zedmiwevniT individualuri es-

Tetikuri faqtebis `Teoria~. amgvari midgoma ar uaryofs nawarmoebebis

Taviseburebas, mxolod da mxolod meTodologiurad

moaqcevs mas frCxilebSi analizisa da sinTezis zeindividualur

planSi. Tuki enobrivi sistemis gverdiT arsebobs

individualuri, saubris kerZo aqti – metyveleba, sadac

SeiZleba gadmoices `molaparake individis ersTetikuri aRtyineba~,

120 aris aseve gamorCeuli nawarmoebebi, romlebmac

SeiZleba literaturaTmcodneobis `sistemaSi~ cdomilebebi da

kerZo cvlilebebi gamoiwvion ise, rom sistema ar uaryon. amas

xels ar uSlis `sistemis~ mudmivi Sevseba moulodneli faqtebiT

da misi gansazRvra a posteriori, rogorc Teoriul-mecnieruli

abstraqciisa. Tu RmerTi, rogorc ityvian, aris detaleb-

Si, is, agreTve, aucileblad aris did gaerTianebebSic, ansamblebSic.

maSasadame, ar tyuis zogierTi komparativisti, roca

ambobs: `koncentracia (yuradRebis gadatana) unikalurze

logikurad SeuTavsebelia komparativistul meTodTan~. 121 zogierTi

filosofosis azriT: `yvelaferi es gulisxmobs si-

Zulvils, sxvaTa Soris, gacxadebuls, literaturuli klasifikaciebis

mimarT; aqedan modis SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba,

kritikis upiratesad inteleqtualuri forma, pativiscema

mxolod individualuri (kerZo) kritikisadmi, romelic bevrad

ufro sasiamovnoa~. 122 amiT TiTqmis yvelaferia naTqvami.

Zalian xSiria, aseve, braldeba erovnuli gansxvavebebis

ugulvebelyofis, dakninebis, sruliad uaryofis Sesaxeb da

rom es gansxvavebebi Semdeg TviTneburad aris gaerTianebuli

pirobiT sinTezad an zeerovnul Teoriad. maTi azriT, unda

arsebobdes `SeuzRudavi gansxvavebebi~, waruSleli `originaluri

aspeqtebi~, 123 romlebic winaaRmdegobas gauwevs istoriul,

aRwerilobiT Tu ganmazogadebel gaTanabrebas. aravin

uaryofs am erovnul gansxvavebebs, romelTac agreTve aTavseben

frCxilebSi (principulad da meTodologiurad) Teoriuli

damuSavebis procesSi imisaTvis, rom miiRon erTiani suraTi,

sinTezi an unitaruli (erTgvarovani) da mwyobri aRwera.

yvelaferi es SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod `naRebis

moxdis” xerxiT, saerTo elementebis mowesrigebuli nusxiT;

is, vinc gansakuTrebiT dainteresebulia kerZo TaviseburebiT,

Zalauneburad ugulvebelyofs zogads da piriqiT; magram

SeuZlebelia universaluri literaturis arsebobis da

kvlevis winaaRmdegi viyoT im sababiT, rom namdvilad arsebobs

individualuri. es ori mosazreba, faqtobrivad, kargad

76


avsebs erTmaneTs, TanafardobiTia da dialeqtikuri kavSiris

mqone. aqamde asjer iTqva es da isev gaimeoreben amdenjerve.

da mainc, es argumenti nawarmoebebis Seudarebeli originalurobis

momxreTa winaaRmdeg aris mimarTuli; am sakiTxs

ukve SevexeT. es aris saocrad gavrcelebuli mosazreba

ganaTlebuli komparativistebis, pozitivistebis, istorikosebis

wreSi. igi imdenad moCvenebiTia, rom tradiciul komparativistul

praqtikaSi arasodes aqceven `yuradRebas unikalurs~,

ar amJRavneben literaturul gemovnebas. miuxedavad

amisa, Zalian xSiria braldeba, rom panoramuli da universaluri

xedva ar iTvaliswinebs nawarmoebis TviTmyofadobas

da cdilobs mis dafarvas ise, rogorc SeSlilis daSoSminebas

cdiloben xolme misi mdgomareobis dasafaravad. 124 Tu

TiToeuli literatura Seudarebelia Tavis erTobliobaSi

(da is marTlac aris aseTi), aqedan gamomdinare, ar unda arsebobdes

da ver iarsebebs verc SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

da misi Teoria. maT ar eqnebaT sagani. ukeTes Sem-

TxvevaSi, es sagani momwyvdeulia gamouval `krizisSi~. 125 ase-

Ti mZlavri argumentiT SeiZleba kidev erTxel uaryon nebismieri

Teoriis, nebismieri esTetikis, nebismieri literaturis

filosofiis da xelovnebis TiToeuli dargis arsebobis ufleba.

Soridan meti ndobisa da yuradRebis Rirsi, miuxedavad

yvelafrisa, iqnebodnen profesionali kritikosebi, gansxvavebis,

Taviseburebis da inovaciebis namdvili specialistebi.

unikalurobis aficionado (Tayvanismcemeli) ar aris dainteresebuli

arc zogadi TeoriebiT, arc esTetikuri sistemebiT,

magram am ukanasknelma ar unda daiviwyos arc is, rom TiToeuli

literaturuli nawarmoebi, TviT yvelaze originaluri,

aris mxolod tradiciuli da novatoruli elementebis, Sesadarebeli

da Sedarebas dauqvemdebarebeli aspeqtebis usaz-

Rvrod cvalebadi sinTezi, rac dasazustebelia TiToeul

SemTxvevaSi. man ar unda daiviwyos, agreTve, rom komparativizmis

literaturuli Teoria unda moTavsdes, TviT misi mowodebidan

gamomdinare, mxolod SedarebiTis sferoSi.

bolos unda aRvniSnoT Zalian mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi

damokidebuleba im Tezisis momxreebisagan, romlis mixedvi-

Tac `literaturis Teoria aris erTi literaturis Teoria~.

126 patiosnad unda vaRiaroT, rom yovelTvis ase iyo:

Zalian bevr literaturis Teorias hqonda erTi amosavali

wertili da asi procentiT evrocentruli gaxldaT; maSasadame,

is iyo SezRuduli, Zalian mikerZoebuli, arauniversaluri;

magram raRa winsvlaa, Tu ukiduresad evrocentruli

Teoria (samwuxaroa es faqti) Seicvala, ise, rogorc amas qa-

77


dageben wmindad espanur-amerikuli TeoriiT? es niSnavs erTi

ukiduresobis meoreTi Secvals, nebismieri namdvili dialeqtikis

ugulvebelyofas, romelic exeba Semdegi saxis kavSirebs:

mravalferovneba – msgavseba, individualuroba – universaluroba.

es dapirispireba sinamdvileSi wyals asxams

evrocentrizmis wisqvilze, xels uwyobs viwro adgilobriv

interesebs, yvela saxis adgilobriv partikularizms. literaturis

namdvili Teoria, rogorc aRvniSneT xazgasmiT,

sxvaTa Soris, amerikaSi da aseve evropaSi, miznad unda isaxavdes

mxolod zeerovnuli, zeregionaluri, yovelgvar akviatebul

ideologiaze maRla mdgom ganzogadebaTa sistemas. 127

universalurs biZgs aZlevs erTi literatura, magram sabolood

is erT-erTi misi waxnagiT asimilirebuli da integrirebuli

xdeba yvela literaturaSi. es isev yalbi dilemaa,

radgan ganmazogadebel, zogadi midgomis mqone komparativizms,

arc dasawyisSi, arc mogvianebiT, ar dausaxavs miznad

erovnul TaviseburebaTa waSla, aramed is cdilobda `idealuri~

sinTezis miRwevas, romelic gamarTlebulia Tavisi

sakuTari kanonierebiT. anglosaqsuri analitikuri filosofiis,

araTeoriuli, araspekulaciuri da araideologiuri filosofiis

mxridan sawinaaRmdego mosazrebebi sruliad sxva

xasiaTisaa. xelovnebisa da literaturis buneba eurCeba yovelgvar

gansazRvrebas. literaturuli nawarmoebebi amJRavneben

mxolod bundovan `ojaxur saxes~ da odnav miaxloebul

`damTxvevebs~. amitomac SeuZlebelia arsebobdes raime literaturuli

an mxatvruli Teoria. vitgenStaini aRiarebs, rom

arsebobs sabavSvo da sazogadoebrivi TamaSebi da ara TviT

TamaSi. 128 rogorc Cans, yvelaferi gamomdinareobs gansazRvrebis

statusidan da realuri, absoluturi gansazRvrebisa da

fardobiTi, deskrifciuli gansazRvrebis erTmaneTSi aRrevidan.

realuri gansazRvreba moicavs yvela SemTxvevas da gamoricxavs

yvela sawinaaRmdego SemTxvevas, maSin rodesac fardobiTi

gansazRvreba Camoyalibebis procesSia da mxolod istoriuli

procesis nayofs Seesabameba. 129 meore mxriv, Tu yvela

termini `bundovania~ da ar aris logikurad gamarTuli,

araferi krZalavs imas, rom kritikosebma da esTetikosebma,

romlebic ase Tu ise iZulebuli arian Taviseburad gamoiyenon

es terminebi, maqsimalurad daazuston isini SesaZleblobis

mixedviT, maTi kompetenciis da damakavSirebeli sistemis

doneze pirobiTi inteleqtualuri, funqcionaluri, gasagebi

komunikaciis farglebSi.

garda amisa, vin laparakobs da vin wers `logikurad~,

vitgenStainis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT? isev aRmaSfoTebelia

78


(magram mxolod garegnulad) SeniSvna, romlis Tanaxmadac,

nebismier Teorias sWirdeba gasworeba. maSasadame, is mcdaria

im faqtidan gamomdinare, rom TiToeulma nawarmoebma SeiZleba

gamoamJRavnos xelovnebis axali, ucnobi mxare. 130 dae, yvela

gansazRvreba iyos droebiTi, literaturis yoveli Teoria

aucileblad darCes `Ria~, dae, aspeqtebis cvalebadoba

ver eguebodes literaturis gayinul gansazRvrebas 131 – yvelaferi

es kargad cnobilia; magram araferi uSlis xels

operaciebsa da modelebze morgebuli, aRwerilobiTi gansaz-

Rvrebebis Seqmnas, romlebic mudmivad Semowmdeba dokumenturad

da meTodologiurad. es unda gameordes am procesSi

teqstis da epistemologiuri kontrolis mTeli sizustiT.

amjerad davimaxsovroT (zogierTi komparativistis azris

sapirispirod, romlebic mTeli am Teoriul-meTodologiuri

aurzauriT Zalian gaRizianebulebi, qedmaRlurad arideben

Tavs zogad ideebs, meTodologiur sakiTxebs da nanoben

amgvar umniSvnelo rameze energiis daxarjvas im sababiT,

rom saerTod Zalian bevrs laparakoben komparativizmze da

Zalian cotas muSaoben sakuTriv am dargSi 132 ), diax, davimaxsovroT

mxolod es: komparativistuli praqtika arafrad

Rirs, Tu is brmad miyveba dinebas, empiriulad, koWli da ukritikod

miRebuli sqemebiT, zustad gansazRvruli sagnis gareSe

da SemTxveviTi meTodebiT. `komparativizmi~? – keTili!

magram risTvis? gana ucnauri ar aris, rom isini, vinc SiSiT

Sehyurebs literaturis Teorias (da aseTebi bevri arian), xom

mudam iyeneben mTlad abstraqtul sqemebs? ra aris imaze bundovani,

ufro zogadi, vidre zogierTi iseTi termini, rogoricaa

`epoqa~, `periodi~, `mentaloba~ da sxva am tipis terminebi?

amiT imis Tqma rodi gvinda, rom meTodis dasabuTebisas

ar gaviTvaliswinoT misi sazRvrebi, ar vaRiaroT, rom ganzogadeba

yovelTvis met-naklebad mikerZoebuli da nawilobrivia.

arsebobs agreTve riski: zedmet ganzogadebas SeiZleba

mohyves kerZo movlenebis damaxinjeba an maTi saxis Secvla

im ganzraxviT, rom Sesadareblad an homologiuri rigis Sesaqmnelad

vargisi gavxadoT, anda baxtinis msgavsad, TiTqmis

yvelaferSi `karnavali~ davinaxoT da a.S. komparativistul

TeoriaSi bevria cduneba. maT winaaRmdegoba unda gavuwioT,

Tumca es macduri mimzidveloba ar aris ufro Zlieri, vidre

nebismier sxva TeoriaSi, esTetikaSi an sxvagan. arc is unda

dagvaviwydes, rom Teoria ver moicavs yvela kerZo SemTxvevas,

mas Tavisi sakuTari sinTezuri Sinaarsi aqvs. saboloo

angariSiT, Teoria ar aris da arasodes iqneba praqtika an

raime `pragmatika~.

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IV

invariantebi

literaturis Teoria, aris Tu ara is komparativistuli,

yovelTvis Seicavs im elements, romelic erTsa da imave

dros, zogadia da ganmazogadebelic. mas SeiZleba vuwodoT

`invarianti~. es aris (amas qvemoT davinaxavT) Zalian gavrcelebuli

cneba codnisa da kvleva-Ziebisa zogierT dargSi,

magram komparativistikaSi ar aris Tanxmoba am terminis Sesaxeb.

meore mxriv, CvenTvis gasagebia, ramdenad miaxloebiTi da

bundovania es termini, magram imavdroulad myari da `xelovnuri~.

aucilebelia misi `miTis~ gaqarwyleba da misTvis kargi

gansazRvrebis SerCeva. miuxedavad amisa, misi didi operatiuloba

udavoa. nu dagvaviwydeba, rom es termini literaturis

globaluri realobis an realobebis kargi `simboloa~.

es termini Cveni kvlevis perspeqtivis safuZvelia.

1. invariantis gansazRvrebebi

upirveles yovlisa, viwyebT mravalgzis dadasturebuli

dakvirvebiT: mimdinere literaturuli cxovreba, `ukve waki-

Txulis~ SegrZneba (`ukve nanaxis~ msgavsad) aris is, rac `rCeba~,

raRac saerTo `danaleqi~ nawarmoebTa garkveuli raodenobis

wakiTxvis Semdeg (Temebi, tipebi, ideebi, `grZnobebi~ da

a.S.). mravali moazrovne gauocebia (da araerTgzis) literaturuli

damTxvevebis, msgavsebis, gadakveTis da Sesatyvisobis

arsebobas, amitom am movlenas ver vuwodebT ubralo...

damTxvevas. saerTo elementebis (Tundac zedapirulad SemCneuli

elementebis) arseboba literaturul movlenaTa romelime

jgufSi, eWvs ar iwvevs. `invarianti~ swored maT aRsaniSnad

gamogvadgeba.

dakvirvebis ufro maRal da organizebul doneze (magram

isev empiriul da obieqtur doneze) am faqtebs amjerad

hqviaT `gansakuTrebuli da seriozuli analogebi~, `damTxvevebi~,

`Tanamonawileoba~. es terminebi ekuTvnis etiambls, romelic

gaxlavT, albaT, erTaderTi komparativisti, vinc gaiazra

problemis mniSvneloba. 1 nuTu umniSvnelod unda miviCnioT

da gavCumdeT, an arafrad CavagdoT udavo, zogadi xasiaTis

faqtebi, romelTa gameoreba SeiniSneba yvelgan da yvela

literaturaSi? unda gamovricxoT isini `komparativistuli~

amocanebidan? magram ra mizeziT? `damTxveva~, `parale-

80


lizmi~, `saerTo~ elementi, esec xom faqtebia, namdvili faqtebi,

romlebic mxedvelobaSi unda iqnas miRebuli imave pozitivisturi

logikiT? sad movaTavsoT, rogor SemovfargloT

da SeviswavloT es zogadi movlenebi, romlebic aranakleb

obieqturi aRmoCnda? kidev meti: isini miT ufro mniSvnelovania,

ramdenadac aRmoCenilia iseTi kulturis raionebSi,

romelTac ar gaaCniaT kavSiri erTmaneTs Soris (gavlena,

mibaZva, gadmowera), istoriuli kontaqtis armqone evropul

da evropis miRma mdebare zonebSi.

maSasadame, amosavali wertili aris Zalian zogadi faqti,

romelic yvelaze ufro gavrcelebulia: enebs, nawarmoebebs,

literaturul mimdinareobebs Soris arsebobs msgavseba,

paralelizmebi, analogiebi, “saerTo xasiaTebi”, “saerTo

faqtorebi”. maT aqvT “stereotipebi”. 2 rogorc Cans, komparativistuli

Tu arakomparativistuli analizi Seexo maT, dRis

sinaTleze gamoitana, magram es saqme bolomde arasodes misula.

SegviZlia, Zalian mokled, axlave ganvsazRvroT invarianti,

rogorc literaturis da literaturuli azrovnebis

universaluri elementi, rogorc literaturuli diskursis

an literaturuli azrovnebis `xasiaTi~, `saerTo~ elementi

an niSani. swored aqedan gamomdinare aris es saerTo Semadgeneli

nawili stabiluri, mudmivi faqtori, is aris `yvela

drois~ 3 mudmivmoqmedi faqtori, romelic amave dros, droebi-

Tia da yvelgan SeiZleba misi Semowmeba _ maSasadame, geografiulad

universaluria: `...Tu SemiZlia XVIII saukunis evropuli

preromantizmis yvela Tema naTeli gavxado qristianobamdeli

pirveli Cinuri da qristianobis pirveli Tormeti saukunis

poeziis citirebiT, maSin, cxadia, arsebobs formebi,

Janrebi, invariantebi~. 4 etiambls miaCnia, rom kvleva unda warimarTos

`yvela qveyanaSi~, `yvela civilizaciaSi~, 5 yvela

drosa da tradiciaSi. amgvarad, invariantebi gvevlineba erTdroulad

universalurobis meTodologiur da `istoriul~

formebad. es aris universaluri literaturis Semadgeneli

saerTo, ucvleli, stabiluri da Seqcevadi, maSasadame, mudmivi

elementi. vinc waikiTxavs, magaliTad, evropuli literaturis

istorias, Semdeg afrikuli literaturis istorias,

Cinuri literaturis istorias da a.S. dainaxavs, rom `literaturuli

problemebi~, ZiriTadad, yvelgan erTnairia.

davazustoT, agreTve, rom invariantebi qmnian mxolod

infrastruqturas, ZiriTad sqemas mravaldoniani da mravaletapiani

Teoriuli ganmazogadebeli procesisaTvis, romlis

mizania literaturis universaluri kategoriis an kategoriebis

obieqturad Semotana. is aris mxolod eskizi, diagrama,

81


gansxeulebuli abstraqcia, romlis meqanizmia mudmivi gafar-

Toeba. igi TviTon aris ganzogadebis nayofi da zogadis mawarmoebelic,

yvelaferi erTad. es aris ganzogadebis procesis

Sedegi da progresuli fazebis mqone ganzogadebis sawyisi

wertili. Cveni azriT, es mdgomareoba gadamwyvetia: invarianti

miRebulia garkveuli ganzogadebis saSualebiT da igi

avtomaturad gardaiqmneba hipoTezad da yovelgvari momavali

ganzogadebis berketad. ganzogadeba, romelic xorcieldeba

da mowmdeba invariantebis saSualebiT, am maRalnayofieri

komparativistuli berketis saSualebiT xdeba qmediTi, rogorc

qveda aseve zeda safexurze. invarianti, amave dros, is

adgilia, sadac literaturuli ganzogadeba da, sabolood,

literaturis `koncentracia~ xdeba da ris saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia

literaturis aRqma da gansazRvra.

2. invariantebi da literaturis Teoria

`invariantis~ koncepts, romelsac yvelgan Semoaqvs nebismieri

literaturuli struqturisa Tu gansazRvrebis stabilurobisa

da mudmivobis elementi (an elementebi), misi Taviseburebebis

gamo, SeuZlia safuZveli Cauyaros `literaturis

Teorias~. rogorc aRvniSneT, 6 is ar aris mxolod romelime

Teoriis nayofi, aramed aris agreTve TviTmwarmoebluri

qmedebis Sedegi. wina fazaSi, romelic Seesabameba komparativistuli

azrovnebis evolucias, `zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba...

gulisxmobs literaturebis universaluri istoriidan

konstantebis, anu invariantebis (rogoricaa swored

romantizmi, klasicizmi, baroko, ritorika, preciozuloba)

mcire raodenobis gamoyofas an Janrebis Teoriis gamoyofas:

rogori iqneboda, magaliTad, saerTo faqtorebi, romelTa

gamocalkeveba SeiZleba faraonis TeatrSi, berZnul tragediaSi,

frangul Sua saukuneebis misteriebSi, espaneTis autos

sacramentales-Si da a.S.~ 7

amave dros, Tu invariants aqvs universaluri genezisi

da realoba, SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba zogad literaturaTmcodneobasTan

gaTanabrebis Sedegad, mowodebulia

gaxdes `teqnika~ anu `meTodi~, romelsac universaluri literaturis

farglebSi da misi istoriis safuZvelze, unari Seswevs

moxazos da gansazRvros literaturis Teoria (universaluri),

ganzogadebis erTi da imave procesis sami stadia. es

aris gza, romelic sabolood midis `SedarebiT poetikamde~:

`im bednier dRes, rodesac literaturebis komparativistuli

82


Seswavla (...) saSualebas mogvcems gamovyoT yvela elementi,

romelic nebismieri literaturisTvis saerTo faqtors warmoadgens,

yvela literaturaSi, yvela JanrisTvis SevqmniT utyuar,

udavo ritorikas~. amiT Cven vambobT, rom SedarebiTi

poetika, romelSic `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba~ aucileblad

gadaizrdeba, ZiriTadad, `invariantebis sistemisgan~

Sedgeba. 8 misi daniSnulebaa literaturis aRwerilobiT-fenomenologiuri

gansazRvrebis Semotana. es operacia unda dasruldes

obieqturi literaturuli ritorikisa da poetikis

SeqmniT.

amgvarad gaazrebuli invarianti gadaiqceva saerTo da

ZiriTad literaturul elementad, romelzedac SesaZlebeli

da aucilebeli iqneba literaturis “namdvili” Teoriis ageba,

sistemad Camoyalibeba da damtkiceba. invarianti gulisxmobs

ase gadasinjuli SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

ganzogadebis unaris bolomde gamovlinebas, raTa mTlianad

Sekribos gabneuli literaturuli cnebebi, rac man SeiZina

ganviTarebis gzaze. moaxdinos maTi integrireba globalur

ganzogadebaSi da amgvarad miaRwios mwyobr literaturis Teoriamde.

amis gansaxorcieleblad SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

mkveTrad unda Semobrundes Teoriisaken da SedarebiTi

invariantuloba gadaaqcios literaturis SedarebiT

`invariantul~ Teoriad.

tradiciuli an modernizebuli (struqturalisturi, semiologiuri

da a.S.) tipis pozitivizmma, nawarmoebisa da literaturuli

movlenebis erTobliobisadmi istoriulma da

zogadad pragmatulma midgomam daabnela (rom ar vTqvaT

mTlad waSalao) literaturis `universalisturi~ suraTebi.

amgvari suraTebi, Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, gulisxmobs

piriqiT, Teoriul aRmafrenas, `universalur~ gamaerTianebel,

struqturul abstraqtul xedvas; mokled, literaturul azrovnebas,

romelic erTdroulad universaluric aris da universalisturic.

universaluri, rogorc fenomeni, qmnis

abstraqtul stabilur da antiistoriul `danaleqs~ yvelgan,

sadac gamoyenebulia es Tvalsazrisi, romelic miiswrafis

mwyobri erTobisaken da warmoadgens epistemologiur kriteriums.

sabolood, invarianti damatebiT moiTxovs imis gansazRvras

da TvalsaCinod Cvenebas, rac mudmivia, ZiriTadia,

universaluria literaturaSi. es aris Teoriuli komparativizmis

mTavari elementi anu gasaRebi.

am perspeqtiviT invarianti gadaiqceva ZiriTad saSualebad,

romliTac literatura universaluris, rogorc fenomenis

nawili xdeba. invarianti misi berketi iqneba yvela saer-

83


To elementisTvis universaluri mniSvnelobis misaniWeblad.

invarianti ar moicavs yvela SesaZlebel da savaraudo kerZo

SemTxvevas, aramed yvela iseT kerZo SemTxvevas, romlis `universalurad

gadaqceva~ SesaZlebelia. rogorc cnobilia, invarianti,

Tavisi bunebiT, statistikuria (am sakiTxs davubrundebiT),

magram misi gamoyenebis wesi aris universaluri,

radgan mis mier marTuli sfero mTlianad moicavs literaturul

sinamdviles. invariantebi ufro xSirad dakavSirebulia

SemosazRvrul zonasTan, magram isini yovlTvis gaazrebulia

sub specie universalitatis, maSasadame, aqvs universaluri daniSnuleba

da mniSvneloba.

mTeli es xaraCoebi imisTvis aRvmarTeT, rom literatura

warmogvedgina rogorc universaluri movlena. es faqti

unda gaxdes xelmosaWidi, unda ganisazRvros da damtkicdes.

amasTanave, literaturis gaazreba universalur movlenad _

niSnavs am TvalsazrisisaTvis saerTo elementebis mTeli er-

Tobliobis daqvemdebarebas, romlebsac vxvdebiT literaturebis

gacnobisas drosa da sivrceSi. es niSnavs gezis aRebas

pirdapir ZiriTadisaken: es aris invariantebis mier mowodebuli

monacemebis erTobliobis ganzogadeba universaluri

literaturis, rogorc globaluri da unitaruli movlenis

gaTvaliswinebiT. mxolod im variantebis mikvlevas SeuZlia

mogvces efeqturad da obieqturad universaluri literaturis

koncepti da, imavdroulad, yvela literaturas gauCinos

Sansi, monawileobdes am erTobaSi, `invariantuli~ Tanasworobis

safuZvelze.

amgvarad, mizani mimarTulia TviT literaturis arsis

gagebisaken. `saerTo Tvisebebis~ arseboba gansazRvravs, sxva

momentebs Soris, Janris struqturas da arss, mis mTavar Tvisebas

da ufro Sors Tu wavalT, TviT literaturis Taviseburebas.

ase rom, etiambli (rogorc tipobrivi nimuSi), romelmac

airCia es perspeqtiva, saubrobs `romanis Janris invariantebze~,

riTac amovicnobT `romanis Tvisebebs~ an imas,

rac `ekuTvnis sakuTriv epopeas~. saqme exeba imis `saerTo

faqtorad warmoCenas, rac ekuTvnis sakuTriv epoepas vergiliusis,

homerosis, lukianes, kamoensis, tasos, miltonis, don

alonso de ersilas da sxvaTa poeziis mixedviT~, 9 rogorc es

gaakeTa volterma, met-naklebad, Tavis naSromSi `ese epikuri

poeziis Sesaxeb~. meore mxriv, SeiZleba vikiTxoT (isev amave

azriT), `arsebobs Tu ara raRac, rasac samarTlianad SeiZleba

mieces lirikis kvalifikacia; Tu arsebobs, rogori iqneboda

misi ZiriTadi niSnebi da Tu SesaZlebelia, invariante-

84


ic~. igive SekiTxva unda daisvas haikus, malaiziuri pantunis

10 damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis Sesaxeb da a.S.

invariantis ontologiuri statusi saboloo angariSiT

gadawyvetda komparativistuli poetikis safuZvlebis orazrovnebas.

invarianti metia, vidre erTi specifikuri niSani,

vidre erTi damaxasiaTebeli elementi. mas SeuZlia gamoxatos

romelime Janris, romelime literaturis, zogadad, literaturis

TviT arsi. kidev meti, invarianti yofierebis garantia.

`Tu arsebobs formebi, Janrebi, invariantebi, maSasadame, arsebobs

adamiani da literatura~. 11 invarianti aris nebismieri

sagnis, maT Soris literaturis ucvleli, Tanaziari elementi:

rac aris `zustad” mimdinareoba, an is, rac `namdvilad

ekuTvnis saxeobas~. 12 literaturuli Janrebi aRar aris miCneuli

oden taqsonomiur (klasifikaciis) saSualebad, aramed,

agreTve, obieqtur realobad, organul sinamdviledac ki iTvleba,

rogorc myari `eleuri~ struqturebi. sakiTxisadmi

aseT midgomaSi, romelic xelaxla Camoyalibda `arqetipebi-

Ta~ da `konstantebiT~ dainteresebuli esTetikosebisa da filosofosebis

damokidebulebis safuZvelze (igive sakiTxi

awuxebs agreTve yvela fenomenologs), ueWvelad aris, ase

vTqvaT, `platonuri~ azrovnebis bunebrivi, Canasaxiseburi

safuZveli.

Cven SegviZlia SevafasoT grosso modo es midgoma, rogorc

`eideturi~ (abstraqtuli) da `fenomenologiuri~: arsebiTisaken

mimarTuli, TavisTavad SezRuduli da sqematuri aRwera,

romlis mniSvneloba imanenturia teqstebisa da literaturuli

struqturebis garkveuli kategoriebisaTvis da maTTan

erTad aris mocemuli. miuxedavad amisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

is, agreTve, `aucilebelia~, radgan invarianti samudamo, gardauvali

da `savaldebuloa~. is aris ganxiluli faqtis sine

que non. es pirobiToba, Tavis mxriv, aris mudmivi da universaluri

faqti: `am gagebiT, _ ambobs etiambli, _ SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

imdenad nayofieri mainc aris, rom imis

aRmoCenis saSualebas iZleva, rasac me literaturul invariantebs

vuwodeb; es aris pirobebi, romelTa gareSe, sadac da

romel droSic ar unda iyos, ar arsebobs namdvili forma~. 13

ufskruli, romelic tradiciul komparativitikas aSorebs

SedarebiTi poetikisagan, swored am gamaerTianebel, universalur,

`esencialistur~ perspeqtivaSi mdgomareobs.

didi Secdoma iqneboda, rom `Teoriis naRebis~ amgvari

moxda istoriuli perspeqtivis gakritikebas an pirwmindad da

martivad uaryofas niSnavdes. invariantis winaaRmdeg tradiciuli

da kargad cnobili braldeba swored aqedan gamomdi-

85


nareobs: igi dagmobilia, rogorc gaqvavebuli, statikuri, antiistoriuli

elementi, rogorc akviatebuli iluzia da a.S.

sinamdvileSi saqme exeba or radikalurad gansxvavebul midgomas,

romelTagan TiToeuls Tavisi gamarTleba aqvs. istoriuli

Tvalsazrisi, romlis kanoniereba ar SeiZleba dadges

kiTxvis niSnis qveS, ar aris erTaderTi SesaZlebeli, misaRebi

da sasargeblo midgoma komparativistikaSi da metadre

`SedarebiT poetikaSi~. mas Tavisuflad SeuZlia `Tanaarseboba~

nebismier `statikur~ perspeqtivasTan. oRond amisaTvis

naTlad unda ganisazRvros am or termins Soris rogorc dapirispirebis

xasiaTi, aseve maT Soris kavSiri – arsi/istoria,

rac gaaqarwylebs dapirispirebas.

ra aris invarianti, Tu ara fenomenologiuri da istoriuli

planebis Tanxvedra? es niSnavs, rom is amodis ormagi

struqturidan: mudmivi da gardamavali struqturidan, rogorc

Tanamedroveoba _ bodleris mixedviT: `...xelovneba Tavisi

erTi naxevriT gardamavali, wamieri da SemTxveviTia, meore

naxevari ki – maradiuli da myari~. 14 invarianti aris mudmivisa

da cvalebadis, ZiriTadisa da istoriuli SemTxvevi-

Tobis mravalferovani sinTezi. ganvixiloT romanis Janris

invariantebi, romlebic swored am perspeqtivaSia gansazRvruli.

erTi mxriv, saqme exeba `elementebs, romelTa gareSe ar

arsebobs romani; meore mxriv, Janris im Tvisebebs, romlebic

met-naklebad nebismierad momdinareobs istoriuli SemTxvevebidan~.

an kidev, literaturuli formebis Taobaze vimsjeloT:

`unda SegveZlos im nawilis gamoyofa, romlis saerTo

faqtors warmoadgens mocemuli formis an Janris yvela nairsaxeobisaTvis

da romelic, garkveulwilad, mas gansazRvravs

mkacrad; meore nawili ki icvleba xan enobrivi garemos Sesabamisad,

xan istoriuli SemTxveviTobis mixedviT~. 15 maSasadame,

invarianti saSualebas gvaZlevs, istoriis zRvasaviT uxv

moqcevaSi gamovyoT patara kunZulebi, literaturis istoriis

faqtebiT moqargul qsovilSi gamovWraT struqturebi da

formebi, romlebic dakvirvebis am doneze ar icvlebian.

kavSiri, romelic arsebobs calkeul nawarmoebsa (romelic

gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad, cvalebadia) da ucvlels, rogorc

movlenas, anu invariantebs Soris, gvexmareba problemis

arsis gagebaSi. oridan erTi unda iyos: an literaturuli

nawarmoebi, aRiarebuli da gansazRvruli, rogorc originaluri,

Sedarebas ar eqvemdebareba, maSasadame, ar gaaCnia

arc erTi ZiriTadi, gansazRvrebas daqvemdebarebuli da saer-

To elementi sxva nawarmoebebTan mimarTebiT; an kidev igi moicavs

saerTo elementebis garkveul raodenobas, romelTa

86


gansazRvra SesaZlebelia: am SemTxvevaSi nawarmoebi, TavisTavad,

ase Tu ise, dakavSirebulia invariantebis reJimTan. nawarmoebi

an erTaderTi da ganumeorebelia, an is “meordeba”

sxvadasxva doneze da rogorc inconstantia constans-is fenomeni,

gzas uxsnis Sedarebebs, daaxloebas, msgavsebis dadgenas _

maSasadame, invariantebs.

Tu literaturuli nawarmoebidan ar qmnian sruli avtonomiurobis

koncefcias, romelic mistikas emsgavseba, unda

vaRiaroT yovel literaturul struqturaSi ucvlelisa da

cvalebadis, gansxvavebisa da msgavsebis, erTianobisa da erTferovnebis,

siaxlisa da stabilurobis dialeqtika, unda davinaxoT

usasrulod cvalebadi proporciis ori veqtori. araerTxel

uTqvamT: `poeturi enisTvis mudmivi ideali aris mudmivi

cvlileba~. 16 es norma gamosadegia mTeli literaturisaTvis.

garda amisa, mxolod invariantuli elementebis arseboba

iZleva variaciebis aRmoCenis saSualebas, e.i. siaxlis,

gansxvavebis koeficientis amocnobis saSualebas invariantTa

mimarTebiT, ramdenadac mimarTeba: invarianti/varianti qmedi-

Tia mxolod am sqemis doneze. 17 es xom davadgineT, axla mokled

CamovayaliboT invariantis saboloo mizani: igi qmnis

kvlevis wess ise, rom ar uaryofs cvalebadi elementebis arsebobas,

asaxavs, meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT Tu vityviT,

mxolod identurobas da msgavsebas, nawarmoebis mxolod saerTo

elementebs. misi sfero moicavs yvelafers, riTac SeiZleba

aixsnas Sedareba (faqtobrivi da metadre arafaqtobrivi),

analogiebi, paralelebi da bolos yvela `ganzogadeba~,

rac literaturul nawarmoebze axdens gavlenas.

amgvarad, invarianti aRmoCnda gadabmis, gadakveTisa da

Tanxvedris wertili nawarmoebis ori Tu mravali donisa da

misi struqturuli identobisa. invarianti asaxavs mxolod Zalian

erTgvarovan faqtebs, garegan Tu Sinagan msgavsebas,

mravalricxovans Tu piriqiT. mouwesrigebel realobaSi, ukidures

literaturul mravalferovnebaSi mas Semoaqvs garkveuli

wesrigis principi, namdvili tipobrivi ganawesi. invariantebis

komparativizmi zogadisa da universalurisaken mimar-

Tuli TvalTaxedvis anareklia da ara kerZosi da individualurisa,

Tumca axdens am gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisebis korelacias.

meore mxriv, savsebiT SesaZlebelia, universaluri

gaviazroT individualuris saSualebiT. arsebobs konkretuli

universaluroba, amdenad, mxolod erTi leqsis wakiTxvi-

Tac SeiZleba CavwvdeT poeziis (universalur) arss. maSasadame,

mcdaria braldeba invariantebis mkvlevarTa mimarT, TiTqosda

isini eZeben mxolod analogiebs sruliad sxvadasxva

87


cis qveS~, 18 eZeben identurobas da saerTo faqtebs, erTi sityviT,

invariantebs, maSin rodesac sinamdvileSi isini programis

mixedviT, miznad isaxaven specifikuri xasiaTis faqtebis

aRmoCenas. ra Tqma unda, am kategoriul braldebas Tu davujerebT,

konstantebis Seswavla ugulvebelyofs (ufro sworad,

TiTqosda ugulvebelyofs, wmindad meTodologiuri miznebiT)

maT `kerZo gamoyenebas~. oponentebi amboben, rom aTasobiT

formaa dayvanili mxolod erT `formamde~, aTasobiT

Sinaarsi – mxolod erT `Sinaarsamde~. 19 amas aqvs Tavisi safuZveli,

es gamokvlevebi moicavs (`esTetikosis~ an `poetikosis~

da ara literaturis `istorikosis~ suliskveTebidan gamomdinare)

mxolod im sferos, romelic scildeba kerZo movlenis

farglebs. maSasadame, ar SegviZlia maTi dadanaSauleba

nawarmoebis organuli da individualuri erTianobis dar-

RvevaSi, ugulvebelyofaSi an aTvalwunebaSi, ramdenadac isini

Tavidanve mtkiced dganan sul sxva safuZvelze. es ukanaskneli

an unda avirCioT an uari unda vTqvaT masze. magram Tu

daveyrdnobiT am safuZvels, zemoT moxmobili mizezebis gamo,

maSin sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebebi `organizmis~ unikaluri da

ganumeorebeli literaturuli faqtis dasacavad azrs moklebuli

iqneba. Cven ar gvinda im literaturuli ideebis kritikis

sagnad qceva, saidanac momdinareobs invariantebi. im kriteriumebisa

da kategoriebis gadmotana, romlebic ekuTvnis

sakuTriv literaturul teqstebs, aseTebi zemoT davimowmeT.

Tuki invarianti, zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, amave

dros aris recidivuli, wriuli, `mudam ganmeorebadi~ literaturuli

faqti, 20 maSin pozitivisturi istoriuli midgoma

xelaxla uaryofilia ZiriTad punqtSi. tradiciuli qronologiuri

Tanmimdevroba aRar aris mxedvelobaSi misaRebi,

radgan invariantebi meordeba. invariantebi gamodian arenaze

da Zirs dascemen prioritetebs, klasifikacias, istoriul

ierarqias. iseTi cnebebi, rogoricaa pre, neo, post, romlebic

momdinareobs aseve invariantebis struqturidan, kargaven sizustes.

am dros ucnobi winamorbedebi SeiZleba gamoCndnen

nebismieri mxridan. rac Seexeba komparativist poetikoss, is

uars ar ityvis amgvar aRmoCenebze. imasac ityodiT, Tavs iwonebs

amiTo, midis ucnob winamorbedebze sanadirod im rwmeniT

da surviliT, rom ipovos axal invariantebs da erTi

dartymiT or saqmes gaakeTebs da, imavdroulad, safuZvels

gamoaclis CamorCenil komparativizms, `romelic faqtobriv

kavSirebs eyrdnoba~.

tradiciuli mudmivi da elementaruli kavSiri – Zveli/

axali 21 _ xels uwyobs invariantebs. Tu TiToeuli nawarmo-

88


ebi, TviT yvelaze gankerZoebuli, yvelaze `originaluri~, sinamdvileSi

mxolod amsxvrevs da xelaxla gadaadnobs Zvel

wess (sazogadod, am `aRmoCenas~ formalistebs miaweren, magram

is ufro Zvelia da ufro ganzogadebuli), invarianti,

faqtobrivad, mxolod miyveba uwyveti, misaRebi tradiciis

jaWvs da saTanado sicxades aniWebs mas. yoveli literaturuli

evolucia mimdinareobs axlis dakanonebis mizniT, es

winaswar igrZno Cinuri klasicizmis Teoretikosma liu qsim

(Zv. w. 522-465 w.w.). 22 Tu varianti aris `axali~ an `originaluri~,

invarianti ki – `Zveli~, ramdenadac es ukanaskneli sistematurad

mimarTulia tradiciisaken, amiT savsebiT emsaxureba

literaturis mudmivi elementebis gamovlinebas da, imavdroulad,

inarCunebs nawarmoebebis esTetikur da kerZo Taviseburebas.

es ukanaskneli Tvisebebi, ubralod, frCxilebSia

moTavsebuli demonstrirebis dros. saqme exeba kanonier arCevans

Zireuli mimarTebis mxareebs Soris: axali nacnobi, wesrigi/SemTxveviToba,

organizacia/deformacia, tradicia/inovacia.

invarianti aris `ConCxi~, nawarmoebis struqtura an misi

`ZarRvebi~; varianti aris maTi specifikuri dajgufeba, `originali~.

literaturis Teoria aigeba mxolod saerTo da stabiluri

elementebis safuZvelze.

nuTu savsebiT ucxoa es dakvirvebebi tradiciuli komparativizmisaTvis?

ara, radgan am magaliTs nebismierad vimowmebT:

jer kidev brunetieri amCnevda, rom “araviTari gamogoneba

ar aris namdvili gamogoneba”, 23 terminis zusti mniSvnelobiT

_ arafrisagan Seqmna, ex nihilo da a.S. Tu ne-bismier Sem-

TxvevaSi arsebobda mudmivi Temebi, maSin invariantebis Zieba

kanonieria da aucilebeli am ubralo faqtis gamo. es dakvirveba

imisTvis gavimeoreT, rom dagvemtkicebina tradiciul

komparativistikaSi mudmivi elementebis, tipologiuri konstantebis,

sxvadasxva literaturuli stilis (maTTan mimarTebaSi

inovaciebi `cvladebis~ saxes Rebuloben) arseboba, magram

amas ar mosdevs araviTari Rrma Teoriuli Canafiqri. 24

kidev erTxel vxedavT, rom aris mxolod sarwmuno, obieqturad

dadasturebuli faqtebi da sxva araferi.

3. winamorbedebi

miuxedavad amisa, mdgomareoba ufro sasikeToa, vidre es

erTi SexedviT Cans. zogierTi Tanamedrove komparativisti sakmaod

keTilganwyobilia `invariantebis~ Teoriis mimarT, komparativistuli

azrovnebis, SeiZleba iTqvas, bunebrivi gagrZelebis

mimarT, rogoradac Cven is ganvsazRvreT. TviT cneba

89


`invarianti~, zustad rom vTqvaT, axal komparativistul azrovnebaSi

sakmaod miRebulia an expressis verbis-iT an sinonimebiT,

roca is SefarviT aris naxmari da mxolod igulisxmeba.

unda mivaweroT Tu ara etiambls termin `invarianti~-s

mudmivi da Sesabamisi xmareba komparativistikaSi misi naSromis

_ `Sedareba ar aris mizezi~ 25 pirveli versiis gamoqveynebis

Semdeg? am terminis xmarebis SemTxvevebi, romelTa moZebnac

SevZeliT, yovel SemTxvevaSi, naSromis gamoqveynebis momdevno

periods ekuTvnis. etiamblis msgavsad, danarCenebic

aRiareben `mniSvnelobas, romelic zogadad eniWeba paralelizmebs,

azris, formis Sedarebas universaluri literaturis

farglebSi yovelgvari sagrZnobi istoriuli gavlenis

gareSe, imgvarad, rom aRmoaCinon literaturuli invariantebi,

mTeli kacobriobisTvis saerTo mxatvruli tipebi da

arqetipebi~ 26 . am terminis gamoyenebis sxva SemTxvevebic, aseve,

Semdgomi periodisaa. 27

bevrad ufro Zveli, garkveuli tradiciis mqonec ki

aris winamorbedi termini – konstanta, rogorc invariantis

sinonimi da ekvivalenti, rome-lsac, sxvaTa Soris, gasuli

saukunidan iyeneben: `...mravalferovnebasa da cvalebadobaSi

msgavsi elementisa da konstantis Zieba (il conforme e il constante)~.

28 `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis Jurnalis~ redaqciaSi

da sorbonis wreebSi es azri gzas ikafavs gansakuTrebiT

marsel bataionis da bazil munteanos wyalobiT. pirveli

maTgani warmogvidgeba, rogorc sakmaod gavrcelebuli

msoflxedvis macne: `yvela vgrZnobT, rom Cveni azrebi Janrebis

Sesaxeb safuZvlianad moiTxovs konstantebs nebismieri

literaturisTvis~. 29 meore maTgani, romelic win uswrebs

marsel bataions, qmnis konstantebis Teoriis sakmaod damuSavebul

eskizs. igi ganasxvavebs konstantebis Semdeg saxeebs:

`struqturuls~ da `cvalebads~, statikurs da mobilurs, dialeqtikurs,

mdgrads da moqnils, faqtobrivs (egzistencialurs

da metafizikurs), arsobrivs, magram ar aZlevs am

termins mkacr gansazRvrebas. Zieba exeba ufro metad ritorikuli

invariantuli struqturebisa da principebis serias,

magram avtoris, rogorc istorikosis, SiSi xels uSlis mas,

rom sabolood gamoiyenos `universaluri~, rogorc literaturuli

cneba. is am cnebas evropuli ideebis istoriaSi miuCens

adgils. 30 miuxedavad amisa, udavoa am wamowyebis seriozuloba:

iniciativis mecnierulma xasiaTma xeli Seuwyo am

konceptis popularizacias sauniversiteto wreebSi, romlebmac

sabolood miiRes igi: SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba

`gamoyofs literaturuli morfologiis konstantebsa

90


da cvladebs~. 31 am terminis erTgvari empiriuli, `veluri~

xmareba (ama Tu im mimdinareobis `didi konstantebi~ an kidev

`mxatvruli sityvis zogierTi konstanta~) 32 TandaTan ufro

xSiri gaxda. Tandayolili istoriuli midgomis miuxedavad,

arc aRmosavleTis qveynebis komparativizmi eurCeba konstantebis

SemoRebas. aRmosavlur komparativizmSi konstantebis

Seswavla wina planzea wamoweuli bazil munteanos da etiamblis

magaliTze. 33

karga xania, gavrcelebulia saerTo faqtebze dakvirveba,

romlebic invariantis Sinaarss iZenen im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu

Teoriul miznebs ar isaxaven. sxvaTa Soris, komparativizmis

aTvlis wertils warmoadgens rogorc gavlenebis, aseve `dam-

Txvevebis~ arseboba, `azrovnebisa da xelovnebis saerTo da

Tanmimdevruli mdgomareobis~, `mravali literaturis saerTo

faqtebis warmoCena~. 34 nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Sua gzaze Cerdebian,

mxolod CamonaTvalis raodenoba ainteresebT. es gamowveulia,

ubralod, faqtebis siyvaruliT da `universaluri

literaturis~ namdvili perspeqtivis uqonlobiT. rac Seexeba

etiambls, is imeorebs, agrZelebs da ganazogadebs imave me-

Tods. etiambli yuradRebas amaxvilebs, rogorc vTqviT, mxolod

`erTgvarovnebasa da msgavsebaze~, imis aRmoCenaze, rac

saerTo aqvT literaturebs. 35 amiT is miznad isaxavs dafaros

uxerxuli `faqtobrivi kavSirebi~, romlebic ver aRwevs veraviTar

ganzogadebamde, radgan ar gaaCnia araviTari Teoriuli

mniSvneloba.

miuxedavad zemoT aRniSnulisa, fsoni anu komparativistebis

wvlili axal Teoriul azrovnebaSi igive rCeba. komparativistebis

amocana, gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis mixedviT,

aseTia: “gamoikvlion is, rac saerToa dRevandel erovnul

literaturebSi da is, rac damaxasiaTebelia mxolod TiToeuli

maTganisaTvis; yvelaferi es savsebiT sworia, magram

gamovlenili saerTo faqtebi, Tavis mxriv, ar xdeba araviTari

gansxvavebuli azrovnebis, araviTari Teoriuli ganzogadebis

safuZveli. xelaxla Cndeba kiTxva: aba ra saWiroa `saerTosken~

mimarTuli es dakvirveba? unda darCes Tu ara is

wminda istoriuli, aRwerilobiTi da neitraluri xasiaTis?

cxadia, `ZiriTadi Tvisebebi, romlebic saerToa literatura-

Ta erTobliobisaTvis~ (es is WeSmaritebaa, romelsac ukve am-

Cnevs zogierTi bolo komparativistuli programa) mimarTulia

universalurisaken, `umaRlesi literaturuli erTobis,

Weltliteratur-is~ 36 SemuSavebisaken. es ukanaskneli (msoflio literatura)

aucileblad unda `aRvweroT~ da `ganvsazRvroT~,

rac jer ar gakeTebula.

91


didi, naxtomiseburi winsvla ar Cans arc SedarebiT

axal komparativistul teqstebsa da konteqtebSi. zogjer iTvaliswineben

literaturebis `saerTo elementebs~ (common

features), `literaturul kanonzomierebas zogadad~, sxvadasxva

zonis mkiTxvelebis “Seqcevad reaqciebs” da a.S.; 37 magram, rogorc

Cans, saqme ar midis saerTo `horizontalur~ (saerTa-

Soriso) an `vertikalur~ (erovnul) moZraobamde. kerZod, Cven

gvesaxeba am mdgomareobis oTxi sxvadasxva mizezi: 1) `Teoretikosisa~

da `komparativistis~ mkacri da sruli gamijvna er-

TmaneTisagan, rac wmindad pragmatuli xasiaTisaa; aseTi da-

Soreba SeimCneva imaT Sorisac ki, visac savsebiT Segnebuli

aqvs `ganzogadebis~ mniSvneloba; 38 2) gulgriloba nebismieri

samuSao hipoTezisadmi, literaturis nebismieri aRiarebuli

da universalisturi konceptisadmi; 3) ritorikis tradicia,

Tu mas SevxedavT invariantebze dayrdnobiT, Semobrunebulia

mxolod `universaluri kanonebisaken~. 39 4) “zogadi literaturaTmcodneoba~,

romelic moicavs `invariantebis aspeqtebs~, 40

(es Tviseba mas yovelTvis axasiaTebs), verasodes axerxebs

maT sinTezs. Zireuli kavSiri Teorias, kritikasa da komparativistul

Tu arakomparativistul literaturul istorias

Soris xelaxla gviCvenebs am problemis WeSmariti gadawyvetis

gzas.

mosazrebebi SeiZleba modiodes, agreTve, momijnave disciplinebis

mxridan, romlebic dakavSirebuli arian msgavsi

xasiaTis `invariantebTan~. esTetika, Tavis mxriv, warmoSobidanve

iyenebs mudmiv da transistoriul gansazRvrebebs, naTesaobis

Tu identurobis cnebebs STagonebis, formis da stilis

TvalsazrisiT sxvadasxva kulturaSi. es perspeqtiva

Cndeba isev, mas icaven da Teoriad gardaqmnian. 41 amasTan dakavSirebiT

Cven mo-vixmeT etiamblis dakvirvebebi. imavdroulad

da zustad am azriT, roJe kaiua laparakobda `poeziis

ucvlel da sayovelTao Tvisebebze~, radgan `miuxedavad yvelafrisa,

homerossa da malarmes Soris arsebobs raRac saerTo~.42

es `saerTo raRac~ aris swored poeturi invarianti.

`SedarebiTi poetika~ jer kidev Sesaqmnelia. `komparativistuli

esTetika~, romelmac win gauswro mas, dainteresebulia

agreTve identuri, e.w. permanentuli TvisebebiT, 43 saerTo

struqturebis kavSiriT. amasTan, es struqturebi Secvlilia

iseTi elementebiT, romelTa `invariantuloba~ eWvs ar unda

iwvevdes.

Tanamedrove poetika, Tavis mxriv, gverds ver auvlis am

termins an mis ekvivalentebs, romelTac is sakmaod farTod

iyenebs. roman iakobsonTan, magaliTad, `konstanta~ da `inva-

92


ianti~ erTmaneTs cvlis. maTi mniSvneloba aseTia: `aucilebeli

Semadgeneli nawilebi~, erTi nawarmoebis an erTi avtoris

yvela nawarmoebis `mudmivi principebi~, `invariantebisa~

da `cvladebis nazavi~. 44 maSasadame, romans eqneba Tavisi `ZiriTadi

struqturuli Taviseburebani~, 45 anu Tavisi invariantebi,

iseve rogorc poeturi enis struqtura: `yvela poetis

enaSi arsebobs invarianti, romelic SenarCunebulia individualur

variaciebSi~. 46 es dakvirveba SeiZleba gavrceldes

literaturuli diskursebis erTobliobaze. Tavdapirvelad

movixmoT citata Jerar Jenetis mixedviT: `dasaSvebad mimaCnia,

marTlac, antiistoriuli an, ufro sworad, transistoriuli

konstantebis arseboba, fardobiTi arseboba mainc, ara marto

gamoTqmis saSualebebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed, agreTve, ramdenime

didi Tematuri kategoriis TvalsazrisiT, rogoric

aris gmirulis, sentimentaluris, komikuris kategoria da

a.S.~ 47 es mosazrebebi Tavisuflad SeiZleba Seerwyas SedarebiT

poetikas.

aviRoT msgavsi magaliTi Tanamedrove enaTmecnierebidan,

romelic aseve Teoriulad xsnis `invariantis arsebobas variaciaSi~

(invariant in variation) enaTa tipologiasTan dakavSirebiT.

48 lingvistur leqsikonebSi es cneba gaigivebulia `im

elementebTan, romlebic cvladebisagan gansxvavebiT, mudmivad

arseboben (an romelTac miiCneven mudmivad); ufro farTo

mniSvnelobiT aq invarianti ganmasxvavebeli anu permanentuli

niSnebis tolfasia, romlebic sxvadasxvanairad aris kombinirebuli

enaSi arsebuli ocdaaTiode fonemis saSualebiT~. 49

TiToeuli ZiriTadi fonema aris ZiriTadi forma anu `xmovani~

invarianti. iseTi movlenebi, rogoric aris izoglosebi,

izomorfizmebi, izotopiebi da a.S., imavdroulad warmoadgenen

`invariantebs~ da maTi meTodologiuri Rirebuleba ukve

gamocdilia. Zalian farTo mniSvnelobiT, mTeli poeziis yvelaze

ufro invariantuli elementi aris misi instrumenti da

TviT misi enobrivi garemo.

aqedan gamomdinare, invarianti SeiZleba iyos da unda

iyos kidec gaazrebuli agreTve rogorc universaluri kategoria.

amgvari asimilacia gamarTlebulia, yovel SemTxvevaSi,

logikurad mainc. SemTxveviTobis gamoricxva da identuriT

dakmayofileba, rasac gulisxmobs yovelgvari ganzogadeba da

yovelgvari konstanta, romlebic gadmocemulia yvela logikuri

klasis, erTi saxeobis Tu mTeli gvaris yvela gamovlinebis

amsaxveli terminebiT, safuZvlianad akavSirebs invariants

universaluri kategoriebis problemasTan. aseTi kavSiri

ukve ganxorcielebulia anTropologiasa da kulturis Te-

93


oriaSi, 50 morfologiasa da religiaTa istoriaSi. 51 gansakuTrebiT

lingvistikaSi, iakobsonisa da Comskis wyalobiT, metyvelebis

universaluri kategoriebis Teoria sargeblobs ara

marto mxardaWeriT, aramed didi aRiarebiT. pirveli maTgani

fonemebs ganixilavs, rogorc birTvuli fizikis `elementaruli

nawilakebis~ msgavs universalur erTeulebs da qmnis

`universaluri~ da `naxevrad universaluri~ kategoriebis Teorias

yvelaze ufro maRali statistikuri albaTobis safuZvelze.

52 meore maTganis azriT, arsebobs garkveuli fonologiuri,

sintaqsuri, semantikuri universaluri erTeulebi,

romlebic SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT yvela enaSi, metyvelebis zogadi

Teoriis, universaluri semantikuri Teoriis da universaluri

fonetikuri Teoriis safuZvelze. 53 `metyvelebis universaluri

kategoria aris yvela enis an metyvelebis saerTo

Tviseba an Tavisebureba~. 54 enaTa saerTo warmoSobis Teoria

viTardeba amave mimarTulebiT.

gaugebaria, ratom ar SeiZleba es Teoria ganmeordes da

gadamuSavdes komparativistul perspeqtivad da/an literaturis

Teoriad. Tu arsebobs kulturisa da lingvistikis universaluri

kategoriebi, ratom ar unda arsebobdes, agreTve,

poetikisa da literaturis universaluri kategori-ebi? da

marTlac, es termini maSinve wina planze wamoiwevs, rogorc

ki davapirebT `literaturis~ universaliebis, rogorc fenomenis

identifikacias (universals of literature, as a specific phenomenon),

55 literaturul urTierTobaTa universaliebis (universals

of literary contacts), 56 literaturuli nawarmoebis warmoSobisa da

agebulebis gansazRvras. asea yvelgan: boliviaSi, safrangeT-

Si, gvineaSi, vietnamSi. 57 `literaturis universaluri kategoriebis~

asimilacia literaturis `arsis~ an `eonis~ formiT,

cxadia, ufro Znelia, magram am mimarTulebiT sagulisxmo

mcdelobanic unda aRiniSnos. 58

kidev erTxel unda iTqvas: yvelaferi damokidebulia

Tvalsazrisis Secvlaze. es aris erTaderTi, rasac SeuZlia

daZlios iseTi ganzogadebis akrZalva, romelic `faqtobriv

kavSirebs~ scildeba. am perspeqtiviT, enis konstantebisa da

cvladebis msgavsad, SeiZleba Zalian kanonierad warmovidginoT

erTgvari literaturuli `gramatika~, SedarebiT stabiluri

`sintaqsi~: kanonikuri da arakanonikuri elementebis

sistema; Janrebi, gamoxatvis saSualebebi, sxvadasxva stili,

`ritorikuli figurebi~. 59 es niSnavs literaturis Teoriis,

ise rogorc misi programis TviT SesaZleblobis in ovo Camoyalibebas.

amave suliskveTebiT SeiZleba vilaparakoT struqturul,

semiotikur, teqstobriv da nebismieri sxva tipis in-

94


variantebze, im pirobiT, Tu, upirveles yovlisa, miRebuli iqneba

`universaluri kategoriebis~ principi, romelic win uswrebs

maT gansazRvras, arCevas da dalagebas. TavisTavad cxadia,

rom invariantebis genezisis an poligenezisis, maTi moZraobisa

da gavrcelebis problema (wmindad istoriuli xasiaTis)

am SemTxvevaSi meore planze gadadis, rodesac mas

mTlianad ar ugulvebelyofen meTodologiuri mosazrebebiT.

4. invariantebis tipologia

invariantebis analizs pirdapir mivyavarT invariantebis

tipologiisaken. 60 zogadad, maTi klasifikacia SeiZleba Semdegi

saxis invariantebad: 1) anTropologiuri; 2) Teoriul-ideologiuri;

3) Teoriul-literaturuli da 4) literaturuli.

isini moicavs universaluri xasiaTis saerTo elementebis

yvela kategorias, romlebic xarisxis mixedviT, miekuTvnebian

gonebisa da azrovnebis nayofs, dawyebuli sawyisi, fsiqikisa

da warmosaxvis anTropologiuri struqturebis donidan.

anTropologiuri tipis invariantebi aRadgenen da awesrigeben

`primitiul~, umniSvnelovanes, mudmiv monacemebs, romelsac

vxvdebiT uZvelesi istoriuli fenebis siRrmeSi, rac

saerToa mTeli kacobriobisTvis; es aris yvela kulturis

yvelaze ufro `arqeologiuri Sreebi~. es aris miTebidan, legendebidan,

simboloebidan, `wminda~ sityvebidan momdinare

arqetipebi da prototipebi, romelTa universaluri ganzomileba

ueWvelia. amiT realurad dadasturebuli da ganmtkicebulia

kidec Tezisi, romlis Tanaxmadac, rac ufro vuaxlovdebiT

TviTmyofads da arsebiTs, invarianti ufro aqtiurad

vlindeba.

Teoriul-ideologiuri tipis invariantebi viTardeba gamonaTqvamebidan,

`mTavari ideebidan~, sqemebidan an `saerTo

adgilebidan~ (locus communis), romlebSic vlindeba samyaros

da cxovrebis farTo xedva (Weltanschauung). isini exeba adamianis

ZiriTad, sawyis gamocdilebas da problemebs – sicocxles,

sikvdils, siyvaruls da a.S. (Ur-probleme); aseve, yoveli

epoqisTvis damaxasiaTebel ideologiur sferos, `drois suliskveTebis~

CaTvliT. amave kategorias miekuTvneba agreTve

universaluri rigis yvela `WeSmariteba~, mniSvnelovani Sablonadqceuli

azrebi (`yvelaferi warmavalia~, `araferia axali

am mzis qveS~ da a.S.), iseve rogorc fundamenturi konceptebis

erToblioba da dualuri formiT gamoxatuli maTi

95


urTierTmimarTeba: sagani/Tema, materia/suli, Tavisufleba/

aucilebloba, sikeTe/boroteba da a.S.

literaturis komparativistul Teorias eqneba ormagi

amosavali wertili invariantebis im kategoriebis saxiT, romlebic

moicavs mis sakuTar dargs: Teoriul-literaturuli

invariantebi gvaZlevs srul an nawilobriv literaturul

Teoriebs, romelic ukve damuSavebulia, maSin rodesac literaturuli

invariantebi amgvari midgomiT masalebsa da elementarul

cnebebs moicaven pirveladi da elementaruli sistematizaciis

formiT. dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT es ori

mdgomareoba.

a) literaturisa da literaturuli kvlevis konceptualuri,

Teoriuli da ideologiuri aparati, romelic momdinareobs

literaturuli ideebis infrastruqturidan, gvexmareba

literaturul-Teoriuli invariantebis gamoyofaSi. es

saxeli unda vuwodoT Teoriul literaturul azrovnebas

da mTlianad literaturis Sesaxeb Teoriul azrovnebas, rasac

aqvs kategoriis, gameorebis, stabilurobis, moaruli da

fsevdo-originaluri xasiaTi da gamoxatulia yvela formiT

(TvalsaCino da dafaruli formiT).

cxadia, SeniSvnebis, azrebis, principebis, literaturuli

Teoriebis, TviT gavrcelebuli myari gamonaTqvamebis garkveuli

raodenoba meordeba, gadadis erTmaneTisagan Zalian

daSorebul literaturebSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT, albaT, unda

gavixsenoT, rom `saerTo adgilebis~ (locus communis), `toposis~

Teoria antikurobidan modis da, TavisTavad, literaturuli

azrovnebis namdvil invariants warmoadgens.

invariantebi, romlebic gansazRvraven literaturuli

azrovnebis saerTo elementebs, ase vTqvaT, TviTon qmnian literaturis

invariantul Teorias imdenad, ramdenadac es ukanaskneli

SeiZleba gamoikveTos da dagvanaxos samomavlo perspeqtiva

sakuTar formulirebaTa safuZvelze drosa da sivrceSi,

universalur doneze. es formulirebebi moicaven literaturuli

Teoriis da meTodologiis sferos mTlianad da

aqvT literaturis universaluri ritorikis an poetikis (implicituris

da eqsplicituris) Seqmnis midrekileba. arqetipuli

realobis winaSe aucilebeli xdeba, aseve, `arqetipuli~

gadawyvetilebis miReba, romelTan mimarTebiTac winamorbedi

elementebis erToblioba operaciis mxolod fragmentuli,

nawilobrivi da presistemuri (sistemis winmswrebi) stadiaa.

arc is unda dagvaviwydes, rom invarianti yovelTvis

warmoadgens danaleq elements, damuSavebis Sedegs, romelic

yovelgvar TaviseburebaTa gamoricxviT miiReba da yvela dam-

96


Txvevas, analogias, Tanxvedras, yvela literaturul sinqrons

da paralels gulisxmobs, romlis mizania literaturisa

da literaturuli azrovnebis universalurobis dadastureba.

Tu faqtobriv kavSirebsa da istoriaze dayrdnobili

komparativizmi axdens gankerZoebas, aviwroebs mxedvelobis

ares, ramdenadac is mimarTulia gansxvavebisa da Taviseburebis

warmoCenisaken, amis sapirispirod, invariantebis komparativizmi

eZebs kerZo erTeulebis gaerTianebis gzas, variacieb-

Si dafarul permanentul elementebs. is zRudavs gadaxvevebs,

sabolood aRwevs yvela elementisa da yvela saerTo mniSvnelis

globalur sinTezamde, romelTa gamovlineba SesaZlebelia.

igi ganixilavs kavSiris aRmniSvnel yvela termins, romelTac

moaqcevs `koleqtiuris~, zogadis, universaluris

cnebaSi da gaTvaliswinebuli faqtebis seriebi misTvis warmoadgens

`variaciis amdenive Temas~. invariantulobaSi CarTva

yvela literaturuli ideis xvedria da am axali topos-is

gavrceleba kidev erTxel adasturebs am Teziss. igi bevrad

ufro adre gvxvdeba esTetikosebTan (rogoric aris kroCe) da

didi xnis Semdeg kritikosebTan (rogoric aris norTrop

frai, magaliTad), Tumca arc erTi da arc meore ar iyo dainteresebuli

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobiT. 61

am meTodis aucilebloba aSkaraa komparativizmisaTvis.

igi amtkicebs literaturuli ideebisa da azrovnebis struqturul

erTianobas, loci critici-s arsebobas, romlebic gaerTianebis

SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba Camoyalibdes ara marto SedarebiTi

poetikis mravali naSromis ganzogadebiT miRebul universalur

ritorikad da poetikad, aramed agreTve universalur

esTetikad. SedarebiTma literaturaTmcodneobam `miznad

unda daisaxos imis Camoyalibeba, rac erT dRes SeiZleba

gadaiqces universalur esTetikad~. 62 araviTari manifestebi

da pirovnuli gadawyvetilebebi, aramed zogadi mimoxilva,

romelic aranakleb `pirovnulia~ (amas mogvianebiT davinaxavT);

igi SeZlebisdagvarad unda Seivsos kacobriobis literaturuli

da esTetikuri naazrevidan momdinare yvela WeSmaritebiT.

xom SeZles philosophia perennis-is da literature perennis-is

gaazreba, ratom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes agreTve, amave azriT,

poetica da aesthetica perennis? cxadia, es Tvalsazrisi universaliebis

(ise rogorc formaluri da antiistoriuli azrovnebis

sxva formebis) dabrunebis analogiuri an masTan

miaxloebulia.

rodesac namdvili komparativistuli gamocdileba er-

Tveba saqmeSi, dadastureba, ase vTqvaT, TavisTavad modis.

farTo da Rrma, WeSmaritad inteleqtualuri gamokvlevebis

97


Seqmnis Semdeg, rene ueleki amave daskvnebamde mivida: `gamocdilebis

Sedegad aRmovaCine, rom kritikuli Teoriebis istoriaSi

ar arsebobs evolucia, ufro metad kritikis istoria

aris kamaTi Seqcevadi konceptebis Sesaxeb...~ an kidev: `gansakuTrebiT

literaturul TeoriaSi vxvdebiT mudmivad gansaxilveli

poziciebis garkveul raodenobas, romlebic exeba

literaturis istorias, aseve gvxvdeba ZiriTadi sadavo konceptebi,

romlebic ar SeiZleba iyos absoluturad axali~. 63

Cven TviTon vilaparakeT amgvari invariantis Sesaxeb, Teoriul-literaturuli,

universaluri, nominaluri da Teoriuli

konstantebis Sesaxeb; aqedan gamomdinareobs sammagi recidivi:

sakuTriv konstantebis gameoreba, terminologiis da Teoriuli

programebis gameoreba. 64 miuxedavad amisa, am tipis mravalricxovan

SeniSvnebs aklia invariantis zogadi Teoria.

komparativistebis erTi kategoria iwyebs am axali tipis

komparativizmiT dainteresebas, romelic awyobilia `universalur

modelebze~ da `poetikur kategoriebze~ (poetological

category); es maT winaaRmdeg da maTi gamoricxvis mizniT rodi

xdeba, rogorc aqamde iyo xolme umravles SemTxvevaSi, 65 aramed

am modelebisa da kategoriebis ase Tu ise mxedvelobaSi

misaRebad da gasaTaviseblad. ris gagebis imedi gvaqvs SedarebebiT

an metadre mxolod miaxloebebiTi kontaqtebisa da

gavlenebis miRma? `rogorc erT-erTi pirvelTagani _ jeimz

robert haitaueri amtkicebs, amiT Cven aRmovaCenT, Tu ras

warmoadgens literaturuli konstantebi (the constants), invariantebi

(the invariables) an formebi, stilebi, tropebi, meTodebi,

romlebic maSin Cndebian, rodesac metyveleba Segnebulad aris

gamoyenebuli literaturuli miznebisaTvis~. 66 amas davamatoT

iseTi mosazrebebi, `sadac arqetipebis Teoria ukavSirdeba

aristoteles “poetikas~, 67 an kidev `teqstis Semadgeneli

elementebis Ziebas~ komparativizmisa da literaturuli esTetikis

mtkice kavSiris safuZvelze~. 68 aqedan gamomdinareobs

literaturis Teoriis asimilacia zogadi kategoriebis TeoriasTan,

romelic ar Cans (zogadi kategoriebis istoriuli

Teoriis SesaZlo modelis mixedviT) 69 invariantebis TiTqmis

`srul~ CamonaTvalSi.

am TvalsazrisiT sakmarisad xazgasmiT ar aRniSnula

praqtikuli komparativistuli gamokvlevebis Rirebuleba da

mniSvneloba, romlebic adastureben da warmoaCenen am princips.

isini SeiZleba daiyos or kategoriad: jer erTi, arsebobs

didi evrocentristuli gaerTianeba, romelsac ganixilaven,

rogorc saerTo Teoriul tradicias da romlis Sesaxebac

warmodgenas gviqmnis e.r. kurciusis gamokvlevebi `saer-

98


To adgilebis~ (locus communis) Sesaxeb (literaturul-Teoriulis

CaTvliT). es saerTo Teoriuli tradicia SeiZleba

TvalsaCino gaxdes gamokvlevebiT zogierTi Zveli da Tanamedrove

esTetikuri Tezebis (magaliTad, ostranenie) 70 Sesaxeb

an naSromebiT Tanxvedrebis Tanamedrove faqtebis Sesaxeb

imave dasavlur samyaroSi (formalizmi da axali kritika 71

a.S.). zogjer amgvari daaxloeba gamoyenebulia wminda polemikis

mizniT (`formalizmi, samyarosaviT Zveli~) an prodomo (cf.

isev etiambli, romelic `puritanuli~ ideebiT icavs Tavis –

`laparakobT frangul-inglisurs?~, ideebiT, romlebic renesansis

Semdeg gavrcelda safrangeTSi, espaneTSi, inglisSi,

kanadaSi). 72

am gamokvlevebis meore frTa (amjerad yovelmxriv mniSvnelovani)

exeba aRmosavlur-dasavluri homologiebis did

sferos, sivrces, sadac invarianti mTlad Tavisuflad vlindeba.

TiTqmis identuri, Zalian zusti gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic

xSirad gvxvdeba, uflebas gvaZlevs sruliad samar-

Tlianad vilaparakoT `saerTo adgilebis~ (locus communis) namdvil

gagrZelebaze, dawyebuli poeturi enisa da metyvelebis

problemidan. iseTi jaWvi, rogoricaa: aristotele – lu Si –

roman iakobsoni, gviCvenebs miaxloebis procentul wils, ma-

Sin rodesac meore Teza (arabuli) _ `poezia aris gamonaTqvami~

73 _ unda davukavSiroT zepiri poeziis dasavlur homologiur

problematikas. metyvelebis logikuri da eTikuri

koreqcia, ZiriTadad, identurad aris gaazrebuli da Camoyalibebuli

arabebisa da evropelebis mier. 74 stilis da intuiciis

gamoxatvis problemas savsebiT homologiuri gadawyveta

aqvs zogierTi indoelis, Cinelis, iaponelis 75 mxridan (da

es gaxlavT mxolod naCqarevi Seswavlis Sedegi).

am gabeduli wamowyebis sagani, erTdroulad Teoriuli

da polemikuric, yvelasTvis gasagebia: universaluri literaturuli

azrovnebis rentgenografiiT ZiriTadi suraTis Seqmna.

magram amave dros kiTxvis niSnis qveS unda daeyenebinaT

mudmivi dasavluri literaturuli konceptebi (romlebic ase

gansakuTrebulia), gaelaSqraT, faqtobrivad, erTgvari `monopoliis~

winaaRmdeg: mxolod ramdenime Tanamedrove dasavleli

`poetikosis~ (moduri mkvlevris) mudmivi citirebis winaaRmdeg.

am ukanasknelebs eWvic ki ar SeparviaT, rom maTi

`problemebi~ zogjer dasmuli da gaazrebuli iyo sxvagan:

rom agreTve arsebobs (samwuxarod!) induri semiotika an is,

rom `gramatikis poezia~, ase vTqvaT, mTlad ucnobi ar iyo

sanskritisTvis. 76 yovel SemTxvevaSi, kargad damtkicebuli

Cans, rom sanskrituli da Cinuri ritorikis garda, romelic

99


Zalian hgavs evropuls, arsebobda sxvac (rac orientalistebma

didi xania ician). maSasadame, ciceronTan, kvintilianesTan

da xan fei czisTan ZiriTadi problemebi arsebiTad erTi da

igivea, magram arsebobs, agreTve, zepiri metyvelebis tradiciuli

an bunebrivi ritorika Rrma anTropologiur doneze,

rac cota naklebadaa cnobili. 77

Cveni Tezisis Tanaxmad, msgavsi homologiuri momentebis

sixSire ar wamoWris meTodis sakiTxs, aramed exeba mxolod

ganaTlebasa da kompetencias. saxeldaxelo magaliTis saxiT

aviRoT mxolod savaraudo SedarebiTi poetikis ramdenime

Tema, daviwyoT, magaliTad, RvTiuri STagonebis didi toposidan,

romelic Cvens drosac vlindeba polineziaSi, afrikaSi,

centralur aziaSi. 78 iseTi induri konceptebis `miaxloebiTi~

Targmanic ki, rogoricaa rasa, dhvani an alamkara – `gemovneba~,

`STagoneba~, `mxatvruli figurebi~, adasturebs problematikis

identurobas, iseve rogorc `SedarebiTi poetikis~ mar-

Tlzomierebas. 79 aseve dadginda sxva Teoriul-literaturuli

paralelebi indoeTsa da evropas Soris (paradoqsi aqtiorze,

idealuri portretis Teoria). 80 Cinur samyaroSi aRmoCnda homologiuri

an identuri reaqciebi bunebisa da bunebis amsaxveli

romantikuli poeziis mimarT; saerTo damokidebuleba

romanis mimarT (romelic zneobas amdablebs), iseve rogorc

Semoqmedebis mimarT (xelovanis da SemoqmedebiTi aqtis Serwyma)

an `axlis~, anu dialeqtis `dakanoneba~, romelic am faqtiT

klasikuri xdeba. 81

zogierTi `dasavluri~ cneba, rasac sinologebi brWyalebiT

moixsenieben, exeba Tanamedroves da Zvelis maradiul

da sayovelTao dapirispirebas (amavdroulad, Tavs izRveven

Zvelis mibaZvisagan, rac Zalian uswrebs win `polemikas~) an

literaturul fantazias, romelic SeiZleba CaiTvalos `plagiatad~

(`klasikosebis Tanamedrove winamorbedebis~ msgavsi

raRac: lu Si xom qristemde IV saukuneSi werda). 82 Tvalsazrisi

iseTi `wesis~ Sesaxeb, romelic moicavs da amowuravs

yvela kerZo SemTxvevas (erTgvari “invarianti”) arsebobs agreTve

Cinur klasikur poetikaSi, 83 iseve rogorc sxva aRmosavlur

poetikebSi. iaponiaSi IX saukunidan gvxvdeba erovnuli

Taviseburebis principi, romelic ganapirobebs prozis

formebs, imavdroulad aris zogadadamianuri WeSmaritebis

principi (universaluri) da misi gamoxatvis aucilebloba 84

(aranakleb universaluri) da a.S. momavalSi saWiro iqneba

TvalsaCinoebisaTvis sxva magaliTebis moxmoba: Cven aq, ra

Tqma unda, mivuTiTebT mxolod gzas da isic Zalian mokled.

sami stilis Teoria arsebobs agreTve arabul ritorikaSi, 85

100


iseve rogorc poeziisa da prozis, gamonagonisa da sinamdvilis

`gamijvna~. aseve aRiareben `teqnikis~ mniSvnelobas, rogorc

TavisTavad faseul samSveniss an SemoqmedebiTi mibaZvis

princips.86

swored am kuTxiT unda gavigoT aRmosavlur-dasavluri

urTierTobebis wina planze wamowevis kvalobaze poetikebis

SedarebiTi Seswavlis sapolemiko moTxovna (saxeldobr, etiamblis

moTxovna): ueWvelia, dagvWirdeba Cveni poetebis “poeturi

xelovnebis~ Sedareba ibn kotaibas `Muqaddim-ata Kitabi Š-

ŠI’ ra wa š- šua ra-sTan, l’Arte nueva de hacer comedias-Tan da traqtatebTan

Nô de Zéami Motokiyo-s Sesaxeb~. es Sepirispireba saSualebas

mogvcems gamovyoT invariantebis erTi seria da Semdeg

isini davalagoT zogad SedarebiT poetikaSi. `uelekis

da uorenis~ mimarT mTavari kritika zustad aseTia: `erTi

ibn-ic ki ar aris `literaturuli Teoriis~ sarCevSi. diax,

ra unda ifiqro iseTi literaturuli Teoriis Sesaxeb, romelic

ugulvebelyofs arabul, indur ritorikebs, moxerxebulad

ayalbebs Cinur, iaponur nawarmoebebs?~ msgavsi `dasavlur-aRmosavluri

divanis~ programebisa da teqstebis Seswavla

(rac komparativistebis kidev erTi didi ocnebaa) warimar-

Teba aqtiurad, raTa Tavidan aicilon Secdoma da gankerZoeba,

rac mxolod evropuli movlenebis Seswavlaze dafuZnebul

literaturul Teorias axasiaTebs. 87 dasavlur Cveulebebs

Seejaxnen pirdapir da Seuties. is rac jer kidev (sami

aTeuli wlis win) `uCveulo~ Canda, sabolood miiRes, rekomendaciac

ki gauwies (am bolo dros). es kargad Cans gamokvlevebis

erT-erT krebulSi ramdenime aRmosavluri poetikis

Sesaxeb: `gana yvelaze `Tanamedrove~ Teoriebi (struqturalisturi,

poetikuri, semiologiuri) ar rCebian dasavleTis

metafizikuri racionalizmis tyveebad?~ daskvna TavisTavad

Cndeba: `maSasadame franguli literaturisa da, zogadad, dasavluri

literaturis mkvlevarebs da studentebs unda davanaxoT

didi civilizaciebis: CineTis, indoeTis, islamis,

iudaizmis... mier Seqmnili `metyvelebisa~ da `literaturis~

koncefciebi; isini ufro da ufro exmaurebian Cvens civilizacias~.

88 bolos da bolos, TviT rene ueleki aRiarebs, rom

`universaluri poetika~ 89 SeiZleba warmovidginoT `Teoriulad~.

Tu gavixsenebT dasavleTSi dawerili esTetikis istoriebs

da im mcire adgils, rac aRmosavlur literaturul es-

Tetikas uWiravs iq, unda vaRi-aroT, rom mas Semdeg garkveuli

winsvla aris (principulad mainc). wyaroebis miuwvdomloba

mTavari winaaRmdegobaa da is kvlav qmnis siZneleebs.

magram XIX saukunis bolodan aRmosavluri poetikebis Ses-

101


wavlis rekomendacia kargis niSani iyo. 90 miuxedavad amisa, ma-

Ti komparativistuli kvleva mxolod 60-iani wlebidan iwyeba.

am Temebze mxolod aRmosavlur-dasavluri kolokviumebis

mowyoba (Literary Theory and Criticism East and West) da `Cinuri, iaponuri,

sanskrituli da evropuli artes poeticae-ebis komparativistuli

Seswavlis dawyeba~ 91 ar aris umTavresi, aramed saWiroa

zogierTi problemisa da ZiriTadi amocanis garkveva:

mTels literaturis TeoriaSi aucileblad mxedvelobaSi iqnas

miRebuli aRmosavluri faqtebi; daisvas sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb,

Tu ramdenad miesadageba dasavluri konceptebi aRmosavleTs

da ramdenad gamarTlebulia maTi gamoyeneba; 92 `rogor

davafuZnoT saerTo safuZvelze ori kulturis – arabuli

da berZnul-romauli kulturebis Seswavla~; 93 bolos unda

aRmovaCinoT rac SeiZleba meti SesamCnevi Teoriul-literaturuli

invarianti da movaxdinoT maTi sinTezi, raTa erTgvari

aesthetica litteraria universalis et perennis miviRoT (Cven ukve

ganvixileT es hipoTeza). sakiTxisadmi amgvar midgomaSi SeiZleba

davinaxoT literaturis deduqciuroba. ai, ramdeni SesaZlebloba

ixsneba SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis winaSe...

invariantebis Teoriis susti wertili sxvaganaa _ mis

miswrafebaSi normatiulobisaken da puritanizmis anu dogmatizmis

gzaze dadgomis saSiSroebaSi, rac zogjer uneblieT

xdeba, zogjer ki Teoriidan gamomdinareobs. es iwvevs invariantebis

gadaqcevas `a priori~-ebad, `kanonebad~ an `sine qua non~ pirobebad,

romelTa mixedviT, `Zalian lamazi literaturuli

invariantebi~ 94 gaxdebian namdvili `klasikuri~ normatiuli

kanonebis muxlebi. etiamblis naazrevi am sqemaSi 95 eqceva, ramac

SeiZleba mZime Sedegebi moitanos: `normatiuli esTetikis

zogadi aspeqti~, istoriuli gamokvleva, romelic `SeiZleba

normatiuli gaxdes~, `istoriuli da dogmaturi gamokvleva~.

96 invariants, rogorc viciT, aqvs midrekileba, SeumCnevlad

da aucileblad gaxdes norma yovelTvis, roca misi universalurobis

dadastureba uzrunvelyofilia: “rodesac dakvirveba

xdeba universaluri, igi gansazRvravs konstantebs,

romlebic ar warmoadgenen wesebs, magram miuTiTeben iseT garemoebaze,

romlis gauTvaliswineblobas mosdevs cudi Sedegi.

amiT aixsneba ganmazogadebeli dakvirvebis vadis gaxangrZliveba.

97 es orientacia gamovlinda komparativizmis saTaveebTan,

romelic Tavidanve eZebda `normebs~. goeTes azriT,

`universaluri literatori~ ukve sanimuSo xdeba. 98 erT-erTi

pirveli, faruli normatiuli azrebiT aRsavse programa gulisxmobs

literaturuli formebis Seswavlis gardaqmnas

`kritikis kanonad~, romelic Camoayalibebs `axal da ufro

102


farTo klasicizms~. ukve acxadeben, rom „komparativistuli

meTodi yovelgvari klasicizmis dedaa~, da etiambls didi

mondomebiT mohyavs es sentencia, romelic adasturebs am

Teziss. 99

igive azri wamotivtivdeba xolme yvela SemTxvevaSi, roca

`ritorikis Zveli normatiuli disciplinebis meTodi gardaiqmneba

`zogad poetikad, romelic aris homo literatus-is filosofia~,

erTi preceptiva. 100 saqme unda exebodes normativs a

posteriori, logikurs da aucilebels, `romelmac unda gvapovninos

mravali erovnuli literaturisaTvis gamosadegi wesebi

da kanonebi~. 101 sxvaTa Soris, komparativizmi, iseTi rogoric

is unda iyos, ewinaaRmdegeba kodifikacias, rac didi xania

cnobilia. 102 problemis namdvili gadawyveta mdgomareobs SedarebiTi

poetikisa da misi invariantebis gardaqmnaSi erTgvar

farul mrCevlad da ara literaturis sindisad (mkacr

sindisad). mas Semdeg, rac invariantebi ganisazRvreba da maTi

SemecnebiTi xasiaTi uzrunvelyofilia, isini iwyeben farulad

moqmedebas, rogorc nebayoflobiTi `aucilebloba~, magram

mxolod iseT mwerlebTan, romlebic maT Rebuloben. ma-

Sasadame, saqme ar unda mivides iseT normatiul kanonebamde,

romelTac samarTlianad ewinaaRmdegeba nebismieri literaturuli

Semoqmedeba, romelic am saxelis Rirsia; aq unda

moxdes mxolod nebayoflobiTi asimilacia. am ukumoqmed

efeqtebs grZnoben isini, vinc iziarebs am ideas da gamocdilia

am `disciplinaSi~, Signidan uyurebs mas. mxolod amgvarad

SeiZleba, rom wesebi Tavdapirvelad `Tavisufali~ iyos

da bolos aRmoCndes `nayofieri~ da iqces yvelaze gonivrul

wesebad~ 103

b) es komparativistuli Tema ormagdeba meore, ufro zogadi

masStabis TemiT: sakuTriv literaturuli invariantebiT,

romlebic moicavs mTeli msoflios `teqstualuri~ elementebis

erTobliobas, terminis yvelaze farTo gagebiT ki –

zepiri da werilobiTi formis yvela nawarmoebs erTad aRebuls,

romlebic Tavidanve `mxatvrulobis~ niSniT iqmneba an

Semdgom eZleva es Sefaseba. literaturuli invariantebi

cxadyofs saerTo literaturul fonds, literaturis did

struqturul erTeuls. invariantebi TvalsaCinod gviCveneben

literaturuli analogiebisa da sinqronizmebis, Tanadroulobis,

damTxvevebis, paralelizmebisa da erTgvarovnebis

siRrmiseul TamaSs, romlebic uaxlovdebian srul identurobas.

amgvarad, komparativistuli poetika gviwvevs erTi SexedviT

gasaocar warmodgenaze: es aris universaluri literatura,

rogorc `mudmivi~ sinamdvile, romelsac safuZvlad

103


udevs warmosaxvis da poeturi aqtis yvela a priori. es mtkicebuleba

uflebas gvaZlevs, literaturis sferoSi SemovitanoT

`eleelTa~ koncefcia sui generis. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es

koncefcia dasturdeba, rogorc ki gezs viRebT sawyisi an

universaluri masStabis movlenisaken.

`literaturuli invariantis~ cnebis aucilebloba, komparativistuli

literaturuli Teoriis TvalsazrisiT, eWvgareSea:

igi gvexmareba, upirveles yovlisa, literaturuli nawarmoebis

agebulebis aRweraSi, misi Semadgenlobisa da kompoziciis

dadgenaSi da amgvarad literaturuli analizis

doneebis dazustebaSi. meore mxriv, yoveli literaturuli

invarianti aRniSnavs ganzogadebis horizonts, romlis Sedgeniloba

da xarisxobrivi maCvenebeli sabolood damokidebulia

literaturis ganzogadebis masStabze. amgvarad, SesaZlebeli

xdeba tradiciuli komparativizmis mier gamoyenebuli

asobiT cnebis axleburad `wakiTxva~ (`wyaro~, `gavlena~, `Tema~,

`tipi~ da a.S.). `faqtebi~ da `faqtobrivi kavSirebi~ adgils

uTmoben, ase vTqvaT, `saerTo mimoqcevis~ literaturul

movlenebs. `gavlena~ misi anekdoturistoriuli, `SemTxvevi-

Ti~ xasiaTis garda, im Sesatyvisobebisa da kavSirebis saSualebiT,

romelsac is qmnis, moicavs agreTve saerTo elementebis

qsels, romlebic Sesabamisi ganzogadebiT vrceldeba

da universaluri mniSvnelobis movlenad iqceva. saboloo

angariSiT, TiToeuli invarianti aris konotaciuri universalurobis

erTi fragmenti garkveuli xarisxiT, rogorc Tavisi

`nawilebiT~ (TiToeuli invariantidan gamomdinare), aseve

Tavisi `mTeliT~ (yvela invariantis jamiT). am hermenevtikuli

rigis kavSirs Cven kvlav SevexebiT momdevno TavSi.

literaturuli invariantebis klasifikacia daiwyeba im

ZiriTadi realobebidan, romlebic aqamde gaviTvaliswineT:

literaturuli nawarmoebi (individualuri), literaturuli

nawarmoebebis erToblioba (=universaluri literatura, e.i.

literatura) da tipobrivi kavSirebis erToblioba, romlebic

Cndeba am sferoebs Soris. amgvarad, SegviZlia SemogTavazoT

literaturuli invariantebis tipebisa da qvetipebis wmindad

operatiuli xasiaTis Semdegi sqema:

1. struqturuli _ a. literaturuli nawarmoebis

(individualuris)

invariantebi _ b. literaturis (universaluris)

2. urTierTobebis _ a. kontaqtebi nawarmoebebs Soris

(individualuri)

invariantebi _ b. kontaqtebi literaturebs Soris

(erovnuli)

104


Tuki TandaTanobiT iqmneba struqturuli invariantebis

kargi da aRiarebuli gansazRvrebebi, urTierTobebis invariantebi

jer kidev naklebad Seswavlili, naklebad cnobili

da cudad gansazRvrulia. cxadia, SeiZleba maTi moTavseba

intraliteraturuli (erovnul literaturebs Soris) da

`inerliteraturuli~ (nawarmoebebs Soris) kontaqtebis `universalur~

kategoriaSi, am problemisadmi yvelaze ufro gonivruli

midgomis Sesabamisad. 104 am Suqze `Zveli~ komparativizmis

naSromebis erTobliobis (romelic zogjer Zalian dawinaurebulia),

a da b tipis mravalricxovani literaturuli

urTierTobebis Sesaxeb gamokvlevebis `dabruneba~ savsebiT

SesaZlebeli xdeba: rogorc istoriul-dokumenturi infrastruqtura

da baraTebze gawerili repertuari, romlidanac

SegviZlia ama Tu im faqtobrivi kavSirebis mixedviT gamovyoT

invariantis koeficienti. mTeli problema mdgomareobs

imis gansazRvraSi, Tu romel saazrovno dones (poetikur

komparativistuls) ekuTvnis es Sexedulebebi.

gasuli saukunidan yuradReba gaamaxviles literatura-

Si `gavrcelebul gamonaTqvamebze~, `mudmiv motivebze~ da

`ucvlel formebze~, rasac sagulisxmo gagrZelebebi mohyva,

gansakuTrebiT narativis formalistur TeoriaSi. am stadiidan

moyolebuli, es cneba Zalian gavrcelda Tanamedrove

formalizmsa da semiotikaSi. 105 am tipis gamokvlevas emateba

literaturuli istoriis koncefcia evropuli literaturis

saerTo adgilebisa (locus communis) da `konstantebis~ bazaze

(e.r. kurciusi, e. auerbaxi). am konceptebma, iseve rogorc sxva

monaTesave konceptebma, romlebic gadmoscemen `Temebs~, `tipebs~,

`motivebs~, `literaturul meTodebs~ TviT “nimuSsac”

(patterns) da a.S., garkveulwilad win waswies SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

meTodologia, 106 magram es ar yofila

dakavSirebuli literaturis TeoriasTan. zogjer aRniSnaven

am cnebebis arsebobas da... meti araferi. gaocebas iwvevs, roca

vxedavT, rom Stoff-und Motivgeschichte, Stoff-Mythen-und Motivforschung

(germanuli) an `Tematologia~ (franguli) Tavidan bolomde

gaazrebulia istoriuli midgomiT, 107 romelic kategoriulad

ewinaaRmdegeba yovelgvar ganzogadebas, `invariantebis~

da `konstantebis~ CaTvliT. 108 araviTari realuri `poetikuri~

progresi ar modis am mimarTulebidan.

miuxedavad amisa Tematologia, romelic pirveli programebidanve

SeuerTda 109 SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas,

SeiZleba argumentebisTvis gamoviyenoT am TemasTan dakavSirebiT.

Teoriebis ganviTareba epoqebis da sxvadasxva qveynebis

105


mixedviT adasturebs, rom isini warmoadgens mxolod `adamianuri

yofis~ formebis damatebiT gamoxatulebas, misi universalurobis

gamoxatulebas. Tu gamoTqmas `zogadsakacobrio~

aqvs srulyofili mniSvneloba, igi swored didi Temebis

istoriaSi, promeTedan dawyebuli faustamde, poulobs

mas. Tu saqme exeba Stoffgeschichte-s dacvas SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis

terminebiT, amis gakeTeba SesaZlebelia misi

`zogadi~, `mdgradi~, `maradiuli~ da `mudmivi~ xasiaTis

gamomJRavnebiT yvela SemTxvevaSi. 110 Tu SedarebiT Tematologias

111 aqvs namdvili mniSvneloba, is mas amJRavnebs SedarebiT

invariantulobasTan da literaturul TeoriasTan asimilaciis

wyalobiT. Tema, saboloo angariSiT warmoaCens nebismieri

nawarmoebis mxolod erT-erT aspeqts da zogierTi Tematologiuri

gamokvleva naTlad gviCvenebs am principis rogorc

literaturis erTi struqturuli elementis arsebobas.

112 sabolood, `SemoqmedebiTi aqti mTlianobaSi SeiZleba

gagebul iqnas, rogorc erTaderTi Temis usazRvro modulacia~.

113 literaturis zogad Teorias SeiZleba mxari davuWiroT

am perspeqtiviT. 114 es metaistoriuli mizani kidev erTxel

mkacrad gamijnavs nebismier tradiciul da faqtebze

damyarebul komparativizms.

zustad aseTivea ritualebis, kliSeebis, motivebis mdgomareoba.

maTi Seswavla iRebs aSkarad komparativistul xasiaTs,

rogorc ki scildeba erTi an ramdenime erovnuli saz-

Rvris farglebs da gadadis `internacionalur kliSeebze~. 115

Tanamedrove komparativistikaSi am tipis gamokvlevebi sabolood

dasaSvebad miiCnies, nawilobriv e.r. kurciusis gavleniT.

am gamokvlevebis namdvili swrafva `invariantebis~ gamovlenisken

gamoixateba agreTve arCeul gansazRvrebebsa da

miznebSi: universaluri literaturis `standartizacia~, `literaturuli

konstantebi~, `recidivuli saxeebi~, `suliskve-

Tebis mdgradobis~ niSnebi da a.S. 116 miznebi mimarTulia, erTi

mxriv, kategoriisa da klasifikaciisaken; amis ilustracias

da stimuls warmoadgens zogadi kategoriebis Teoria, 117 saidanac

literaturis Teoria sargeblobs; meore mxriv, mimar-

Tulia literaturul iastoriaze, romelic nawarmoebebis

“miRma” xdeba SemTxvevebisagan damoukidebuli istoriografiis

analogi. 118 tipologia, misi saxasiaTo stereotipebiT, gmirebis

da personaJebis paradigmatuli biografiebiT, momdinareobs

imave midgomidan.

agreTve mxedvelobaSia misaRebi 119 literaturuli tipis

simboluri xasiaTi, romelic ganasaxierebs im poetikas, saidanac

modis. davukvirdeT rembos `miTs~, romelic ase dama-

106


xasiaTebelia avangardisaTvis. misi Semadgeneli invariantebi,

romlebic yvelgan SesamCnevia, gaxlavT: poetis da revolucioneri

poetis gaRmerTeba, Tavgadasavlebis moyvarulis, vaJkacobis

da bavSvobis kulti, garkveuli mistika da a.S. 120 rogorc

cnobilia, am gamokvlevebisTvis gamorCeuli sferoa

literatura stereotipuli, koleqtiuri, tradiciuli, zepiri,

primitiuli, `folkloruli~ formebiT. gansakuTrebiT

swored am ukanasknel sferoSi aris invariantis cneba TvalsaCino

da sxvaTa Soris, xSiradac gamoiyeneba. yovelmxriv

identuri situacia gvaqvs iseTi sinonimebis SemTxvevaSi, rogoricaa

`gavrcelebuli gamoTqmebi~, `motivebi~ da a.S. maTma

anglosaqsurma ekvivalentebmac – Framework an box pattern daimkvidres

adgili Tanamedrove komparativistul gamokvlevebsa

da TeoriebSi. rac Seexeba `saerTo adgilebs~ (locus communis),

folkloruls Tu arafolkloruls, isini xelaxla adastureben

permanentulobis, sayovelTaobis da poligenezisis realurobas,

iseve rogorc kacobriobis saerTo bunebas, misi

pirobebisa da reaqciebis saerTo xasiaTs yvela epoqaSi garkveul

doneze. 121 TiToeul am SemTxvevaSi srulad mJRavndeba

literaturuli invariantulobis esa Tu is aspeqti.

literaturuli Janrebi (da maTi Teoria) miekuTvneba imave

literaturul invariantebs. daculi unda iyos aseTi piroba

(romelic fundamenturia) – maTi tradiciuli socialur-istoriuli

xasiaTi unda Seicvalos tipologiuri,

morfologiuri da struqturuli 122 planiT; es plani ukve CamoSorda

istoriul da pozitivistur komparativizms. misi CamoSorebis

(SesamCnevi rom xdeba Janrebis Tanamedrove komparativistul

TeoriaSi 123 ) ilustracia SeiZleba movaxdinoT

etiamblis zogierTi winadadebiT, romelTac gavixsenebT miniSnebis

saxiT. epopeis, epikuri Janris Camoyalibeba pasuxobs

zust pirobebs, romlebic yovelTvis axloa mis miTologiur

da gmirul warmoSobasTan; imavdroulad miesadageba mis “mi-

Toistoriul struqturas, rasac yvelgan vpoulobT am stadiaze.

radgan arsebobs romanis Janris invariantebi, am ukanasknels

eqneba TiTqmis identuri formebi rogorc CineTSi,

aseve Cvens `realist~ romanistebTan. aseve SeiZleba “gamovyoT

elementebi, romlebic, ZiriTadad, epopeas ekuTvnis”. 124 es

elementebi qmnian epopeis `sqemas~, misi ganviTarebis etapebs,

mis tipologias da Tematikas, misi gavrcelebis ares – identur

(erTgvarovan) movlenebs safrangeTSi, tibetSi da yvelgan.

125 am monacemebiT SeiZleba gaswordes tradiciuli istoriografiis

zogierTi Secdoma, romelic dakavSirebulia epopeis,

rogorc feodaluri an kidev reaqciuli Janris gansaz-

107


RvrebasTan, rogorc romanis aucilebel sawyis matricasTan

(iaponiaSi romani ufro adre gaCnda, vidre epopea). romani

SeiZleba Seiqmnas agreTve hagiografiis romanizebiT 126 da a.S.

movlenaTa msgavsi tipi vlindeba, agreTve, nawarmoebis

`formalur~ doneze, Tu ar vityviT, yvela formalistTan er-

Tad, rom is gansakuTrebiT ikveTeba am doneze. stilistika,

rodesac is orientirebulia stilisturi meTodebis mudmivobasa

da recidivulobis (Seqcevadobis) 127 an stilisturi doneebis

homologiurobis Seswavlaze, naTels hfens da damatebiTi

mtkicebulebebi moaqvs literaturuli invariantebis dasadastureblad.

mxedvelobaSia misaRebi agreTve hipoTeza

`teqstis tipobrivi struqturis~ arsebobis Sesaxeb. 128 literaturuli

pirobiTobani da normebi, romlebic imanenturia

TiToeuli mTavari literaturuli sistemisaTvis, iqneba isini

warmoebuli, interpretirebuli Tu uaryofili, yvela ekuTvnis

mainc mudmiv da universalur literaturul process.

rac Seexeba `funqciebs~, romlebic Zalian naTeli gaxda rusi

formalistebis wyalobiT, maTi invariantulobis xarisxi,

yvelaze elementarul doneze, e.i. yvelaze zogad doneze, ar

iwvevs araviTar kamaTs. saboloo angariSiT, ar arsebobs araviTari

motivi imis winaaRmdeg, rom iseTi gavrcelebuli terminebi,

rogoric aris, magaliTad, `formaluri kategoriebi an

poetikuri meTodebi~ gavaTanabroT zogierTi Tanamedrove

komparativistuli programiT aRiarebul `formalur konstantebTan`.

129 am operaciis saboloo mizania literaturuli me-

Todebis nusxis, literaturuli Semoqmedebis yvela sferosa

da SesaZleblobis Teoriuli CamonaTvalis dadgena: Janrebi,

formebi, xerxebi, stilebi, tipobrivi xasiaTebi da situaciebi,

motivebi, Temebi, kontaqtebi, simboloebi (da a.S.), romlebzec

SeiZleba avagoT literaturis deskrifciuli (aRwerilobiTi)

gansazRvreba. 130 es gansazRvreba jer kidev dadasturebuli

meTodis mixedviT, sabolood Seerwymeba literaturis

induqciur-deduqciur gansazRvrebas. Cveni eses dasasruls

davubrundebiT am sakvanZo problemas.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, amowurulia Tu ara literaturuli

invariantebis vrceli sfero? axali klasifikacia

da sistematizacia jer kidev SesaZlebelia droisa da sixSiris

maCveneblis mixedviT mraval doneze. Cven SevecadeT Segveqmna

amgvari cxrili avangardis invariantebis SemTxvevaSi.

is miT ufro gadamwyvetia, ramdenadac am saxis komparativistuli

analizis sagani jer ar gamxdara: `1) avangardis erTi

nawarmoebis invariantebi; 2) avangardis erTi mimdinareobis

invariantebi; 3) avangardis mravali mimdinareobis invariante-

108


i, romlebic miekuTvneba erT erovnul literaturas; 4) avangardis

mravali mimdinareobis invariantebi, romlebic miekuTvneba

sxvadasxva erovnul literaturas; 5) avangardis yvela mimdinareobis

invariantebi, romlebic miekuTvneba erTi da imave

periodis yvela erovnul literaturas; 6) erTi, mravali an

yvela literaturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli mimdinareobis winamorbedi

yvela movlenisa Tu elementis invariantebi~. 131 es

sqema SeiZleba gamodges `nimuSad~ (ra Tqma unda, SeiZleba misi

srulyofa) yvela literaturuli mimdinareobisaTvis.

xSirad varT aseTi mdgomareobis mowme: tradiciul komparativizms

mxars umagreben da araerTgzis win uswreben kidec

momijnave Tu monaTesave disciplinebi. am mxriv literaturuli

invarinatebis gamovlineba ar aris gamonaklisi. rodesac

vfiqrobT, magaliTad imaze, rom valeri larbo literaturis

saerTaSoriso donis kritikosi da eseisti ase kargad

Cawvda (da Tanac bevr diplomian komparativistze adre)

invariantuli Temebis mniSvnelobas (arqetipuli, formaluri,

arsebiTi Temebis), moiTxova `yvela qveynisa da mravali epoqis

formaluri poetikuri Temebis aRnusxva~, 132 mxneobas gvmatebs

aseTi iniciativa. Tuki evropul realizms, Tavis mxriv,

aqvs damaxasiaTebeli Temebi, ase vTqvaT `stabiluri~ Temebi

(auerbaxis Tanaxmad), sxva nebismieri qveynis realizmi ratom

iqneba gamonaklisi? aq aRar vilaparakebT universalur literaturaze,

realisturi iqneba is Tu ararealisturi... literaturis

arqetipuli Teoria, norTrop frais formulirebiT,

zustad amave mimarTulebiT midis – e.i. literaturuli

`identifikaciebis~ mimarTulebiT. 133 aseve, iseTi universaluri

`formaluri monacemebis~ analizi, rogoricaa: kreSCendo,

kontrasti, Sedareba, wonasworoba, gameoreba, seria, simetria

da a.S. (keneT burke) 134, momdinareobs msgavsi Tvalsazrisidan.

sxvaTa Soris, poetikosebi komparativisti literaturis

Teoretikosebis bunebrivi mokavSireebi arian. gavixsenoT v.i.

propis `funqciebi~, romelTac miniWebuli aqvT `konstantis~

mniSvneloba; aseve, misi Zalisxmeva xalxuri zRapris `mTavari

elementebis~, misi “mTavari Semadgeneli nawilebis~ gamosayofad.

135 es elementebi, imavdroulad, warmoadgenen literaturul

invariantebs, Tundac ar erqvaT es saxeli. gvagondeba

agreTve erTi Tvalsazrisi, romelsac Semdegi dakvirveba

gadmogvcems: `poeturi aqti arsebiTad ar Secvlila saukuneebis

ganmavlobaSi~. 136 aseve arsebobs dakvirvebebi literaturul

`izomorfizmebze~, recidivebze (Seqcevadobaze), xangr-

Zlivobaze; es aris operatiuli cnebebi rogorc literatura-

Si, aseve literaturul kvlevaSi. yovelTvis, roca analizi

109


(struqturuli, arqetipologiuri, miTologiuri da a.S.) avlens

sayrden elementebs, formulebs, saxeebs, formebs, romlebic

meordeba, qmnis `kanons~ an `kliSes~, literaturuli

invarianti, am saxeliT Tu usaxelod, aucileblad figurirebs.

137 igive SeiZleba ioTqvas m. baxtinis literaturuli

Janrebis TeoriasTan dakavSirebiTac, sadac Teoretikosis azriT,

TiToeul Janrs aqvs Tavisi `arsi~, `logika~ da amJRavnebs

literaturis yvelaze mdgrad tendencias, `maradiul~

tendenciasac ki. albaT arsebobs `Janris erTgvari obieqturi

xsovna~, romelic ise `iWreba~ nawarmoebebSi, rom es ukanasknelebi,

ase vTqvaT, `verc ki amCneven amas~. igive iTqmis `saxeobrivi

sistemebis~ (xalxuri, groteskuli da a.S.)

imanenturi efeqturobis Sesaxeb. 138 roman iakobsoni gadaWriT

ayenebs TviT SedarebiTi poetikis problemas metrikis tipologiasTan

dakavSirebiT. `SedarebiTi poetika miaRwevs metrikis

tipologiis TandaTanobiT ganviTarebamde da SeiZleba

literaturebis da kulturebis SedarebiT Seswavlamdec ki

mivides~. 139 es is Tvalsazrisia, romelic sul ufro gavrcelda

da Seesabameba TviT Tanamedrove poetikis logikas. magaliTad,

misaRebi gaxda is azri, rom `arsebobs mudmivi struqturuli

maxasiaTeblebi... iseTi, rogoric aqvT evropul, afrikul

da aziur andazebsa da gamocanebs~. 140 bolos gagacnobT

erTi moduri poetikosis friad sasiamovno uneblie

aRiarebas: `sworia varaudi, rom literaturis Tematuri mravalferovneba

mxolod moCvenebiTia; yvela literaturas safuZvlad

udevs erTi da igive, ase vTqvaT, mcire raodenobis

universaluri Tematika, magram maTi kombinaciebi da gardaqmnebi

gvaZlevs arsebuli teqstebis mTels mravalferovnebas~. 141

Tu es programa mTlianobaSi identuria, maSin Sedarebi-

Ti poetika xom ar imeorebs mas da xom ar moqmedebs Ria karis

mtvrevis principiT? cxadia, ara, radgan misi terminologia

da fundamenturi hipoTezebi gansxvavebulia, iseve rogorc

misi meTodi da kontrolis sfero. sxvaTa Soris, amas

exeba momdevno Tavebis masala. literaturuli invariantebis

Sesaxeb debatebis dasamTavreblad xazgasmiT aRvniSnoT maTi

gamoyenebis sferos progresuli gafarToeba TviT komparativistul

velSi. evrocentristuli tradicia, romelic jer kidev

Zlieria, moiTxovs saerTo tipologiebs da mniSvnelebs,

magram Semofargluls monaTesave literaturebis (magaliTad,

slavuri literaturebis) 142 mxolod erTi jgufiT, an yvelaze

meti rom aviRoT, evropulenovani literaturebis erTobliobiT.

143 kurciusis literaturuli `konstantebi~ da `saerTo

adgilebi~ (locus communis) SemosazRvrulia dasavleTevropuli

110


kulturiT, magram maTi erTdroulad kiTxva, rasac mosdevs

qronologiis gadasvla sistematur aRwerasa da tipologiaSi,

miuTiTebs erT-erT im gzas, romelsac unda gavyveT. magaliTad,

`manierizmi~ evropuli literaturis konstanta xdeba.

maSin ratom ar unda iyos aseTive konstanta `baroko~ an

TviT ~avangardi`? aRiarebulia (impliciturad mainc), rom Ti-

Toeul invariants aqvs horizontaluri (sivrciTi) ganzomileba

da vertikaluri ganzomileba (istoriuli) da maTi er-

Toblioba adasturebs unitaruli (erTgvarovani) literaturuli

struqturis arsebobas. sxvaTa Soris, kurciusis Teoria

TavisTavad Tavsdeba invariantis TeoriaSi im faqtis gamo,

rom xelovnebasa da bunebaSi `saerTo adgilebis~ (locus

communis) Teorias aqvs Zveli klasikuri da renesansuli

memkvidreoba~. 44

Tuki literaturuli `saerTo adgilebis~ (locus communis)

arseboba ar iwvevs eWvs, ratom ar SeiZleba am perspeqtivis

gaSla evropis miRma mTlianad? amisaTvis saWiroa mtkicebuleba

da isic gvaqvs im faqtidan gamomdinare, rom romelime

`dasavlelma~ mweralma SeiZleba Tavis TavSi aRmoaCinos axlo

naTesaoba `aRmosavlur~ sulierebasTan (Tundac im Sem-

TxvevaSi, Tu mas ar ucxovria am garemoSi) an kidev: berZnulromauli

Temebi vrceldeba manilamde da vladivostokamde. 145

ras adasturebs es? upirveles yovlisa, saerTo sakacobrio

gamocdilebis arsebobas, Semdeg – literaturuli Temebis

garkveul `internacionalurobas~. arsebobs `saerTo Temebis

uzarmazari fondi... poeturi arqetipebis maragi~, xangrZliv

periodSi moqceuli Seqcevadoba, `46 poeturi kategoriebi da

literaturuli Janrebi, romlebic sayovelTaod aRiarebulia.

tanis epoqis poetebi Zalian did siaxloves amJRavneben

XVI saukunis barokos inglisel poetebTan, 147 iraneli nizami

da italieli j.b. bazili qmnian `concetti~-s (manerul gamonaTqvamebs),

romlebic aaxloebs maT, maSin rodesac evropuli

elegiis homologiuri Cinuri elegia 148 mas savsebiT Seesabameba.

aseve, Cinuri romani imave problemebs warmoaCens, rasac

evropuli romanebi 149 da a.S.

yvelafer amas mivyavarT banalur realobasTan, romelic

arafers gveubneba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu veyrdnobiT met-naklebad

farTo dokumentur pozitivizms; anda mivyavarT mravalmniSvnelovan

daskvnebamde, rogorc ki maT literaturis Teoriis

sferoSi movaqcevT, sadac yuradReba gadatanilia `universalurze~

da ara `kerZoze~. swored am dasasrulidan gamomdinareobs

eqsperimentulad dadasturebuli Tezisi poeziaSi

saerTo elementebis Sesaxeb; Tezisi, romlis ilustra-

111


ciacaa iaponuri, centraluri aziis, vedas masalebi 150 da a.S.

ritualuri sqemebis arseboba (indoeTSi, saberZneTSi da a.S.),

romlebic gadaiqcevian xolme kanonikur Txzulebebad da

Semdeg – `poeziad~, naTels hfens sxva universalur movlenas,

literaturis istoriis namdvil `kanons~: sasuliero poeziidan

saero poeziaze gadasvlas. alegoriis meqanizmi erTi da

igivea Sua saukuneebis qristianul da indur poeziaSi, iseve

rogorc didi epikuri poemebis Temebis agebuleba. 151 dasavleT

evropeli bardebis msgavsad, winareislamuri periodis arabi

poetebi arian agreTve omis istoriisa da genealogiis mTxrobelebi

152 da a.S. Tu gnebavT, es enciklopediuri codnaa, magram

mxolod erTi SexedviT. es aris universaluri literaturis

Teoria da, ubralod, literaturis Teoria, radgan mizna

isaxavs invariantebis garkvevas da Semdeg literaturis garkveuli

tipis gansazRvrebis (universaluris) Camoyalibebas.

5. kritika da uaryofiTi Sefaseba

zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, gasagebia, rom invariantebis

Teoria, rogorc axali komparativistuli midgomis sayrdeni,

iyo da kvlavac aris Znelad asaTvisebeli. es koncefcia

mudam iwvevs mkacr kritikas tradiciuli komparativizmis

momxreebisgan da, zogadad, Zveli skolebis warmomadgenlebisgan.

es kritika imave xasiaTisaa, rogoric gamoiwvia komparativistulma

literaturulma Teoriam da misma ganzogadebebma,

romelTac gavecaniT zemoT, an kidev nebismierma `poetikurma~

midgomam, romelic `istoriul~ perspeqtivas uswrebs

da masze maRla dgas. ase rom, invariantebis dasacavi

argumentaciis xelaxla Sedgena da sinTezurad CarTva ar

aris damokidebuli mWevrmetyvelebaze, aramed Seqcevadobis,

aucilebeli Teoriuli da meTodologiuri invariantulobis

kidev erTi da zusti SemTxvevaa (winamdebare eses suliskve-

Tebisa da xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT).

kargad aris cnobili reaqcia am axali radikalurad Teoriuli

perspeqtivis mimarT: sifrTxile, SiSi, mtruli damokidebuleba.

istorikosebi, cxadia, ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamen

bundovani da zedapiruli ganzogadebebis, Tavisufali arCevanis,

istoriuli sulis uqonlobis, anaqronizmis da amqveynad

arsebuli yvela codvis gamo. qvemoT moxmobil citatebSi ma-

Sinve amoicnobT istoriuli midgomis momxreTa Zvel pozitivistur,

konkretul SemTxvevaze damyarebul `simReras~: `Cven

ubralod uars vambobT, rom Tanmimdevrulobas safuZvlad

davudoT anaqronizmi~. 153 ar arsebobs istoriuli Tanmimdev-

112


uloba, aramed mxolod `yalbi safuZvliseuli azrebi, romliTac

savsea ararsebuli universaluri movlenebis istoria~.

154 maSasadame, fenomenologia da istoriuli morfologia,

metaistoriuli kategoriebi, sazogadoebaTa da saxelmwifoTa

tipologia (toinbiseuli Janri), stilistikis konceptebi

da sxva ram, rac istoriulad gadmogvecema, mTlianad unda

moviSoroT. katulusi – `romantikosi~? ki magram, is xom

mxolod erTxel gamoCnda istoriaSi! kidev metic, gamoCnda

im epoqaSi, roca ar arsebobda... romantizmi. 155 ai, meore istorikosic,

Tavis mxriv, uaryofs `msoflio eklesiis, universaluri

saxelmwifos an barbarosebis Semosevis gaugebar abstraqtul

konceptebs, ambobs: SevadaroT imisTvis, rom safuZvlianad

SevZloT am mxolobiTi SemTxvevebis Canacvleba

mravlobiTiT~. 156 is ubralo faqti, rom miuxedavad yvelafrisa,

arsebobs pirdapiri da aucilebeli dialeqtikuri kavSiri

`mravlobiTsa~ da `mxolobiTs~ Soris, ar afiqrebs am

profesionalebs.

romc movindomoT, mainc verafers gavxdebiT im komparativistebTan,

romlebic jiutad emxrobian meorexarisxovan da

genetikur faqtobriv kavSirebs (`aman gamoiwvia es~), ganxiluls

mkacrad pozitivisturi maneriT, invarianti rCeba ra-

Rac Zvelmanad. maTi azriT, igi tradiciuli da, imavdroulad,

internacionaluri xasiaTisaa, ar gaaCnia araviTari

myari dokumenturi safuZveli. invarianti erTgvar Tavbrusxvevasac

ki iwvevs yovelTvis, roca jiuti komparativistebi

grZnoben rogor mieqanebian terrae incognitae-sken. aqedan gamomdinare,

ganmeorebad Tematologias uwodeben `naCqarevs da banalurs~

(hastly and trivial), 157 maSin rodesac invariantebis Zieba,

maTi azriT, iqneboda `moCvenebiTi da amao mizani~; ufro metic,

amgvari midgoma SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis-

Tvis iqneboda namdvili `ideologiuri da meTodologiuri

TviTmkvleloba~ 158 (sic!). miuxedavad amisa, ukanaskneli cnobebis

Tanaxmad, komparativistika mSvenivrad ganagrZobs arsebobas,

TviTmkvlelobis araviTari survili ar gaaCnia... mainc

saWiroa misi dacva `mouxelTebeli jaSuSebisagan, romelTa

saqcieli yovlad upatiosnoa...~. 159

literaturis istorikosTa (romelTac, rogorc cnobilia,

arasodes umuSaviaT gemovnebis da RirebulebaTa Sefasebis

kritikaSi), literaturis esTetikosTa da antierudit

kritikosTa saocari kavSiris ZaliT, sawinaaRmdego polusze

gaerTianda yvela SeniSvna, romelic gamomdinareobs nawarmoebebis

gankerZoebulobidan Tu erovnuli literaturebidan.

maTi azriT, arsebobs mxolod mkacrad gankerZoebuli lite-

113


aturuli struqturebi, romelic gancalkevebuli arian TavianTi

unikalurobiT. mgoni aRar aris saWiro imis gameoreba,

rom nawarmoebis unikaluroba ewinaaRmdegeba yovelgvar invariants.

es imas niSnavs, rom invarianti moqceulia ormxriv

cecxlSi, kritikis ormag seriaSi, rac Tavs iyris erT wertilSi:

invarianti ar arsebobs. igi aris wminda wylis iluzia,

mecnieruli da meTodologiuri Secdoma.

am SemTxvevaSi cxadia, SeuZlebelia analogia da invariantuloba!

`gansxvavebuli da TviT kontrastuli elementebi

sxvadasxva erovnul literaturebs Soris asjer ufro sagrZnobia

vidre garegnuli msgavsebani, romlebic maT aaxloebs~.

160 es SeiZleba swori an mcdari iyos Tvalsazrisis da

perspeqtivis mixedviT, agreTve magaliTebis damowmebis wesis

Sesabamisad. nebismieri meTodologiuri da Teoriuli unifikaciisadmi

aseTi winaaRmdegoba, rogorc mosalodnelia iyo,

gaCnda `saerTo adgilebis~ (locus communis) mimarTac, romlebic

miCneulia `inertul~, `mkvdar~ adgilebad literaturul nawarmoebSi,

sadac Warbobs `individualuri midrekileba~, `saerTo

adgilebidan~ (locus communis) gaucxoeba-gancalkeveba. 161

es savsebiT sworia, magram ar exeba invariantis statuss. yvela

ganxiluli Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, invarianti dakavSirebulia

mxolod erTi nawarmoebis an nawarmoebTa jgufis saerTo

elementebTan, rasac aseve ver uarvyofT. invariantis

savsebiT uarsayofad Tavdapirvelad da umTavresad uari unda

vTqvaT am tipis gamokvlevebze, rac literaturis yovelgvari

esTetikisa da Teoriis wminda da martivi uaryofis

tolfasi iqneboda. cxadia, imave replikas vismenT Tematologiis

an konteqstis mixedviT cvalebadi funqciebis poziciebze

mdgomTagan. magram Tu `erTsa da imave elements~ sxvadasxva

konteqstSi gansxvavebuli funqciebi aqvs (udavo Tezisia),

gana es imas niSnavs, rom yvelafris miuxedavad, mudmivobisa

da Tanmimdevrulobis faqtori arsebobs? kidev erTxel vxedavT,

rom es aris mxolod meTodologiuri problema: invarianti

gamomdinareobs ramdenime elementis identurobidan,

misi funqcionaluri istoriuli statusidan. isev da isev

mxolod sakiTxisadmi midgomaSi gvaqvs gansxvaveba. es aris

mTavari problema ganzogadebis nebismieri procesis dros. ar

uaryofen `garkveul ganmeorebadobas~, `raRac saerTos~ yvela

zepir literaturaSi. magram gansxvavebuli stili, kulturis

simbolika, sajarod warmoTqmis gansxvavebuli pirobebi,

socialuri konteqsti nebismier ganzogadebas gadaaqcevs

`ubralo spekulaciad, sicxadis (obieqturis) nacvlad, an

tavtologiamde dahyavs is~. am rkinis logikis ZaliT, araso-

114


des iqneboda leqsikonebSi (da sxvagan) zepiri literaturis

gansazRvrebebi an kidev amave (semantikurad motivirebuli)

saTauris mqone wignebi. isec xdeba, rom erTi da igive avtorebi

uaryofen (zepiri) literaturis globalur gansazRvrebas

da aRiareben mis konkretul gansazRvrebas Janrebis mixedviT

(lirikuli da a.S.), 162 am dros aviwydebaT, rom ganmazogadebeli

gansazRvrebis meqanizmi orive SemTxvevaSi

identuria!

komparativistikis axali programis mamoZravebeli Zala

aris tipologiuri kvleva da kategoriebis gansazRvra. es

aris mis mier Riad, meTodologiurad aRiarebuli sagangebo

saxelmZRvanelo gegma. SeiZleba misi safuZvlebis uaryofa,

magram maTi aRiarebisTanave saWiroa, agreTve, Sedegebis dadastureba:

unda gadailaxos kerZo literaturul individualobaTa

horizonti imisaTvis, rom gadavideT yvelaze zogad

literaturul kategoriebze. Tu `sistema~ viwrovdeba mis qveda

zRvarze, Tu is mimarTulia kerZosa da gansxvavebulisaken,

is Tvalmiuwvdenlad farTovdeba mis zeda zRvarze, rogorc

ki mtkiced iqneba mimarTuli kategoriebisa da erTgvarovnebisaken.

faqtobrivad, yvelaferi mimarTulia ganzogadebisa

da abstraqciisaken, literaturis Teoriuli da zogadi

Sekvecisaken~. vis SeuZlia zusti zRvaris gavleba poetikasa

da poetikis `metismet~ ganzogadebas Soris? am Tvalsazriss

SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba kidev erTxel gadahyavs

sruliad axal, mTeli Tanamedrove poetikis niadagze anu literaturis

universalurobaze, rac literaturis Teoriis safuZvelia.

istoriasa da faqtebze dayrdnobili komparativistika,

rogorc vxedavT, miznisa da meTodis Zireuli cvlilebis

wyalobiT xdeba universalisturi da kategoriebiT datvirTuli.

`invariantis~ TviT idea ganzogadebis Sedegia, daaxloebaTa

mTeli seriis arsebiTi da koncefciadqceuli

nayofia. amgvarad, am abstraqtul planSi (romelsac aqvs misi

arsebobis ZiriTadi motivebi) literatura dayvanilia saerTo

mniSvnelebamde, romlebic erTdroulad pirobiTic aris da

tradiciulic. magram konceptebi rom ar iyos mTlianad an

nawilobriv adekvaturi da misaRebi, isini, vinc maT iyenebs,

didi xnis win TviTon ityodnen uars maTze (es xdeba zogjer),

rogorc yalbsa da araadekvaturze. maSasadame, saerTo

elementebis garkveuli raodenoba yovelTvis aris miCneuli

aseTad da, rac ar unda iyos, amarTlebs literaturis Teoriuli

`trafaretebis~ arsebobas.

zustad am sakiTxis gamo xdeba yvela savaraudo ganxeTqileba

da uTanxmoeba Zvel da axal komparativistikas Soris.

115


literaturuli kategoriebi, invariantiT dawyebuli, realuria

mxolod konceptebis doneze, radgan maTi struqtura da

saboloo mecnieruli mizandasaxuloba (amas davubrundebiT

momdevno TavSi) gulisxmobs Teoriul da meTodologiur

miznebs, romlebic konceptis bunebidan gamomdinareobs; koncepti

xom abstraqtuli da zogadi warmodgenaa, romelic

grZnobadi sinamdvilidan arsebiTs iRebs. SeiZleba kidev er-

Txel Segvepasuxon, rogorc, sxvaTa Soris, xSirad iqceodnen

xolme: Cven ar gvWirdeba arc literaturis Teoriuli gansazRvreba

an literaturuli kategoriebis dadgena (Janri,

forma da a.S.); Cven literatura gvainteresebs mxolod rogorc

`teqsti~, rogorc `siamovneba~, rogorc `utile dulci~ da

a.S. magram rogorc ki dainteresdeba vinme literaturis TeoriiT,

rac kanoniT ar aris akrZaluli, veRar uaryofs, rom

srulyofili `individualoba~ (e.i. invariantuloba) ganxorcieldeba

mxolod ideologiebis doneze (rac namdvilad

sworia, magram ar qmnis araviTar uxerxulobas), an kidev ver

uaryofs, rom paralelebze dayrdnobili ganzogadeba daiyvaneba

martiv `saerTo adgilebze~ (locus communis). 163 es gardauvalia

TviT im faqtidan gamomdinare, rom es `saerTo adgilebi~

(locus communis), e.i. zogadi elementebi – konceptebi da invariantebi

sagangebod aris gamokvleuli principulad da meTodurad.

amgvari kritika niSnavs Cveni problemis specifikuri

gegmis srul ucodinarobas. zogadi dakvirvebani, `saerTo

faqtorebis~ Zieba da a.S., ra Tqma unda, ar aris didi codva

(tradiciuli komparativistebis TvalsazrisiT)¹64, aramed qmnis

komparativistuli poetikis sayrden aparats. cxadia, saqme ar

exeba uzustes monacemebs, absolutur daskvnebs, srul damajereblobas,

rasac pozitivisturi xedva moiTxovs. invarianti

xasiaTdeba garkveuli relativizmiT, radgan misi realuroba,

upirveles yovlisa, dasturdeba mxolod zogad sistemasTan

erTobliobaSi, romelSic CarTulia igi da namdvilad

xdeba qmediTi. manamde is unda aviRoT da ganvsazRvroT cum

grano salis, niuansebiTa da sifrTxiliT.

rogorc vxedavT, yuradReba unda mivaqcioT imas, rom saerTo

elementebi ar iyos moCvenebiTi, saeWvo da ganzogadeba

– gaumarTlebeli.

116


V

komparativistuli meTodi

Cveni mTavari mizani – literaturis Teoriis anu komparativistuli

`poetikis~ Seqmna _ moiTxovs meTodis dazustebas,

romelic aRniSnuli miznis ganxorcielebis saSualebas

iZleva. martivi `Sedareba~ ar aris sakmarisi. amiT aris gamowveuli

Zalian (gana saWiroa amis gameoreba?) miaxloebiTi da

Seusabamo, Zalian gavrcelebuli sityvieri etiketis (`komparativizmi~)

gamoyeneba, romelic mTlianad moicavs am operaciebs.

albaT, es Cvevaa an inercia.

1. gansakuTrebuli meTodi

Tavidanve unda gavarkvioT ramdenime ZiriTadi problema.

Tu `komparativizmi~ warmoadgens literaturuli kritikisa

da istoriis aucilebel nawils, maTi tradiciuli gansaz-

Rvrebebis Tanaxmad, maSin misi `meTodi~ `Cveulebrivi~ literaturuli

kritikisa da istoriis Sesabamisi iqneba. am mxriv

araviTari realuri meTodologiuri progresi mosalodneli

ar aris. magram komparativizmi mowodebulia wmindad Teoriuli

mimarTulebisTvis, orientacia aRebuli aqvs literaturisaken

(universalurisaken), is varaudobs, is moiTxovs kidec

axali miznis Sesaferis meTods, romelsac mivyavarT literaturis

Teoriamde. swored aq unda aRiniSnos xazgasmiT,

rom es axali `komparativizmi~ moiTxovs avtonomiur meTodologias.

cxadia, is Tavis saunjes miiRebs iq, sadac ipovis

mas, magram mopovebuli meTodebis erToblioba iqneba dasaxuli

miznis Sesabamisad xelaxla gansazRvruli, readaptirebuli

da reorganizebuli. mxolod amgvarad SeiZleba aseTi Sedegis

misaRwevad saWiro gansakuTrebuli teqnikis axali daniSnulebiT

gansazRvra.

am axali komparativizmis mTavari amocana iqneba ama Tu

im arsebuli meTodis gameorebis Tavidan acileba, Tundac

mas mouxdes Tavis msvlelobaSi an gzis dasasruls imave Sedegebamde

misvla, rac cnobili meTodebiT aris miRweuli. am

TvalsazrisiT SesaZlebelia, rom meTodi ufro metad Rirebuli

iyos, vidre Sedegi, radgan igi Semofarglavs da gakvalavs

codnis axal sferos. meore mxriv, ar unda dagvaviwydes,

rom meTodi fasobs imiT, Tu vin iyenebs mas, ar arsebobs

117


saswaulebrivi gadawyvetileba, magram meTodologiuri orientaciis

gareSe yvelaferi wyalSi Caiyreba. miaxloebiToba da

improvizacia gardauvalia. Tavi unda davizRvioT, agreTve da

amTaviTve, zogierTi bunebrivi maxisa da dabrkolebisagan,

romelsac SeuZlia Cafiqrebuli operaciis CaSla.

pirvel rigSi, dauSvebelia winamorbedTa Rvawlis ucodinaroba

an qedmaRlurad ugulvebelyofa. miuxedavad yvelafrisa,

arsebobs garkveuli komparativistuli meTodologiuri

tradicia da saWiroa misgan masalebis SerCeva. SeuZlebelia

as welze meti xnis komparativistuli azrovnebisa da

praqtikis wyalSi gadayra: forToxali jer kargad unda gamovwuroT

da qerqi mere unda gadavagdoT. komparativizms, Tu

is `namdvilia~, ar sWirdeba didi sesxis, meqanikuri saSualebebis

sxvagan Zieba, vidre wvril badeSi ar gaatarebs yvela

arsebul did da patara elements, romlebis gamoyenebac isev

SeiZleba; sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, sanam ar Seiswavlis Rrmad

sakuTar `Sinagan resursebs~. es ukanaskneli jer kidev Sesaswavlia

da, ra Tqma unda, dasaxvewi da ara savsebiT dasaviwyebeli

ama Tu im inteleqtualuri Tu meTodologiuri modis

sanacvlod.

Tavidan unda aviciloT kidev erTi gaugebroba: xSirad

erevaT erTmaneTSi tradiciuli filologiuri da istoriuli

meTodebis mTeli seria (romelic ar SeiZleba, rom

komparativistikam ugulebelyos) da sakuTriv komparativistuli

meTodi, romelic unda iyos avtonomiuri da romlis-

Tvisac sxva danarCeni meTodebi globalur ganxilvaSi Car-

Tuli mxolod nawilobrivi da gardamavali procedurebi da

xerxebia. rodesac amboben, rom komparativizms ara aqvs `mxolod

erTi meTodi~, 1 is farTod iyenebs aRweras, interpretacias,

axsna-ganmartebas, Sedarebas, paralelebs da sxva, es

erTdroulad marTalic aris da tyuilic. simarTlea imitom,

rom es meTodebi, romelTa gamoyeneba komparativistikis sferos

cildeba da romelTac ar gaaCniaT araviTari sagangebo

komparativistuli niSani, nebismieri meToduri kvlevebisTvis

aucilebelia, rogorc Semadgeneli nawilebi; tyuilia imis

gamo, rom es Tezisi gamoricxavs erTbaSad axali da specifikuri

komparativistuli meTodis hipoTezas, romelsac SeuZlia

axali TvalsazrisiT moawyos da gamarTos Zveli meTodebis

erToblioba. amis gamo, komparativistika mijaWvulia

gansakuTrebiT istoriul da genetikur meTodebze, romelTa

sicocxlisunarianoba ufro didi aRmoCnda; aman gamoiwvia

komparativizmis Semofargvla literaturis istoriis martivi

dargis CarCoebiT. amgvar midgomas mivyavarT SedarebiTi

118


literaturuli esTetikis sruliad sxva JanrTan, romelic,

ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, dayvanilia martiv literaturul

stilistikamde.

aranakleb aucilebelia ekleqtikisadmi mtkice winaaRmdegobis

gaweva. im pirobebSi, roca originaluri komparativistuli

meTodologiuri azrovneba naklebad ganviTarebulia,

axali meTodebis wnexis qveS vawydebiT sapirispiro movlenas

– sul ufro mravalricxovan hibridul wanazardebs;

isini unda moviSoroT, radgan xelovnuria da maTi asimilacia

(Serwyma) SeuZlebelia. Sedegad, axali meTodebis uzomo

SemoTavazebebis gamo (struqturalizmi, semiotika, romlebic

gamomdinareobs recefciis an komunikaciis Teoriidan), komparativizmi

gadaiqca sakuWnaod; amas aucileblad mosdevs ama

Tu im moduri disciplinis mier komparativistikis aneqsia da

sabolood STanTqma. aravin edaveba maT sakuTar sferoSi,

magram ra jadoqrobiT xdebian es meTodebi TandaTan `komparativistuli~,

rodesac komparativizmi moulodnelad

`struqturalistur~ an `semiotikur~ saxes iRebs? aucilebeli

da nayofieri gavlenaa es Tu samuSao sqemebis meqanikuri

gadmotana, romlebic sruliad gansxvavebuli miznebisTvis

aris SemuSavebuli? normaluri meTodolologiuri evolucia

Tu heterogenuli teqnikis konglomerati, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba

sinTezs? (rom ar vifiqroT, saqme exeba, ubralod, zedapirul

terminologiur `nakrebso~).

simarTle rom vTqvaT, komparativistikis kavSiri axal

tendenciebTan dRevandeli dRiT ar TariRdeba: 2 es aris Tanamedrove

kulturuli konteqstis Zlieri gavlenisa da komparativizmis

mudmivad susti meTodologiuri avtonomiis Sedegi.

arsebobs `Ria karis~ tradicia, romelzec mudam aris mo-

Txovna da romlis specifikuri argumentebi daaxloebiT qvemoT

iqneba CamoTvlili, axla ki daviwyoT erT-erTi savaldebuloTi

– `meTodebis pluralizmiT~. mas mxars uWeren, rogorc

faqtobriv situacias; meore mxriv ki imitom hyavs momxreebi,

rom arCevani SeuZlebeli iqneboda an imitom, rom er-

Ti meTodi meoris garantiaa. Tanamedrove kvleva meTodologiis

sferoSi 3 pirdapir Tu iribad dadebiTad afasebs meTodebis

Tanaarsebobas. amasTanave, saSualebas iZleva, rom

daviwyebas mieces `komparativistuli~ meTodi, Tundac is

dayvanil iqnas martiv `Sedarebamde~.

gana es sakvirvelia mas Semdeg, rac komparativistebi

TviTon ilaSqreben mxolod erTi meTodis `monopoliis~ winaaRmdeg,

rac niSnavs ekleqtizmis daufarav qebas? 4 aqedan

gamomdinareobs yvelaze TvalsaCino meTodebis `integraciis~

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an `STanTqmis~ taqtika (`Tuki komparativizms surs darCes inteleqtualuri

progresis centrSi~). 5 tipobrivi argumenti

ormagad sagulisxmoa, romlis Tanaxmadac, erTi mxriv, yvela

meTodi iqneboda `meorexarisxovani~, meore mxriv ki, es meTodebi

`gaacocxlebda Cvens dargs~. 6 erTi SexedviT, ufro damajerebeli

Cans kidev erTi Tvalsazrisi: radgan komparativizmi

aris `literaturis Seswavla~ (all literature), man `principulad

unda dauSvas yvela meTodis gamoyeneba~ (all methods of

approach). 7 magram es mosazreba, upirveles yovlisa, ver uZlebs

TviT `literaturis~ (all literature) gansazRvrebis martiv

moTxovnas. es iseTi mizania, romlis miRweva SeuZlebelia

`yvela meTodis~ ganurCeveli gamoyenebiT. igi ganxorcieldeba

mxolod erTi meTodiT, specifikuri, am miznisaken mimar-

Tuli meTodiT, rogoric Cven warmogvidgenia an sxva meTodiT,

magram isev `monisturiT~. maSasadame, marTali arian

komparativistebi, romlebic ewinaaRmdegebian Zneladmosanelebel

Methodenpluralismus, ar eTanxmebian sxva dargebis Teoriul

poziciebs da ocneboben erT meTodze, romelic iqneba

`nawilobriv an mTlianad Cveni~ (partly or wholly our own). 8 miuxedavad

amisa, isini jer kidev dganan Rrma tradiciul poziciebze

an kidev xsnas imagologiaSi da mentalobis Semswavlel

mecnierebaSi xedaven. cxadia, am disciplinebs aqvT saku-

Tari interesis sfero, magram isini orientirebuli ar arian

komparativistuli poetikis mizanze: literaturis, rogorc

azrovnebisa da gamoxatvis specifikuri formis gansazRvrisa

da Seswavlisaken.

am TvalsazrisiT, problema kvlav Riad rCeba. mosalodnelia,

rom mdgomareoba ucvleli iqneba, sanam romelime axali

meTodi ar gamoCndeba Sesaferis komparativistul perspeqtivaSi,

rogoric Cven ganvsazRvreT da safuZvlianad miviCnieT.

Tu komparativistebi maTi midgomis centrSi ar daayeneben

literaturis sagans, literaturas da Tu isini uars

ityvian mis gansazRvraze an CaaxSoben mas rTul msjelobaSi,

romelic, faqtobrivad, sxva tipis sakiTxebs pasuxobs, gamosavali

karga xans ar gamoCndeba.

amasTan dakavSirebiT, sxvaTa Soris, sarwmuno araferi

isaxeba aqamde; es imitom xdeba, rom yvela dasaxelebuli me-

Todi: struqturalizmi, semiologia, `komunikacia~, `recefcia~,

teqstis Teoria da a.S. Camoyalibda avtonomiur disciplinad,

komparativizmisagan sruliad gansxvavebuli meTodebi-

Ta da miznebiT. maT mier miRweuli saboloo Sedegi gaxlavT

literaturis, rogorc terminologiis, Teoriuli tradiciis,

specifikuri avtonomiuri gansazRvrebisa da struqturis bo-

120


lomde `daSla~. literatura gadaiqca `struqturad~, `niSnad~,

`komunikaciad~, `teqstad~ da a.S. savsebiT kanonieri safuZvelia,

ueWvelad, magram komparativizmTan misi gaerTianeba

im pirobiT, rom es dargi isev SeinarCunebs sakuTar Teoriul,

epistemologiur da kulturul safuZvlebs – jer kidev

ganuxorcielebelia.

aviRoT struqturalizmis magaliTi, romlis moqmedebis

are iseTi universaluri gaxda, rom literatura TiTqmis gaqra

TvalTaxedvidan. ra gansxvavebaa Teoriuli, `poetikuri~

Tu sxva saxis komparativizmis sferoSi arsebul literaturul

struqturasa (davuSvaT, rom arsebobs aseTi struqtura)

da nebismier sxva `struqturas~ Soris? anda literaturul

komunikaciasa da ubralod `komunikacias~ Soris? 9 erTi saukeTeso

mcdelobis miuxedavad, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT

mainc verafers mivaRwieT (imedi viqonioT, rom es droebiTia),

radgan yvela gamoyenebul sintagmaSi (`literaturuli teqsti~,

`literaturuli komunikacia~, `literaturuli sistema~,

`literaturuli kodi~), sityva `literaturuli~ jer kidev

ar aris kargad gansazRvruli. ra safuZvelze gamoyofen mas

`komunikaciisagan~ an `teqstisagan~? mankieri wre Sekrulia:

`literaturuli komunikaciis~ Sedegebs ipovnian operaciis

bolos, magram niadagi winaswar ar aris momzadebuli mkafio

da naTeli hipoTezebiT: gvTavazoben komunikaciis Teorias,

magram agreTve Teoriul-literaturuli komunikaciis, komparativistuli

komunikaciis Teorias (ratomac ara?) da a.S. ra

gansxvavebaa, magaliTad, Revue de literature comparée-s (`Sedarebi-

Ti literaturaTmcodneobis Jurnali~) statiebSi mocemul

`komunikaciasa~ da Génie civil-Si (`samoqalaqo mSenebloba~) mocemul

“komunikacias” Soris? komparativizmis gaTanamedrovebis

mizniT, gvirCeven `faqtobrivi kavSirebis~ `literaturuli

kodebis~ SeswavliT Secvlas. metad sasurveli operaciaa,

magram mainc ganuxorcielebelia, Tu yoveli kodisaTvis

calke ar gansazRvraven `literaturis~ gansakuTrebul ideas,

saidanac es kodebi momdinareoben. amitom aris savaldebulo

am ideis istoriasTan da istoriul semantikasTan dabruneba.

es aris ZiriTadi operacia, romelic `kodebis~ Teoretikosebs

(da ara literaturuli ideebis istorikosebs, romlebic

ufro ganswavluli arian am sferoSi), rogorc Cans, gamorCaT

mxedvelobidan.

mdgomareoba kvlav saorWofoa da yovel wuTs SeiZleba

movtyuvdeT. erTi SexedviT, ufro misaRebi Cans (am momentis-

Tvis mainc) `interteqstualobis~ Teoria. zogierTebi (arc

Tu umciresoba) amaSi xedaven myar safuZvels an erTaderT

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SesaZleblobas komparativizmisTvis. 10 magram, saukeTeso Sem-

TxvevaSi, `interteqstualoba~ moicavs mxolod komparativizmis

Zalian mcire fragments. faqtobrivad, saqme exeba mxolod

axal termins Zalian nacnobi da tradiciuli `gavlenebis-

Tvis~ (plagiati, citireba, reminiscencia, aluzia, imitacia,

parodia, mibaZva, parafrazi, mokled, `literaturiT Seqmnili

literaturis~ mTeli sfero). 11 es igive mRvdelia, magram WilofSi.

am mxriv komparativizmis problematika rCeba Zalian

SezRuduli; dapirebuli ganaxleba da gafarToeba isev survilebis

doneze rCeba mxolod. iqneb recefciis Teoriam gamogviyvanos

gasaWiridan? Soridan is yvelaze mwyobri, sakuTari

sferos mqone Cans, sadac ueWvelad SeiZleba `gavlenis~ cneba

Seicvalos `recefciiT~ da a.S. miuxedavad amisa, xelaxla

Cndeba gadamwyveti dilema: `komparativizmi~ an unda iyos Se-

Tavsebadi meTodi da darCes martiv saxeldebiT, terminologiur

pirobiTobad; Sesabamisad, is Zalian marTebulad SeiZleba

Seicvalos `semiotikiT~, `interteqstualobiT~, `recefciiT~

da a.S.; anda komparativizmi unda aRniSnavdes specifikur

operaciebs da am SemTxvevaSi es termini SesanarCunebelia

da dasazustebeli. interferenciis, Tanxvedris, Sepirispirebis

SemTxvevaSi, ris uaryofac SeuZlebelia, romeli kriteriumi

gadawyvets aRiarebuli terminologiis Secvlas Tu

SenarCunebas, ase vTqvaT, arCevans semiotikur komparativizmsa

da komparativistul semiotikas Soris? dasaSvebia erTaderTi

pasuxi: meTodi unda iyos specifikuri, romelic yvela SemTxvevaSi

gamoricxavs hibriduli, naZaladevi, xelovnuri gavlenebis

Semotevas. meTodebis specifikurobis da avtonomiis SenarCuneba

aris, faqtobrivad, erTaderTi meTodi, romelsac

SeuZlia uzrunvelyos codnis gafarToeba.

miuxedavad garkveuli gadatvirTvisa da aranakleb sagrZnobi

gajerebisa struqturalistur-semiotikuri cnebebiT,

komparativistul meTodologias (namdvils) bevri ram aqvs

saswavli `axali meTodebisagan~, pirvel rigSi, maTi simtkice

da ukompromisoba, gansakuTrebiT maTi universalisturi

miswrafeba. Tuki arsebobs `zogadi semiotika~, ratom ar unda

arsebobdes, agreTve, `zogadi SedarebiTi poetika~? SeiZleba

visargebloT TviT maTi SezRudvis unariTac, anu reduqcionizmiT,

im azriT, rom win wamovwioT, ase vTqvaT, garkveuli

(da nayofieri) komparativistuli reduqcionizmi. Tu `mecnierul~

meTodebs literatura dahyavT enobriv faqtamde, kargad

gagebuli komparativizmi gamoricxavs am mavne asimilacias,

am uzomo panlingvizms. 12 igi `SezRudavs~ mis miznebs mebrZoli

literaturuli ideologiisa da sruluflebiani li-

122


teraturis Teoriis donemde, romlisTvisac ena mxolod da

mxolod instrumentia. am TeoriisTvis mxolod `dasrulebuli

produqcia~ rCeba Seswavlis privilegirebul sagnad. vinaidan

literatura ufro metia, vidre romelime enobrivi monacemi,

enaTmecnierebas ar SeuZlia pasuxi gasces literaturis

yvela sakiTxs, TviT yvelaze specifikursac ki, imis gaTvaliswinebiT,

rom specifikuroba, `literaturuloba~ sxvagan

unda veZioT, rasac SemogTavazebT winamdebare eses dasasruls.

amgvarad, es iSviaTi konceptualuri da meTodologiuri

aparati aucileblad scildeba mizans, upirveles yovlisa,

gaurkvevlobis, meryeobis an centraluri konceptis, literaturis

konceptis sruli uqonlobis gamo. SedarebiTi poetika,

pirvel rigSi, miznad isaxavs swored literaturis

konceptis TvalsaCinod gamoyofas. xelmeored gavamaxvilebT

yuradRebas, Tu ratom ar exeba pirdapir literaturis SedarebiT

Teorias arc `miTebis~, arc `saxeebis~ da arc `mentalobis~

Seswavla; imitom, rom es movlenebi ar aris specifikurad

`literaturuli~; maT xSirad aklia TviT teqstobrivi

gamoxatuleba, romelic dakavSirebulia damwerlobasTan. ufro

metic, am kvlevebis perspeqtiva yovelTvis da savsebiT

istoriulia.

ai, ramdeni argumenti gvaqvs imisTvis, rom erTdroulad

gamovricxoT ekleqtizmi da meTodologiuri xelCaqneuloba

_ komparativistuli (specifikurad) meTodis es ori didi

dabrkoleba. SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneobis saerTaSoriso

asociaciis bolo yrilobebis aqtebis sarCevi gviCvenebs

meTodologiuri Cxirkedelaobis srul suraTs, maSin rodesac

universaluri literaturis SeswavlisTvis saWiro `axali

meTodebis~ srulyofili aTviseba mxolod sawyis etapzea.

13 ekleqtizmi, imis CaTvliT, romelic moqmedebs `literaturul

mecnierebaSi~, safuZvels uryevs da ayalbebs kvlevebis

mimarTulebas ise, rom ver iqmneba axali sinTezi, `meta-

Teoria~. 14 rac Seexeba komparativizmis meTodologiur `kapitulacias~,

es aris Tanamedrove filosofiebisa da meTodologiebis

usazRvro avtoritetis winaSe misi `ganiaraRebis~

Sedegi; es ukanasknelni, rogorc Cans, zRudaven mis horizonts.

erT-erTi analitikuri filosofiis Tanaxmad, literaturul

mecnierebas arc unda hqondes meTodi, radgan logikis

meTodi unda iyos erTaderTi SesaZlebeli meTodi. 15

cxadia, roca ar gaaCniaT zusti mizani, roca vera da

ver daudgeniaT komparativizmis sfero, verc Tanamedrove me-

Todebis Sesabamis adgils miuCenen mas 16 da verc daakanoneben

amgvari xasiaTis kvlevas. sxvaTa Soris, istoriuli kvleve-

123


is momxre komparativistebisTvis `SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas

ar gaaCnia specifikuri meTodologia da unda ganixilebodes

literaturis istoriis specializebul ganStoebad~:

aqedan gamomdinareobs qedmaRluri gulgriloba `meTodologiis

Seqmnis unarisadmi~ (methodische Erregbarkeit). 17 sxvebi

saubroben `meTodis Ziebaze, rogorc mosabezrebel saqmeze`

da frTxilad gamoTqvamen eWvs `specifikurad komparativistuli

meTodis~ arsebobis Sesaxeb, romelic ar iqneba miCneuli

`aSkarad ganvlil~ 18 etapad. zogierTi ufro Semrigebluri

Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, specifikuri komparativistuli

meTodebi (maTi arsebobis kvalobaze) mainc gamoiyeneba, magram

maTi ricxvi, yovel SemTxvevaSi, `SedarebiT mcirea~. 19 saboloo

angariSiT, Tu sagani cudad aris gansazRvruli, veraviTari

specifikuri meTodologia ver Camoayalibebs mas –

aseTia obieqturi komparativistebis palinodia. 20 amiT aixsneba

sawinaaRmdego poziciebis mniSvneloba (rogoric ar unda

iyos SemoTavazebuli gadawyvetilebebi). am poziciebSi sayveduria

gamoTqmuli `empiriuli disciplinis~ Sesaxeb (romelic

mowodebulia, rom viTarebis mixedviT, droebiT gadawyvitos

`erTi SemTxveva meoris Semdeg~) an `meTodologiuri

deficitis~ da gansxvavebuli kritikuli meTodologiebis

martivi `Tanwyobis~ gamo. 21

2. axali `paradigma~

rogorc vxedavT, aucilebeli gaxda meTodologiuri

perspeqtivis `paradigmis~ (dRevandel enaze Tu vityviT) Zireuli

cvlileba. keTili, magram rogoria es axali `paradigma~?

upirveles yovlisa, es aris iseTi `paradigma~, romelic

moiTxovs axal sagans da axal komparativistul meTods, rac

niSnavs (namdvil) komparativistul `poetikas~. amasTanave, es

axali `paradigma~ sxvagan, mezobel an Soreul disciplineb-

Si ki ar aris saZebari, aramed TviT komparativistuli tradiciis

SigniT, misi konceptualuri da meTodologiuri velis

farglebSi, romelic mTlianad unda gardaiqmnas.

cnobilia cneba `paradigmis~ xvedriTi wili gansakuTrebiT

anglo-saqsuri da germanuli, Tomas s.kunis naSromebis

gagrZelebaSi. `paradigma~ igivea, rac `sanimuSo~ meTodebis,

problemebis da gadawyvetilebebis erToblioba, romelic

garkveul epoqaSi batonobs samecniero sferoSi da romlis

cvlilebas mosdevs `samecniero revuluciebi~. 22 misi yvelaze

srulyofili gamoyeneba literaturul gamokvlevebSi, ker-

Zod, h.r.iausis naSromebSi, cxadyofs sami `paradigmis~ Tanmim-

124


devrobas: dogmatikuris, klasikuris, istoriulis. samive maTgani

momdinareobs stilistikidan da imanenturis esTetikidan

(werkimmanente Ästhetik). am sqemis mixedviT, `SedarebiTi literaturaTmcodneoba~

meore paradigmis nawilia: Historismus. 23 es

problema miCneulia, rogorc gadawyvetili da ganvlili,

radgan h.r. iausis an sxvebis 24 mier ganxiluli axali perspeqtivebidan

(hermenevtikuli, sociologiuri, arqetipuli,

struqturalisturi) arcerTi ar mianiSnebs komparativizmis

arc gagrZelebas da arc gaaxalgazrdavebas. komparativizmis

`axal paradigmasTan~ dakavSirebis gabedulma mcdelobam

(rogoric iyo d.u.fokemas mcdeloba, romelic komparativizmis

aucileblobis da misi pirobebis 25 mkafio SegnebiT iyo

gamsWvaluli) gadawyveta hpova komunikaciis TeoriaSi, rogorc

ukve aRvniSneT.

`paradigmis~ Cvens mier SemoTavazebuli cvlileba gulisxmobs

literaturis komparativistul Teorias, romelsac

aqvs damoukidebeli epistemologiuri, meTodologiuri da

istoriuli safuZvlebi. rogorc nebismier `poetikas~, am Teoriasac

miznad eqneba mxolod nawarmoebebis zeindividualuri

aspeqtebis kvleva. aqedan momdinareobs `universaluri poetikis~

mcdeloba, romelmac xidi unda gados individualur

nawarmoebs, erovnul literaturas (literaturebs) da Saliteraturo

enas Soris. SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas

SeuZlia am `ufskrulis~ 26 amovseba, magram am miznis gansaxorcieleblad

meTodologiurma instrumentebma feri unda

icvalon. `faqtobrivi kavSirebis~ nacvlad, wmindad Teoriuli

mimarTebebi; SeuzRudavi literaturuli realobebis magivrad,

saerTo elementebis Zieba `invariantebis~ formiT;

dogmaturi da normatiuli `universaliebis~ nacvlad, aRwerilobiTi

da progresuli `universaliebi~; erTxel da samudamod

mocemuli universaluri sinamdvilisaken mimarTuli me-

Todis magivrad, sinamdvilis universaluri SesaZleblobis

gamovlinebis meTodi; xazgasmiT `pirovnuli~, intuiciuri, impresionistuli

gadawyvetilebebis nacvlad, winamorbedebis

meToduri SerCeva; tradiciul safuZvlebs moklebuli Teoriis

magivrad, Teoria, romlic ubrundeba wina monapovars istoriuli

perspeqtividan; meTodebisa da am `paradigmis~ 27

pluralizmis sanacvlod, meTodologiuri monizmis upiratesoba;

pozitivisturi da neopozitivisturi `mecnieruli~ cdunebis

magivrad, aSkarad `pre~ anu Tu gnebavT, `post~ `samecniero~

Teoria da meTodi, romlis mizania mxolod `miaxloebi-

Ti~, magram Sesabamisi, e.i. dasabuTebuli hipoTezebi. es imas

niSnavs, rom hipoTezebi unda iyos mwyobri, Camoyalibebuli

125


da statistikurad damowmebuli Tavis saorientacio gegmaSi.

am sakiTxs davubrundebiT dawvrilebiT gansaxilvelad, magram

Sesavlis nacvlad, axlave aRvniSnavT xazgasmiT, rom amgvari

komparativistuli poetika ar gardaiqmneba arc abstraqtul

poetikad da arc poetikebis istoriad, aramed am

ori Tvalsazrisis Sualedur sinTezad iqceva da gaagrZelebs

winsvlas mxolod Sualeduri gadawyvetilebebiT invariantisa

da istoriuli viTarebis mijnaze. mokled, paradigmis

yvelaze gadamwyveti cvlileba, Cveni azriT, es aris komparativizmis

svla literaturis Teoriisaken miuxedavad yvela

sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebisa (`metismetad farTo~ Teoria,

`bundovani` da a.S.). 28 arian ufro kompetenturi komparativistebi,

romlebic eTanxmebian Teoriul ganzogadebas, principis

29 an istoriuli Tvalsazrisis gamo: literaturuli `kanonis~

cvlilebas Cvens epoqaSi aucileblad unda mohyves

igive cvlileba literaturul gamokvlevebSi. 30 Tundac mcire

eWvi specifikuri komparativistuli meTodis aucileblobis

Sesaxeb xazgasmiT aris aRsaniSnavi, radgan, ZiriTadad, `Cveni

dargi sagangebod ar aris mowodebuli yvela saxis kritikis

praqtikisaTvis~. 31

meore mxriv, axali midgoma, upirveles yovlisa da rac

SeiZleba garkveviT, warmogvidgeba, rogorc evristikuli hipoTeza,

rogorc kvleviTi da operatiuli muSaobis instrumenti.

es ukanaskneli gansazRvravs safexurebad dayofil

daskvnebs, romelTa gasworeba SeiZleba masalebis dagrovebis

paralelurad; imavdroulad TiToeuli etapi ganapirobebs

momdevnos. SemTxveviTi dakavirvebebis safuZvelze iqmneba hipoTezebi,

romlebic, Tavis mxriv, mowmdeba ufro da ufro mizanmimarTuli

dakvirvebebiT. amgvarad Seqmnili yvela Teoria

warmoadgens mxolod `Ria~ hipoTezebs faqtebis mimarT, maSin

rodesac maTi Seqmnis meTodi viTardeba TviT meTodologiis

daxvewis paralelurad. es aris daaxloebiT `ese~ (`mcdeloba~)

terminis etimologiuri mniSvnelobiT. es meTodi far-

Tod gamoiyeneba operaciebSi, romlebic miCneulia, rogorc

`winare mecnieruli~, swored maTi hipoTezur-deduqciuri da

statistikuri xasiaTis gamo. 32 magram aRniSnul operaciebs xeli

ar SeuSlia, magaliTad, enaTmecnierebaSi nayofieri hipo-

Tezebis SeqmnisTvis, rogoricaa Tavdapirveli `indoevropulis~

rekonstruqcia (hipoTezis saxiT), an, ase vTqvaT, `kombinaciisa~

da `seleqciis~ `RerZebis~ aRdgenis hipoTeza, romelTa

ekvivalenturoba (roman iakobsonis azriT) warmoSobda

poetur funqcias. `formaluri meTodis~ Teoria poetikaSi

aris, aseve, `mxolod da mxolod samuSao hipoTeza, romlis

126


saSualebiTac miuTiTeben da axsnian faqtebs: maTi sistematuri

xasiaTis dadgenis Semdeg iwyeben faqtebis kvlevas`. 33 gaugebaria,

SedarebiTi poetika ratom ar iyenebs imave meTods,

Tundac sakuTari riskis fasad, ratom ar xdeba aSkarad evristikuli,

rac zogjer uyoymanod gaukeTebiaT. 34 TviT invariantebi

da maTi klasifikacia, agreTve, evristikuli produqciaa,

amiT aixsneba maTi adgilebis Secvlis SesaZlebloba,

maTi urTierTCanacvlebis Tviseba.

gavixsenoT Cveni ZiriTadi hipoTeza: universaluri literatura

(romelic Sedgeba msoflios yvela literaturisagan,

didi da patara literaturebisagan, romlebic, erTad Serwymuli,

qmnian wminda da martiv literaturas), warmoadgens SedarebiTi

literaturaTmcodneobisa da poetikis obieqtur safuZvels.

Tu ZiriTadi principi, rogoricaa `universaluri

literaturis~ principi, romelic adre ganvixileT (Tavi II),

sul ufro misaRebi xdeba (yovel SemTxvevaSi, savaldebulo

hipoTezis saxiT mainc), 35 misi ganxorcielebis meTodi axla

iqmneba rCevisa da cdis saxiT. am meTodis damaxasiaTebeli

niSnebi aucileblad evristikulia: dasaxuli miznebisa da

Sedegebis misaRwevad adaptirebuli meTodi, literaturis TeoriaSi

miRebuli xerxi; 36 am meTodis Sedegebi (Teoriebi, zogadi

da nawilobrivi daskvnebi da a.S.) ar aris `namdvili~,

aramed _ mxolod `sasargeblo~, ramdenadac upiratesoba eni-

Weba yvelaze damakmayofilebel ganmartebebs. 37 Teoria miT

ufro damakmayofilebelia, rac ufro farTo SesaZleblobas

iZleva ganxiluli literaturuli movlenebis wakiTxvis, ma-

Ti gaerTianebisa da dalagebisaTvis. saklasifikacio invariantebis

wyalobiT, SeiZleba yvela saerTo elementis povna,

Semofargvla da dalageba gansxvavebul da kargad Semosaz-

Rvrul klasebad CamonaTvalis saSualebiT. es saerTo elementebi

ekuTvnian erTsa da imave erTgvarovan kategorias,

progresuli ganzogadebisa da tipologiis doneebs.

Semowmeba moiTxovs kriteriumebis garkveul raodenobas,

romlebsac am Tavis dasasruls CamovTvliT. amjerad xazi gavusvaT

yvelaze mniSvnelovan pirobas, romelic gamomdinareobs

Cveni meTodis hipoTezuri xasiaTidan: hipoTeza miCneulia

misaRebad da misi kritikiT unda damtkicdes misi siyalbe da

ara piriqiT. cxadia, SeiZleba nebismieri hipoTezis uaryofa,

magram dasabuTeba yovelTvis aris per a contrario: unda davamtkicoT,

rom esa Tu is invarianti ararealuria, rom esa Tu

is ganzogadeba uxeiroa da a.S. literaturuli hipoTezis Semowmeba

namdvilad SesaZlebelia obieqturi mtkicebulebebiT,

ise rogorc sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebSi, magram yovel-

127


Tvis a posteriori: rodesac erTi sapirispiro magaliTi gadamwyvetia,

unda SeimuSaon axali hipoTeza ad hoc 38 da ase Semdeg.

hipoTeza Seswordeba an Seivseba mTeli rigi kritikuli SeniSvnebiT,

magram igi arasodes dakargavs iniciativas da metadre

mis umaRles mizans: literaturisadmi globalur

midgomas.

zemoT aRniSnulis miuxedavad, literaturis Teoriis hipoTezuri

statusi TandaTanobiT misaRebi xdeba am sakiTxiT

dainteresebuli komparativistebisaTvis. 39 aqedan gamomdinareobs

Sedegebis garkveuli raodenoba, maT Soris zogierTi sagulisxmo

Sedegic: komparativistuli poetikis dasawyisi da

mis mier ganvlili gza zustad iseTive mniSvnelovania, rogorc

Sedegebi; am poetikis statusi aris ara `logikuri~,

aramed Teoriuli da ideologiuri, ase vTqvaT funqcionalur-evristikul

doneze; literaturuli hipoTezebi ar gulisxmobs

raime Sesabamis prognozs; 40 misi mudmivi Sesworebebi

gamoricxavs srulyofis hipoTezas; sabolood, meTodi –

`es aris gza mas Semdeg, rac is ganvlilia~ (marsel grane).

Cveni axali `paradigma` amave dros da Tavidanve moiTxovs

axal damokidebulebas literaturuli terminologiisadmi,

dawyebuli im magiuri da pirobiTi sityvidan, rogoric

aris `komparativizmi`. saqme exeba Zireul cvlilebas

axali miznebis Sesabamisad: istoriuli tipis terminologiidan

kategoriebis, tipologiis, mokled rom vTqvaT, ganzogadebis

terminologiaze gadasvla. amas mosdevs seriozuli Zalisxmeva

yvela gamoyenebuli terminis semantikis gasarkvevad

da maTi axali gansazRvrebis dasadgenad. es aris umTavresi

operacia, radgan literaturis SedarebiTi Teoriis sagani da

meTodi gansazRvrulia iseTi sityvebiT, romelTac xSirad

aqvT axali, am miznebis Sesabamisi mniSvneloba.

saboloo angariSiT, terminologiis gansazRvris sfero-

Si yvelaze metad funqcionaluri evristikuli pirobebi ase-

Tia: a) im teqstebis umravlesobisaTvis misaRebi saerTo mniSvneloba,

romelTac aqvT Sesabamisi sametyvelo etiketi; b)

mniSvneloba, romelic miRebulia kiTxvis Sesaferisi da

mwyobri sistemis saSualebiT; g) terminologiuri tradiciis

SigniT gansazRvruli mniSvneloba; d) mniSvneloba, romlis

sawyisi wertilia teqstis pirdapiri mniSvneloba, expressis verbis;

arsebiTad saqme exeba an sazogadod miRebul, obieqtur da

`upirovno~ gansazRvrebas an kerZo, pirovnul (personalizebul)

gansazRvrebas, imavdroulad, orive SemTxvevaSi Riad

aris xazgasmuli maTi xasiaTi. orive situaciaSi aucilebeli

xdeba mniSvnelobis garkveva literaturul terminTa leqsi-

128


konSi an Zalian kerZo mokle leqsikonSi, rogoric aris new

criticism-is an norTrop frais leqsikonebi. rene uelekis naSromebis

msgavsi gamokvlevebi istoriul semantikaSi (barokoze,

klasicizmze, romantizmze, simbolizmze da a.S.) pasuxoben

swored am upirveles aucileblobas, romelic didi xania igrZnes

komparativistebma. 41 literaturul terminologias aqvs

ori susti wertili: erTi mxriv, igi SeiZleba iyos stereotipuli

da banaluri, meore mxriv, metismetad Tavisufali, ase

vTqvaT, `originaluri~. am or poluss Soris aris niuansebis

mTeli gama, radgan literaturul terminologias, romelic

am mxriv Zalian gansxvavdeba logikuri an samecniero terminologiisagan,

axasiaTebs Rrma orazrovneba. amis erT-erTi

mizezia misi jaWvuri kavSirebi, ramdenadac yvela termini

sxva terminebiT an sxva terminebis daxmarebiT aris gansaz-

Rvruli. 42 am TvalsazrisiT, ar aris da arasodes iqneba erTmniSvnelovani

terminebi, analitikuri filosofiis moTxovnebis

miuxedavad. 43 axali mniSvnelobebi mudmivi terminebis

mudmivi `gamogonebiT` miiReba. maSin rodesac maTi gamoyeneba

aseve mxolod pirobiTi terminologiiTaa SesaZlebeli; misi

gansazRvreba ki `orazrovania~.

rogor `ibadeba~ literaturuli termini? SevecdebiT

swrafad movxazoT sqema. Tu invarianti warmoadgens statikur

arss, `eleur~ literaturul fenomens, es ganpirobebulia

garkveuli terminologiuri stabiluribiT. sxvaTa Soris,

nebismieri gansazRvreba aqedan momdinareobs. im sityvis

wyalobiT, romelic ukavSirdeba literaturuli elementebis

romelime klass an kategorias, Cven SegviZlia am klasebis an

kategoriebis identifikacia drosa da sivrceSi. aqedan gamomdinare,

SesaZlebelia romanis, lirikis da a.S. invariantebis

amocnoba im martivi faqtis gamo, rom invariantis stabilur

saxels SeuZlia identificireba da dakanoneba. yovelTvis,

roca saxeli `ewebeba~ sinamdviles, romelzedac is miuTi-

Tebs da romelsac aRniSnavs, invarianti iwyebs moqmedebas, is

arsebiTi xasiaTis aris da Sesabamisi. am mimarTulebiT terminologiur

praqtikaSi miRebulia erTi martivi wesi, erTi

enobrivi tradicia. magram es ar niSnavs, rom pirobiTobas

araviTari gamarTleba ar aqvs. Tu poetur moRvaweobas aqvs

`saerTo mniSvnelebi~, Tu leqsi Seicavs `konstantebs~, es

literaturuli faqtebi imiT aixsneba, rom isini gansazRvruli

arian erTi da imave gamaerTianebeli konceptebiT. kidev

metic: am konceptebis `ukan~ aris farul identobaTa mTeli

sistema, romelic yovelTvis ar Cans, magram realuri da sagrZnobia;

igi imdenad amarTlebs ama Tu im gamoyenebas, rom

129


amgvari gamoyeneba arc ki iyos `dasabuTebuli~. es aris nominaluri

pirobiToba, rogorc yvela literaturuli kategoriis

SemTxvevaSi. magram igi operatiulia, radgan yovelTvis

upirispirdeba invariantebis garkveul raodenobas, anu eniT

gamoTqmul namdvil realis-s. ritorikis terminologia SeiZleba

Seicvalos, ritorikis elementebi igive rCeba. etiketi icvleba,

magram arsi igivea. es sui generis nominalizmi uzrunvelyofs

saidumlo kavSirs literaturul `universaliebTan~.

maSasadame, saqme exeba terminologiuri transferis ormag

pirobiTobas, romlis mxolod motivacia da sazRvrebia

cnobili. ras eyrdnoba es pirobiToba? igi eyrdnoba movlenaTa

sam serias: 1) iseTi terminebis gamoCena, romlebic xdeba

tradiciuli da romelTa istoriuli “warmoSoba” (sakmaod

rTuli) SeiZleba dadgindes da daTariRdes; zogjer aseTi

termini yvela detals moicavs (mTliania) (magaliTad, `bovarizmi~);

2) iseTi terminebis miReba, romlebic `ewebeba~ istoriuli

normebis sistemas (`klasicizmi~, `romantizmi~, `simbolizmi~

da a.S.), 44 magram am SemTxvevaSi saerTo elementebis

garkveuli raodenobis identifikacia (mkvlevris azrovnebaSi

an misi saCvenebeli sistemis mixedviT) erTi an mravali invariantis

arsebobas da, aqedan gamomdinare, sawyisi istoriuli

movlenebis ganmazogadebeli gansazRvrebis arsebobasac amar-

Tlebs; sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ratom aris misaRebi “romantizmis

maxasiaTeblebi Zalian mravalferovani, rTuli, sakmaod

xangrZlivi periodisa da TiTqmis yvelgan gavrcelebuli

movlenebis mimarT? da bolos, rogor ganvsazRvroT `klasicizmi~,

`romantizmi~ an `simbolizmi~, vidre ar ganvsaz-

RvravT iseT konceptebs, rogorebicaa: `tendencia~, `moZraoba~,

`periodi~, `mimdinareoba~ an `epoqa~, romlebic aSkarad

gamaerTianebeli, ganmazogadebeli da kategoriis rangis

struqturebia? 3) erTi an ramdenime invariantis momcveli

terminebis gafarToeba faqtobrivi kavSirebis, qronologiisa

da geografiuli garemos miRma erTi niSniT dajgufebuli

obieqturad moZiebuli yvela faqtis aRsaniSnavad. sxvagvarad

rogor gaamarTlebdnen maSin iseT gamonaTqvams, rogoricaa

`arturis romani~, is xom Sua saukuneebis vesternia”? 45 Tu

saqme ar exeba ubralo maxvilgonivrul sityvas (romelsac

aqvs agreTve Tavisi gamarTleba), garkveuli inteleqtualuri

procesi iZleva amgvari daaxloebis obieqtur saSualebas.

am `gafetiSebuli sityvebis~, am `CanTosani sityvebis~ mimarT

(romlebic aerTianebdnen `nebismierad~ 46 da romelTa

istoriuli foni Zalian TvalsaCinoa) didi tradiciuli winaaRmdegobis

gadalaxvis Semdeg, kompetenturma komparativis-

130


tebma mTlianad moiwones SemoTavazebuli sqema. magaliTad,

cnebebi – `barokaluri~ an `pikareskuli~ naxevrad mdgradi,

naxevrad cvalebadi (istoriuli) struqturebia im azriT,

rom terminologiuri pirobiToba moicavs daTariRebul da

imavdroulad ganzogadebisaTvis vargis literaturul sistemas,

romlis gafarToeba sul ufro da ufro did koncentrul

wreebad savsebiT SesaZlebelia. 47 es gafarToeba anu

gavrceleba erTsa da imave dros aris droiTi da retroaqtiuri

im elementebis mopovebis gziT, romelTac mogianebiT daarqmeven

`barokos~, `moderns~, `avangards~ an `dekadenturs~; 48

es gafarToeba aris sivrciTi, imitom, rom igi warmoaCens, ase

vTqvaT, aziur `romantizms~, romelic Cvens droSi dadginda

CineTSi, Tumca es movlena didi xniT ufro adre arseboda,

vidre es sityva gamoCnda evropaSi an Cinur enaze; da bolos,

es gafarToeba aris Teoriuli, saerTo da zogadi, maSasadame

`universaluri~; igi eyrdnoba literaturuli terminologiis

SemuSavebas da miRebas.

sxvaTa Soris, ganzogadeba SeuZlebelia saerTo terminologiis

gareSe, romelic TviT ganzogadebis ZiriTad etaps

warmoadgens. meore mxriv, Tu ar SeiZleba arsebobdes sruli

terminologiuri Sesabamisoba literaturul sinamdvileSi, 49

an kidev, Tu universaluri donis terminologia (romelic

ocneba da, albaT, utopiuri hipoTezaa) 50 verasodes Secvlis

`erovnul~ terminologias, yovela erovnul literaturasa

da yvela periodSi, es sul sxva sakiTxia. miuxedavad amisa,

ZiriTadi atributebis Segrovebisa da kombinirebis gareSe

araviTari literaturuli ganzogadeba, araviTari gansaz-

Rvreba da Teoria ar iqneboda SesaZlebeli. am TvalsazrisiT,

literatura, rogorc `universaluri~ movlena, upirveles

yovlisa, warmoCndeba terminologiis doneze, radgan

terminologiis `universaluri~ daniSnuleba misi Sinagani

Tvisebaa.

es meqanizmi gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa dasavleT-aRmosavleTis

terminologiuri urTierTgacvlisa da homogenizaciis

pirobebSi. Tanamedrove, mkacrad evrocentristuli terminologia

saeqsporto produqciaa. specializebul terminologias

qmnian evropul sinamdvileze dayrdnobiT, cdiloben

mis ase Tu ise gadmoRebas araevropuli literaturebis sivrceSi.

es procesi, romelic ufro xSirad TviTneburia, Ziri-

Tadad, gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT, empiriulad mimdinareobs.

samagierod, axali `paradigma~ moiTxovs sistemur da metadre

ganmazogadebel operacias. igi unda modiodes, upirveles

yovlisa, Teoriuli sistemidan, am SemTxvevaSi komparativis-

131


tuli poetikidan, amis Semdeg ki – aSkarad universalisturi

orientacia unda hqondes. amisaTvis saWiroa, erTi mxriv,

araevropuli gaerTianebis mier aRiarebuli terminologiis

meToduri gafarToeba, romelic CvenTvis sul ufro zrdadi

progresuli kontrolis saSualebiT xdeba misawvdomi, meore

mxriv, am terminologias unda SeuerTdes rac SeiZleba meti

araevropuli literaturuli teqsti. saboloo mizania yvelaze

mniSvnelovani pirobiTi terminologiis dadgena: `literatura~

wakiTxul iqnas `universaluri literaturis~ TvalsazrisiT,

rogorc misi gagrZeleba. es gulisxmobs erTian

literaturul terminologias, romlisTvisac erovnuli gansxvavebebi

saboloo daskvnis Tanaxmad, mxolod `sinonimebia~,

romlebic aseTad aRiares da miiRes (pirobiTad). literaturuli

terminebis gadmotana anu homologizacia SeiZleba, an

adgilobrivi Taviseburebidan gamomdinare, SeuZlebelia maTi

Targmna (pjesma, dor, doina). is terminebi, romlebic iTargmneba,

ormagad ganzogaddeba sapirispiro mimarTulebiT: dasavluri

terminebi SeiWreba aRmosavlur literaturebSi, rogorc neologizmebi

an sinonimebi, maSin rodesac aRmosavluri terminologia

iwyebs evropul literaturebSi SeWras, rogorc

specifikuri, teqnikuri, egzotikuri terminologia. 51 rogorc

vxedavT, am operaciis fons qmnis an aq igulisxmeba is mosazreba,

rom yvelgan gvaqvs erTi da igive literaturuli

struqtura da rom literaturis zogadi gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad,

mas erTi saxeli unda ewodos. daaxloebis saerTo safuZvlisa

da saerTo terminologiis gareSe dasavlur-aRmosavluri

komparativistuli komunikacia da ganzogadeba

SeuZlebelia. 52

Tu operacia aris ara marto ganxorcielebadi, aramed

xangrZlivi praqtikiT dadasturebuli, maSin is SeiZleba miviCnioT

paradigmad; Cinuri magaliTi amas gviCvenebs. Cinuri

literatura misi `aRmoCenis~ droidanve mTlianad aRwerilia

evropuli terminebiT (Th. Spicelius, De re literaria Sinensium, 1660). res

literaria im epoqaSi terminis – `literatura` tolfasi iyo,

farTo gagebiT. CinurSi ar aris sityva imisaTvis, rom es

cneba iTargmnos misi erT-erTi Tanamedrove mniSvnelobis Sesabamisad,

53 amitom termins `literatura` yovelTvis unda

mivmarToT, rogorc Semcvlels da rogorc fundamentur hipoTezas.

aseTi terminologiuri asimilacia farTod inergeba,

yovel SemTxvevaSi, rogorc ukiduresi saSualeba. eyrdnobian

istoriis, epopeis, romanis, novelis, elegiis evropaSi miRebul

gansazRvrebas da am cxrilis saSualebiT adgenen Cinuri

literaturis yvela Sesabamis elements, Znelad saTargmn

132


TaviseburebaTa CaTvliT. 54 igive meTodi gamoiyeneba saerTa-

Soriso moxmarebis, gavrcelebuli, didi literaturuli kategoriebis

SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad, narativis Teoriis gamoyeneba

Cinuri literaturis mimarT. 55 Cineli mkvlevarebi, Tavis

mxriv, adastureben terminebis _ baroko, klasicizmi an

romantizmi _ gamoyenebis safuZvlianobas da Sesabamisobas

maTi literaturis mimarT. 56 Cven, evropelebs, ratom unda gagviWirdes

ufro amis gakeTeba? erTi evropeli mTargmneli,

sxvaTa Soris, erT klasikos Cinel poets (pan ngo) `ufro rokokos

warmomadgenlad~ miiCnevs. 57 aseve, unda arsebobdes Cinuri

modernis stili. 58 rac Seexeba realizms, igi arsebobs

CineTSi, sul mcire, WJen Sis droidan. 59 rogorc yovelTvis,

axlac mtkicdeba, rom sqemisa da dadgenili terminologiis

saSualebiT, invariantebi `daseirnoben` drois RerZze da Semoivlian

kulturis yvela zonas. amave meqanizmis dasadastureblad

gamodgeba magaliTebi iaponuridan, hindudan an

arabulidan.

3. komparativistuli hermenevtika

Cveni mTavari amocanis gansaxorcieleblad – komparativistuli

poetikis Sesaqmnelad, romlis sagani iqneba `universaluri

literatura~ e.i. `literatura`, vxedavT mxolod

erT qmediT gadawyvetilebas: hermenevtikis tipis perspeqtivisa

da meTodologiis danergvas. aseTi iqneboda, Tu gnebavT,

Cveni `axali paradigma~. is motivirebulia, upirveles yovlisa,

im ZiriTadi faqtiT, rom literatura (universaluri) Tavdapirvelad

unda `aigos~ rogorc koncepti, rom Semdeg mas

mieces interpretacia da `mosmenil~ iqnas mTlianad da nawilebis

saxiT; unda `gavigoT~ rogor ibadeba, viTardeba da

moqmedebs es idea; rogoria am terminis mniSvnelobebi, rogor

unda aRmovaCinoT isini, aRvweroT da ganvmartoT imisaTvis,

rom swori interpretacia mivceT. aseTi unda iyos mTlianobaSi

programa, romelic literaturis (universaluris) axali

recefciuli da, imavdroulad, produqtiuli `wakiTxvis~

tolfasi iqneboda. sakuTar sferoSi yvelaze ufro Sesaferisi

sistemis detalurad gansazRvra niSnavs komparativistuli

hermenevtikis dafuZnebas.

miuxedavad imisa, rom es proeqti saaSkaraoze jer aravis

gamoutania, hermenevtika ar aris ucxo im komparativistuli

amocanebisaTvis, romelic ukve ganvixileT. zustad aris

miTiTebuli daaxloebis Sesaxeb, magram marginalurad da

Cvengan gansxvavebuli mimarTulebiT. 60 meore mxriv, cotani

133


arian is komparativistebi, vinc Tanamedrove meTodebs Soris

irCevs hermenevtikas da isini veraviTar kavSirs ver xedaven

komparativizmTan. 61 literaturis Teoretikosebi da meTodologebi,

rasakvirvelia, ufro win arian da zogierTi maTgani

TiTqos Seexo kidec Cvens midgomas. saxeldobr, es exeba

h.r.iauss, romelic xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom saWiroa ara marto

istoriuli hermenevtika, aramed agreTve sistemuri midgomis

hermenevtika: `roca saqme gvaqvs evropuli warmomavlobis

xelovnebis tradiciisaTvis ucxo kulturasTan, romelic

ewinaaRmdegeba yovelgvar istoriul gagebas, maSin mivmar-

TavT sistemur Tvalsazriss, rasac gviadvileben literaturis

Teoriisa da komparativistikis mier SemoTavazebuli literaturuli

da zepiri Janrebi~. 62 miuxedavad amisa, problema

isev aseTia: `rogor unda Seiqmnas erTiani (united) literaturis

koncepti~. 63 Cveni mxriv, gvinda SemogTavazoT sacdeli

gadawyvetileba.

SesavlisaTvis saWiroa ramdenime mokle cneba, dawyebuli

hipoTezis mTavari cnebidan (Voraussetzung, Vorverständniss, winaswari

koncefcia), TviT

`a priori~, romelic marTavs mTel operacias. es is kuTxea,

romelic gansazRvravs faqtebis aRqmas da mowesrigebas da

hermenevtikuli procesis da, sabolood, mTeli codnis amosavali

wertilia. hipoTezis arCeva niSnavs erTdroulad problemis

moxazvas da misi gadawyvetis moTxovnas. es operacia

gardauvlad unda ganxorcieldes, arCeuli meTodi rom daiZras,

amoZravdes da Semdeg Tavi rom davaRwioT tavtologiasa

da SemoTavazebebis mankier wres, romlebic isev sawyis wertils

ubrundebian. problemis gadasaWrelad gvWirdeba raime

meTodi; meTodis problemis gadasaWrelad gvWirdeba meTodis

meTodi. 64 Teoriis SemosaTavazeblad da Sesamowmeblad gvWirdeba

sxva Teoria da rasakvirvelia, Teoriidan gamomdinare

konceptebi an formulebi. 65 Teoriuli Tvalsazrisebi gadaiqcevian

`faqtebad~, romelTa saSualebiT aageben axal Teoriebs

da ase Semdeg. am epistemologiuri principis Suqze, `yoveli

dakvirveba aris Teoriis safuZvelze mocemuli ~interpretacia~,

romelic SemoTavazebis Semdeg unda Semowmdes, gaiaros

empiriuli testebi. saqme exeba mxolod samuSao hipo-

Tezebs, magram SegviZlia (gavixsenoT karl poperi) gamov-

TqvaT `gabeduli hipoTezebi, romlebic, Tu SesaZlebelia,

gaxsnian dakvirvebis axal sferoebs, rac ver moxerxdeba dakvirvebiT

miRebuli `monacemis~ im frTxili ganzogadebebiT,

romlebic yvela gulubryvilo empiristis kerpebad rCebian

(bekonis Semdeg)~. 66

134


maSasadame, gvWirdeba konkretulad komparativistuli

hipoTezebi; komparativistuli poetikisa da misi hipoTezebis

TvalsazrisiT (romelTagan zogierTi ukve gamoiTqva Tavis-

Tavad), pirveli da yvelaze mniSvnelovania universaluri literaturis

hipoTeza: universaluri literatura arsebobs,

igi Seqmnilia literaturebis erTobliobisagan, igi igivea,

rac literatura yovelgvari sxva ganmartebis gareSe. is, rac

iTqva da ris Tqmasac qvemoT vapirebT imas niSnavs, rom Cven

ar gvWirdeba sxva varaudi, semiotikuri, struqturalisturi

an sxva. meore hipoTeza exeba universaluri literaturis

Seswavlis meTods. universaluri literaturis Teorimade misasvlelad

gvWirdeba meTodi, romelic win uswrebs mas da

misi (universaluri literaturis Teoriis) Camoyalibebis sa-

Sualebas iZleva. es aris misi sakuTari meTodis Teoria da

misi sakuTari Teoriis meTodi. yovelTvis aris saWiro Teoria,

romelic daakanonebs literaturis Teorias. 67 aseTivea

invariantis, rogorc hipoTezis statusi: invarianti aris `zogadis~

nayofi da `zogadis~, `literaturis Teoriis~ Semqmneli;

aqedan gamomdinare, universaluri literaturis invariantebis

erToblioba sabolood emTxveva TviT `universaluri

literaturis~ invariantebs.

ori sityviT SevexoT hipoTezis `geneziss~. rogor yalibdeba

is? igi ibadeba hermenevtikuli kiTxvis, misi inteleqtualuri

formirebis, universalur literaturasTan dakavSirebuli

Teoriebis istoriis, teqstis interpretaciebisa

da analizebis Sejerebis Sedegad; igi ixsneba da gasagebi

xdeba intuiciuri `mignebiT~, romelsac SevyavarT problemis

centrSi globaluri gadawyvetilebis moulodneli daCqarebiT.

68 es iseTi intuiciaa, romelic ibadeba teqstebis xangrZlivi

praqtikiT, misi gamoricxva SeuZlebelia literaturis

yvelaze `racionaluri~ mecnierebebidan, 69 mas aRiarebs

zogierTi komparativisti, Tundac zereled, 70 rom araferi

vTqvaT sxva disciplinebze, maT Soris yvelaze `mecnierul~

dargebze. yvela hermenevtikuli meTodis aRwera, romelsac

Cven gamoviyenebT, dawvrilebiT gviCvenebs, rogor `ibadeba~

hipoTeza, ise rogorc Cveni kvlevis perspeqtivis es sruli

cvlileba.

pozitivizmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli garkveuli epistemologiuri

da hermenevtikuli gulubryviloba moiTxovs, rom

damtkicdes pretenziuli `obieqturoba~: garkveuli neitraluri

damokidebuleba, wesebis mkacri dacviT, sxvaTa Soris,

savsebiT miTologiuri, romelic gulisxmobs `faqtebis Seswavlis~

Sedegebis miukerZoeblad Segrovebas, obieqturoba,

135


omelic, ase vTqvaT, gamomdinareobs TviT obieqturobidan.

sinamdvileSi, Teoriuli da meTodologiuri arCevanis gare-

Se, mokled, nayofieri Tvalsazrisebis da saxelmZRvanelo

konceptebis gareSe, gansazRvrebisa da terminis TiToeul ar-

CevanSi mocemuli kategoriebisa da klasifikaciis gareSe (dawyebuli

literaturidan da universaluri literaturidan)

raime codnis mopoveba SeuZlebelia da, cxadia, arc hermenevtika

da interpretaciaa SesaZlebeli. amis Semdeg meTodi Tavidan

bolomde icvleba: faqtebis CamonaTvalis nacvlad, romelsac

ar gaaCnia saboloo mizani da kategoriebis wre, unda

iyos intuiciiT, gansjiTa da SefasebiT gakeTebuli arCevani,

romelic orientirebuli iqneba saerTaSoriso doneze damtkicebuli

da zusti saxelis mqone kriteriumebze, winaswar konceptebsa

da hipoTezebze. datoveben mxolod im nawarmoebebs,

citirebas an `mTavar~ teqstebs, romlebic pasuxoben yvelaze

ufro misaReb gansazRvrebebs, gamomdinares erTi da imave es-

Tetikuri konceptidan da erTi da imave terminiT aRniSnuls.

sainteresoa, rogoria diplomiani komparativistebis

Tvalsazrisi. gadaWarbebuli iqneboda imis Tqma, rom problema,

sazogadod, kargad aris gagebuli da gansazRvruli. hipo-

Teza aqa-iq mainc aris miRebuli, Tumca daskvnebi naklebad

aris gakeTebuli. zogjer dasaSvebad miaCniaT `maregulirebeli~

ideebi, kantis gagebiT, `Teoriuli arCevani~, `winaswari

gadawyvetilebebi~. 71 miuxedavad yvelafrisa, imasac xvdebian,

rom SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobas sWirdeba “literaturis~

da TviT `Teoriis` koncepti, romelic misi winmswrebi

iqneba, Tundac is zogjer sociologiis perspeqtividan

iyos danaxuli. 72 am mxriv, saukeTeso da yvelaze naTeli pozicia

aqvs rene ueleks: `Tezisis gareSe` arc erTi kritikuli

operacia ar aris SesaZlebeli~. 73 literaturis Teoriis

gareSe arc araviTari Sefaseba ar aris SesaZlebeli. 74 viTareba

daaxloebiT aseTi rCeba, meti winsvla ar SeimCneva. Teoriis

TvalsazrisiT, Sefasebebi, ZiriTadad, uaryofiTia, miuxedavad

imisa, rom, praqtikulad, mainc iyeneben winare-konceptebs.

es imitom xdeba, rom rogorc ki iwyeben laparaks,

vTqvaT, `klasicizmze~ an `romantizmze~, rogorc ki `ganmanaTleblobis~

SigniT gamoyofen dajgufebebs, Spätaufkärung-is,

`preromantizmisa~ da `neoklasicizmis~ saxiT, rac sakmaod

rTuli Cans; faqtobrivad yvela asset SemTxvevaSi da identuri

SemTxvevebis dros iyeneben gamaerTianebel, kategoriis

da sqematur konceptebs. es winaswari monacemebi warmoadgens

pirobebs sine qua non nebismieri donis klasifikaciisa da ganzogadebisaTvis.

miuxedavad aseTi sicxadisa, Tuki cnoben hi-

136


poTezebis arsebobas lingvistikaSi, mainc ver warmoudgeniaT,

rom analogiuri an igive hipoTezebi gamoiyenon literaturis

istoriaSi an SedarebiT literaturaTmcodneobaSi. 75 argumenti?

argumenti aseTia: es Tvalsazrisi rogorc Cans momdinareobs

`platonuri` apriorizmidan, `kantizmidan~, `idealizmidan~

da sxva momakvdinebeli codvebidan (`yalbi arsi~ da

a.S.), 76 rac istoriulma perspeqtivam da sinamdvilem ketis

dakvriT unda gandevnos. ki magram, am qveynad yvelaze genetikuri

da pozitivisturi literaturis istoriac ki ver Seasrulebs

Tavis daniSnulebas Tu ar mimarTavs, yvelafris miuxedavad,

zogierT zogad koncefts. aviRoT, `literaturis~

gansazRvreba, gana is uaryofilia istoriuli gamocdilebiT?

mas SevcvliT `literaturis` sxva konceftiT, ufro dasabu-

TebuliT, magram aranakleb zogadiT. TviT imanenturi kritikac

varaudobs `monaxazisa da garemocvis winaswar codnas~.

garkveuli tipis franguli komparativistuli azris dRevandeli

momxreebi mainc orWofoben: SedarebiTi analizi unda

Catardes Tu ara `arsebiTi saxelebiT~ an maTi kvlevisTvis. 77

es TavSekaveba daaxloebiT zogadia mudmivi konfliqtis

gamo, erTi mxriv, evristikuli da wmindad praqtikuli saxeldebiTi,

operatiuli, damadasturebeli, analogiebisa da paralelizmebis

safuZvlis Semqmneli kategoriebis aucileblobasa

da, meore mxriv, nawarmoebebis Taviseburi struqturebis

simtkices Soris, iseve, rogorc maT specifikur istoriul

garemos Soris. maSasadame, saWiroa dajgufeba, homogenizacia,

gaerTianeba da diferencireba, imavdroulad ki nawarmoebis

Taviseburebis SenarCuneba. am or moTxovnas Soris, romlebic

Tanabrad kanonieria, saWiroa mtkice gadawyvetilebis miReba.

sxva gamosavali ar arsebobs, radgan Tavidanve unda davazustoT

Cveni wamowyebis masStabi da mizani.

miuxedavad amisa, davukvirdeT, rogor iqcevian komparativistebi

da ufro mikerZoebuli mkvlevarebi: eTanxmebian

`stilis~ koncepts, magram yoymanoben xelovnebis yvela dargSi

mis Semotanaze. iyeneben Zalian zust konceptebs, romlebic

gavrcelebuli terminebiTaa gansazRvruli (`Janri~,

`formebi`), 78 magram ar swavloben mimarTebebs, romlebic arsebobs

mkvlevris, misi `skolis~, misi epoqis terminologiasa

da nawarmoebebs Soris, Tumca es mimarTebebi, mkvlevarebis

nebiT, Seesabameba (an, albaT, Seesabameba) am terminologias

(romelic, Tavis mxriv, iZleva garkveul istoriul gansxvavebas).

msgavsi gamokvleva, albaT, gviCvenebs, rom kvlevis yovel

doneze, yovel etapze, yovel dadasturebul an SemoTavazebul

ganzogadebaze universaluri masStabis 79 zogadi

137


konceptebi aucilebelia da absoluturad aucilebeli iqneba

momavalSi. ase SeiZleba Tavidan aviciloT yalbi dilemebi

(kvercxi Tu qaTami? poezia Tu poetika?), radgan yvela Sem-

TxvevaSi iyeneben `poeziis~, `poetikis~ da `literaturis~

garkveul cnebas. es ukanaskneli cneba (`literatura~) ar

aris aucilebeli, rom mxolod sartridan an mokle leqsikonebidan

gamoviyvanoT, Tundac aseTi saswrafo procedura

`literaturis~ cnebis saerTod uqonlobas jobia. misi rac

SeiZleba naTlad gansazRvra _ es aris yvela saxis literaturuli

kvlevis, maT Soris komparativistulis, mTavari amocana.

80 maSasadame, unda davaskvnaT, rom hipoTeza TamaSobs

mTavar rols yovelgvari paralelebis, Sedarebebis, dam-

Txvevebis da analogiebis kvlevaSi, 81 swored amas davinaxavT

qvemoT. rac Seexeba hipoTezis rols poetikasa da sakuTriv

literaturis TeoriaSi (`zogierTi Teoriuli wanamZRvari~,

`literaturuli teqstis zogadi koncefcia~ da a.S.), 82 misi

damtkiceba aRar aris saWiro; sxvaTa Soris, arc sxva

dargebSi.

axla ufro dawvrilebiT ganvixiloT hipoTezis, rogorc

aseTis, meqanizmi, romelic sruliad ucxo sazrunavia pozitivisturi

komparativizmisaTvis. igi warmoadgens mxolod analizis

saSualebiT gasarkvevi urTierTdamokidebuli funqciebis

nakrebs, dawyebuli savaraudo sferos moxazviTa da sqemis

agebiT. aseTi maneriT SeiZleba kvlevis obieqtis gansaz-

Rvra da aRniSvna, ramdenadac TiToeuli Teoria Semofarglavs

da amtkicebs ganxilvis `farglebs~. 83 romelime leqsi

an literaturuli teqsti aRiarebuli iqneba leqsad an literaturul

teqstad, Tuki isini Seesabamebian `poeziisa~ da

“literaturis” Cven mier dadgenil koncefcias. es konceptebi

(da yvela sxva) aucileblad win uswrebs ara marto yvela

teqstis realur codnas (rac savsebiT normaluria), aramed,

agreTve, arCeuli teqstebis codnas (rac hermenevtikuli hipo-

Tezis safuZvelia). aqedan gamomdinare, `universaluri literaturis~

konceptis Camoyalibeba win uswrebs `universaluri

literaturis~ praqtikul codnas. vis SeuZlia daiCemos, rom

wakiTxuli aqvs msoflios literatura? sakmarisia (winaswar)

vicodeT, rom arsebobs universaluri literatura, yoveli

erovnuli literatura universaluri literaturis nawilia,

komparativistul meTods SeuZlia universaluri literaturis

Teoriulad Seswavla. misi realoba ar aris statistikuri,

aramed mxolod `CamonaTvalia~. yvelaferi TamaSdeba terminologiuri

pirobiTobis (konvenciis) da `abstraqciis~, 84

`modelirebuli konceptis~ 85 doneze.

138


imavdroulad, hipoTeza isev damoukidebeli rCeba literaturuli

sinamdvilis mimarT. is modis garedan da, ase

vTqvaT, moulodnelad. Teoriuli struqtura – `literaturidan~

da `literaturaze~ ar faravs TviT empiriul literaturas,

iseve, rogorc socialuri mecnierebebi sruli TanwyobiT

ver moicaven empiriul socialur realobas. evropaSi

`saberZneTisa~ da `aRmosavleTis~ winaswar Sedgenili sura-

Tebis istoria, bevr sxva magaliTTan erTad, adasturebs, rom:

sinamdvilesTan Sedarebis Semdeg, es suraTebi mxolod imedgacruebas

iwvevs; 86 vai, rom sinamdvile gacilebiT dabal doneze

aRmoCnda, mis winaswar, idealizebul suraTTan SedarebiT.

yuradRebas ipyrobs, agreTve, sxva Tvisebebi: hipoTezis,

rogorc gamaerTianeblis, momwesrigeblis da aRmdgenelis

Tvisebebi. kargad aris cnobili `martivi~, magiuri, miTologiuri

da a.S. teqstebis ambavi, romlebic CvenTvis `poeziad”

gadaiqca, radgan `poetikam~ dagvibruna isini, `poeziis~ Tanamedrove

hipoTezis mixedviT. iseTi konceptebis, rogoric

aris, magaliTad, aleqsandriuli an induisturi `baroko~,

analogiuri gamoyeneba naklebad damajerebeli Cans, Tumca

igi momdinareobs imave meqanizmidan. literaturuli da xelovnebis

terminebis amgvari gadatana drosa da sivrceSi,

rogorc cnobilia, Zalian aRizianebs istoriuli midgomis

momxre literaturis istorikosebs. miuxedavad amisa, gaugebari

rCeba, ratom ar unda iyos gamoyenebuli igive pirobiTi

terminologia yvelgan, sadac gamovlenilia igive invariantebi,

an Tundac Zalian zogadi invariantebi. Tu dasaSvebad migvaCnia,

magaliTad, vTargmnoT evropuli cnebiT – `klasikuri~

iseTi Cinuri saTauri, romelic mxolod `wess~ an `kanonTa

krebuls~ niSnavs, 87 vinaidan ganzogadeba da analogia naTelia

am SemTxvevaSi, ratom ar unda moviqceT aseve `aleqsandriuli

barokos~ mimarT? yovelgvari Sekveca erTeulis donemde

gulisxmobs garkveul nominalur pirobiTobas. ra

mniSvneloba aqvs, rom `romantizmis~ Sesabamisi Cinuri gamonaTqvami

– (lang-mang-ti) ar Camoyalibebula dasavluri gavleniT,

88 Tuki literaturuli sinamdvile, romelsac is gadmoscems,

homologiuria da SeiZleba ganisazRvros imave, sayovelTaod

qmediTi invariantebis saSualebiT? ityvian, es SemzRudavi

meTodiao? saqme ar exeba imis codnas, aris Tu ara

aRiarebuli terminologia xSiri an iSviaTi ama Tu im epoqa-

Si da qveyanaSi. gana sakmarisi ar aris, rom am terminologiam

Seasrulos is operatiuli daniSnuleba, risTvisac is Seiqmna

da gamoiyeneba sxvagan? ar unda SegveSindes, Tu pragmatizms

gamoviCenT, radgan nebismier hipoTezas, komparativis-

139


tulis CaTvliT, yovelTvis aqvs uaRresad evristikuli daniSnuleba.

am tipis kvlevis statusi, romelic upirveles

yovlisa terminologiur invariantebs exeba, operatiuli da,

saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, saklasifikacioa; es sayovelTaod

cnobilia. meTodi bolomde unda iqnas miyvanili. Tu klasifikaciis

kriteriumisTvis aucilebelia winaswari gansaz-

Rvreba, 89 Tu taqsinomia ganWvrets da gadawyvets yvela im

problemas, romelic momdinareobs dasavleT-aRmosavleTis

literaturebis daaxloebidan, igi imavdroulad gadawyvets

yvela literaturis klasifikaciis problemasac _ aRmosavleTisas,

iseve rogorc dasavleTisas. rac ufro zogadia

kategoriebi da kriteriumebi, miT ukeTesad eqvemdebareba interpretacias.

humanitarul mecnierebaTa taqsinomia ar aris

iseTi zusti, rogoric sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebisa; taqsinomia

qmnis statistikur miaxloebas, 90 magram nebismieri

klasifikacia azrs kargavs universalobis gareSe, ramdenadac

yvela kriteriumi farulad da Sinaganad universaluria.

sxvaTa Soris, taqsinomia da tipologia `universalurisgan~

ganuyofelia. msoflios yvela literaturidan iReben `tragediis~

saerTo elementebs da erTsa da imave `klasSi~ aTavseben.

amgvarad, WeSmariteba TavisTavad RaRadebs, rom `...periodizacia,

taqsinomia da terminologia Cveni disciplinis ZiriTadi

sayrdenia~. 91

CvenTvis gasagebia, Tu erTsa da imave dros ratom qmnis

da arRvevs hipoTeza hermenevtikul wres: imitom, rom igi

gvTavazobs da Tavs gvaxvevs, upirveles yovlisa, arCevans;

igi Tavidan bolomde warmarTavs arCevans da gadarCevas. Teoriuli

hipoTeza gadawyvets, Tu ra aris (an ar aris) mniSvnelovani,

axali da sarwmuno. Teoria, Tavisi gansazRvrebis

Tanaxmad, seleqciuria da misi arseboba misi dakvirvebebis

princips da TviT kriteriums qmnis. 92 komparativistuli gamokvlevebis

poetika savsebiT adasturebs meTodologias;

sxvaTa Soris, Teoriidan gamomdinare meTodologias: `sagmiro

poeziis~ hipoTezis mixedviT irCeven yvela aRsadgen elements

da iseTs, romelic am farglebSi Tavsdeba; aseve iqcevian

`realizmis~ SemTxvevaSi da a.S. 93

zemoaRniSnuli hipoTezis statusis ufro zustad moxazvas

iTvaliswinebda. rac Seexeba Cveni poetikisa da komparativistuli

hermenevtikis specifikur hipoTezebs, romlebic

awesrigeben da marTaven process mTlianobaSi, maT ormagi saxe

aqvT: Teoriuli da ideologiuri.

140


1. modiT, ufro axlodan SevxedoT tipur hipoTezas, universaluri

literaturis sayrden koncepts an literaturis

universalistur Teorias. upirveles yovlisa, yoveli uzustoba

Tu gaurkvevloba SedarebiTi literaturis dargSi ZiriTadi

konceptis ararsebobidan gamomdinareobs. SedarebiT

literaturaSi arsebuli mravalricxovani kvlevebi, Teoriuli

da meTodologiuri `Sesavlebi~, Sors arian imisagan,

rom zustni iyvnen am mimarTulebiT, rac mainc umTavresad

migvaCnia. aris Tu ara `literaturis~ centraluri koncepti

istoriul-tradiciuli, esTetikuri (`beletristika~) an formalisturi?

Zalian xSirad SimSili dauokebeli rCeba .94 maSasadame,

am konceptis legitimuroba literaturis komparativistuli

Teoriis upirvelesi da ZiriTadi davalebaa. mas

unda hqondes, rogorc iTqva, `zogadad literaturis zusti

koncefcia~. 95 amave dros, is, rac gvaocebs SedarebiTi literaturis

Tanamedrove mdgomareobaSi, aris Zalian Tvalxiluli

kontrasti `universalistur~ swrafvas an universaluri

literaturis principis cnobasa da Ziebis meTods Soris, romelsac

es realoba iTxovs da rac amJamad kvlav gamouval

mdgomareobaSi gvagdebs.

literaturuli Ziebis yoveli meTodi orientirebulia

universalurobaze, gvTavazobs universalur gasaRebs (kvlevis

obieqtis universaluri mniSvneloba) imisTvis, rom mxolod

ori ZiriTadi amocaniT dakavdes. orive universalisturi

hipoTezis rigisaa da, sabolood, erTdebian: Tu aTvlis

wertili aris universaluri (Teoriuli rwmena imisa, rom

arsebobs universaluri literatura), bolo wertili _ miT

ufro _ universaluria, rac niSnavs: eqsperimentul rwmenas

imisa, rom bolos da bolos marTlac arsebobs universaluri

literatura, romelic amgvarad Sedgenili gamokvlevebis,

ganzogadebebisa da daskvnebis gamotanis mTeli seriis Sedegia.

sxva mxriv, individualuri naSromis SemTxvevaSi, igive

gapirobebuloba mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs da `literaturis~

hipoTeza gvWirdeba misi aRqmis, misi realobis damtkicebis,

misi gansazRvrisTvis da a.S. upirveles yovlisa, unda

vicodeT, Tu ra aris `literatura~. magram rom gvqondes

es hipoTeza, saWiroa kidev erTxel Seikras universaluri

rkali, saWiroa mivideT `universaluri literaturis~ konceptamde,

romelic TamaSobs (`literaturis~ aseTi roli mar-

Tlac arsebobs). maSasadame, individualuri midgoma wyvets

zogad midgomas, kerZo universalurs uerTdeba da masTan dialeqtikur

urTierTobaSi Sedis. amgvarad, `yvela nawarmoebis~

specifikuri niSnebi ereva literaturuli `nawarmoebis~

141


Strixebs, rac erTdroulad aris individualuri realoba da

universaluri mniSvnelobis matarebeli. rasakvirvelia, yovelive

es arcTu Zalian `axalia~ da, Sesabamisad, miRebuli

daskvna komparativist-generalistis Sinagan fiqrebs Seesabameba.

Tumca ufro `axali~ SeiZleba iyos zogierTi misgan

gamomdinare Sedegi.

romel `literaturul universalobazea saubari ukanasknel

analizSi? Cveulebrivi, ukve ganxiluli mniSvnelobebi

(`didi wignebi~, `farTod gavrcelebuli `zeerovnuli~ literatura

da a.S.) jerjerobiT ganze unda gavwioT, radgan isini

(es mniSvnelobebi) ver uaxlovdebian fundamentur urTier-

Tobas, romelic erTdroulad aris obieqturic da operatiulic

da es gaxlavT: erovnuli/universaluri literatura.

universaluri literatura Sedgeba erovnul literaturaTa

erTobliobisagan, saidanac gamomdinareobs mTeli rigi daskvnebi,

ueWvelad pirveladi WeSmaritebebi, romlebic inarCuneben

demonstraciul dasabuTebas imisa, rom nacionaluri

literatura, ase vTqvaT, pirveladi, ZiriTadi ujredi, aris

mxolod fragmenti, universaluri literaturis nawili; es

ukanaskneli arsebobs uwinares _ da amave dros _ mas Semdeg,

rac esa Tu is nacionaluri literatura Seiqmna; universalur

literaturul erTobliobasTan SedarebiT yoveli

erovnuli literaturidan amoRebuli literaturuli gansaz-

Rvrebani, SemdegSi SezRuduli, arasruli da arasakmarisia;

saWiroa, rom isini yovelTvis globaluri struqturis Sesabamisad

ganvixiloT; universalurisken gaxsniloba SesaZlebelia

nebismieri nacionaluri konteqstis SigniT, aseve msoflios

nebismieri literaturis saSualebiT, Tundac igi Zalian

bundovani iyos; dabolos, literaturuli universalizacia

SeuZlebelia garkveuli ganwyobilebisa da `universalisturi~

mgrZnobelobis gareSe. is (literaturuli universalizacia)

mogviwodebs internacionaluri literaturuli sazogadoebis

mimarT Riaobisaken. es aris nacionaluri literaturebis

integraciis unari universaluri literaturis konceptsa

da erTian literaturul TeoriaSi.

yovelive aqedan gamomdinare, Cven vimyofebiT uSualod

ori bundovanebis gafantvis procesSi, rac komparativistebisaTvis

jer kidev problemad rCeba. pirvelis mcdelobaa mxari

dauWiros, metic _ daamtkicos, rom universaluri literatura,

faqtobrivad, ar arsebobs, radgan is empiriuli realobaa.

Tu es marTlac asea, maSin gamodis, rom mxolod nacionaluri

literaturebi iarsebebdnen. aseT SemTxvevaSi

mniSvnelovani iqneboda `sruliad uargveyo idealisturi xed-

142


va~, romlis mixedviTac, yoveli naSromi `sxva araferia, Tu

ara universaluri literaturis erT-erTi kerZo SemTxveva,

romlis buneba aRsadgenia~. sinamdvileSi ki es Teza uaryofs

komparativizmisagan sruliad Tavisufali konceptualizaciis,

generalizaciisa da taqsonomiis process, radgan erTmaneTSi

urevs, ase vTqvaT, spiloebis saxeobebsa da xerxemlianebis

jgufs. maSasadame, ras emsaxureba konceptebi da klasifikaciebi

zogad da SedarebiT literaturaSi? TiTqos arafers.

mkvlevarisaTvis, romelic kargad icnobs universaluri

literaturis koncepts, es aris erTdroulad Teoriuli da

faqtobrivi realoba, vinaidan am badis miRma yvela individualuri

da nacionaluri Txzuleba (rogorc specifikuri

gansxvavebebi) _ identuria, aRiarebuli da monawileobs erT

JanrSi (universaluri literaturisa).

meore aRreva momdinareobs hipoTezidan, romlis mixedvi-

Tac adamians SeuZlia gaigos mxolod sakuTari, nacionaluri

literatura (magram amis sawinaaRmdegod mravali magaliTi

arsebobs) da swored es hipoTeza aris erTaderTi, romelic

operatiulia. Tu es asea, maSin ucxoenovani mkiTxvelebi

TiTqmis verasodes gaigebdnen sxvaTa nacionalur literaturebs.

aqedan gamomdinare, saWiroa moviSoroT yoveli universalisturi

hipoTeza 97 . realurad, erTi hipoTeza sxvas ar

gamoricxavs. isini warmoudgenelnic ki arian erTmaneTis gareSe,

vinaidan nacionalur/universaluri urTierToba Seum-

Cnevlad versad daimaleba. is, rasac zogierTebi xalisiT

aRiareben, Semdegia: ar SeiZleba nacionaluri literatura

ganisazRvros universaluri hipoTezis gareSe, arc ormagi me-

Todis gamoyenebaa SesaZlebeli: vTqvaT, erTi _ universaluri

literaturisa da meore _ nacionaluri literaturisaTvis;

SeuZlebelia davweroT evropuli literaturis istoria, Tu

ar davdgebiT germanul Tu inglisur xedvaze maRla da arc

universaluri literaturis istoriis dawera moxerxdeba am

konceptis flobis gareSe, maT Soris `tradiciisa~ da `Tavis-

Tavadobis~ konceptebis CaTvliT 98 da a.S.

miuxedavad amisa, pozitivisturi poziciidan momdinare

Seferxeba kvlav aSkaraa: vinaidan ar SeiZleba yvela universaluri

faqti Semowmdes igive meTodiT, romelsac nacionaluri

faqtebisTvis viyenebT, amdenad, aranairi universaluri

faqti ar arsebobs! da ar dagvaviwydes, rom universalisturi

hipoTeza SeiZleba Caenacvlos sxvas, tipurad pozitivisturs:

literaturebs Soris aris mxolod `meqanikuri kavSiri~. da

radgan am ukanasknelis aRdgena ver moxdeba internacionalur

doneze 99 , veranairi `kavSiri~, `Tviseba~ da a.S. ver mo-

143


xerxdeba, meqanikuri kanonis postulati ver gadaisinjeba da

universalisturi midgoma miuRebeli gaxdeba...

magram gadamwyveti mtkicebuleba, rom universalisturi

hipoTeza _ miuxedavad yvelafrisa _ aucileblad evrocentrizmis

sazRvrebs gareT gasvlaa, usaTuod igulisxmeba aseve

mis demarSSi. yovel jerze, roca aRmosavleT-dasavleTis

literaturuli mimarTebebi gansazRvrulia urTierTSenacvlebadi,

homologiuri, alternatiuli terminebiT, adgilmonacvleobiTi

universaluri literaturis Teoriulad `homogenuri~

sivrce ukve arsebuli da aRiarebulia. swored amgvarad

dafuZnda ukanasknel analizSi TviT `universaluri literaturis~

koncepti (III Tavi), romelic implicitur-universalisturi

wakiTxviT ganuwyvetel gavrcobas emorCileba. es

aris erTgvari Teoriuli work in progress-i, romelic gafarToebiT,

ganzogadebiTa da nominaluri konvenciiT moqmedebs. aRmosavleT-dasavleTis

es unifikacia mimdinareobs hipoTezis

ufro da ufro farTo doneze (`Janri~, `stili~, `periodi~ da

a.S), romlebic TandaTanobiT Tanxvdebian Secnobisa da `unikaluri~

literaturis Teoriis gzaze.

marTlac, universalisturi komparativizmis gaxsnilobebi

(arsebiTad) yovelTvis am sqemis mixedviT moqmedeben. XVIII

saukunidan CineTi evropelebisTvis ocnebis did sizmars warmoadgenda,

upirveles yovlisa _ ideologiurs, da es gaxldaT

am qveynis sibrZne, goni, stabiluroba, wonasworoba,

erToba da a.S. yovelive es evropuli terminebiT `ganimarta~,

risTvisac didi Zalisxmeva gaxda saWiro 100 . Tanamedrove komparativistebic,

ZiriTadad, msgavsi maneriT moqmedeben: aRmosavluri

literatura `ikiTxeba~ universalurad vargisi (savaraudod)

konceptualuri aparatis daxmarebiT, iqneba es

klasikuri, aristoteluri kategoriebi Tu terminebi, rac, magaliTad,

Teatr Nô-Si 101 ganxorcielda, Teoriulad (rac

`originalobas~ an `srulyofilebas~ gulisxmobs), universaluri

standartebis Sesabamisad. igive SeiZleba iTqvas evropisgare

literaturisa Tu kategoriebis da Zalian Tanamedrove

terminebis Sesaxeb, rac formaluri analizis, semiologiis,

naratologiis da a.S. aparatis gamoyenebas iTvaliswinebs;

xolo universalisturi implikacia yovelTvis igive rCeba:

yvela ganxiluli literaturuli fenomeni SeiZleba daiyvanebodes

analizis yvelgan gamosadeg erTsa da imave sistemebamde.

isRa rCeba, rom ganzogadebuli implicituri praqtika eqsplicitur

meTodad gardavqmnaT da amgvarad, kargad gansaz-

Rvruli programa CamovayaliboT. gana sxvas ras warmoadgens

didi literaturuli erTobebi (`aziuri~, `afrikuli~, `laTi-

144


no-amerikuli~, romlebsac ase xSirad axseneben Cvens droSi

da a.S), Tu ara universalistur formulebs, sabolood Sesakrebs

did da erTaderT literaturul pool-Si? kidev erTxel

vadasturebT: literaturuli mimarTulebebis internacionalizaciisa

da literaturuli Semecnebis unifikaciiis Sedegi

aris igive postulatis gamovlena, anu: arsebobs erTiani universaluri

literatura. rac, amave dros, warmoadgens universalobaSi

monawileobis erTaderT SesaZleblobas, romelic

eZleva iseT `mcire~ Tu ucnob literaturebs, rogoricaa, magaliTad,

Tanamedrove arabuli poezia. `es niSnavs, rom yoveli

arabi ibadeba dasavleTTan erTad an garkveuli idea

dasavleTisa, Camouyalibebeli, Tu naTlad ganWvretili, mis

SigniT~ 105 . amgvarad, nawarmoebSi yovelTvis gvxvdeba hipoteza.

demonstraciis logikas kidev erTxel mivyavarT ukanasknel

daskvnamde, Cvens sawyis da saboloo hipoTezamde: universaluri

literaturis yvelaze zogadi, yvelaze `universaluri~

SeniSvnebi Seesabameba yvelaze universaluri literaturuli

naSromis umTavres SeniSvnebs. ori realoba da ori

gansazRvreba erTmaneTs Tanxvdeba da ukanasknel analizSi

erTmaneTs Seereva. sibrtyeze mdebareoba, rodesac ukanasknel

momentSi erTi da igive jaWvis ori bolos erTdeba, niSnavs

sxva sibrtyeze mdebareobas. hipoTeza gulisxmobs sxvas da

oriveni erTad _ sxva `Teoriebsa~ da daqvemdebarebul winare

`hipoTezebs~, saidanac sakmaod didi raodenoba ukve gamoyenebuli

da ganxiluli iyo. amgvarad, literatura (universaluri)

terminologiur doneze, erTsa da imave dros, xdeba

warmosaxviTi konstruqcia, erTgvari verbaluri fiqcia, xolo

fenomenologiur doneze _ Zalian konkretuli realoba:

literaturuli naSromebis erTobliobas yovelTvis da yvelgan

hqonda erTi da igive struqtura, morfologia, fenomenologia,

tipologia da a.S., rac SesamCnevia analizisa da ganzogadebulobis

yovel doneze. ai, ratom aris malarmes, emineskusa

da hafezis poezia _ upirvelesad poezia da arsebiTad

`igive~ poezia. emineskus da hafezis gandevna malarmes

sasargeblod (da piriqiT) motivirebulia ara esTetikuri,

aramed kulturuli da ideologiuri azriT (rogorc amas

Semdeg vnaxavT).

garkveuli winare komparativistuli kvlevebi, miuxedavad

maTi fragmentuli da SemTxveviTi xasiaTisa, am tipis gamosavals

winaswarmetyveleben. mas Semdeg, rac komparativizmi

weltliteratur‐is codnasTan gaaigives da komparativizmi Weltliteratur-is

perspeqtivaSi analizs saWiroebs, es kriteriumi yvela

sxvas win uswrebda da xdeboda ipso facto funqciuri, anu hipo-

145


Teza moiTxovda literaturul kvleva-Ziebas. universaluri

literaturis Sexeduleba xandaxan formulirebulia ufro

radikaluri saxiT: Cven gvWirdeba `es universaluri suliskveTeba,

romlis gareSe am disciplinis didi da mTavari

kiTxvebi ver daismeba~; mogveTxoveba `maregulirebeli principi~;

dasturdeba aucilebloba imisa, rom `Camoyalibdes

universaluri gageba (universelle Verständigung) 107 ; gvTxoven `saboloo

mizans, erTaderTsa da gamaerTianebels~ (ein-einheitliches

Ziet) 108 . aq TavisTavad dgeba sicxadis sakiTxi, radgan arsebobs

mravali literaturuli `fenomeni~, romlebic mxolod nacionaluri

literaturiT 109 ver `aixsnebian~. sagulisxmoa, rom

literatura, rogorc globaluri realoba, axsnadia da mas,

upirveles yovlisa, sWirdeba gansazRvreba `qua literature~ (cneba,

romelic morcxvad iCens Tavs) 110 . amis gareSe SeuZlebeli

iqneba literaturulis gamoyofa araliteraturulisagan 111 ,

ar moxdeba _ vTqvaT – afrikuli da evropuli zepiri literaturebis

112 Seswavlis gaerTianeba da ar ganTavsdebian isini

erTsa da imave sibrtyeze. rogorc ki gamoviyenebT Teoriul

da ganmazogadebel hipoTezebTan asimilirebul zogierT es-

Tetikur kategorias da ganvalagebT mas Semdegi sqemis mixedviT:

metonimia-metafora, rac Seesabameba realizm/romantizmsimbolizmis

113 mimarTebas, aSkara gaxdeba, rom literaturis

zogadi `modeli~ ukve Cvens winaSea. arsebobs aseve sxva universaluri

modelebi, vTqvaT, `esTetikuri~; magaliTad, Cven

viciT, rom krosis mixedviT _ classicitá da liricitá mTeli poeziis

kondicias warmoadgens.

Tumca, da es faqti aRsaniSnavia (vinaidan is aZlierebs

komparativistuli hermenevtikis iseT tradicias, rogorsac

Cven ganvixilavT), tradicionalisti esTetikosebi da Tanamedrove

poetebi yovelTvis iyenebdnen zogad, qvemoT moxmobili

tipis hipoTezebs: `erToblivi xedva~, `kompleqsuri~ (Gesamtschau),

`fundamenturi struqturuli Taviseburebebi~ (m. baxtini)

an `mxatvruli enis struqtura~ (i. lotmani) da a.S. nebismier

SemTxvevaSi saubaria _ da swored es aris arsebiTi _

wamyvan meTodologiur, sabaziso principebze, romlebic

yovelTvis winasityvobis an daskvnis saxiT gadmoicema.

2. universalisturi hipoTeza ar aris da arc SeiZleba

iyos neitraluri. is komparativistul hermenevtikas aqtiur,

`mebrZol~ mimarTulebas aZlevs. marTlac, komparativizmis

yoveli gansazRvreba gamodis fundamenturi ideologiuri

arCevanidan, romelsac Zlieri meTodologiuri optacia mohyveba.

dRevandlamde Cven viyaviT met-naklebad dagvianebuli

146


pozitivistebi da zogierTebTan am konvencias veraferi Searyevs.

obieqturobas, romelsac vimowmebT, aqvs forma da es

aris _ pozitivizmi. amgvarad, pirveli kiTxva, rac warmoiSoba,

Semdegia: gvaqvs Tu ara ufleba, gvqondes filosofia, eqsplicituri

an implicituri, gvqondes sxva ideologiuri

orientacia, sxva arCevani, sxva rwmena? Tu amaze dadebiT pasuxs

gavcemT, maSin mTeli pozitivisturi nageboba CamoiSleba

da, masTan erTad (gadaWriT unda iTqvas), tradiciuli komparativizmis

safuZvlebic.

am principul sakiTxs (rac SeiZleba ritorikulad Cav-

TvaloT) faqtebi adasturebs. Cvens yvela inteleqtualur

mcdelobaSi yovelTvis Cans `ideologiuri~ motivacia da

mTlianoba. ideaTa erTgvari `sistema~, ramdenime postulati,

ori an sami aqsioma, gvinda Tu ara, Segnebulad Tu gaucnobiereblad,

organizebuli formiT Tu araorganizebulad, Cvens

yvela nabijsa da kvleva-Ziebas warmarTavs. igive `kanons~

emorCileba yoveli gansazRvreba, tendencia, mimdinareoba da

literaturuli programa. maS, ratom dauSvebda gamonakliss

komparativizmi? CavTvaloT, rom zogjer es procesi burusi-

Taa moculi da Jurnalistebs, Zalian sulswrafebsa da Zalian

zedapirulebs, romlebsac ar aqvT aranairi orientacia

am sferoSi, ar surT da arc SeuZliaT miiRon, rom etiambls,

magaliTad, miuxedavad Tavisi Tamami da `eseisturi~ ierisa,

aqvs sakuTari `ideologia~ 116 , amasTan, Zalian naTlad gamoxatulic

ki, yovel SemTxvevaSi, Tavis sawyis principebSi mainc

117 . sxva mxriv, `ideologiis~ semantika icvleba. tradiciuli

Tu modernistuli mniSvnelobebi, romlebic arasodes

eTanxmeba erTmaneTs, Cvens droSi dogmatizmSi CaZirvis gare-

Se erTaderT gansazRvrebamde ar daiyvaneba. Cvens sferoebSi

ideologia dadis literaturuli swavlebis Teoriul infrastruqturamde,

romelic maT garkveuli mimarTulebiT gadaxris

da ukanasknel analizSi gansazRvravs garkveul pozicias,

rasac qmedeba mohyveba. es aris mamoZravebeli energia,

biZgi, saboloo motivacia, rac win uZRvis Cvens kvlevebs da

mas sicocxles aniWebs.

miuxedavad zogierTi Tanamedrove Teoriisa, romlic

`ideologiaTa sikvdilis~ Sesaxeb saubrobs da im logikuri

pozitivizmis ganawesisa, romlsac surs Semecneba yoveli

`ideologiuri~ narCenisagan gaaTavisuflos, savsebiT ganwmedili,

utopiurad miukerZoebeli poziciis sasargeblod, ideologiuri

orientacia moZvelebulad mainc ar iTvleba, vinaidan

is yvela garemoebaSi aris da rCeba gardauvali. obieqtivisturi

`logikuri~ arCevanic ki arCevania; igi gamomdina-

147


eobs garkveuli gadawyvetilebebidan, romelTa Sorisac sapirispiro

gadawyvetilebis uaryofa (valdebuleba, kulturuli

hipoTeza da a.S) mTavari da ganmsazRvrelia. rac Seexeba

literaturis Teorias, zogjer vxvdebiT, rom Semecnebis obieqti

aq nakarnaxevia `wminda ideologiuri mosazrebebiT (risi

formulirebac saWiro iqneboda)~ 119 ; amasTan, yovelTvis

gvxvdeba masSi sociologiuri da ideologiuri hipoTezebi

(Voraussettzungen) 120 . evropuli da Suasaukuneebis laTinuri literaturis

kvlevebi e. r. kurciusis mier Riad mimdinareobda

`evropuli kuTxiT~ (roca qveyndeba anTologiebi, vTqvaT ase-

Ti saTauriT: A Christian Approach to Western Literature (1961), erTveba

igive meqanizmi). es aris `Tvalsazrisis kuTxis~ damowmeba

(sxvebs Soris), romelic sicxadiT gamoirCeva. igi TandaTanobiT

misaRebi xdeba komparativistul kvlevebSic, kerZod, Tu

gadavxedavT frankfurtis skolas an garkveuli istoriuli

materializmis interpretacias; is mkveTrad vlindeba maSinac,

roca literaturis yoveli gansazRvreba ideologiuradaa

motivirebuli.

Cveni Tvalsazrisi ewereba imave mimarTulebaSi, romlis

Teoriuli dasabuTeba gardauvalia: Tu `Zvel~ komparativizms

hqonda Tavisi sakuTreba, ratom ar SeiZleba igi hqondes aseve

`axals~? da Tu is iyo ufro xSirad implicituri da nagulisxmevi,

ratom ar gavSaloT karti da ar ganvacxadoT amis

Sesaxeb Tavidanve, rac SeiZleba naTlad, aSkarad da gulaxdilad?

saubaria literaturis universalisturi cnobierebis

miRebasa da mis transformaciaze aqtiur Zalad, romelic

uSualodaa CarTuli Cveni epoqis ideologiur realobaSi.

swored aqedan xdeba komparativizmis gadaxra `mebrZoli~ mimarTulebisaken,

romlis Sinaarsi iqneboda: aRmosavleT-dasavleTis

urTierTobebi, antinacionalizmi, evrocentrizmis

pozicia, brZola imperializmisa da kolonializmis winaaRmdeg,

internacionalizmis, kosmopolitizmis, kontaqtebis, gacvlebisa

da TanamSromlobisaTvis, literatorTa Soris Tavisufali

urTierTobebisaTvis, axali humanizmisTvis, axali

komparativizmisTvis. Cveni etiambli, anu mebrZoli komparativizmi

(1982), sakuTari mrwamsiT mainc, pasuxobs am programas

(rasakvirvelia, SeiZleba arsebobdes sxvebic), romelic SeiZleba

yovelTvis ukana planze iyos da komparativizmis Teoriul-poetikuri

Ziebis globaluri ideologiuri biZgis

funqcias asrulebdes.

universalisturi ideologiuri hipoTezisa da universaluri

literaturis Teoriis (=literatura) mimarTeba korelaturia.

literaturis (universaluri) Teoriis dinamika uni-

148


versalur literaturas `asimilaciisaken~ ubiZgebs. sabolood

ki Cven aRmovCndebiT axali mdgomareobis winaSe, romelic

literaturis `universalurobas~ ukavSirdeba. Tu marTalia

is, rom universaluri SeiZleba ilustrirebuli iyos nebismieri

gansakuTrebuli aspeqtiT, maSin ratom SeirCeva es

`ilustraciebi~ mxolod `dasavlur~ sartyelSi? miviRebdiT

pasuxs: xelsayrelobis gamo, CveulebiT, kulturuli da istoriuli

TvalsazrisiT, rasac hipoTezis logika uSvebs, metic,

moiTxovs. magram ufro `namdvili, swori~ aris hipoTeza,

romelic universaluri literaturis gansazRvrebidan gamomdinareobs.

is Seicavs `yvela~ `did~ da `mcire~ literaturebs

da aRiarebs literaturis uflebasa da `literaturulobas~,

magaliTad, xorvatul Tu malagasur literaturaSi.

es aris Tanasworobis ideologia msoflios literaturaTa

Soris, romelic amsxvrevs dasavleTis monopolias. esaa Tavisufali

metoqeobis ideologia literaturul Rirebulebebs

Soris, maTi (literaturebis) CaTvliT, romlebic ipso fakto

`qvemdgomebad~ im ubralo faqtis gamo gvevlinebian, rom dasavlur

sistemebSi maT Sesaxeb jer araferia cnobili. damoukidebeli

literaturuli Teoriis ideologia, romelic aranakleb

vargisia, mainc konkurentunariani rCeba, miuxedavad

imisa, rom SemuSavebulia ori Tu sami didi tradiciis centrSi,

dominantur kulturaTa miRma. dabolos, es aris ritualebis,

stereotipebis, ganaxlebisa da cvlilebebis ideologia,

malarmes, apolineris, joisis uzomod banalizebuli citaciebi,

esaa ideologia, romelic aseve moiTxovs sxva magaliTebisa

da sxva demonstraciebis CarTvas Teoriul wredSi,

gamyarebuls sxva, aseve Tanabrad Rirebuli teqstebiT. nebismieri

aRmosavluri citireba ueWvelad Canacvldeba dasavluri

citaciiT da piriqiT. poeziis arsis gansazRvra mxolod

apolineris `saTovlias~ tipis leqsebis saSualebiT, mcdari

hipoTezis tolfasia, vinaidan masSi poeziis arsis povna mxolod

amgvari leqsebis (da maTi ekvivalentebis) daxmarebiTaa

SesaZlebeli, Tu ar CavTvliT omar haiamis robaiebsa da

macuo basios `haikais~. Sedegad, aRmoCndeba, rom yvelaferi,

rac ar aris `rembo~ safrangeTSi, evropaSi Tu sxvagan, naklebad

sainteresoa, qvemdgomi, araaqtualuri da a.S. rasakvirvelia,

am ideologiuri crurwmenis winaaRmdeg aucilebelia

raRac ideologiuri reaqcia. amasTan dakavSirebiT yovelTvis

unda gavixsenoT dasavleTis mier aRmosavleTis aRqmis istoria,

rac gaxldaT: `siaxle~, `saxeTa repertuari~ Tu ukiduresad

distanciuri da mkacri uaryofa 122 .

149


SevajamoT es hermenevtikuli mdgomareoba: aq ar gvaqvs

moulodneli interpretacia, kiTxvis niSnebi. obieqtivisturi

istorizebuli iluziebi kvlav erTi dartymiT imsxvreva, vinaidan

yovelTvis winamavali konceptebiT, met-naklebad formulirebuli

da SeniRbuli Teoriuli aprioriT operireben.

mokled, ar arsebobs `uwyinari~ komparativistuli diskursi

da `yvela interpretacia hipoTezuri an winaswarganzraxulia.

Tumca sabolood mainc vipoviT imas, rasac ganmkargulebel

konceptebsa da winaswarganmWvret epistemologiebSi veZebT,

xolo daskvnis sityvebi da magaliTebi (vityodiT, Cvenda

uneburad) ukve `mocemul~ daskvnas daeyrdnoba.

yovelives ki universaluri literaturis, anu iseT literaturis

`povniT~ vamTavrebT, rogoric iyo ganWvretili,

sasurveli. da Tuki movisurvebdiT, rom mmarTveli konceptebi

Camogvecilebina, romlebic win uZRvian operacias, komparativistis

kulturuli, Teoriuli da terminologiuri tradicia

sabolood masze mainc gaimarjvebda. aqedan modis im

mkvlevarTa Secdomebi, romelTac sjeraT, rom wmindad `logikuri~

da deskrifciuli literaturis Teoriebi SeuZliaT

SeimuSaon literaturis winaswarmofiqrebuli konceptis gareSe,

im motiviT, rom is (koncepti) yovelTvis normatiulia

123 , rac realobas sulac ar Seesabameba; an maTi cdomilebebi,

romlebic `filosofias~ ganixilaven, rogorc `literaturis

swavlebis sasrul da ara _ sawyis wertils~. 124

winaswar Seqmnili azri, romlis mixedviTac SeuZlebelia

universalur perspeqtivaSi ganTavseba, imTaviTve aris ganwiruli

yoveli Tavdapirveli prekonceptis (absoluturi piroba)

naTeli, zusti formulirebiT da axsniT 125 , romelic ipso

facto gvikvalavs gasavlel gzas. es ar niSnavs, rom zogierTi

meTodi da midgoma saboloo Sedegis misaRebad ufro adekvaturia,

vidre sxvebi. mebrZoli komparativizmi mxolod da

mxolod amuSavebs, magaliTad, formalistur da neopozitivistur

meTodebs; komunikaciis Teoria ki ufro morgebulia

literaturul `universalurobas~, romelsac is miemarTeba.

aseve mxedvelobaSia misaRebi kulturuli mdgomareobac, ra-

Ta universaluri literaturas Teoria marTlac universaluri

gaxdes.

150


4. hermenevtikuli xerxebi da wreebi

1. sinqronuli kiTxva

komparativistuli hermenevtikis axali orientaciebi uSvebs

analizis sistemis srul cvlilebas. qronologiuridan,

Tanmimdevrulidan Tu seriulidan is sinqronulSi 126 gadadis.

Cveni formula axerxebs imas, rom Zalian zustad Semoxazos

literaturis meTodi, romelsac universaluri da globaluri

xedvis pretenzia aqvs da rac kiTxvis sinqronul wesrigs

gulisxmobs. am sinqronulobas ori ganzomileba aqvs:

a) misi sinTezuri da gamamTlianebeli perspeqtiva, pirvel

rigSi, axerxebs imas, rom warsuli/awmyos (Zveli/Tanamedrove)

wesrigis literaturuli urTierTobebis erToba identurobisa

da nivelirebisaken miiswrafvodes ise, TiTqos

msoflios mTeli literatura da literaturis Teoria Cvens

droSi iyos dawerili 127 . es niSnavs kiTxvisaken swrafvas, rac

gamudmebiT xorcieldeba igive referenciul sibrtyeze da

gulisxmobs `gaTavisuflebuli anaqronizmis teqnikas~ (xelaxla

mivmarTavT garegnulad paradoqsul formulas borxesis

fiqciebidan (Ficciones). is Zalian xSirad gamoiyenebs adgilmonacvleobebs,

retrospeqciebsa da aqtualizaciebs da es

aris _ warsuli-awmyo/awmyo-warsulis tipi 128 . swored es mar-

Sruti, es uwyveti mimosvla uSvebs yvela SesaZlo komparativistul

varauds, msgavsebasa da kavSiris aRdgenas. swored

aqedan momdinareobs zedrouli, meTodologiurad motivirebuli

unitaruli wesrigis, yoveli hermenevtikuli wesrigis

realizacia. amgvarad, nebismieri hermenevtikuli wakiTxva Tavis

Tavze iRebs da aqtualurs xdis sakuTar SenaZenT, romlebic

integraciis saSualebiT arian `warmodgenilni~ kiTxvis

erTaderT aqtSi. am sinqronul wesrigSi ki yoveli citata

da yoveli damowmeba amtkicebs yvela sxvas, da yvelani

erTad, TanxmierebiT, interpretaciis erTsa da imave sqemas.

amave dros, Tavidan aviridoT gaugebroba, rac TavisTavad

mniSvnelovania. kiTxvis es tipi ar aris warmodgenili

istoriis gareSe. ufro metic: is aRniSnulia istoriis yoveli

momentiT, vinaidan komparativistuli aqti `horizontebis

Serwymis~ relizebas axdens, raTa xelaxla Seudges Tanamedrove

hermenevtikis gamoxatvas. es niSnavs, rom komparativistuli

hipoTeza _ romelic sakuTari istoriuli momentisa da

istoriuli tradiciis anabeWds atarebs da gansazRvravs mis

definiciasa da Sinaarss _ Sejerebulia adreuli epoqis nawarmoebebis

istoriul horizontze, rac qmnis misi `Sedare-

151


is~ obieqts da mas Seerwymis. erTgvar uwyvetad gadaadgilebad

istoriul tradiciaSi CarTuli komparativist-hermenevtikosi

sakuTari badis daSifvriT Tavs uyris istoriuli da

tradiciuli monacemebis mTlianobas da aRadgens maT. maSasadame,

ori `istoriuloba~ erTmaneTs emTxveva sinTezis, kontinuumis

SigniT, sadac warsuli xdeba awmyo da awmyo, asimilaciis

saSualebiT, aqtualizebuli warsulis saxes iRebs. es

progresul-regresiuli moqmedeba saSualebas iZleva sinqronulad

Cawvdes Zvelsa da modernistul literaturas da,

imavdroulad, ipso facto gaigos universaluri literatura. SemoTavazebuli

gansazRvreba `niSandadebulia~, magram mas SeuZlia

iyos mxolod da mxolod `niSandadebuli~, istoriis

beWdiT daRdasmuli. es dakvirveba vargisia komparativizmis

terminologiuri da meTodologiuri aRWurvisa, da saerTod,

yoveli istoriuli meTodisaTvis.

aqedan gamomdinareobs ori Sedegi: pirveli _ sinamdvileSi,

e.w. `gamrudebuli wre~ ar arsebobs, vinaidan hermenevtikis

yoveli momenti da yoveli wre gansxvavebulad `iwyeba~;

da meore: istoria/invariantis mimarTeba da istoriasa da

arss Soris arsebuli `geometriul adgili~ iwereba imave

transistoriul midgomaSi, romelzec garkveuli istoriuli

momentebis nakvalevi aRibeWdeba. yoveli invarianti muSavdeba

epoqis mkvlevaris mier SeZenil codnasa da sakuTar Ziebebze

dayrdnobiT, romlebic literaturis mier mowodebuli istoriiT

retroaqtiurad miemarTebian mocemulobebis erTobliobisaken.

ra aris ufro `Tanamedrove~, vidre dolce vita-s retroaqtiuri

gardasaxvis xilva XIII saukunis sakmaod msubuq

adaT-wesebSi, an Jil blas auto-stop-iT umiznod xetialSi?

(rogorc etiambli ityoda).

Tanamedrove terminebiT ganmartebuli am tipis komparativistuli

meTodi funqciuradac sinqronuli iqneba. es problematika

erTbaSad jdeba sinqronia/diaqroniis didi debatebis

(rac ar unda vTqvaT, amgvari debatebi mainc realobaa)

CarCoSi. sinqronuli kiTxva cvlis diaqronul-horizontalur

perspeqtivas sinqronul-vertikaluri perspeqtivis sasargeblod,

rogorc fundamenturad istoriuli mdgomareobis sinqronuli

proeqcia. literatura (universaluri) `yalibdeba~

diaqronulad da `funqcionirebs~ sinqronulad, vinaidan kiTxvis

aqtis struqtura yovelTvis sakuTar sinqronul cxrils

adgens. agreTve, yovel hipoTezas aqvs diaqronuli genezisi,

rasac Tan axlavs gaormagebuli sinqronuli praqtika. es hermenevtikuli

mimarTeba arsebiTia, magram: iqneb sinqronuli ki-

Txva awydeba sinqronul faqtebs, romlebic mas am tipis waki-

152


Txvas aiZulebs an obieqtur realobaSi asaxavs sakuTari Car-

Co-cxrilis SemzRudvel da gamaerTianebel faqtebs? sinamdvileSi

es mimarTeba alternatiuli da korelaturia, is gulisxmobs

ormxriv wesrigs, rac niSnavs, rom sinqronuli komparativistuli

kiTxva Tavad regulirdeba da ufro da ufro

zustdeba faqtebis wyalobiT, romlebic SesamCnevni, mkafioni,

mniSvnelovanni mxolod am midgomis wyalobiT xdebian.

amgvarad, yovelTvis, roca komparativizmi universalurad,

ganmazogadeblad da `horizontalurad~ gvesaxeba, is

aucileblad sinqronuli xdeba. sasurvelia Tu ara sinqrounli

swavlebis kombinireba (sinqronuli fenomenebis analizi)

da diaqronuli swavleba (cvlilebebis Seswavla), Tu sakmarisia

`SedarebiTi poetikis~ gzaze ukanasknel analizSi orientirebuli

kiTxvis sinqronuli midgomiT SemovifargloT?

literaturis (universaluri) koncepti, romelic am operacias

warmarTavs, aucileblad sinqronulia; nacionaluri literaturebis

diaqronia mas mxolod gadaamowmebs, avsebs an

niuansebs sZens.

amgvarad, komparativizmsa da literaturis istorias Soris

arsebuli arsebiTi mimarTeba, sabolood SeiZleba ukeT

iyos dazustebuli. istoria (literaturulisa da komparativistulis

CaTvliT) retrospeqtiul/prospeqtiul moZraobaSi

Tavisi epistemologiuri struqturiTac iwereba. is moqmedebs

winaT gamoTqmuli mosazrebebis gadasinjviT 129 , cnobebis Semowmebis,

Sepirispirebis gziT, ZaliT gaTanamedrovebuli winamorbedis

ZiebiT. saubaria uwyvet `ukumoZraobaze~, romelic

sawyis wertilad iRebs `arqaul realobebs~, raTa mzera awmyodan

warsulisaken mimarTos, alternatiuli moqmedebas,

`mTeli lingvisturi, komparativistuli Tu sxva operaciis

yvelaze ufro sasargeblo fazas~ 130 . amgvarad, tipologiurkomparativistuli,

simultanuri Tu sinqronuli kiTxva, sruli

`anaqronizmiT~ mkvidrdeba da es anaqronizmi ganixileba,

rogorc `bunebrivi~, ucvleli da gardauvali 131 . is ganpirobebulia

istoriulad, misi gamoyeneba momdinareobs garkveuli

istoriuli da ideologiuri momentidan, rac mas Tavis daRs

asvams, magram misi meqanizmi yovelTvis igive rCeba, cxrili

Tu dayofa retroaqtiurad aris gadatanili istoriaze. sinqronuloba

gadrdaiqmneba aqroniad da Semdeg, intrepretaciul

doneze, metaqroniad.

Tu istoria aris `gardauvali~, is aris gardauvlad

`Tanamedrove~ da `sinqronuli~ 132 , yovelTvis ze (supra) an metaistoriuli.

am Tvalsazrisis dagmobas agrZeleben im mizezebiT,

romlebic ideologiuri da istoriuli pirobiTobebi-

153


dan da nacionaluri Taviseburebebidan gamomdinareoben. am

dros mxedvelobis ares miRma toveben imas, rom yoveli istoriuli

momenti, rogoric ar unda iyos misi Sinaarsi, meTodologiuri

gamomsaxvelobiT axorcielebs warsulis igive

wakiTxvas, rac erTsa da imave dros aris reduqciuli, aRdgenili

da `moZvelebuli~. gana SesaZlebelia arsebobdes `literaturis

SedarebiTi istoria~, rogorc avtonomiuri disciplina,

romelsac warsulis aRdgena akisria? amas metad

aRar gavimeorebT 133 , vinaidan yoveli istoria, erTi mxriv, SeiZleba

iyos mxolod SedarebiTi, sxva mxriv ki, warsuli aRdgeba

mxolod awmyos saSualebiT, romelic yovelTvis Zlieria

Tavisi moTxovnilebebiT.

amave dros, istoriuli wakiTxvis es tipi xsnis, Tu ratom

xdeba literaturis SedarebiTi Teoriis damfuZneblebis

uwyveti damowmeba am komparativistuli meTodis pirdapiri

Sedegi, rac Cvens eseSic Cans. sinamdvileSi, analizsa da demonstraciaSi

maTi aqtualizaciiTa da TandaTanobiT Car-

TviT, hermenevtikis Tanmimdevrul wesrigs vaxorcielebT. es

interpretacia aRmoaCens, agrZelebs da amdidrebs komparativistul

tradicias. igi aris Cveni `horizonti~, sadac gansakuTrebulad

fasoben `klasikosebi~ da `modernistebi~. goeTem

es ukve icis: `dae, Zveli gaxdes axali~, iseve, rogorc

amas a.Slegeli Zvel da axal literaturasTan dakavSirebiT

ambobda 134 . butervekis literaturuli Janrebis sinoptikuri

tabulebi miuTiTebda igive `sinqronuli gadamuSavebis~ (synchronistischen

Bearbeitung) 135 aucileblobaze. es terminologia

CvenTvis ukve nacnobia (iseve rogorc `horizontaluri~ da

`SedarebiTi~ Tvalsazrisi), romlis gareSec literaturuli

ganzogadeba da `poeziis `arsis~ gansazRvra SeuZlebeli iqneboda~

(g. sensburi) 136 .

realurad, vin amaxvilebs yuradRebas sinqronul midgomaze

Tanamedrove komparativizmSi? auditoria sakmaod mokrZalebulia,

es vaRiaroT. Tuki arsebul naSromebs gadavxedavT,

davinaxavT, rom isev Zalian uwesrigod iyeneben am koncepts.

cxadia, zogjer xelaxla vubrundebiT sinqronulobis

cnebas, viTxovT, rom SedarebiTi literatura aRar iyos

aucileblad diaqronuli 137 , xotbas vasxmaT `sinqronul komparativizms~

138 , magram SesamCnevi efeqtis gareSe. Tumca vaRiaroT,

gansakuTrebiT aRmosavleTSi, rom sinqronuloba awonasworebs

(yovel SemTxvevaSi, Teoriulad mainc) istorizmis

garkveul gadaWarbebebsa da eqskluzivebs. swored amis gamo

veTanxmebiT garkveul aspeqtamde sinqronul analogiebs, romlebsac

ar uaryofdnen Zveli rusuli da sabWoTa komparati-

154


vistuli skolebi (a. n. veselovski, v. Jirmunski). zogjer gamovxatavT

kidec crurwmenas maT sasargeblod da vambobT: me-

Todologiuri progresi moxseniebis Rirsia 139 . TiTqmis er-

TaderTi wamowyeba, romelic dReisaTvis seriozulia da mas-

Staburad Teorizebuli, ufro metic, am suliskveTebiTaa realizebuli,

gaxlavT (sxva proeqtebi momzadebis procesSia)

ori tomi seriisa evropuli enebis literaturaTa SedarebiTi

istoria, rasac xelmZRanelobs komparativistikis saerTaSoriso

asociacia da literaturuli avangardebi me-20 saukune-

Si, Jan vaisgerberis redaqtorobiT. Tu pirveli tomi `diaqronulia~

(istoriuli, qronologiuri), meore tomi calsaxad

`sinqronuli~ da `fenomenologiuria~ 140 .

zogjer am ganxilvebs `zogadi literaturis~ iarliys

vakerebT. magram isini zedapirze amodian yovel jerze, roca

elementaruli dakvirveba sakmarisia `literaturaSi sinqronuli

wesrigis~ amosacnobad, xolo adeqvaturi wakiTxva mas

literaturuli esTetikisken mimarTavs 141 . bolos, rogorc

Cans, `axali meTodebisa~ da, ufro metad, axali terminologis

cxadi gavleniT (`gavlenis~ tipuri fenomeni!), literaturuli

kvlevebis sinqronuli da diaqronuli midgoma internacionaluri

kuTxiT (ukeT rom vTqvaT, supranacionaluriT)

ZalaSi Sedis 142 .

aranakleb aRsaniSnavia sirTule, romlis wyalobiTac

tradiciuli SedarebiTi literatura `simultanuri da Tanmimdevruli

reaqciebis~ 143 xangrZlivad warmodgenil koncepts

iTvisebs. mas vxvdebiT marginalur bundovanebaSi (imTaviTve

da sporadulad); zogjer sul axali mignebebis drosac, ri-

Tac cdiloben `miaRwion literaturuli fenomenis mTlianobis

simultanur da sinTezur xedvas~ 144 . auditoria ufro da

ufro farTovdeba: `yvela literaturis erTdrouli Seswavla~

dRis wesrigSi dgeba 145 .

kidev erTxel vimeorebT: faqtebis rigi wyvets faqtebis

wakiTxvas. ori sistema erTimeores edeba da dialeqtikurad

ormxrivad ganpirobebuli xdeba. erTi iwvevs da gansazRvravs

meores. magaliTad, mivyveT Tundac Jozef teqtes proeqts:

warmovadginoT `yvela literaturis erTdrouli ganviTareba~

146 . cxadia, erTdroulobis hipoTeza erTsa da imave dros

awesrigebs ordo rerum da ordo rerum idearum. sul mTlad daviwyebul

intuicias kvlav vpoulobT (da didi zar-zeimiT) Tanamedrove

gamoCenil adamianebTan, rogorebicaa Tomas elioti,

ezra paundi Tu norTrop frai, romlebic zustad igives amboben.

erTi _ evropul literaturas miiCnevs, rogorc `simultanuri

yofierebisa da simultanuri wesrigidan Seq-

155


mnils~, maSin, rodesac sxvebisaTvis _ `yvela epoqa aris Tanamedrove...

rac gansakuTrebiT dasturdeba literaturaSi~, romelic

mxolod da mxolod `totaluri wesrigia~ _ Tavisi gariJraJidan

_ Cvens dromde 147 . SeiZleba igive iTqvas Tanamedroveobaze,

`msoflios simultanobis~ fenomenze Tu zogierT

avangardul wamowyebaze, rac iqneboda `erTdroulad SeZenili

unikaluri universaluri literatura~ 148 da a.S. yvela am

SemTxvevaSi, simultanuri literaturis ganviTareba da simultanuri

aRdgenis sistema erT mTlianobas Seadgens, rac

araferia, Tu ara mxolod erTi hermenevtikuli procesi. aq

kvlav vpoulobT mis centralur hipoTezas Tu mis meqanizms

(warsuli/awmyos ormxrivi gaSuqeba, xelaxali gamogonebis,

xelaxali aRmoCenis, winaswari ganWvretis, gaTanamedroveobis

dadastureba, rac xSirad warmoaCens siurprizs, paradoqss

da a.S) rene velekTan (da sxva anglo-saqs avtorebTan), dabolos

_ etiamblTan. es avtori marTlac ganWvrets `didroseul

suls X saukunis arab enciklopedistebTan~ 150 .

ukve aRaraferi rCeba, Tu ara ukanaskneli nabijis gadadgma:

komparativizmSi vaRiaroT `sinqronuli poetikis~ 151

saxesxvaoba (sui generis), romelic unda aigos ara lingvistur

bazaze, aramed sinqronul-struqturalisturi aRwerilobebisa

da invariantebis daxmarebiT, dawyebuli mudmivi, maradiuli

gameorebebiT, romelTa mizania universaluri literaturis,

istorizirebuli istoriis sazRvrebis gacdena da literaturis

Teoriisa da Teoriulobis mizanSi amoReba. es meTodologiuri

cvlileba TandaTanobiT, nawilobriv miiReba:

`SedarebiTi literatura rCeba farTod istoriul disciplinad,

Tumca istoria misi Seswavlis mTavari obieqti ar aris.

am Temebsa Tu Janrebze kvleva Seicavs sinqronul dajgufebebsa

da Sedarebebs, romlebic SedarebiT literaturas gansakuTrebul

xasiaTs aniWebs, aTavsebs maT literaturis istoriasa

da literaturis codnas Soris~ (robert eskarpiti) 152 .

es axali komparativistuli organoni asagebi rCeba da

Cveni esec am mimarTulebiT midis. Tumca Tavisi principiT

mas mainc uswrebs win zogierTi Tanamedrove poetikosebis

naSromebi, kerZod, iseTebis, rogorebic rusi formalistebi

arian. es naSromebi unda movaTavsoT `literaturis sinqrounli

sistemis~ 153 , `droismiRmurobis~ da `reversuli wesrigis~

kategoriaSi. igivea JenetTanac, romelic e. r kurciuss eyrdnoba

154 ; h. r. iausTan da mis recefciul esTetikaSi, romlis

programa `diaqroniis sxvadasxva wertilebSi sinqronul

kveTebs 155 ~ moiTxovs da sxv. agreTve, andre malros msgavsad,

unda gavixsenoT universaluri literaturis `warmosaxviTi

156


muzeumi~, rac yvela Sedevris interpretaciiTa da sinqrounli

aRdgeniT gaxdeba SesaZlebeli. maSasadame, SegviZlia va-

RiaroT, rom yvela literaturuli gansazRvreba axleburad

wyvets istoriul da Teoriul gegmas; da yvela literaturuli

koncepti, iseve, rogorc yvela wakiTxva, Tanabrad sinqronulia

da yovelTvis erT sinqronul yalibSia moTavsebuli

(gamartivebuli modeli 157 ).

b) aRmosavleT-dasavleTis simultanuri analizi aormagebs

am sinqronul midgomas, gadaWimavs mas did zedapirze,

universaluri ganzomilebis mqone sazRvramde. amgvarad, vertikaluri

kveTa (warsuli/awmyo) uerTdeba horizontalur

sivrcul kveTas, (aRmosavleT/dasavleTi), imave tipis hermenevtuli

mimarTulebebis dasafuZneblad da gadasamowmeblad.

Cinuri da Suasaukuneebis monacemebi SeiZleba kargad iyos

asimilirebuli evropuli da Tanamedrove suliT. da roca

vaxsenebT aRmosavleT-dasavleTis ganzomilebas, aucilebelia

gaviTvaliswinoT, rom is aRniSnavs ara mxolod aRmosavleT/dasavleTis,

aramed aseve aRmosavleT da dasavleT evropis

Sexvedrasac. maSasadame, aRmosavleT-dasavleTis polaruloba

SegviZlia ganvixiloT sinqronul-diaqronuli polarulobis

tolfasad 158 , im azriT, rom dasavluri literaturuli

konceptebi gardauvlad sinqronuli xdebian yovel

jerze, roca isini axleburad ganixilaven aRmosavlur faqtebs,

gancdilT (da saxeldebulT), rogorc maT Tanafards.

l. masinioni Tavis orientalizms amgvaradve gansazRvravda:

`arc egzotizmiT uazro gataceba, arc evropis uaryofa,

aramed Cveni Ziebis meTodebisa da antikuri civilizaciebis

mier gavlili tradiciebis gaTanabreba~ 159 .

aqedan gamomdinare, ra daskvnebi SegviZlia gavakeToT

SedarebiTi literaturis TeoriasTan dakavSirebiT? Zalian

mokled rom SevajeroT: 1) arsebobs Cinuri, arabuli poetikebi

da ara mxolod dasavluri; es xom gacveTili WeSmaritebaa.

2) isini warmoaCenen garkveul analogiebsa da Sexebis

wertilebs dasavleTis poetikebTan; 3) sabolood, aqedan SeiZleba

gamovitanoT, saerTo an, Tu gvsurs, `latanturi~ daskvna

poetikis arsebobis Sesaxeb, rac Cadebulia yvela `regionalur~

poetikaSi. poetika am safuZvelze ikveTeba ganzogadebuli,

universaluri mniSvnelobiTa da vargisianobiT. Tu

zogierTi orientalisti msgavs `ganzogadebas~ aRiarebs aziur

da evropul literaturasTan mimarTebiT 160 , ratom ar

iqneba es SesaZlebeli literaturis TeoriisaTvis?

marTlac, ganmazogadebeli xerxebi (III,3), dawyebuli terminologiuri

gadaadgilebiT, igive rCeba. aRmosavleT-dasav-

157


leTis komparativizmi, evropul invariantebze nadiroba CineTSi

da piriqiT, ormxrivad SeuZlebeli iqneba am xerxis mi-

Rebis gareSe (romelic arsebiTsa da universalurs umiznebs).

es aris identifikaciebisa da eqstrapolaciebis daxmarebiT

identurobebis Zieba, rac ganxorcielebulia jaWvis orive

bolodan. ukve gavixseneT, rom zogierTi komparativisti, rogorc

aRmosavleTSi, aseve dasavleTSi, am meTods Tanxmdeba.

axla amis `teqnikuri~ dasabuTebac gvaqvs. rodesac vamtkicebT,

rom `Suasaukuneebisa da aRmosavleTis xelovnebis

principebi identuria~ an arsebobs `realuri analogia~ maister

ekhartis azrovnebasa da induisturi filosofiis zogierT

aspeqts Soris, teqstebis dawvrilebiTi analizi warmoaCens

yvela rigis Tanxvedrasa da Tanamonawileobas, rac am

mtkicebulebas amarTlebs. maSasadame, araferia ufro legitimuri,

vidre maTi gadmocema yvelgan tolfasi terminebiT.

zogierTi nawarmoebis wyoba nimuSebis SerCevis igive meqanizms

amtkicebs. Zveli/axlis, originaluroba/tradiciis,

wesrigi/avantiuris, norma/Tavisuflebis Sejereba SeiZleba

miRebuli iyos universalur poetikur `kanonad~; da is Tavisuflad

mowmdeba rogorc dasavleTis areSi, aseve aRmosavleTSi,

magaliTad, arabul poetikaSi (saerTo esTetikuri

problemebi marTlac rom ufro metia). mimarTeba _ maRali

kultura-damwerloba/xalxuri kultura-zepirsityviereba _

Tavisi literaturuli da Teoriuli implikaciebis erTobliobiT,

agreTve aRmosavleT-dasavleTis rigisaa, maSasadame,

struqturulad universaluri. amis damowmebebi uamravia,

magram naklebad gamoyenebuli. igive daskvnas viRebT maSinac,

rodesac gadavdivarT gansakuTrebul Teoriebze: Txrobis naratiulobis

zogadi Teoria SeuZlebelia gamomuSavdes, magaliTad,

Cinuri magaliTebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. 163 es dakvirveba

aseve vargisia Janrebis TeoriisaTvis, romanisaTvis 164 ,

piradi dRiuri 165 , elegiisaTvis da a.S. aqedan gamomdinareobs

is, rom amiT Seiryeva da saxes Seicvlis yvela evropuli Teoria

da sqema. iaponiaSi romani win uswrebs epopeas da piradi

dRiuri aris fiqcia prozaSi, literaturuli konvencia,

rac 8 saukuniT adreulia, vidre igive fenomeni evropaSi; xolo

CineTSi drama karga xniT win uswrebs berZnul tragedias.

spontanuri STagonebis Teoriis siuJetSi, eseSi, avtobiografiaSi,

werilSi (literaturuli), Cven vxvdebiT igive

prioritets (iaponurs). CineTSi, da saerTod, aRmosavlur literaturaSi,

epikuri poema lirizmisaken, elegiisaken ixreba,

maSin, roca lirikuli poezia warmoaCens epikur tendenciebs,

romlebic elegiisa da elegiuri epigramebisken arian midre-

158


kilni. saberZneTSi literatura iwyeba epopeiT, CineTSi _ lirikuli

poeziiT da ambis sawyisi maTSi sruliad sxvadasxvaa

da a.S. 167 yvela am SemTxvevaSi sakmarisi ar aris iTqvas: `lirikuli

poezia yvelgan erTi da igivea~. 168 is, rac TavisTavad

Cans, magram warmoiSoba yoveli poetikuri problemis Sem-

TxvevaSi (forma, saxe, stili da sxv.) aRmosavleT-dasavleTis

komparativistuli SejerebebiT, zogadi gansazRvrebis win wamowevamde,

gamomdinareobda `SedarebiTi poetikidan~. 169 yovel

SemTxvevaSi, am droisaTvis dasavleTis orientalistebi bevrad

ufro win wasulni arian am sferoSi, vidre maTi komparativisti

kolegebi.

modiT, am sakiTxs sxva mxridan SevxedoT, kerZod, movi-

ZioT igi aRmosavluri literaturis TeoretikosebTan. midgoma

aq arsebiTad igivea. warmoCenili saerTo elementebi an

aRiqmeba, rogorc daprogramebuli, an SemTxveviTi, rasac igive

tipis daskvnebamde mivyavarT, esenia: ganzogadebuli esTetikuri

Teoriebi, CarCoSi moqceuli kategoriuli aRmosavluri

mocemulobebi, aRmosavleT-dasavleTis Sesabamisobebi poetikis

an Janrebis Teoriis gansazRvrul sakiTxebSi da a.S.,

rac Camoyalibebuli komparativistuli Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare,

zogjer mkveTrad aris miTiTebuli. 170 rasakvirvelia,

sfero, romelzec vsaubrobT, jer ar gamoukvleviaT da

igi arc SemTxveviTi `kaTolikuri~ esTetikisagana saimedod

daculi. 171 literaturuli ekumenizmi, kodirebuli, normatiuli?

amaze laparakic zedmetia. magram ganzogadebis SeTanxmebuloba,

dawyebuli saerTo hipoTezidan da saCvenebeli

teqstebidan, romelTa mniSvnelobac Seqcevadia, eWvqveS ar

dgeba. roca Cven viRebT amgvar perspeqtivas, uecrad warmoiSoba

aRmosavleT-dasavleTis Sedarebebi da homologiebi.

isRa dagvrCenia, Tvali gadavavloT, magaliTis saxiT, Zveli

Cinuri tradiciis or klasikoss: lu Sisa da lui sies. rac

Seexeba WeSmariti saxisa da arsis erTgvarovnebebis winaswar

ganWvretebs, `siaxlisa~ da originalobis~ poetikur moTxovnebs

(`wyaroebis gareSe~), rasac Cven vuwodeT (evropaSi) foni-formis

Sesabamisoba, `dumilis ritorika~, lamazi ena, literaturul

emocia da eqspresia, damwerloba _ Tavidan funqciuri,

Semdeg `esTetizebuli~, zepirTqma da a.S 172 , imisTvisaa,

rom warmoCndes meTodis funqcionireba, romlis ganyenebuli

vargisianoba win uswrebs Tavis Sedegebs.

159


2. induqcia _ deduqcia

komparativisti Teoretikosi literaturis istoriasa da

universalur literaturaze Tvalis gadavlebiT, simultanuri

kiTxviT, yovel wuTs induqcia/deduqciis meTodiT moqmedebs.

es meTodi srulebiT ar aris damaxasiaTebeli Sedarebi-

Ti literaturisTvis, romelic misi gansakuTrebuli funqciebidan

erT-erTia da dazustebuli rCeba. Tavad Cvenc igivenairad

vimoqmedebT, induqciebiTa da deduqciebiT, progresuli

da regresuli msjelobebiT, ganuwyveteli mimosvliT: Cveni

centraluri hipoTezidan misi gansakuTrebul implikaciebisa

da gamoyenebebisaken, safuZvlidan dawyebuli, ufro da ufro

gavrcobili ganzogadebisaken. orive es momenti ganuyofelia

da maTi korelacia yovelTvis xorcieldeba. qvemoT vnaxavT,

rom amasTan dakavSirebiT logikosebi da hermenevtikosebi

srul TanxmobaSi arian 173 .

literaturis TeoriisaTvis am ganuwyveteli procesis

zogierTi aspeqti Zalian sainteresoa. upirvelesad, is cvlis

imas, rasac Cven `gafarToebadi~ Tu `avTenturi induqcia~ vuwodeT

da yoveli daskvna winamavals moicavs. CamonaTvalis

nusxa amomwuravi ar aris, dawyebuli individualuri SemTxvevebis

erTobliobidan, warmarTuli zogadisken (`sruli~ induqcia),

magram miemarTeba igive klasis elementebis gansaz-

Rvrul raodenobas. ZiriTadad, induqcia SerCeviTia da arasodes

_ amomwuravi. is yovelTvis moqmedebs arCevanis gziT

(gadamwyveti faqtebi, arsebiTi xasiaTi, ukiduresad gamomsaxvelobiTi

monacemebi), gadarCeva Tavidanve, sabaziso hipoTeza-

Sia mocemuli, romlis funqcia erTdroulad aris gamomricxavic

da reduqciulic. moqmedebis meTodi Zalian hgavs von

unten (g.T. feSneri) SemuSavebul esTetikas, qvemodan _ zemoT,

ukiduresad SezRuduli faqtebidan da teqstebidan, ufro da

ufro ganzogadebuli STagonebebisaken. induqcia amodis

izolirebuli, danawevrebuli, tranzituli elementebidan, ra-

Ta mivides per ascensum globalur, erTian da mudmiv daskvnebamde.

sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, simartivisTvis, is erToblivad

viTardeba nacnobidan da identuridan _ ucnobisa da

gansxvavebulisaken.

maSasadame, induqcia aris TandaTanobiTi, aRmavali, ganmazogadebeli.

Tavisi daskvnebis sazRvrebi mas mihyavs kerZodan

_ zogadisaken, Zalian konkretulidan _ Zalian zogadisaken.

dawyebuli erTi Tu mravali faqtidan, is adis erTi da

igive Janris yvela faqtis kanonamde, originaluri Sinaarsidan

_ universalur Sinaarsamde. yovelive es jer kidev aris-

160


toteledan moyolebuli viciT (topikebi, 1, 12, 105 a, 13). da

mainc, Cvens kerZo SemTxvevaSi, `Sejameba~ (an `Semajamebeli

universaluri~) da `Teoria~... `kanons~ vamjobinoT, samecniero

dakvirvebebisa da eqsperimentebis gamosayofad gadavideT

literaturuli monacemebis sferoSi, globalur formulaze,

sadac isini Sejamdebian, magram es ganmazogadebeli gansja

ar aris WeSmariti `kanoni~, vinaidan literaturaSi Cven maradiuli

gamonaklisis sferoSi vimyofebiT. ufro metic, literaturis

Teoriis safuZveli araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar aris

mizezobriobis principi. sxva mxriv, nebismier `Teorias~, centris

msgavsad, yovelTvis aqvs principi, romlisakenac miiswrafvis

an romelsac SeiZleba miebas hipoTezebisa da aRniSnuli

faqtebis erToblioba. maSasadame, mas SeuZlia erTmaneTs

daakavSiros (rogorc es swored literaturis Teoriis

SemTxvevaSi xdeba) hipoTezis qmediToba da monacemTa SerCevi-

Toba. es aris Teoria, romelic Tavis mTlianobaSi awesrigebs

induqciisa da deduqciis procesebs da axdens maT

modelirebas.

saerTod, saubaria induqcia-deduqciis gansakuTrebul

aspeqtze, romelsac aqvs didi SesaZlebloba, Riaobisa, rektifikaciisa

da retroaqciisa, Cven vadgildebiT a-dan c-ze, b-dan

c-ze da c-dan d-ze, Cveni codnis zrdis Sesabamisad (induqciuri

momenti), radgan vaskvniT, rom e, f, g, h identurni da

msgavsni arian a, b, c, d-si (deduqciuri momenti). da amis sapirispirod,

Tu mocemuloba e‐s ewinaaRmdegeba, a, b, c, d-s seriis

rigi mTlianad icvleba, raTa mas adgili gauTavisuflos. Sedegad,

yoveli literaturuli Teoria sapirispiros damtkicebamde

ganagrZobs moqmedebas, aranairi induqciis SenarCuneba

ar xdeba naZaladevad da misgan arc raimes sabolood daskvnaa

SesaZlebeli. swored misTvis damaxasiaTebeli aRdgeni-

Ti monacemebis, adaptaciisa da absorbaciis moqnilobis wyalobiT,

induqciuri ganzogadeba yovelTvis retroaqtiuri da

retroperspeqtulia. yoveli SemTxvevisas Cven ganvazogadebT

SebrunebiT _ viwyebT ukanaskneli da ukve miRweuli umaRlesi

wertilidan, magaliTad, SeviswavliT Tanamedrove

iugoslaviur xalxur epikur poezias (peri, lordi) im rwmeniT,

rom misi saSualebiT homerosiseuli antikuri `kreaciis~

meqanizms CavwvdebiT. da vinaidan ukanaskneli `momenti~ am

gzisa (sadac gadaxlarTulia prekoncepti, sabaziso hipoTeza

da materialuri monacemebi) yovelTvis markirebulia istoriiT,

ganmazogadebeli induqciis istorizmTan Serigeba ara

marto SesaZlebelia, aramed, ufro metic, gardauvli da

aucilebeli.

161


meore mxriv, crurwmenebiT, e.i. Teoriuli hipoTezebiT

SeiaraRebuli induqcia, imTaviTve winaswargansazRvrulia; is

gamomdinareobs garkveuli `apriorizmidan~, yovelTvis orientirebulia

prekonceptze, winaswar `icis~, Tu ra aris literatura

da komparativizmi da sad surs literaturas yofna.

imis gamo, rom mdgomareoba winaswar ganWvretilia da sxva

hipoTezas eyrdnoba, mas statusi ar ecvleba. rogorc ki bazisuri

hipoTeza Cerdeba, induqcia-deduqciis meqanizmi mihyveba

Tavis wmindad logikur gzas, 176 maklasificirebels, ganmazogadebelsa

da damajamebels. roca is cdilobda, erTdroulad

Caeyara safuZveli empiriuli da WvretiTi, gamWirvale

da gamoyenebiTi poetikisaTvis, fr. Slegels ukve hqonda erTgvari

induqciur-deduqciuri poetikis intuicia: `xelovnebis

dargSi deduqcias win unda uZRvodes istoriuli an empiriuli

monacemi, rac klasifikaciis princips afuZnebs logika-

Si, poeziasa da eTikaSi~. 177 istoriuli monacemebis `poetikuri~

klasifikaciis kriteriumi aris bazisuri hipoTeza. `swored

generalur da kritikul xedvas, swored universalur

induqcias~ iTvaliswinebda renanis meTodic. 178 eqsperimentulma

mecnierebam da Tanamedrove logikam aseve ician, rom `winaswarganWvretili

idea an hipoTeza yovelgvari eqsperimentuli

gansjis aucilebeli aTvlis wertilia~ da rom induqciis

principi ar aris gamocdilebiT Tavsmoxveuli, mas SeuZlia

amgvarad gascdes wriul moZraobas da damoukidebel logikas

emorCileba. 179 isinic ki, romlebic ukuagdeben miTis

mdgomareobamde dayvanil induqcias, Tanxmdebian, rom hipoTeza

SeiZleboda empiriul cdebs damorCileboda (kontrolis

deduqciuri meTodi), `mxolod ganviTarebis Semdeg~. 180 ase

rom, xels araferi gviSlis ganvaviTaroT Cveni hipoTezebi,

oRondac SevZloT maTi Semowmeba. aseve, mxedvelobaSi unda

gvqondes is faqti (rasac am Tavis bolos davubrundebiT),

rom `Semowmebas~ literaturis Teoriis sferoSi aqvs sruliad

sxva statusi, vidre `Semowmebas~, romelic eqsperimentul

mecnierebebSi moqmedebs.

amgvarad, Cveni fundamenturi hipoTeza mSvenivrad aris

cnobili: arsebobs universaluri literatura, romelic ukanasknel

analizSi literaturasTanaa gaigivebuli. am centraluri

hipoTezis wyalobiT, induqcia-deduqciis meTods iyeneben

literaturuli monacemebis mTlianobisTvis, risi aRqmac

mas Tavisi specifikuri `logikis~ Tanaxmad SeuZlia. maSasadame,

universaluri literaturis koncepti araferia, Tu ara

induqciuri ganzogadeba, dawyebuli garkveuli ucvlelobebidan,

romlebic induqciis saSualebiT TavisTavad dgindebian.

162


Zveli WeSmariteba, an TiTqmis Zveli WeSmariteba, gacxadebuli

komparativistuli meTodologiis erT-erT pirvel statiaSi:

`...induqciis saSualebiT aRwevs Weltiliteratur-is xasiaTs~. 181

amas garda, TavisTavad cxadi xdeba meTodis saWiroeba da

Cven viwyebT `jer mxolod erTi literaturis Seswavlas, mere

_ sxva literaturebisa; SemdegisTvis ki orientirs viRebT

yvela literaturis erTobliobisa da, aqedan gamomdinare,

literaturisaken. rogorc yvela iduqciuri gansazRvreba da

hipoTeza, isini farTovdebian da niuansebs iZenen am gzaze,

dawyebuli TavianTi hipoTezis konceptidan~. 182 Tu SevZeliT

am safuZvelze SegvemuSavebina `primitiuli poeziis~ Teoria,

erTdroulad induqciuri (cnobilidan ucnobisaken) da deduqciuri

(aseve yvelaze Zveli literaturis tipebisTvis vargisi)

ise, rom aravis miuTiTebia Secdomasa da meTodologiur

eresze, ratomac ar unda gvecada igive meTodiT mivsuliyaviT

`universaluri poeziis Teoriamde~? saWiroa mxolod

gavcdeT evropocentrizms, miviCnioT, rom arsebobs sxva literaturebic,

romlebic aseve sainteresoa Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT,

gavafarTovoT induqcia eqstraevropul sferoSi

da eqstrapolacia movaxdinoT ori mimarTulebiT: dasavleTidan

aRmosavleTisaken da piriqiT. movixmoT erTaderTi magaliTi

am ormagi transferisa. Cven SegviZlia CineTis tradiciul

kritikaSi induqciurad aRmovaCinoT literaturis Teoriis

eqvsi tipi, romlebic gansazRvrulni arian evropuli terminebisa

da sqemebis daxmarebiT (metafizikuri, deterministuli,

eqspresiuli, teqnikuri, esTetikuri da pragmatuli). 184

kerZod, sadamde SeuZlia migviyvanos induqciam msgavs

sferoebSi? zustad universaluri msgavsebis limitamde, anu

universaluri literaturis ideamde da mis gansazRvrebamde.

ganzogadeba gardauvalia, vinaidan misi sawyisi, mTavari koncepti

literaturisa, amave dros efuZneba Tavis sasrul

zRvars, rac dasabams aZlevs komparativistuli inerpretaciis

process mTlianobaSi. induqcia varaudobs zogads kerZoSi

da maT urTierTmimarTebas, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs vifiqroT

literaturis universalurobaze _ dawyebuli nebismieri

momentidan da ara is, rom mTlianad `movicvaT~ universaluroba.

am azriT, sakmarisia yvelaferSi konkretuli moviZioT

da `ganzogadebis elementebi TavisTavad cxadi gaxdeba~

(goeTe) 185 . maSasadame, induqcia aris marad progresuli, Ria,

srulyofis unaris mqone. mxolod mas SeuZlia gamudmebiT

gafarTovdes, aRmoaCinos da winaswarWvretis suliskveTebiT

daibrunos Tavisi winamorbedni.

163


intuicia gajerebulia `induqciuri poetikiT~, rac komparativistis

gzis mizans warmoadgens da gvxvdeba am disciplinis

pirvel TeoretikosebTan, vfiqrob, a. n. veselovkidan

dawyebuli. Tavis mxriv, j. seintsberi surs Caanacvlos `deduqciurad

navaraudebi kanonebi, romlebic `literaturebs~

`literaturuli induqciis~ inversiuli moZraobiT marTaven.

187 poetika, romelsac es safuZveli aqvs, mowodebulia

imisken, rom `gadaamowmos da moaxdinos literaturis saerTo

bunebis sistematizacia~. `es maxasiaTeblebi SeTvisebulia

`arsTan~ da `literaturis fenomenis kanonebTan~. m. karieri

(Die Poesie, 1984) ukve praqtikaSi iyenebs am meTods 188 . msgavsi

Wvretebi Cans yvelgan, sadac erTveba istoriuli Ziebebi, ris

Sedegadac: `apriorulad ar ganvsazRvravdiT Tvisebebs, magram

gavxdebodiT istoridan Janrebis aorTqlebis mowme~. 189

igive problema wamoiWreba literaturis istorikosebis, istoruli

orientaciis mqone yvela komparativistis winaSe.

yovelive es ufro metad aqtualuria maTTan, romlebic

am midgomis funqcionalur Rirebulebas acnobiereben. Tu

isini ipovnian `msgavsebebs~, axsna martivi iqneba: erTdrouli

kritikuli dakvirveba uciloblad moqmedebs `induqciis~ me-

TodiT. 190 meTodi, interpretaciul-hermenevtikuli 191 perspeqtivis

CaTvliT, ufro da ufro miRebuli xdeba da induqciuri

sinTezebi, romlebic dResac arseboben, citirebis uflebis

mopovebiT amTavreben. 192 imgvari winadadeba, romelic qvemoT

aris warmodgenili, SeiZleba miviCnioT, rogorc saki-

Txis Tanamedrove mdgomareobis warmosaCeni magaliTi: `saWiroa

iTqvas, rom mas Semdeg, rac literaturuli kvlevebi er-

Ti saukunis ganmavlobaSi nacionalizmiT iyo dasneulebuli,

bolos da bolos miagnes internacionalur Tvalsazriss,

romelTan mimarTebaSi yvelaferi sxva meoreuli da misgan

gamomdinarea~ (amis gamoyofa Cven miviCnieT saWirod; a. m.). 193

am mcdelobidan yvelaze amaRlebuli da yvelaze mravlismetyveli

aris induqciuri literaturis esTetikuri SesaZleblobis

damowmeba. es idea aRadgines rene uelekma (romelic

amtkicebs literaturis esTetikas von unten da mihyveba

`induqciuri kritikiT~ gaxsnil gzas) 194 da etiamblma, romlis

gegmasac warmoadgens `induqciuri Tu deduqciuri ritorikis~

SeZlebisdagvarad progresuli istoriuli swavleba~

da aseve SeZlebisdagvarad mowinave `SedarebiTi poetika~, romelsac

zedmiwevniTi kvleva-ZiebiT, `SedarebiTi literaturis

mravali naSromiT~ CavrTavT am mcdelobaSi. 195 pozitivistur

mtkicebulebebSi warmoqmnili sicariele TvalSisacemia,

vinaidan, am jerze, ukanaskneli komparativistuli talRebis

164


momxreebs Soris Cven ufro da ufro mivdivarT im ideamde,

rom arsebobs `teqstebis yuradRebiT wakiTxvis induqciur

wesebsa da zogad kodebs Soris wonasworoba~ 196 , gansakuTrebiT

ki `mivdivarT axal paradigmaSi gavrcobili literaturuli

velis induqciur Seswavlasa da individualuri struqturaluri

elementebis unifikaciamde, romelic maRali doniT~

197 gamoirCeva. am procesis gamarTleba da mis SedegebSi

daeWveba _ SeuZlebelia. sxvaTa Soris, is gamoZaxils hpovebs

mudmivad gamoyenebul meTodSi, romelsac mivmarTavT epistemologiaSi,

anTropologiaSi, esTetikaSi, lingvistikaSi, hermenevtikasa

da a.S.

3. analizi _ sinTezi

rac Seexeba analizsa da sinTezs, am wyvilis problemebi

komparativistebis diskusiis sagani Zalian xSirad xdeba;

es ukanaskneli meTodi ganxilulia, rogorc SedarebiTi literaturis

mTavari da saboloo amocana. misi saboloo mizania

_ migviyvanos sinqronul sinTezamde, romelic Tavidan

istoriuli iqneba, Semdeg Teoriuli, dawyebuli `yvela~ literaturis

identificirebuli da meTodologiurad dapirispirebuli

niSnebidan. sinTezur midgomas istoriis garkveul

monakveTSi uciloblad mivyavarT sinqronuli danawevrebisaken,

qronologiis darRvevamde, kavSirebamde, romlebic Slian

mocemuli Janris istoriuli faqtebis jaWvebs, esenia: gadamcemi-mimRebi,

mizezi-Sedegi, winamavali-momdevno da a.S. rogorc

ki vaRiarebT Tanxvedrebis, homologiebisa Tu struqturuli

paralelizmebis realobas, moqmedeba ukve cxadia: invariantebis

jgufebi am Tanxvedrebs, am mimarTebebs, garkveuli

sinTezuri sqemebis mixedviT ganacalkeveben. es aris ara mxolod

taqsonomiuri SesaZlebloba, aramed erTaderTi efeqturi

da warmatebuli meTodic ki invariantebis galagebisa da

organizaciisaTvis, erTaderTi saSualeba, raTa isini erTiani

eqskluziuri principis mixedviT moawesrigos. es moqmedeba

SesaZleblad gvesaxeba mxolod istoriuli monacemebis simultanuri

wakiTxviT, romlebic TavianTi gansakuTrebuli

konteqstidan izolirebulni arian da Semdeg integrirebulni

aRmoCndebian wakiTxvis gansakuTrebulad zogad kategoriaSi.

Cveni miznisTvis saWiro ar aris davyovndeT analiz/sin-

Tezis mimarTebebze, rac saerTo epistemologiuri sivrcidan

momdinareobs 198 da romelTa urTierTdamokidebuleba ase cxadia.

gamoviyenebT breies sityvebs (rac, Tavis mxriv, kantis si-

165


tyvebis perifrazia) da vityviT mxolod, rom `sinTezis gare-

Se analizi brmaa da analizis gareSe sinTezi _ carieli~, da

rom analizi xelmisawvdomi da mniSvnelobis mqone mxolod

sinTezis perspeqtivaSia. is yovelTvis unda rCebodes sinTezze

kocentrirebuli, es aris misi saboloo mizani da arsebobis

azri. analizi anawevrebs faqtebs, romelsac sinTezi

Tavis finalur konstruqciaSi iyenebs da romelTa konturi

latantur mdgomareobaSi Tavidanvea mocemuli. sinTezi (iqneba

is frTxili Tu gabeduli, kritikuli Tu wmindad hipoTezuri,

TavSekavebuli Tu warmosaxviTi) yvela garemoebaSi

warmoadgens makroskopul xedvas, romelic mowodebulia

orientacia gauwios Camoyalibebisa da Sesworebis analizis

mikroskopul pulverizacias. Tu axali sinTezi yovelTvis

SesaZlebelia, igive iTqmis ¿literaturis Tanamedrove meTodologiebzec

199 da Cvens meTods aqvs ufleba, warmoCndes,

rogorc axali komparativistuli sinTezi.

rogor ganlagdeba tradiciuli komparativizmi am saWiro

sinTezis pirispir? is TiTqmis yovelTvis daiyvaneba istoriuli

wesrigis gamosavlamde, rac kargad gasagebia (Tu

mxedvelobaSi miviRebT disciplinis pozitivistur memkvidreobas).

am gamosavals warmoadgens wamowyebis evrocentrizmi,

rasac Znelad Tu aviridebT Tavidan, magram teqstes, beTzis

da brunetieridan dawyebuli, limitirebulis miRmac ki, `sin-

Tezuri TvalsazrisiT~, 200 igi ukve progresulia. imisaTvis,

rom pol van tiegemis cdebi paraleluri literaturuli istoriebis

Tanwyobas gascdenoda, isini erTi mimarTulebiT midian.

201 es Teza amasobaSi iZenda axal mimdevrebs 202 da drodadro

SedarebiTi literaturis internacionaluri asociaciis

`doqtrinis~ WeSmariti nawili xdeboda. 203

sinTezis sferoSi, magaliTad, XIX saukunis Poznet-Letourneur-is

periodis evolucionizmi riskiani, ufro metic, gambedavic

ki iyo, vidre Semdgomi drois analitikuri, fragmentuli,

wyvetili, ukiduresad windaxedul da ukiduresad

frTxil minorSi Cawerili pozitivizmi. ai, amitom aris yovelTvis

kargi sinTezis dacva, maSinac ki, roca istoriuli

teleologia kvlav msgavsi demarSebiT dominirebs.

im momentidan, rogorc ki universaluri literaturis

perspeqtivaSi gadavinacvlebT, sinTezi xdeba meTodologiuri

`ideali~ da `SedarebiTi literaturis yvela gamokvleva, mikerZoebulic

ki, universalur sinTezur aspeqtSi xorcieldeba.

204 anglo-saqsuri (romelTa Soris zogierTi sakmaod gavleniania),

germanuli Tu italiuri damowmebebi am orientacias

adastureben: `Cven gvWirdeba sinTezebi, romelTa gareSec

166


literaturis Seswavla, usasrulo fragmentarizmisa da izolirebis

gamo, dasaRupadaa ganwiruli~. mokled, aucileblad

gvesaWiroeba `induqciuri sinTezebi~. roca literatura cdilobda

`analitikur filologias~ dapirispireboda, germanuli

Geistesgeschichte sinTezis upiratesobas da primats

moiTxovda 209 .

am orientacias Tavs verc aRmosavluri komparativizmi

aRwevs. rogorc SeiZleboda gvevarauda, TvalTaxedva _ romlis

avtoriteti da upiratesoba sakamaTo ar aris 210 _ upirveles

yovlisa, istoriulia. evropuli Tu universaluri literaturis

istoria realizebadia regionaluri sinTezebiTa da

mimdinareobebiT. Tanwyoba gverdzea gadaweuli, magram sinTezis

statusi, simarTle rom vTqvaT, jer kidev Sors aris

gansazRvrisagan. unda iyos Tu ara is Semofargluli nacionaluri

literaturiT? am SemTxvevaSi, araferia sakamaTo,

magram zogjer igi raRac ufro mets gvkarnaxobs, metiT STagvagonebs.

iqneba es `horizontaluri~, `vertikaluri~, `globaluri~

da a.S. sinTezebi Tu gansakuTrebiT, `msoflio literaturis

procesebis kanonebi~. 212 arian ki es kanonebi `istoriulni~

an `istoriul-esTetikurni~? refleqsiis am stadiaze

kiTxva zusti pasuxis gareSe rCeba. Cven gverdze vwevT

literaturis istoriis analizsa da literaturis esTetikis

sinTezs Soris arsebul disociacias 213 , magram jer kidev ver

vxedavT efeqturi Serigebis formas.

aseve moulodnelad da axali ZaliT Cndeba sinTezis

problema da es xdeba ufro metad internacionaluri urTierTTanamSromlobis

`teqnikur~ doneze. es aris didi raodenobis

krebulebisa da, gansakuTrebiT, evropuli enebis literaturis

istoriis avtorebisagan aRebuli mimarTuleba, romelTac

komparativistikis saerTaSoriso asociacia mfarvelobs;

es avtorebi wamoWrian yovelTvis Znelad misaRwevi koordinaciis

problemas, romlis gadawyveta sakmaod rTulia.

msoflios yvelaze ukeT informirebul gunds pirvel rigSi

sinTezuri da koordinaciuli suliskveTeba sWirdeba. 214 am

droisTvis ki yvelaferi jer kidev miTisa da dogmis mdgomareobaSi

rCeba da mxolod gunduri muSaobaa SesaZlebeli.

magram es SesaZleblobac, samwuxarod, kvlav samomavlo

sakiTxia!

Tu raRac miRweulia istoriul sibrtyeze, igive ar SegviZlia

vTqvaT literaturis Teoriis dargSi. Tuki sinTezi

aerTianebs zogad komparativistul miRwevebs, SedarebiTi poetika

mxolod da mxolod universalurad ganxiluli, teqstualurad

da sistematurad gadamowmebuli literaturuli

167


fenomenebis yvelaze ufro zogadi niSnebis produqti iqneba.

poezia, rogorc teqsti, ar aris universaluri invariantebis

Sedegad miRebuli, magram poezia, rogorc sulieri naRvawi,

uSvebs invariantebs. etiamblTan, am mimdinareobis yvelaze

reprezentaciul komparativistTan, sinTezisken orientacia

gamomdinareobs ara marto universaluri hipoTezidan, rac

fundamenturia, aramed misi maradiulad polemikuri komparativizmis

ZiriTadi amocanidan, rac fragmentulobas ukavSirdeba.

saWiroa `gamoicados istoriis, kritikisa da literaturuli

esTetikis sinTezi, romelTa damuSavebis Sedegad miRebuli

codnisagan jer kidev Sors varT, radgan saSualebebis

uqonlobiT, aseve gamWriaxobisa da warmosaxvis ararsebobiT,

kvlav Zvel, Selamazebul CveulebebSi trials vagrZelebT~ 216 .

Cven, aseve, gvWirdeba ara mxolod nacionaluri literaturis

istoriis `Tavmoyra~, aramed (da gansakuTrebiT) saerTaSoriso

masStabiT literaturis komparativistuli sinTezic, iseve,

rogorc SedarebiTi poetika. es aris samSriani sinTezi,

romelTagan pirveli ori Sre mesames dokumenturi baziT

uzrunvelyofs.

raki vaRiarebT `literaturul istorias, rogorc SedarebiTi

literaturis mier mopovebuli Sedegebis jams~, 217 ratom

ar unda vaRiaroT igive literaturis esTetikis jami,

romlis Sedegebi aseve SedarebiTi literaturis damsaxurebaa?

zogjer STagonebuli varT imiT, rom `internacionaluri

suli~ `ubralod kosmopoliturma ritorikam da poetikam~ 218

unda Caanacvlos; nebismier SemTxvevaSi, saWiroa vipovoT WeSmaritad

komparativisuli bazisis mqone Teoriuli sinTezis

meTodi da Semdeg moxdes ritorikasa da poetikasTan integrireba.

ara ekleqtizmi, ara snoburi Tu saero kosmopolitizmi,

aramed kargad Camoyalibebuli, koherentuli poetika,

romelsac meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT, daxmarebas gauwevs

poetikuri monacemebis analizi/sinTezi. Tu SevZlebT invariantis

saSualebiT ganvmartoT germanuli termini Ansatz (ganisazRvreba,

rogorc `centraluri fenomeni~) da misi daxmarebiT

mivideT Weltliteratur-is samecniero-filologiur sinTezamde~

219 (iqneb igive Weltliteratur-is `Teoriul~ sinTezamdec ki),

hipoTeza, romelic komparativizmis sawyisebidan TariRdeba

220 , SesaZlebelia didi xnis winaT napovni gamosavali iyos.

es problema, rac `literaturaTmcodneobaSi~ srulad warmoCndeba,

jer kidev ar aris mogvarebuli da drodadro

kvlav iCens xolme Tavs 221 . aesthetica perennis, romelic orTodoqsul

wyaroebs 222 efuZneba, SeiZleba igive sinTezur perspeqtivaSi

ganixilebodes.

168


dRes rom `komparativizmebis~ namdvili daqsaqsva mimdinareobs,

dasturdeba dabrkolebebiT, rasac sinTezi Tavis

gzaze awydeba. sinTezi aris empirizmis frangmentulobis, antiTeoriis

obieqti. Zveli skolis mosazrebaTa zedapiruli

analizic ki sakmarisia, rom isini aseTi epiTetebiT movixsenioT:

`layboba~, `xelis ceceba~, `gamartiveba~ da a.S. 223 aqedan

savalalo meTodologiuri daskvna gamomdinareobs: analizis

aTwleuli, sinTezis mxolod erTi saaTisTvis (ra

Tqma unda, aq gvaxsendeba fiustel kulanJis sityvebi: `sinTezis

erTi dRisTvis saWiroa analizis wlebi~). erTi sityviT,

sinTezebi `naadrevad mwifdebian~ an mokle `periodiT SemoisazRvrebian~

224 . rac Seexeba zogad sinTezebs, `Tu literaturas

SeuZlia isini moamzados, SedarebiT literaturas ma-

Ti dalodeba ar ZaluZs.~ saWiroa amaze ufro xSirad

`vTqvaT uari~. 225 ironiis daxmarebiT (e. troelSis `buchbindersynthese~)

226 Cven isev vigebT, rom sinTezebi Slian sxvaobebs,

rom isini gamomdinareoben miRebuli gadawyvetilebebidan,

rom srulyofili sinTezi da am Janris sxva xrikebi, romlebic

yvela sinTezur mcdelobas ewinaaRmdegebian _ iluziuria.

Tumca aris SemTxvevebi, roca is `droulia~. 227 eWvgare-

Sea, rom sinTezis am winaaRmdegobas ufro damajerebeli axsna

unda moeZebnos universitetebis struqturebSi, 228 pozitivisturi

tradiciis erTguli damcvelebis mier. Tu sinTezi

ar `iswavleba~, misi arsi da meTodi marTlac rom CanasaxSive

kvdeba.

4. mTeli _ nawili

invariant/literaturis, anu literaturuli fragmenti/

literaturuli erTobis urTierToba, aris nawili/mTelis

hermenevtikuli urTierTobis analogia, cnebebi da arsebi,

romlebic naTels hfenen erTmaneTs da romlebic, mTlianobaSi,

komparativistul meTods mimarTaven. nacionaluri da

universaluri literaturebis urTierToba, upiratesad ki

literaturuli `erToblioba~, iseve, rogorc warsul/awmyos

mimarTeba, CarTulia aziisa da evropis simultanur wakiTxva-

Si, raTa ori `erTianoba~ vaRiaroT da yvelaferi am farglebSi

ganvixiloT. saWiroa aqve davamatoT, rom `erTianobis~

es erTaderTi idea sakmarisia yoveli Teoriis gasamar-

Tleblad, Tavad literaturulisac ki. am `erTianobis~ koncepts

aqvs sammagi funqcia: raodenobiTi, xarisxobrivi, aqtiuri

da is qmedebis mTel programas gansazRvravs. ukanasknel

analizSi misi safuZveli ontologiuria: es aris azrovnebis

169


mTlianobis postulati, romelic Tavis TavSi atarebs `er-

Tobliobis~ ideas, rogorc arqetipis saxes.

mTeli/nawilis urTierTobis meqanizmi _ WeSmariti `gadaadgilebis

rituali~ _ gvexmareba gavigoT arsebiTi komparativistuli

svlebis seria, rac yovelTvis sakamaToa. pirveli

Tavad praqtikas Seexeba: teqstebsa da hipoTezebs Soris

mimosvlebs da nawilebsa da mTels Soris gamudmebuli mimar-

Tebebis dadgenis Sedegad SemuSavebul gansazRvrebebs. nawilebi

mTelis arssa da saxes gamokveTen, xolo mTeli nawilebs

induqciisa da retroaqciis gziT aerTianebs. amgvari

moqmedeba mxolod istoriuli ZiebebiT ar Semoifargleba: 230

is exeba yvela humanitarul mecnierebas, komparativistuli

midgomis CaTvliT. igive xdeba, roca ganvsazRvravT, magali-

Tad, XVIII saukunes `mTlianobaSi~, Tavisi `ganmanaTleblebiT~,

sadac rokoko warmodgenilia, rogorc ganmanaTleblobis

`stili~. Teoriuli ganzogadebac igive dinebas mihyveba;

aTvlis wertilad viRebT kerZo magaliTs da Semdeg vaniWebT

mas zogad mniSvnelobas. e. auerbaxi dasavleTis literatura-

Si realobis asaxvamde swored amgvari qmedebiT mivida: is

gamodioda `mcire raodenobis Temebidan~, romlebic `aucileblad

unda yofiliyo napovni nebismier realistur teqstSi~. 231

igive wyoba aqvs teqstebSi arsebul invariant/totalobis

mimarTebas: `mTlianobaSi~ CarTuli `nawili~ ganxilulia

xan rogorc damoukidebeli mTlianoba (rogorc teqstebis

ariTmetika), xan universaluroba (globaluri simboluri

mdgomareoba). yoveli integracia da koordinacia am kanons

emorCileba: induqciiT `nawili~ iTvaliswinebs `mTels~, deduqciiT

_ yvelaferi emorCileba wess, sakuTar centralur

princips, nawilebs, saidanac modis fragmentebis hermenevtikuli

mniSvnelovneba da ufro advilad ukavSirdebian danar-

Cenebsa da mTlianobas. 232 es umTavresi problemaa yoveli istoriuli

da kritikuli sinTezisTvis. Tu komparativizmi ufro

xSirad iyo orientirebuli fragmentulisa da danawevrebulis

analizze, zogierTi gamorCeuli winamorbedis meSveobiT,

is zogjer mainc qmnida erTianobis gancdas. am TvalsazrisiT,

mniSvnelovania herderis saxeli: `jer unda Seqmna

zogadi istoria, rom SemdegSi detalebi gansajo~; fr. Slegeli

ki ukve saubrobda `mTlianobis Sefasebaze~ (Übersicht des

Ganzen), rogorc nawilebis urTierTgagebis unaris savaldebulo

pirobaze. 233 Tanamedrove hermenevtikac igive princips moiTxovs.

234 SedarebiTi poetikis sferoSi is unda ganimartos

literaturis wakiTxvis terminebiT, romelic literaturis

globalur konteqstSia Seqmnili, rogorc `erTiani wesrigi~,

170


an _ norTrop frais sityvebiT rom vTqvaT: `literaturuli

nawarmoebebis interpretacia aucileblad unda moxdes yoveli

cnobili literaturis Suqze.~ 235 es aris universaluri

kriteriumi, rac Sinaarssa da azrs aniWebs calkeul literaturul

fragmentebs.

maSasadame, sulac ar aris gasakviri, Tuki erToblioba

komparativistis arsebiTi mocemuloba gaxdeba, im principis

Tanaxmad, rom `yvelaferi dgas~ (formula, romelic a.o.lavjois

The Great Chain of Being-s gvagonebs). `literaturebis istoriaSi

komparativisti arasodes gulisxmobda mxolod erT

literaturas, mxedvelobaSi maqvs gageba, romlis Camoyalibebasac

didad Seuwyves xeli gamoCenilma mkvlevarebma (etiambli).

236 fragmenti an romelime nacionaluri literatura,

romelic gansakuTrebulobis gamoxatvas eswrfavis, TavisTavad

totalizaciis produqtia, yovel SemTxvevaSi, nawarmoebis

erToblioba erTian homogenur xedvas gvTavazobs, rac

konotaciur wreebad airekleba `yvela~ literaturis erTianobaSi.

problema gardauvlad Cndeba yovel jerze, roca

`universaluri~ literaturis hipoTeza `nacionaluri~ fragmentiskenaa

mimarTuli da piriqiT. maSasadame, saWiroa ganvixiloT

literaturebi, rogorc gansakuTrebuli realobebi,

an rogorc nawilebi, romlebic ekuTvnian did erTobebs, rasac

`evropuli~ (da/an `msoflio~?) ewodeba. 238

sinamdvileSi es xedvebi ufro Zvelia. ar unda daviviwyoT,

rom fr. Slegeli uSvebda poeziis `nacionalur nawilebs~,

rac nawili/mTelis urTierTobasTan mimarTebaSi aRiqmeboda,

rogorc `globaluri fenomeni~. maSin, rodesac goeTe

nacionalur literaturas mxolod `yvela am pirobiTobebis

kompleqsSi~ 239 warmoidgenda (Zustandes). sami Tanmimdevruli

rkalis mier warmoqmnili universaluri literaturis koncepti

(nacionaluri, evropuli _ evrocentrizmis hipoTezaSi

_ da universaluri), msgavsebebsa da gansxvavebebs yvela doneze

hfens Suqs. literaturis zeerovnuloba (Teoriuli) aris

mxolod TiToeuli nacionaluri literaturis specifikuri

sxvaobebis Janri (logikuri).

rogorc ki wvrilman detalebze gadavdivarT, didi erTobebi

iSleba, magram ukiduresi specializacia, mainc Secdomad

rCeba, vinaidan is maSin malavs tyis xeds, roca xeebis daTvlas

mivyofT xels. Tu ganmazogadebel wamowyebas praqtika-

Si ar viyenebT, es niSnavs, rom `specializaciis~ refleqsi

kidev erTxel anelebs gamTlianebis process. roca Cven mTeli

cxovreba SeviswavliT erT avtors da erT epoqas (da kidev

erTxel!), rogor mivalT raime gafarToebis perspeqtivamde?

171


5. tipologia

invariantebis kvleva da gansazRvreba iseve gansazRvravs

`stereotipis~ fenomens, rogorc literaturis komparativistuli

Teoriis Seqmna ganapirobebs tipologiur midgomas. am

konteqstSi mokled ganvixiloT tipi, rogorc specifikuri

Taviseburebebis sinTezi, romelic saerToa literaturuli

nawarmoebebis kategoriisaTvis; is sinTezi, romelsac sagnebis

dakvirvebas damorCilebul saxesxvaobaSi ganlagebis,

klasifikaciisa da ganzogadebis principi Semoaqvs. cneba `tipi~

SegviZlia gavafarTovoT literaturis yvela aspeqtSi,

romlis zrdadi da ganviTarebadi sfero, praqtikulad, Seuz-

Rudavia da yovelTvis Riaa ganzogadebis ufro da ufro ma-

Rali safexurebisaTvis.

tipologiuri midgoma gulisxmobs yvela ganmazogadebel

mimarTulebas, universaluris yovel konkretul proeqcias.

amave dros, tipi uzrunvelyofs, rom istoriul da me-

Todologiur sferoebs Soris areuloba ar moxdes. is amar-

Tlebs da ganamtkicebs or komparativizms, romlebic yovel-

Tvis upiratesni arian da yovelTvis brZolaSi CarTulni (am

eses CaTvliT). es aris: erTi mxriv, istoriul-komparativistuli

tipologia; da, meore mxriv, sinqronul-sinTezuri; 241

tipologia aucileblad cdeba istorias: aseve yoveli tipologiuri

orientaciis komparativizmi ixsneba universalur

sqemaSi (stilistika, tipebi, Temebi, saxeebi, xerxebi da a.S.);

amave dros, is agvarebs erT romelime nawarmoebze, erT periodsa

Tu erT gansazRvrul literaturaze mikerebuli terminologiuri

etiketis sakiTxs. tipologiidan gamomdinareobs

agreTve yvela saxis SeTanxmebebi da izomorfizmebi.

Cven SegviZlia es meTodologia SevajeroT mTel tradiciaSi,

romelTagan veberiseuli idealtipus gamorCeul adgils

ikavebs. saubaria (es viciT) `asimptotur sakiTxze~ (=`ideals~),

rac sakmaod farTo interpretaciis sqemas gvTavazobs

imisaTvis, rom gansaxilveli fenomeni aRweros. idealtypus aer-

Tianebs didi raodenobis izolirebul SeniSvnebs. is calmxrivad

amaxvilebs yuradRebas erT Tu mraval TvalTaxedvaze,

romlis Sedegad, yvela moZiebuli individualuri SeniSvna

erT konceptSi, erTi homogenuri azrovnebis farglebSi

wesrigdeba. `empiriuli TvalsazrisiT Cven versad vipoviT

msgavs suraTs sakuTar konceptualur siwmindeSi~. es aris

rCeuli evristikuli, `utopiuri~ konstruqcia, ganyenebuli,

hipoTezuri, `gadaWarbebuli~, arsebiTi elementebiT Camoyalibebuli,

romlis Sesabamisi empiriuli realoba problemuri

172


Ceba. is gamodis calkeuli SemTxvevebidan, Tumca mas ver

aRmovaCenT calkeul SemTxvevebSi. idealur `tips~ aqvs empiruli

konceptis, konceptualuri fiqciis Rirebuleba da realobazea

dafuZnebuli. mokled, idealuri tipis rolia

kvlevis orientacia da Camoayalibeba. 242 es aris raRac `universalurad

abstraqtul/konkretuli~, rasac SeuZlia gaaer-

Tianos literaturis dausrulebeli variaciebi da erTmane-

Tisagan gamoyos arsebiTi niSnebi, Tundac sqemis ama Tu im

adgilze konkretuli individualuri fenomenebi arsebobdes.

243 aseve sagulisxmoa, rom `idealuri tipis~ cnebas iyeneben

literaturis TeoriaSic 244 , maT Soris Tanamedrove komparativistebic.

245 SedarebiTi poetikis did operatiul konceptebs

aqvT erTi da igive funqcia: literatura zepiri/werilobiTi,

sasuliero/saero, klasikuri/modernistuli da a.S.

yovel jerze saubaria sinTezebze, romlebic ver aRnusxavdnen

dokumentebs (sinTezebs SeuZliaT Sevsebis gziT Caanacvlon

individualuri fenomenebi da literaturis konceptis

idealuri gza gamoimuSavon), `idealuri tipi~ ki Tavis saqmes

akeTebs.

maSasadame, amgvarad Cafiqrebuli komparativizmi da, zogadad,

`literaturis mecniereba~, gardaiqmnebian `tipologiur

mecnierebebad~ (v. tatarkeviCis mixedviT, romelic am sakiTxSi

v. dilTais misdevs), romlebic erTsa da imave dros

`istoriuli~ da `sistemuria~. 246 literaturul induqcias ar

SeuZlia hqondes kanoni, rogorc mizani, misi ganzogadeba

orientirebulia mxolod tipis mudmivobaze. Zlieri pozitivisturi

warmomavlobis mqone tradiciul tipologiasa (romelsac

sent-biovis 247 Tanaxmad, `azrTa klasifikacia~ Tavis

xarks uxdida) da idealtypus-s Soris interferenciis gaanalizeba

gadaaWarbebda Cvens pirobas. iseve, rogorc am evristikis

gadamowmeba humanitarul mecnierebebSi, kerZod: anTropologiaSi,

religiaTa SedarebiT istoriaSi, hermenevtikaSi, lingvistikaSi

da a.S., sadac igi xSirad xorcieldeba. aseve ar

gavamaxvilebT yuradRebas (Tumca axlos aris Cvens pirobas-

Tan) tipis konceptis gamoyenebaze istoriul da literaturul

ZiebebSi, sadac mas SeuZlia CarCoSi moaqcios nawarmoebis

pasaJebi, moniSnos universaluri sakiTxebi, gaamartivos

Temebi, tipebi, meTodebi. 248 samagierod, `tipis CarTva~ xSirad

gvxvdeba komparativizmSi, TviT `ideluri tipisac~ ki.

kriteriumebis aTvlis gareSe, romlebic win uZRvian did

poetikur sistemebsa da Janrebis klasifikacias (romelTagan

fundamenturi tipologiis sferoSi ufro STambeWdavia hegelis

klasifikacia: epikuri, lirikuli, dramatuli), SevCer-

173


deT mxolod sabaziso monacemze: literaturuli Teoria Tu

esTetika ar arsebobs tipologiuri CarCos gareSe. yoveli

poetika (Tu yoveli esTetikuri problema) aucileblad bolovdeba

(Tu `simbolizdeba~) garkveuli refleqsiuri, kreaciuli

Tu personifikaciuri literaturuli `tipiT~. 249 magaliTad,

klasikuri tipi. es aris Tanamedrove poetikis ZalisxmeviT

sayovelTaod damtkicebuli faqti, imisaTvis, rom SeZlebisdagvarad

naTlad daazustos da gansazRvros `poeziis

tipuri formebi~, `Janrebi~ da `stilebi~. saidan modis maradiuli

alternativa wmindad istoriul konceptebisa Tu tipologiuri

da stilisturi kategoriebisa? Cven ukve araerTgzis

SevxvdiT am tipis problemas.

istoriulobasa da ganzogadebas Soris konfrontacia _

komparativizmis yvela problemis WeSmariti invarianti _

kvlav axlad aRmocendeba. SegviZlia Tu ara vaRiaroT egzistencia,

davuSvaT antikuri realizmi, barokos an elinuri xanis

manierizmi, vixiloT klasicizmisa Tu romantizmis periodizaciebi

istoriulad aRiarebuli lokalizaciebis miRma?

stendali, romelic ar iyo `komparativisti~ da `poeti~,

sofoklesa da evripides, aseve Seqspirs, mainc `udides romantikosebad~

miiCnevda, radgan is romantizms ganixilavda, rogorc

Cvevebisa da rwmenebis Tanamedrove mdgomareobas, rac

yovel epoqaSi, yvela did avtorTanaa gamoxatuli. 250 amgvari

gaxldaT tipologiis kriteriumi. ase rom, stendalis mixedviT,

romantikuli invarianti iqneboda yoveli epoqis eqspresia

da mis gemovnebasTan sinqronizacia. `iyo Tu ra es ase

`absurduli~? miT ufro, rom zogjer igivegvarad viqceviT

Cvens droSi, rodesac SemoqmedebiTi unarebidan gamomdinare

sxva koordinatebs varCevT: Tuki davarRvevT qronologias,

romantikuli esTetika 1600 wlidan gamoCndeba. 251 msgavsi magaliTebis

damowmeba kidev mravlad SeiZleba.

`tipologiur~ garantad gvevlineba aseve Tanamedrove

poetika. rusuli formalistebis epoqidan ukve saaSkaraoze

gamohqondaT literaturis yofiereba, SezRuduli raodenobis

`realurad mocemuli struqturuli tipebi (an struqturebis

evoluciuri tipebi diaqroniaSi).~ 252 literaturis yvela ganzomileba

(rogorc formaluri, aseve istoriuli) moiTxovs

tipizacias da mas emorCileba. igive problema komparativizmis

mimarTulebiT ganaxlda axlaxans, kerZod, J. a. greimasis

semiotikaSi. am avtoris mixedviT: `tipologiuri komparativizmi

Cvens droSi erTaderT misaReb meTodologiad gvesaxeba,

romelic Tavis Tavze aiRebda interteqstualur Ziebebs.~ 253

Cven mier gansazRvruli komparativizmi ar dadis `interteq-

174


stualur kvlevebamde~, rac axali sityvaa Zveli praqtikis-

Tvis. magram mainc mivmarTavT tipologiuri komparativizmis

mier gamoyenebul `zedroul~ meTodologias. 254 amave meTods

emxroba garkveulwilad Jerar Jenetic 255 .

`universaluri literatura~, anu literatura aris namdvili

`idealuri tipi~, yvela nacionalur literaturaze winamavali

da zemdgomi, romelsac SeuZlia misaRebi gansaz-

Rvreba misces `literaturas~, maSinac ki, roca esa Tu is

literatura msoflioSi ar aris cnobili (magaliTad, bantus

literatura). Tumca mainc SesaZlebelia literaturis arqetipuli

gansazRvrebis SeTavazeba legitimuri ganzogadebis

maRal safexurze. azrovnebis wriuli moZraobiT tipologiuri

komparativizmi meTodologiurad aRadgens xelovnebisa

da literaturisTvis tradiciul, odindel viTarebas. vubrundebiT

prototipebs, paradigmatul modelebs, literaturis

arqetipul mdgomareobas. Tu `internacionaluri forma

aris nacionaluris garegani forma~, universaluri literatura

literaturuli tipebis modelebSi unda veZioT. 256

tipologiuri midgomis asimilacia komparativizmis saSualebiT

vlindeba, magram miuxedavad dabrkolebebisa, mainc

progresia. literaturis ganviTarebis tipebis Sesaxeb jer

kidev fuZemdeblebis epoqidan saubrobdnen. magram ratom

arafers ambobdnen literaturuli formebis Sesaxeb? aranakleb

legitimuri gaxldaT `poeturi tipis definicia~, rac

SedarebiTi literaturis saxeliT, 1930-ian wlebamde moiTxova

T. s. eliotma. 258 am dargis profesionalebi, germanuli me-

Todologiis gavleniT (h. kizarci), 259 kvlevas warmoaCenen,

rogorc geometriul vels `axalsa~ da `mudmivs~ Soris. tipi

aris sinTezuri principi, romelic Tavisi sqemis Sesabamisad

ajgufebs da `afiqsirebs~ yvela `dawmendil~ elements, garkveuli

realobisa da mocemuli istoriuli mdgomareobis

`invariantebs~.

Sedegad, erTgvarovnebebi, msgavsebebi da `tipologiuri

analogiebi~ masSi ara mxolod daSvebuli da aRiarebulia, 261

aramed Zalian farTo masStabiT ganxorcielebulic, `primitiuli~

literaturebidan _ Tanamedrove literaturamde. 262

etiamblis Essais de littérature-s mixedviT didi kategoriebi: Weltliteratur,

zepiri klerikaluri literaturebi, erotikuli, libertinuli,

simbolisturi, epopea, lirizmi, novela, romani,

kritika da a.S. Seadgenen literaturul tipebs, e.i. sqemebs,

romlebic garkveuli kategoriebis ganmasxvavebeli xasiaTebis

erTobas invariantebis msgavsebis daxmarebiT ganazogadeben.

universaluri literatura aris Tavad literaturis `tipic~,

175


is `atipurebs~ nacionaluri literaturebis mTlianobas, vinaidan

yvela dakanonebul da gadamowmebul tipologias zogierT

aziur, afrikul, slavur Tu sxva literaturaSi midrekileba

aqvs, rom gaerTiandes sxva, rac SeiZleba farTo

tipologiebSi. 263 amgvarad, lokaluri tipologia xdeba zogadi

tipologiis simbolo, vinaidan tipologiuri definicia

yovelTvis saboloo definicias uaxlovdeba. 264 rac Seexeba

tipis agebas, is iyenebs SedarebiTi poetikis yvela meTods:

induqcias (kroCem da sxvebma kargad dainaxes, rom komparativistuli

meTodi induqciuri gziT miemarTeba tipebis SemuSavebisken)

265 iseve, rogorc hipoTezebs, kategoriebs da winaswar

gansazRvrul sqemebs, romlebic `kompromisebs~ uSveben

calkeul struqturebsa da fuZe struqturas Soris 266 .

rac Seexeba aRmosavlel komparativistebs, maT saTaveSi

sruliad samarTlianad dgas v. Jirmunski (veselovskis kvalze).

igi ambobda: `tipologiur analogiebsa Tu igive bunebis

TanadamTxvevebs sxvadasxva xalxis literaturaTa Soris,

romlebic pirdapir kavSirSi ar arian erTmaneTTan, ufro meti

saerTo aqvT, vidre zogadad gvgonia~. sxvagan igi ufro

mkafiod saubrobda `istoriul-tipologiur Sedarebebze~. 267

komparativizmisaTvis aseve sainteresoa lotmanis kvlevebi

teqstis tipologiasa da kulturebTan dakavSirebiT. 268 sxva

komparativistebma (marqsistebi) moaxerxes SeeTvisebinaT da

daenergaT garkveuli semiotikuri da struqturaluri kvlevis

Sedegebi. CexeTSi gamoirCeva `tipologiuri struqturebis~

`sociologiur-tipologiuri~ kvlevebi, romlebic Camoyalibebulia

analogiis, msgavsebis gziT, kontaqtebis gaTvaliswinebis

gareSe. tipologiur struqturebs Soris, romlebic

CvenTvis ufro niSandoblivi arian, movixmobT `pirdapir

kontaqtebs, romlebic warmoebulia ufro ganzogadebuli tipologiuri

analogiebidan da romelTac `interliteraturul

tipologiur analogiebs~ uwodeben. 269 Semdeg identur

Tu analogiur remarkebs gavakeTebT poloneTsa da, rasakvirvelia,

ssrk-sTan mimarTebaSi, sadac, aRvniSnavT, rom Sesamu-

Savebulia `tipologiuri msgavsebebi~, `istoriul-tipologiuri~

evristikuli konceptebi, zogadi kanonebi gamoxatulia

erTgvarovani tipologiuri procesebiT. unda mivaqcioT yuradReba

aseve m.b. xrapCenkos SesaniSnav naSroms: Die Typologische

Literaturforschung und ihre Prinzipien, romelic warmoaCens, rom

SedarebiT literaturaSi marqsizmsa da tipologiur Ziebas

Soris arsebobs SeTavsebadoba. aseve SevexebiT imave Janris

ufro axali kvlevebs. 272 tipologiuri midgoma invariantebiTa

da nawilebiT awonasworebs istorizmis koncefcias 273 , rome-

176


lic yvela SemTxvevaSi yuradRebas amaxvilebs ueWvel progresze.

SegviZlia, aseve, yuradReba mivapyroT, rogor xdeba

yovelive es ungreTSi, rumineTSi 274 da a.S.

amgvari progresi imdenad mniSvnelovania, rom tipologia

kvlav Zlier winaaRmdegobas ejaxeba. mowinaaRmdegeTa rigebSi

arian xan struqturebisa da literaturuli naSromebis

nacionaluri TavisTavadobis momxreebi, xan pozitivisti istorikosebi,

romlebic arakeTilganwyobilebas gamoxataven

komparativistuli tipologiisa da homologiuri konceptebis

mimarT. 275 isini yovelTvis mzad arian amxilon safuZvels

moklebuli tipologiebi, winaaRmdegoba gauwion volfliniseuli

kategoriebis gadayvanas literaturaSi. bolos da bolos,

amgvari reaqcia, vinaidan is fundamenturi tipologiidan

momdinareobs, SeiZleba erTi mizeziT aixsnas: maSin, rodesac

sinTezuri tipi zogadsa da mudmivs mravalferovnebaSi

eZebs, analitikuri tipi mravalferovan erTobaSi mxolod

kerZoTi interesdeba. es aris maradiuli konfrontacia `Teoriul~

da `grZnobismier~ suliskveTebas Soris, an, paskaliseuli

sityvebiT: `geometriul~ da `natif~ suls Soris.

6. modeli da struqtura

uaxlovdeba Tu ara komparativistuli meTodi (gansaz-

Rvrebis mixedviT) `modelebis~ Teoriasa da praqtikas Tanamedrove

mniSvnelobiT? cxadia, ar vsaubrobT Zalian formalizebul

logikur-maTematikur modelebze, Tavisi tipologiuri

operaciebiT, sabazo `modelisturi~ sqemebiT, idealuri

maketebiT, romlebic Sualedur adgils ikaveben teqstebsa da

zogad Teorias Soris (= literaturuli idea, romelic moicavs

teqstis, `sagnebis~ mTel klass). arsebiTad, `idealuri

tipis~ statusi erTgvaria. invaranti TavisTavad araferia, Tu

ara `modeli~, magaliTad, lirizmisa, romlic yvela lirikuli

nawarmoebis magivrad gvTavazobs invariantebs, orientaciis

erTaderTi sistemisa da `aqsiomaturi~ aRweris urTierTdaqvemdebarebuli

da funqcionaluri formiT.

am TvalsazrisiT, aseTi modeli aigeba rogorc evrestikuli,

aseve hermenevtikuli midgomiT. rogorc viciT, Cven

vmoqmedebT centrze orientirebuli intuiciiTa da zogierTi

invariantis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvriT, romelsac maSinve

mosdevs kiTxvis induqcia-deduqciebi, analiz-sinTezi, gamaerTianebeli

wevrebi, konkretuli Taviseburebebi da tipizaciebi,

rac sabolood sqemebamde daiyvaneba. 276 epikur teqsteb-

177


Tan SedarebiT eseni warmoadgenen `wminda Txzulebis~ an teqstebTan

SedarebiT _ teqstis `gramatikis~ Semoklebul da

filigranul ekvivalentebs. Cven sqemis SigniT vaerTianebT,

vamWidroebT da gamovyofT elementebs, romlebic mas Seesabamebian,

es aris meTodi, romelic SeWras iwyebs komparativistis

kvleveebSi 277 . mokled, modeli Sedgeba myar TanavarskvlavedSi

dajgufebuli invariantebisgan. amgvarad, invarianti

SeiZleba iyos marginaluri Tu meoradi im nawarmoebsa

an kategoriaSi, saidanac is moixmes, magram mas yovelTvis

aqvs mniSvneloba da arsebiToba Tavisi `modelis~ SigniT,

romelSic is Canergilia an romlis safuZvelzec aigo. Tavis

mxriv, hipoTezebis, `arqetipebis~ Tu sxva prekonceptebis

safuZvelze gamomuSavebuli `modelebi~, imave saxis sxva konstruqciebisaTvis

xdebian hipoTezebi da winapirobebi. literaturis

TeoriasTan dakavSirebul risks, dawyebuls modelebidan,

SesaZlebelia hqondes logikur-formaluri buneba, magram

ara Teoriul-hermenevtuli rigis.

miuxedavad imisa, aris Tu ara es terminologiuri wesi,

faqtia, rom `modeli~ ukve aTvisebulia literaturis Teoriis

an Tanamedrove komparativistuli meTodologiis mier. igi,

rogorc taqsonomiuri, aRweriTi da kiTxvis sistema, gamoyenebulia

ganmazogadebel da evrestikul perspeqtivebSi. mar-

Tlac, Tu modelebis Teoria, lingvistikis msgavsad, miRebulia

kulturis anTropologiaSi, ratom ar SeiZleba is aseve

arsebobdes SedarebiT literaturaSi? `komparativistuli samuSaosaTvis

naklebad mniSvnelovania tipis (literaturuli)

modelebi~. 279 kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom am ukanasknel xans es

termini marTlac Cndeba yovel jerze, roca saubaria kargad

awyobili sinoptikuri cxrilis SemuSavebaze, maT Soris ki-

Txvis sistemebze, stereotipul da ukuqcevad elementebze

(romelTac saerTo mniSvnelis mravalricxovani Tanmxvedri

aspeqtebis qveS SeuZliaT gaerTianeba da orientireba, mowesrigeba,

Camoyalibeba), winaswar sistematizaciebsa da struqturalizaciebze.

280 zogjer misi gamoyeneba sakamaToa, pirdapir

Tu arapirdapir. Cven am `ufro `Tanamedrove~ meTodologias

vupirispirebT Zvel komparativizms, sadac gabatonebuli

iyo faqtebis martivi mimarTebebi, amave dros, vcdilobT davazustoT,

ganvsazRvroT da maTTan erTad CarCoSi movaqcioT

wmindad istoriuli modelebi, im modelebTan erTad, romlebic

istoriuli da kulturuli wesrigidan gamomdinareoben,

an romlebic `mentalobebs~ exeba. am midgomidan 281 xelovneba-

Ta Sedarebac ki momZlavrebuli gamovidoda. aseve miniSnebulia

interferencia, Tu wminda da martivi aRreva normatiul

178


modelebsa (`adamianuri modelebi~ _ gmiri, raindi da a.S.) da

Teoriul-deskrifciul modelebs Soris, 282 da bolos, komparativistuli

`imagologia~ 283 `modelizaciis~ garkveul formebsac

gulisxmobs.

amjerad SemovifargloT Teoriul-literaturuli modelebiT,

im mniSvnelobebiT, romlebic maT ukve mivaniWeT. Janrebisa

da literaturuli dargebis saxeobebSi isini ueWvelad

gvaZleven Sedegebs (zogjer araTanabars), magaliTad,

romani, romelic mTlianobaSi ganixileba, rogorc nacionalur

literaturaSi arsebuli avtonomiuri struqtura. 284 am

midgomas axasiaTebs aseve metaistoriuli kategoriebis rangSi

ayvanili literaturuli `stilebi~ da `mimdinareobebi~.

ra msgavsebebis mixedviT unda SevupirispiroT erTmaneTs evropeli

preromantikuli periodis poetebi da Cineli poetebi,

dawyebuli kiu iuanidan _ sonamde, 285 Tu ara `preromantizmis~

universaluri modeli? aSkaraa, rom am `modelis~ gamoyofa

etiamblis damsaxurebaa, romelmac mas terminologiuri

etiketi miakera (=preromantizmi) da arsebobs, rogorc mudmivebis

sistema (=invariantebi), romelic ukuqmedebiT gadis

(kiu ianidan _ sonamde) qronologiuri istoriis miRma. `etiamblze~

cota adre, rene grusetma zustad imave ganwyobiT

isaubra Cineli poetebis `did romantikul Temebze~. 286

marTlac, yvela didi literaturuli kategoriebi Seadgenen

`modelebs~, koordinatebis stabilur sistemebs, romlebic

drosa da sivrceSi funqcionireben. ra Tqma unda, eWvgareSea,

rom arsebobs romantizmis ukve SemuSavebuli evropuli

modeli (single unit-is momxre zogierTi komparativistis mixedviT)

287 , iseve, rogorc romantizmis universaluri modeli,

romelsac etiambli imowmebs. aseve unda gavixsenoT TiTqmis

Tanadrouli realizmis precedenti auerbaxis mixedviT, romelsac

SeiZleba yvela teqstSi mivakvlioT da romlebic am

modelebis CarCoSi rCebian 288 . SegviZlia movixmoT barokos Sem-

Txveva, antikuri Tu elinuri manierizmi, modernizmi Tu avangardi,

rogorc Tanamedrove modelebi. Cndeba rTuli kiTxva, rac

kidev erTxel gviTrevs terminologiuri mudmivebis gamoyenebis

kanonierebasTan dakavSirebul kamaTSi. ratom arsebobs preromantizmi

Tu neoklasicizmi? imitom, rom, rogorc Cans, zogierTi

invarianti arsebobs ise, rogorc kritikosebma istoriis

manZilze gansazRvres da rac gamoixateboda cnebebiT _

winare da Semdeg, maTi gansazRvris momentidan gamomdinare.

modelebi `farTovdeba~, ufro da ufro izrdeba da moicavs

mraval literaturas 289 , romelTa Soris aRmosavleTdasavleTis

literaturul erTobas didi Teoriuli mniSvne-

179


loba eniWeba. mzardi gafarToebis wyalobiT, romelic yovelgvar

evrocentrizmsa da partikularizms aRemateba, mraval

e.w. `arqetipSi~, Tu ukve dafuZnebul universalur modelebSi

Sesatania aziuri an Cinuri gamocdileba 290 . meTodi ki

ase aris aRwerili: aRmosavleTis da dasavleTis literaturebis

wakiTxva, teqstebisTvis saerTo modelebis agebamde da

maT Soris `msgavsebebis~ gamovlenamde. 291 aq kidev erTi etapia

dasaZlevi, ris Semdegac ukve SesaZlebelia `literaturis

modelis~ gamoyeneba. yovel SemTxvevaSi, is CarTulia Cveni

meTodis logikasa da mis demonstraciaSi. gavixsenoT, rom

arsebobs universaluri literatura (da/an literatura), rac

gulisxmobs garkveul `saerTo Tvisebebs~, arsebiTsa da internacionalurs

da es aris literaturebis saerTo xasiaTi.

maTi sinTezi axorcielebs literaturis `models~, universaluri

struqturis gamartivebul saxes. am perspeqtivaSi ganxiluli

`literatura~ da gadmocemuli `literaturuli procesi~,

iseve, rogorc oTxi etapis moqmedeba (samyaro _ nawarmoebi

_ mwerali _ wakiTxva) 292 , yvelaze zogadi da stabiluri

literaturis modelebia, romelTa farglebSic Tavsdeba

yvela sxva kategoriebi. es modeli simboluri xdeba literaturuli

nawarmoebebis modelisaTvis da orive polaruli modeli

erTmaneTs Tanxvdeba da Sereva. sabolood komparativistuli

meTodologiuri inventari mTlianad `modelis” farglebSi

moeqcoda da, aseve, am `modelis~ TvisebebiT isargeblebda.

SegviZlia Tu ara ganvsazRvroT `modeli~, rogorc

`struqtura~, gansakuTrebulad farTo da legitimuri azriT?

ukidures SemTxvevaSi, monacemis nawilebis funqcionaluri

urTierTdamokidebulobis struqturis SigniT arsebuli elementaruli

struqturalisturi monacemi (ris gamoc elementebi

mTlianisgan damoukideblad ar arseboben), mkveTri meTodologiuri

CareviT sisavses amJRavnebs. cxadia, arsebobs gamosaTavisuflebeli

struqturaluri homologiebi sosiuris

`sinqronuli modelidan~ da `maTi ideal-tipuri modelizaciidan~

293 . am dadgenili Sesabamisobebis sayrdeni, invariantebis

daxmarebiT, aris solidaroba, urTierTdamokidebuleba yvela

organuli, ori an mravalwevriani nawilisa, romlebic erTmaneTTan

dakavSirebuli arian da eqvivalentobebs amarTleben.

formalisti lingvistebi pirvelebi iyvnen, romlebmac am perspeqtivaSi

`enisa da literaturis struqturul kanonebze~

isaubres 294 . `komparativisti unda SeCerdes `struqturebze~

da unda SeeZlos homologiuri struqturebis sxva dargebSi

gamoyeneba, magaliTad, SedarebiT miTologiaSi 295 . maSin, ratom

iqneba gamonaklisi SedarebiTi literaturis Teoria?

180


Tanamedrove komparativizms marTlac SeuZlia gamoiyenos

garkveuli struqturuli mocemulobebi, dawyebuli struqturuli

erToba/komponentebis mimarTebiT, saidanac hermenevtikuli

nawili/mTeli araferia, Tu ara etimologiuri oreuli.

zogierTma komparativistma icis am arsebiTi damokidebulebis

gamoyeneba 296 (Teoriulad da TavianT kvlevebSi). amasTan dakavSirebiT

aseve gavixsenebT etiamblis miTis struqturas

rembosTan (1957). sxva mimarTuleba exeba `struqturas~, rogorc

`formaluri erTobisa~ da esTetikuri Rirebulebebis

sayrdens (magaliTad, swavlebas zogadsa da kerZo formebs

Soris urTierTobis Sesaxeb, universalurobas, erTobasa da

literaturul Taviseburebebs Soris da a.S). aqedan, `struqturebis

aRmoCenidan~, gadavdivarT personaJebis, Temebis, motivebis,

konfliqtebis, Txrobis tipebis, literaturis `tipizaciisa~

da `struqturizaciis~ sxva formebis tipologiaze,

dabolos, literaturis Teoriaze. 297 daskvna iqneba is, rom

komparativistis meTodi aris `arsebiTad aRweriTi, struqturalisturi

da esTetikuri~, yovel SemTxvevaSi, Cven Sors

varT ubralo, martivi `Strixebis Sefardebebisa~ da faqtobrivi

urTierTobebisagan, romelTac upirispirdeba axali tendencia

_ `komparativistis sameufo gza~. 298

amgvarad SemuSavebuli `modeli~ Tu `struqtura~, iseve,

rogorc literaturis nebismieri Teoria, komparativistulis

CaTvliT, miiswrafvis iqiTken, rom Seqmnas sistema. es aris

sistemis suli, romelic nebismieri fundamenturi mosazrebidan,

nebismieri hermenevtikuli hipoTezidan gamomdinareobs.

sistema aris Cveni manera, rom ganvWvritoT da ganvazogadoT

yvela misaRebi monacemi da yoveli interpretacia SesaZlebelia

mxolod sistemis SigniT, rac aris ganmsazRvreli hermenevtuli

principi, saidanac xdeba kiTxvis garkveuli sistemisa

miReba, keTdeba arCevani meTodisa da meTodis orientirebisa,

rogorc warmonaqmnebisa am sistemaSi, anu: `organuli~

erTobis konstruqcia, sadac yvelaferi urTierTmorgebulia.

amgvarad, modelebi da struqturebi gaxdebodnen sistemebi

an, ukeT rom vTqvaT, `sistemis msgavsebi~, es aris sistema,

romelic winaswar Wvrets nawili/mTelis urTierTobis problemas,

da maSasadame, fragmentebisa da winamorbedebis aRdgenas,

maT gadarCevasa da integracias mTlianobaSi; swored

is gadawyvets, Tu ra aris tipuri, arsebiTi da/an SemTxvevi-

Ti, marginaluri; aseve, is SesaZlebels xdis monacemebis organizacias,

iseve, rogorc Teoriul ganzogadebas. amave

dros, Teoria da sistema aris alternatiuli da eqvivalenturi

terminebi. ukanasknel analizSi yvelaferi daiyvaneba

181


erT konceptualur da terminologiur, dominantur da konvenciur

sistemamde.

sistemis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi, dawyebuli Tavisi

imanenturi, ganuyofeli `logikiT~, SesanarCunebelia. misi gamarTleba,

upirveles yovlisa, mdgomareobs misive funqciurad

mudmiv principSi. aris Tu ara igi imgvarad SemuSavebuli,

rom gaiTvaliswinos yvela elementi, romelsac aRmoaCens?

SeiZleba Tu ara daiyvanos isini mTlianobamde, harmoniulobamde,

funqciur vargisianobamde? Tu SeuZlia, maSin

sistema gaxdeba operatiuli nageboba, romelic gamocdas gauZlebs.

maSasadame, is vargisia da gamosadegi. da mainc, unda

SevCerdeT terminze _ `logika~, mxolod imitom, rom arsebobs

verifikacia, ganyenebuli SeTanxmebulobiT, garkveulobiTa

da mizanswrafviT. yoveli sistema funqcionirebs Tavisi

sakuTari principiT Tu principisaTvis, saidanac komparativisti

TeoretikosisaTvis modis arsebiTi valdebuleba _

iyos Tavisi principebisa da aTvisebuli meTodebis SesabamisobaSi.

wmindad formaluri logikuri sistema gadis am mo-

Txovnebis gareT da gvTavazobs sul sxva `models~, Tavisi

sqematizmiTa da simbolozmiT; es aris elementaruli mtkicebuleba

imisa, rom literaturis Teoriebs aqvT sakuTri Taviseburebebi.

isini yovelTvis gadmogvcemen farul koherentulobas,

gvisaxaven sqemas, romelsac axasiaTebs mudmivi efeqturoba

da saidanac modis garkveuli SesaZlebloba TviTregulirebisa,

TviTSemowmebisa, da es xdeba maSin, roca naSrom-

Si invarianti an modeli moiZeveba. sistemis meqanizmi iZleva

imis SesaZleblobas, rom SearCios da Tavis nebiT gaaerTianos

(rom yvelgan Seqmnas `msgavsi~ 299 ) yvela elementi, e.i.

aris ormagi: a posteriori da a fortiori, rasac Sedegad mohyveba Tavisi

sqemisaTvis sarCulis dadeba, napralebis da struqturis

sicarieleebis amovseba. maSasadame, misi roli aris garkveulwilad

`ganmazogadebeli struqtura~, iduqciur/deduqciuri

baziTa da `kodiT~. `poetikuri kodebi~ 300 , arsebiTad, igive

sistemuri meqanizmidan momdinareoben.

literaturis komparativistulma Teoriam aseve SeiZleba

gamoiyenos `modelebi~ da struqturebi~, rogorc ganzogadebis

formebi, romlebic sxvadasxva doneebze moqmedeben da

isargeblos `sistemebis sistemis~ pirobiT. es formula gansakuTrebiT

miesadageboda `universalur literaturas~, romelTan

SedarebiTac nacionaluri literaturebi mxolod da

mxolod danawevrebuli sistemebi iqnebodnen. ufro adre amgvar

mosazrebebs vpoulobT rus formalistebTan. 301 aranakleb

mniSvnelovania lotmanis wvlili. marTlac, es avtori

182


iTvaliswinebs `literaturis organizacias, rogorc `simbolur

meqanizms~, `integralurs~, sruls, `romlis gareSec SeuZlebelia

literaturebis tipologiuri Sedareba da universaluri

literaturis istoriis Seqmna~. 302 `literaturuli

sistemis~ perspeqtivaSi sinqronulad arian warmodgenili h.

r. iausi, c. todorovi da sxvebi. gvrCeba is, rom gamovyoT

sagrZnobi gansxvaveba meTodisa da hipoTezisa: im dros, rodesac

literaturis am sistemur Teorias aqvs lingvisturi

aTvlis wertili, literaturis SedarebiTi Teoria (romelic

CvenTvis warmoadgens sistemur xasiaTs) cdilobs ipovos Tavisi

cogito da refleqsiis meTodi Tavad komparativistuli

tradiciis interierSi. xolo disciplinebi, romlebsac komparativistuli

kuTxiT (SedarebiTi miTologia, magaliTad) TavianT

arsenalSi aqvT: `tipebi~, `kavSirebi~, `seriebi~ da `sistemebi~

305 , Tavis mxriv, daxmarebas gvTavazobs.

rasakvirvelia, ar unda ugulebelvyoT axali gamocdilebebi,

piriqiT! magram _ da Cven kidev erTxel davubrundebiT,

Cveni azriT, am mniSvnelovan kiTxvas _ alternativa

kvlav arsebobs: xdeba Tu ara komparativistuli literaturis

Teoriis gansakuTrebulad gaZliereba an misi daSla sxva

miTiTebebsa da meTodebSi? yvela Riaobebi, romlebsac gamovyofT

(da isini ufro da ufro mravlad Cndebian), ueWvelad

iTviseben `modelis~, `sistemis~ da `struqturis~ cnebas, magram

obieqti, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, saorWofo rCeba. yvelaze

progresuli `mamodelebeli~ hipoTezebi, rogorc Cans, ar

cdebian dakvirvebis, aRwerisa da analitikuri damxmarebis

badeebis stadias, maSasadame, evristikuls (stadias). mizani

yovelTvis erTi da igive ar aris; Cven vmeryeobT mxolod er-

Ti literaturis meTods, gansazRvruli raodenobis zenacionalursa

da literaturuli komunikaciis zogad Teorias

Soris, 306 romlebic `literaturas~ gansazRvraven, rogorc

komunikaciis aqts, rac SesaZloa, maTTvis misaRebia. magram

komparativistebi, romlebic ganixilaven literaturas, rogorc

niSnebisa da warmosaxviTi samyaros Rirebulebebis sistemas

(amas davubrundebiT), am perspeqtivas Zalian viwrod da

`ganze dgomiT~ ganixilaven. Tumca, mainc gaviziaroT, rom

garkveul damajamebel sistematizaciaSi internacionaluri

literaturuli kavSirebi, `universaluri literatura~, Cveni

arsebiTi obieqti, gansazRvrulia, xan rogorc `megapolissistema~,

xan `zesistema~, romelTa daqvemdebarebaSia `sistemebi~

(internacionaluri literaturebis mimdinareobebi) da

`qvesistemebi~ (stilebi, Janrebi, Temebi da a.S.). 307

183


yovel SemTxvevaSi, Cven globaluri gziT vaRwevT literaturuli

fenomenis xedvas (zepiri, werilobiTi, institucionalizebuli

da maTi mimarTebis erTobaSi), ganxiluls ara rogorc

mxolod literaturis Teoriis savaldebulo safuZvels,

aramed mTlianad literaturuli procesisa. rogorc Cans, am

TvalsazrisiT umjobesia `msoflio literaturis sistemaze vilaparakoT

Tundac zogadi terminebiT~, vidre uarvyoT `modelis~

esa Tu is idea. zogierT saxelmZRvaneloSi `literaturuli

struqturalizms~ irCeven (`Tanamedrove, pedanti~) alalbedze

da ar Cans tradiciuli procedurebi (Sedareba, Tematologia

da sxv.). aseve, ar iqneba swori, rom `struqturas ar hqondes

sxva interesi, garda imisa, rom gardaisaxos~. 309 samagierod,

komparativistuli poetikis TvalTaxedviT, mas ainteresebs mxolod

is, rom `ar gardaisaxos.~ TiTqmis truizmia imis ganmeoreba,

rom Teoria Tu `literaturis mecniereba~, romelic

agebs teqstebis zogad modelebs, ver axerxebs maT esTetikur

Tu istoriul originalobaSi wvdomas. 310 aseve, arcerTi `struqtura~,

arc `modeli~ da arc `tipi~ integralurad ar emTxveva

teqstis konkretul struqturas, modelsa Tu nebismier tips.

SedarebiTi literaturis nebismier meTodologiur aspeqtze

metad Tavs warmoaCens modelizacia, rogorc Teoriuli

konstruqcia an, Tu gnebavT, rogorc `komparativistuli qmnileba~.

konstatacia axali ar aris, vinaidan is ukve gamoviyeneT

`cvlad mudmivebTan~ mimarTebaSi. didi komparativistuli kategoriebis

SemuSaveba, dawyebuli evropuli Tu `universaluri~

literaturiT, iseve, rogorc `kodebis~ SemuSavebiT (periodebi,

mimdinareobebi da a.S.), aseve ganxilulia terminebiT _ `Teoriuli~

an `spiritualuri konstruqcia~. 311 `konstruqcia moicavs,

rogorc samoqmedo sqemisa da taqsonomiuri komparativizmis

sqemebis erTianobas, aseve am sinTezuri da Teoriuli moqmedebebis

erTobas. maTi arseboba SeuZlebelia `damatebuli~

eqstrapolaciebis, totalizaciebis (e.w. `zogadi~ literatura,

rogorc `moZraobebis damajamebeli Teoria~) regulirebis

meqanizmebisa da Teorizebis gareSe. es ukanasknelni moqmedeben

konceptualuri eqstrapolaciis gziT, romlebic ayvanilni

arian ukidures koherentulobamde (am mizniT agebuli invariantebis

sistemidan gamomdinare). `idealuri literaturis

struqturebi~ _ razec zogierTi komparativisti bolos da

bolos Tanxmdeba _ aRaribebs gamartivebis gziT aRweril

obieqtebs, Tan zedmetad awesrigebs. 313 rogorc viciT, es aris

mTeli sistemuri muSaobis Sedegi. am TvalTaxedviT is yovelTvis

met-naklebad `araadekvaturia~. es aris am didi da

gadamwyveti upiratesobebis xarki, romelic gadasaxdelia.

184


7. deskrifcia da morfologia

yovelive aqedan gamomdinare, komparativistuli meTodi

didwilad deskrifciulia. marTlac, arc erTi damajamebeli

sinTezi, tipologia, modelizacia Tu struqturalizacia SesaZlebeli

ar iqneba, Tu ar mivmarTavT maTi obieqtebis xasiaTebis

gacalkavebasa da aRnusxvas, raTa isini ufro naTeli

terminebiT ganisazRvron da moxdes maTi individualizeba.

marTebuli deskrifcia erTdroulad aris specifikuri da

maindividualizebeli, warmoaCens Tvisebebs, rac Tavis obieqts

sxva aRwerili obieqtebisagan gamohyofs da erTgvari nivelirebisken,

iqneb garkveuli `ganzogadebisakenac ki~ ubiZgebs.

deskrifciebi arasdrosa `sruli~, amomwuravi. isini warmoaCenen

mxolod garkveuli raodenobis gamorCeul Tvisebebs,

romlebic erTobliobis konteqstSi ganixilebian, rogorc

Sesamowmebelni da mniSvnelovanni. problema, romelic amis

Semdeg Cndeba, aseTia: rogor unda moxdes deskrifcia SedarebiTi

literaturis TvalTaxedvidan gamomdinare? sakmarisi

aRar aris gadavwyvitoT, rom komparativistuli meTodi `deskrifciulia~,

vinaidan: mravalma winamorbedma da Tanamedrove

praqtikosebma es ukve Tqves. 314 amdenad, metad aRar visaubrebT

tradiciul, empiriul deskrifciaze. swori iqneba vnaxoT,

ra aris deskrifcia, romelic komparativistul poetikas

sWirdeba.

Tu marTlac arsebobs Teoriuli (literaturuli naSromebis

zogad TaviseburebebTan dakavSirebuli Teoriebi da

hipoTezebi) da deskrifciuli poetika (specifikuri literaturuli

naSromebis deskrifcia), maSin komparativizmi erTdroulad

momdinareobs pirvelidanac da meoridanac 315 . Tumca,

garkveuli ganmasxvavebeli niSniT: SedarebiTi poetika eyrdnoba

ganmazogadebel deskrifciebs, mimarTulT iqiTken,

rom erTgvarad daadginon da gansazRvron literaturis gamoxatvis

saSualeba _ ena. mas Tavis gankargulebaSi unda

hqondes rac SeiZleba mowinave, kargad Camoyalibebuli deskrifciuli

inventari da yovelive es unda moxdes poetikis,

universaluri deskrifciuli procedurebisa da misi funqcionirebis

wyalobiT, `werilobiTi Tu zepiri literaturebis

rac SeiZleba didi raodenobiT~, raTa xelaxla gamoviyenoT

am saxis erT-erTi iSviaTi (Zalian iSviaTi!) programa. 316 am

monaxazis arsebiTi obieqtebi literaturis Teoriis saz-

RvrebSi SeiZleba ganixilebodes, rogorc `invariantebi~, romelTa

zogadi da ganzogadebuli deskrifcia literaturis

rukas (universalurs) SemogvTavazebda. amgvarad gansazRvru-

185


li deskrifciis statusi Tavidan bolomde icvleba. erTi

mxriv (da Cven es viciT), is ver iqneba sruli vercerT garemoebaSi,

radgan empiriuli gziT verasodes miiRweva WeSmariti

inventarizacia, am terminis pozitivisturi, faqtobrivi

mniSvnelobiT. sxva mxriv, saboolod unda ukuvagdoT sruliad

neitraluri, `obieqturi~ deskrifciis iluziuri hipoTeza.

komparativistul gzas, rogorc nebismier sxvas, imTaviTve

aqvs Tavisi warmmarTveli ideebi, sakuTari hermenevtuli hipoTezebiT,

romlebic operacias xelmZRvaneloben. aseve Tavidan

avicilebT mcdar dilemas: `an avagebT koherentul, magram

sterilur Teorias; an davkmayofildebiT faqtebis aRweriT

da imis warmodgeniT, rom yoveli patara kenWi mecnierebis

didi Senobis agebas emsaxureba~. 317

morfologiuri deskrifcia, Tavisi Zlieri tradiciiT, 318

didwilad gansazRvravs am programis warmatebulobas. misi

mizania literaturuli formebis Teoriis aRwera, dawyebuli

enaSi spontanurad warmoSobili e.w. `martivi~ formebiT, poetis

mxridan yovelgvari `SemoqmedebiTi~ Carevis gareSe.

goeTes mixedviT, Cvenc miviCnevT, rom forma zRudavs da rTavs

elementebs, radgan Sinagani konstituciuri da SemzRudveli

principis ZaliT moqmedebs. yovel poeziaSi `forma gamoinaskva

da ganxorcielda~. es gamosavali, andre Joles mixedviT

(romelic kvlav aqtualurs xdis morfologiur meTods literaturis

TeoriaSi), SeiZleba dadgindes zogadi poetikuri

principebiT: `poeziis mTlianobis pirispir mdgarni, Cvens

Tavs vekiTxebiT: ramdenad Seadgens aRiarebuli da rCeuli

formebis erToblioba homogenur mTlianobas, romelic kavSirebiTa

da Sinagani artikulaciebiT uSvebs wesrigis princips,

e.i. sistemas~? 319 swored aq SegveZlo dagvesaxelebina

`sistemebis sistemaze~ kalkirebuli `formebis forma~. yuradReba

unda gavamaxviloT Tanamedrove komparativistul azrovnebaze,

romelic `literaturis morfoliogias~ eTmoba;

miuxedavad imisa, rom misi buneba metwilad kvlav istoriuli

(Temebisa da Jarebis migracia) an wmindad deskrifciuli me-

TodiT SemosazRvruli rCeba. 320 am SedarebiTi morfologiis

gafarToeba nacionaluri sazRvrebis iqiT, universaluri literaturis

zRvramde, ai, es iqneboda misi idealuri mizani.

rogorc ki Cvens samiznes literaturis arsebiT gansaz-

Rvrebaze mivmarTavT, aqcenti deskrifciidan da morfologiidan

mkveTrad gadainacvlebs fenomenologiisaken. maSin es

qmedebebi SemogvTavazebdnen mxolod organizebul masalebs

intuiciisaTvis (Wesensghau), romelic obieqtis ganyenebul,

struqturul erTobas yvela Tavisi individualuri variaci-

186


ebis miRma warmoaCenda. radikalurad antipozitivisturi, antiistorizebuli,

antifsiqologiuri, antisociologiuri da

a.S. meTodi warmoadgens (CvenTvis, yovel SemTxvevaSi) did

upiratesobas imisaTvis, rom SevZloT gavcdeT mxolod erTi

stilis, mxolod erTi mimdinareobis, mxolod erTi nacionaluri

literaturis eqskluziur gansazRvrebebs, sivrciTsa

da droismiers, Tundac yovel am literaturul faqts Tavisi

sakuTari `fenomenologia~ hqondes. upiratesad, ra iqneba

`komparativistuli fenomeni~ (zu den Sachen selbst)? 321 arsebiTi,

fenomenologiuri deskrifcia enacvleba empiriul da morfologiur

deskrifcias. is literaturuli nawarmoebebis deskrifciiT

Sreebad bolovdeba (roman ingardenis Tvalsazris-

Si, magaliTad: fonetikur-leqsikuri, azris mTlianoba, warmodgenili

obieqtebi, obieqtebis xedebi), romlebic SeiZleba

vargisi gavxadoT nebismier literaturul nawarmoebSi _

parizidan _ balimde, sabaziso hipoTezebis mixedviT.

literaturuli kvlevebis es ucilobeli piroba, sine qua

non, uaryofs imis fenomenologiur mtkicebulebas, rom winaswar

gansazRvruli konceptebisgan gaTavisufleba SesaZlebelia.

magram, am rezervis garda, wmindad deskrifciuli `modelebisa

da `tipebis~ samiznes, romlis sqema maT gamorCeulobas

gamoxatavs, SeuZlia sakmaod wvlili Seitanos literaturis

globalur midgomaSi. amgvarad, araferia gasaocari, rom

fenomenologia ironiulad uyurebs zogierT komparativists,

romelic sakuTar Tavs swored msgavs perspeqtivaSi ayenebs.

midgomebis formebi sxvadasxvagvaria da warmoaCens `mudmiv

Tu ukuqceviT fenomenebs~; amgvar topoi-s SeuZlia ufro zusti

codna gamoxatos `literaturuli sakiTxisa da misi struqturisa,

wvlili Seitanos literaturis fenomenologiaSi~; 322

aCvenos modelebi ingardenis sqemis mixedviT; tipisa Tu `gmiris~

324 da literaturuli qmnilebis fenomenologia `mTeli

literaturis imitaciuri magaliTebiT~ 325 da a.S. sxva mxriv,

arsebobs `fenomenologia, romelic Rrmad wvdeba istoriul

suls da, amave dros, ufro winaaRmdegobrivia, vidre es komparativists~

326 hgonia, vinaidan is ganmartebiT SeniSvnebs

moiTxovs.

187


8. analogia da erTgvarovnebani

komparativisti poetikosi (saWiroa sabolood vaRiaroT,

rom aseve arsebobs es sakmaod uCveulo tipi _ poetikosi)

Tavis gzaze yovelTvis Sexvedria analogiisa da msgavsebis,

TanadamTxvevisa da sinqronizmis fenomenebs. mas ar aqvs mizezi,

rom mxedvelobaSi ar miiRos isini da literaturis SedarebiT

TeoriaSi ar CarTos. spontanur empiriul analogiebs

(mravalricxovanT) Tan unda sdevdes sistematuri da Teoriuli

midgoma, rasac, rasakvirvilia, garkveuli siZneleebi axlavs.

`msgavseba~ da `analogia~ eqvivalenturi, alternatiuli

da urTierTmonacvle terminebia, romlebic erTdroulad

mianiSneben `moqmedebasa~ da `produqtze~. analogia

(moqmedeba) iZleva Sedegebs (msgavsebebs), magram _ ormxrivoba

aranakleb realuria: msgavseba (faqtis realoba) xsnis analogiebs

da a.S. sxva mxriv, am fenomenis simdidre da polisemia

(gadmocemuli aseve `TanadamTxveviT~, `SesabamisobiT~, `SerwymiT~

da am Janris sxva terminebiT) aRwers mas, rogorc Zalian

orazrovans. is iwvevs da STaagonebs erTianobis, Tanxvdomisa

da Tanwyobis elementebs, Tumca msgavsebisa da gansxvavebis,

Tanxvedrisa da acilebis dialeqtika masSi aranakleb

aris warmodgenili; aqedan modis garkveuli sirTule,

rac Sorsaa imisagan, rom martivi `pozitiuri~ faqtis kompleqsurobas

warmoadgendes.

analogiiT miaxloeba evrestikuli proceduraa, rac SedarebiTi

literaturisa da misi refleqsiebis sawyisebidanvea

aSkaraa. mas praqtikaSi spontanurad da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi

iyenebdnen, anu, klasikuri da ritorikuli `paralelebis~

gamoCenisTanave. igive midgoma dResdReobiT ufro da

ufro miRebuli xdeba da SeaqvT garkveul programebsa da

sinTezur kvlevebSi, 328 rogorc ori komparativizmis Sexebis

wertili, warmoqmnili `gavlenebisa~ da `analogiebis~ bazaze

(influentalisti da analogisti komparativistebi anglo-saqsonuri

saxeldebis mixedviT). swored aqedan amodis istoriuli

da araistoriuli komparativizmi, romelic praqtikaSi

`struqturis paralelebisa da analogiebis wyalobiT gamoiyeneba;

es aris situacia, romelic araerTgzis Segvxvedria

dRemde da romelic faqtis tipologiidan gamomdinareobs. 329

am Janris dakvirvebebi _ empiriuli, danawevrebuli, Sem-

TxveviTi _ ukve garkveuli siZveliT xasiaTdeba. rogorc ki

sayrdeni mticebulebebiT vsaubrobT `mravalmxriv Tanadam-

Txvevaze~, `analogiur miTiTebebze~, 330 gavlena – urTierTmimarTebebis

idea ukve gavlilia. igive mdgomarebaa msgavsebe-

188


isTvis, erTdroulobebisTvis, SexvedrebisTvis, romlebic

ase xSiria literaturul istoriaSi da romlebze miniSnebasac

TiTqmis yvelgan vxvdebiT. 311 mas aRiareben yvelaze konservatori

pozitivistebic, Tu ar CavTvliT zogierT ufro

gaxsnil komparativists, romlebic winaswar Wvreten etiamblis

Tezebs (frangi komparativisti yvelaze ukeT aris ganwyobili

am faqtebis mimarT). ideebis istoria maT iseve icnobs,

333 rogorc sxva disciplinebs.

Tavisi poziciis gasamyareblad etiambli imowmebs precedents,

romelsac mas religiaTa SedarebiTi istoria awvdis,

iseTs rogorsac praqtikaSi iyenebdnen JorJ dumezili da

mirCa eliade 333 da arcTu umizezod. 334 marTlac, daaxloebis,

Sesabamisobisa da msgavsebebis teqnika gamudmebiT gvxvdeba

naSromSi damajarebeli meTodologiuri dasabuTebiT. 335 homologia

SesaZlebeli, metic, saWiroc kia erTi da igive sistemis

SigniT: arasakmarisad cnobili faqtebi, romlebic erT

religias miekuTvnebian, SeiZleba Sevsebuli da/an ganmartebuli

iyos urTierTSenacvlebiTa da ukeT cnobili faqtebiT,

romlebic sxva religiebs miekuTvneba. sxvaTa Soris, igive

gamosavali, Tavisi polemikuri aqcentebiT, Seswavlili iyo

trakodasebis religiasTan dakavSirebiT, romlis axsnasac,

miuxedavad jer kidev arasakmarisi dokumentaciisa, `stilistikuri

analogiebisa~ da arielebis `spiritualur-stilisturi

aRweris~ daxmarebiT 336 ecadnen. TumcaRa, igive problema

Cndeba istoriaSi, 337 kulturul anTropologiaSi, SedarebiT

filosofiaSi (evropa, indoeTi, CineTi), sadac `pozitivistur

da analogiur cnebebs~ 338 movixmobT. es disciplinebi gamudmebiT

moqmedeben urTierTSenacvlebadi struqturebis SepirispirebiT

(`sakmarisia, rom problemebi iyos urTierTSenacvlebadi)

da Camoyalibebuli analogiuri tipologiiT ise, rom

mxedvelobaSi ar iReben aranair faqtobriv kavSirs.

amgvarad, Cveni gansazRvrebebis CarCoebSi am teqnikis

mniSvnelobas viTvaliswinebT aRmosavleT-dasaleTis literaturuli

urTierTobebisa, da sabolood, `universaluri literaturis~

erTobisaTvis. es midgomebi ar unda ganvixiloT

(arafaqtiseuli komparativizmis TvalTaxedviT) mxolod analogiisa

da msgavsebebis kuTxiT, romlebic invariantebis

substancias qmnian. vinaidan invarianti marTlac araferia,

Tu ara analogiuri produqti, Tu ara konkretuli msgavseba,

saidanac kidev erTxel gamomdinareobs misi meTodologiurad

mniSvnelovani pozicia. invarianti, analogia da msgavseba

faseulia da am situaciis sirTule yvela Sedegis asimilirebaSi

mdgomareobs. Cinuri stilis asimilacia goTikur

189


stilTan, rac XVII-XVIII saukuneebiT TariRdeba, warmoadgens

ideas, romelmac sxvaTa Soris goeTec 340 ki daafiqra. magram

aris ki es aseTi absurduli? evropul gons im dros ar hqonda

referenciisa da asimilaciis sxva cneba, garda goTikisa

da is _ SeiZleba iTqvas spontanurad _ amyarebda kavSirs,

rasac zogierTi naCqarevi da zedapiruli analogiebi ara

mxolod SesaZlebels, aramed, garkveulwilad `savaldebulosac~

ki xdida. analogia ar iyenebs identurobis dadgenis

meTods, magram mimarTavs struqturis Sesabamisobis analizis

gzas, romelic SesaZlebelia gamousadegari aRmoCndes. ufro

dakvirvebiT gamovikvlioT es mdgomareoba.

davuSvaT, SesaZlebelia, rom `gavlenebisgan~ gansxvavebiT,

analogiebi mizezobrivi kavSirebisa da pirdapiri urTierTobebis

gareSe arsebobdnen. isini msgavsebis kavSirebs

aRadgenen or, `erTmaneTisTvis garegnulad ucxo realobaTa

Soris~, romlebic araidenturni arian, ar Sedian kontaqtSi _

arc pirdapir, arc iribad, 341 iwveven daaxloebas erTi an mravali

saerTo elementiT, xan ad unum (erTi da igive rigis or

faqts Soris), xan ad tertium (erTi da igive rigis or an mraval

faqts Soris, mesame gansxvavebul rigTan erTad). 342 `barokoebs~

Soris analogia aris pirveli tipi; goTikasa da sqolastikas

Soris analogia – meore. analogiuri fenomenebis saer-

To Tu arasaerTo warmoSoba SeiZleba momdinareobdes identuri,

regularuli Tu SemTxveviTi mizezebidan, poligenezuridan

da/an difuziuridan (problema, romelzec aq ar Sev-

CerdebiT) iseve, rogorc am fenomenebis funqciebi SeiZleba

dagvexmaros ganvacalkavoT (SemTxveviT) sakuTriv analogia

da homologia. maSin, roca pirveli mxedvelobaSi miiRebda

erTgvarovan funqciebs, Tavisi warmoSobis miRma, homologia

warmoCenda eqvivalentur faqtebs, romelTac saerTo warmomavloba

aqvT, magram struqturisa Tu saerTo funqciebis

flobis gareSe. sxva mxriv, analogia SeiZleba induqcia-deduqciis

gareSe gavides fons, vinaidan is cxadyofs urTier-

Tobebs, romlebic am operaciebs ar gulisxmoben: magaliTad,

paralelur seriebs. arsebiT komparativistul analogias SeuZlia

davides bundovan, Zalian daSorebul msgavsebamde an

Zalian zust Sesabamisobamde. magram is miT ufro nayofieria,

rac ufro daSorebuli da izolirebulia erTmaneTisagan ur-

TierTdakavSirebuli elementebi. 344

yvelaferi damokidebulia arCeul koordinatebze. vinaidan

yovel analogiaSi, pirdapir Tu arapirdapir, daSvebulia

damowmebebis garkveuli sistema, romelic yovelTvis

stabiluri da identuri paradigmebis mixedviT erTi da imave

190


taqsonomiuri sqemis SigniT unda darCes, romelic Tavidan

bolomde igive logikis mixedviT funqcionirebs. maSasadame,

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom yoveli analogia ukve `mocemulia~ hipo-

Tezis mixedviT da imTaviTve miRebulia sqema. msgavseba yovelTvis

moiTxovs erT Tvalsazriss, 345 im pirobiT, rom erTmaneTTan

dakavSirebuli faqtebi msgavsia, roca isini dana-xulia

erTsa da imave WrilSi da roca gamoyenebulia saerTo

da stabiluri terminologia. amgvarad, analogiis vargisianoba

da damajerebloba, iseve, rogorc msgavseba, efuZneba safuZvlebsa

da principebs, romlebic maTTvis aucileblad garegania.

aranairi skepticizmis motivi aq ar arsebobs. Tu mov-

TavsdebiT universaluri analogiebis doneze, Cven ver vikamaTebT

imaze, rom saubaria mxolod ganzogadebaze, vinaidan

referentad nebayofilobiT (da marTebulad) SevarCieT universaluri

kriteriumi. Teoriul-ganmazogadebel tipur komparativizmSi,

maqsimaluri analogiebi erTdroulad saWironic

arian da gardauvalnic.

maSasadame, Sedegebidan gamomdinare (ar vsaubrobT `srul~

an `met-naklebad srul~ analogiebze, rogorc amas zogjer

sul ubralo mizeziT iTxoven 347 ): 1) analogia arasdros aris

amomwuravi, is mxolod urTierTmsgavsebebs iTxovs; 348 2) `analogia

arasdros aris sruli, Tu ar aris SerCeuli sistemis

orientirebis mixedviT; 3) WeSmariti analogia unda iyos ara

mxolod `sruli~, aramed dasabuTebuli, damajerebeli, es

niSnavs: Tavis winamorbedTan SedarebiT logikur da Sedegobriv,

reversiul, ormxriv da universalurad gamosayenebels;

mxolod msgavsebis logika moiTxovs damaxasiaTebel niSnebs,

aucileblad mizezis saWiroebisaTvis SerCeulsa da struqturis

mTavari mniSvnelobis mixedviT gacxadebuls. 349 analogia

aris Ria, TiTqmis amouwuravi da yovelTvis sakuTar Tav-

Tan SesabamisobaSi myofi. Tanasworoba Tu erTgvarovneba mizezebisa

da istoriuli, kulturuli da literaturuli pirobebisa

_ aucilebeli moTxovna ar aris, vinaidan komparativistuli

analogiebi moqmedeben sakuTar referentul sivrceSi,

rac avtonomiuria da misi ganyenebuli struqturidan

gamomdinareobs. 350

problema mniSvnelovnad mwvavea literaturis dargSi,

sadac Txzulebebi _ individualurni, ganumeoreblebi _ ar

aaSkaraveben aranair identurobas, aranair homogenurobas. yovelgvari

zogadi rigis ganxilva Tu gansja exeba mxolod

msgavsebebs, nawilobriv identurobebs, metnaklebad ganfenil

TanadamTxvevebs, maSasadame, analogiebsa da sxvadasxvagvar

msgavsebebs. amgvarad, yvela ganzogadeba da literaturis Te-

191


orizacia aucileblad analogiuri rigisaa; da misi daskvnebi

araferia, Tu ara ganzogadebuli analogiebi. yoveli jerovnad

damtkicebuli analogia Tu homologia aris argumenti

da raRac Teoriuli ganzogadobisken biZgi, rac mTlianobaSi

(at large) 351 literaturis midgomas ukavSirdeba.

amgvarad, komparativistuli velis gafarToeba cxadia

da sasikeTo: `TanadamTxvevam~ (gancalkevebulma an/da ganmeorebiTma)

SeiZleba komparativistuli kvlevis obieqtis statuss

miaRwios. invarianti da yvelaferi, rasac is iwvevs, kidev

erTxel xdeba kontrolirebadi hipoTeza. magram sirTule,

romelTan erTadac TanadamTxvevebis meTodologiuri

asimilacia wamoaCens, rom es ukanasknelni garkveulwilad

martiv `sxvadasxvad~ rCebian; maTi gamoaSkaraveba _ sporadulia,

xolo zogadi interpretacia _ TiTqmis ar arsebobs.

marTlac, ra daskvna unda gamovitanoT imis mtkicebidan,

rom `erTdroulobebi Tu gamravlebuli TanadamTxvevebi evropaSi

analogiuri niSnebiT arsebobs?~ 352 garegnulad, aranairi.

Tu mas mainc ar mivakravdiT imedismomcem daskvnebs! `Tu

Cven viciT, rogor miviRoT Cveni disciplinis struqturaSi

TanadamTxvevis, Tanadroulobis cneba, rogorc pirveladi,

maSin aRmovCndebiT yvelaze mniSvnelovani instrumentis

mflobeli, raTa wavikiTxoT wesebi, romlebic sulier cxovrebas

marTavs”. 353 es kargia, magram jer kidev cotaa zogadi

komparativizmis TvalTaxedviT. gza, romelsac unda mivyveT,

ufro isaa, rasac rusi formalistebi Cagvagonebdnen: ueWvelad

arsebobs `Tanadamxvevebis~, `damTxvevebis faqtebi~, `funqciurebis~

CaTvliT~, 354 rac iwvevs tipur sizustes paraleluri

da msgavsi konteqstebis mixedviT. nebismieri kanonieri

msgavseba niSnavs imas, rom sruli uflebiT SegviZlia

ganzogadeba.

rogorc ki ori an mravali termini, `faqtobrivi kavSirebis~

gamoyenebis gareSe, magram moTxovnil pirobebSi er-

TmaneTs analogiiT daukavSirdeba, isini komparativistuli

Teoriis TvalsazrisiT Sesabamisni xdebian. maT aqvT tendencia,

daamtkicon erToba literaturul dargSi, daadginon eqvivalentebi,

msgavsebebi, da bolos da bolos, universalurobebi,

sicxade SesZinon izomorfizmebsa da homologiebs, romlebic

umaRles safexurzea ayvanili; analogia, Tavisi qmedebebis

erTobiT, upiratesad warmoadgens instruments, imas,

ris miRebasac damamtkicebeli magaliTebiT viwyebT (groteski

hiugosTan da hainesTan; dasavluri Suasakuneebis epikuri da

rusuli poezia da a.S.), magram igi ganzogadebuli, nawilobrivi

mniSvnelobis matarebelia. 355 igive mdgomareobaa analo-

192


giebis tipologiis TvalsazrisiTac (negatiuri, pozitiuri,

istoriuli, antiistoriuli; sistemuri, arasistemuri) 356 . mTavari

daskvna SeiZleba gavakeToT analogiis calkeuli tipebidan

an analogiis tipebis erTobidan. es meTodi ar uSvebs

mxolod paralelizmebsa da evristikul daaxloebebs, kategoriebisa

da tipologiebis SemuSavebas istoriuli da geografiuli

moTxovnilebis miRma: mas aseve SeuZlia daadginos

kavSirebi, aagos xidebi da amoavsos sicarieleebi. 357 amgvari

operaciis gareSe aranairi sqematizacia (Tu Teoriuli konstruqcia)

ar moxdeba.

rasakvirvelia, omnis analogia claudet. analogiis uaryofa

samarTliania da aseTi iqneba Cveni daskvna mxolod mkacrad

istoriul-pozitivistur perspeqtivaSi. am midgomisTvis, romelic

momdinareobs komparativistuli D.S.T.-dan (ganviTarebis

sistemis Teoria) da sakmaod `mkacrad~ gvesaxeba, `analogiebze

dafuZnebuli kvlevebi saeWvoa~... 358 amdenad, es aris aSkara

idiosinkrazia, crurwmena, subieqturi TviTneburoba, romelic

kritikosebis umetesobas axasiaTebs. amgvari kritikosebi

uaryofen e.w. `profesionalur~ naSromebs da aviwydebaT, rom

WeSmaritad `profesionaluri~ naSromebi namdvilad Seqmnilia.

es argumenti, `anarqiis~ braldebasTan erTad, momxibvlelia,

rac Ordnung-is suliskveTebas Slis. 359 sxvebi gulubryvilod

ganacxadeben: `Cven sulac ar gviyvars amgvari msgavsebebi~

360 , romlebic pozitivisturi tradiciis mixedviT, `namdvili~

an/da `yalbi~ unda iyos. analogiebi, Sesabamisobebi,

Tanxvedrebi, yvelaze aSkaranic ki, ueWvelad `yalbia~. 361 ratom?

pirvel rigSi imitom, rom isini SemTxveviT ar arian

damtkicebulni, Semdeg imitom, rom maT axasiaTebT `bundovaneba~

da `dauzustebloba~ da sxva araferi SeuZliaT _ rogorc

amas brunetieri ambobda _ garda imisa, rom yovelive

`naadrevi, bundovani da TviTneburi ganzogadebebiT daasrulon~.

362 vinaidan paralelizmi, msgavseba da analogia sinqronul

mamodelizebel kiTxvis sistemaSi aucileblad iwvevs

zogad daskvnebs, rac aranakleb legitimuria, vidre yovelive

istoriuli. es meTodebi da midgomebi, gansazRvrebis mixedviT

_ `moCvenebiTi~, `amao~, `naZaladevi~ da `gadaWarbebulia~.

rodesac vadasturebT aSkara daaxloebas, magram jer kidev

`dausabuTebels~ (mizezobrivs), oridan erTia: an mizezobrivi

seriis rgoli jer kidev ar iyo aRmoCenili an es `SemTxveviTi~

paralelizmi ar arsebobs. amgvari mtkicebulebis dogmatizmi

ukve dasabuTebulia.

193


9. paralelebi

miuxedavad arcTu kargi `Sexedulebisa~, rac Cvens dro-

Si `paralelebTan~ dakavSirebiT Warbobs, mas, rogorc mosalodneli

iyo, mainc iyenebs msoflios yvela kritikosi, istorikosi

da komparativisti. pirvel rigSi, saubaria terminologiur

varaudze: paralelebis Zveli rotorikuli meTodi

(sakmaod xSirad meqanikuri da gadaWarbebiT gamoyenebuli),

aRireva im aucilebel meTodTan, romelsac literaturuli

kvlevebis sferoSi Tavidan ver avicilebT. daaxloebebis, kav-

Sirebis, Sexvedrebis, homologiebis, analogiebis erToblioba

da a.S., eWvgareSea, `paralelebia~. aqedan modis terminologiuri

meryeoba, romelic Tandayolil orazrovnebas avlens:

msgavsebebisa da analogiebis problema Tavad `paralelebis~

problemaa.

ra aris maTi sfero da ra wesrigidan gamomdinareoben

isini? jerovnad dokumenturi kavSirebis gamoxatvis garda,

pirvel rigSi, saubaria `TanadamTxvevis~, `Tanamonawileobis~,

`ucnauri~ bunebis faqtebze: vTqvaT, Cinur romansa da evropul

erotikul stils Sors korelaciebis arsebobaze. 363 ai,

Cven erTbaSad CaviZireT `gansakuTrebuli da mniSvnelovani

analogiebis~ 364 okeaneSi da mTavaria imis gadawyveta, amgvari

dakvirveba vargisia komparativizmisTvis Tu ara. yvela dRemde

moxmobils mizezs, zemoT dasaxelebuli mizeziT, ar SegviZlia

mxolod dadebiTad vupasuxoT. marTlac, ra uflebiT

avukrZaloT `dasavlel kritikoss~ iyos, magaliTad, `sienasa

da Cinur peizaJebs Soris analogiebiT gancvifrebuli~? `Camoyalibebuli

komparativizmis poziciidan is xedavs analogiebs~.

365 misi momatebuli gamocdileba, ra Tqma unda, saWiroebisamebr,

aucileblad imoqmedebs analogiebiTa da homologiebiT.

misTvis, universaluri literatura ayalibebs erTobas

da unitaruli struqturebis SigniT, Semadgenlebi (Cven

es viciT), aucileblad pouloben ekvivalentebs. sxva mxriv,

analogiebis mixedviT Seqmnili kavSirebi enacvlebian faqtobrivi

kavSirebis iSviaTobasa da umniSvnelobas. pirvelebi homologiur

da sul ufro da ufro farTo da SemTxveviT

struqturebs Soris moZraoben, meoreni _ saWiro kvals mihyvebian,

romelic sul ufro da ufro mcirdeba. `esTetikurad

_ aRniSnavs etiambli _ analogiebi mainc aucilebelia~. 366 vinaidan,

am SemTxvevaSi, referentul esTetikuri TvalTaxedva

istoriuls Warbobs. erTs aqvs yovelTvis zogadi eqvivalentobis

ena, maSin, roca meore nawilobrivi identurobebiT sa-

194


ubrobs. orive moqmedeba faqtebiT xorcieldeba da oriveni

Taviseburad `obieqturi~ arian.

Tumca paralelebi axla ar gamougoniaT, es xerxi damokidebulia

garkveul meTodologiur ucvlelobaze, romlis

precedenti jer kidev antikur epoqaSi gvxvdeba, sadac ori an

mravali seriis erT Tu ramdenime istoriul, literaturul

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Tu identurobebi, eqvivalenturi da mizezobrivi kavSirebi

(ix. plutarqes paraleluri biografiebi, fsevdo-longines

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sawyisebTan rom mivideT (Zvelebisa da axlebis kamaTisa

da klasikuri ritorikis paralelebis gavliT) davimowmebT,

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