sadisertacio Tema: lenturi konveierebis vakuum-amZravebis ...

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sadisertacio Tema: lenturi konveierebis vakuum-amZravebis ...

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti

revaz molodini

lenturi konveierebis vakuum-amZravebis sakontaqto

zedapirebis optimaluri parametrebis kvleva

teqnikis mecnierebaTa kandidatis samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad

samecniero xelmZRvaneli,

wardgenili

disertacia

specialoba 05.05.06 _ samTo manqanebi

teqn. mecn. kandidati, prof. v. musxeliSvili

2006


sarCevi

Sesavali ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

Tavi I. lenturi konveierebis vakuum-amZravebis muSaobis saerTo analizi

1.1. zogadi mimoxilva --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15

1.2. vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebisa da konstruqciuli sqemebis kla-

sifikacia da analizi ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17

1.3. vakuum-amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebis konstruqciebi -------------- 30

1.4. sakontaqto zedapirebis rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis formirebisad-

mi miZRvnili samuSaoebis analizi --------------------------------------------------- 37

1.5. daskvnebi da kvlevis Semdgomi amocanebi ---------------------------------------- 42

Tavi II. sakonveiero amZravebis moxaxune zedapirebis makrosimqisis

analizi

2.1. zedapirebis topografiis (teqsturis) Seswavlis meTodebi da para-

metrebi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44

2.2. vakuum-amZravebis, xaxunis kvanZebis sakontaqto zedapirebis daxa-

siaTeba ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46

2.3. vakuum-amZravi, rogorc lenturi sakisari -------------------------------------- 50

2.4. vakuum-amZravis xaxunis kvanZebis stenduri gamocda --------------------- 53

2.4.1. xaxunis kvanZebis gamosacdeli stendis mowyobiloba ----------- 53

2.4.2 eqsperimentuli kvlevis meTodika da gamzomi aparatura ----- 61

Tavi III. vakuum-amZravebis optimaluri sakontaqto zedapiris damuSaveba

da Teoriuli gamokvleva

3.1. teqnikuri moTxovnebi sakontaqto zedapiris mimarT---------------------- 66

3.2. vakuum-amZravis axali tipis sakontaqto zedapiri da misi daxa-

siaTeba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 68

- 2 -


3.3. hidrodinamikur reJimSi momuSave vakuum-dolis lentTan sakontaqto

WvriteSi siTxis Sris sisqis gansazRvra -------------------------------------- 71

3.4. vakuum-dolis rgoluri Wvritis dguSiseul sivrcesTan SemaerTebel

naxvretSi siTxis uwyvet nakadad dinebis kvleva -------------------------- 79

Tavi IV. Teoriuli, eqsperimentuli da kompiuteruli kvlevis Sedegebi

da maTi analizi

4.1. Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevis Sedegebi da maTi analizi ----- 90

4.2. kompiuteruli kvlevis Sedegebi da maTi analizi ----------------------------- 92

ZiriTadi daskvnebi -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------97

gamoyenebuli literatura --------------------------------------------------------------------- 100

- 3 -


S e s a v a l i

samecniero-teqnikuri progresi, es aris mudmiv gaumjobesebaSi

myofi maRalmwarmoebluri teqnologiuri procesisa da warmoebis iara-

Rebis kompleqsis gegmiani gamoyeneba. mis erT-erT mniSvnelovan rgols

warmoadgens satransporto manqana, romlis srulyofil teqnologiur

funqciebze mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli sawarmoebis ekonomika.

mrewvelobis da meurneobis ganviTarebisaTvis da momsaxureobis

sferos srulyofisaTvis udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs arsebuli saxis

satransporto saSualebebis optimalur da mizanswraful gamoyenebas,

risTvisac saWiroa maTi rekonstruqcia da srulyofa, cxovrebisa da

konkretuli pirobebis mier dasmuli problemebis Sesabamisad.

udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc samTamadno aseve sxva sawar-

moebis satransporto manqanebis optimalur da srulyofil eqspluata-

cia-momsaxurebas, risTvisac saWiroa maTi perspeqtiuli saxeebis,

daniSnulebis, gaumarTaobis, mtyunebis mizezebis da gaumjobesebis

mimarTulebaTa Rrmad Seswavla-analizi.

mrewvelobisa da meurneobis mraval dargebSi didnakaduri

tvirTebis gadazidvis erT-erT perspeqtiul satransporto danadgars

warmoadgens lenturi konveieri. maTi proeqtirebis, srulyofis da

warmoebis (mSeneblobis) problemebiT dakavebulia sxvadasxva qveynis

mravali firma da sawarmo [46, 34, 35, 36]. proeqtirebisas didi yuradReba

unda mieqces konveieris gamoyenebis ares (pirobebs) da gadasazidi

tvirTebis fiziko-meqanikur Tvisebebs. maTi gaTvaliswinebiT unda moxdes

sakonveiero danadgaris optimaluri parametrebis dadgena, sadac unda

Caidos yvela is ZiriTadi monacemi, romelic saWiro iqneba

gaangariSebisa da mTlianad proeqtis mkafiod CamoyalibebisaTvis.

lenturi konveieris amZravis ZiriTad maCvenebels warmoadgens

maRali wevis faqtori, sakontaqto zedaprebis maRali saeqspluatacio

parametrebi, samsaxuris vada da a.S.

cnobilia, rom lenturi konveieris maqsimaluri sigrZe

damokidebulia: amZravis tipze (wevis faqtorze), lentis simtkiceze, mis

- 4 -


sawyis daWimulobaze, tvirTis satransporto trasis profilze da

saWiro simZlavreze. amasTanave miTiTebulia [35, 36], rom yvelaze mtkice

rezin-gvarliani lentis simtkicis zRvari Cveulebriv Semoifargleba

6000÷6300 dkn/sm. misi Semdgomi gazrda ki ekonomikuri da teqnikuri

TvalsazrisiT mizanSeuwonelia. ufro mtkice lentebis warmoebisas

izrdeba misi masa da Rirebuleba, lentis Sepirapirebis sigrZe, dolis

diametri, reduqtoris mgrexi momenti, dgaris gabarituli zomebi da

liTontevadoba da konveieris sxva mravali parametri [34].

lenturi konveierebis mkvlevarebi, am simtkicis lentebis

efeqturi (rodesac e μβ SedarebiT didia) realizaciisaTvis gvTavazoben

mravaldolian amZravebs Sualedur da kudis amZravebTan kompleqsSi.

maTive kvlevebis Sedegebis mixedviT Q=4000 t/sT mwarmoeblobis

horizontaluri konveieris maqsimaluri sigrZe erTdoliani amZravebis

SemTxvevaSi ar aRemateba 850 m, ordolianisas ki 1300 m. Tumca,

literaturul wyaroebSi miTiTebulia 3,5 km sigrZis konveieris proeqti-

rebis SesaZlebloba ordoliani amZraviT. aseve miTiTebulia [36] 10 km

sigrZis erTdgariani konveieris proeqtirebis SeuZlebloba doluri

tipis amZravebiT, vinaidan problemis gadawyvetisaTvis saWiroa 10000

dkn/sm da ufro meti simtkicis lenti [34]. Tanamedrove literaturul

wyaroebSi ki konveiermSeneblobis miRwevebi ase gamoiyureba: germaniis

karierebze “fortuna” da “xambaxi” eqspluataciaSi iyo 5 km sigrZis

erTdgariani lenturi konveieri mwarmoeblobiT Q=40000 t/sT, lentis

siganiT B=2,8 m da siCqariT ν=7,5 m/wm, amZravebis saerTo simZlavriT

N d=6×2000=12000 kvt [35].

laipcigis sagamofeno bazrobaze 1977w warmodgenili iyo

germanuli firma “takraf”-is amZravi meqanizmi Zravis simZlavriT 1500

kvt. aseTi samblokiani meqanizmiT akrefili ordoliani amZravis bazaze

miRebuli konveieris mwarmoebloba Q=15400 m 3 /sT-ia, lentis sigane B=2,5 m,

siCqare ν=6,0 m/wm, amZravebis saerTo simZlavre N d=3×1500=4500 kvt [34].

msoflioSi yvelaze didi sakonveiero sistema daaproeqta da

daamontaJa germanulma firma “krup”-ma. misi saerTo sigrZe Seadgenda 100

km-s, ganlagebuli iyo espaneTis saharaSi (afrika) maRaro “bu-karaa”-dan

- 5 -


sazRvao portamde da emsaxureboda fosfatis nedleulis transpor-

tirebas. sakonveiero trasa Sesdgeboda 6,8-dan 11,7 km-mde sigrZis

TerTmeti konveierisagan 10 mln t/w mwarmoeblobiT. portSi konveieris

gantvirTis punqti, sakonveiero sistemis datvirTvis punqtTan SedarebiT

213 m-iT dabla imyofeboda. mTel trasas emsaxureboda 51 bazisuri

amZravi meqanizmi TiToeuli simZlavriT 378 kvt. jamuri simZlavre

Seadgenda 19278 kvt-s da energiis xarjvis koeficienti Seadgenda 0,0001

kvt.sT/tm saTavisa da kudis amZravebi aRWurvili iyo (sakuTari)

damoukidebeli damWimi mowyobilobebiT. lentis siCqare Seadgenda 4,5

m/wm da sabadodan portamde tvirTi Cadioda 6,18 sT-Si [34].

sakonveiero transportis ganviTarebaSi mniSvnelovan nabijs

warmoadgens didi britaneTis Saxta `selbi~-s daxril WaurSi 1984-85ww.

erTdgariani 14930 m sigrZis, D=2,674 m diametris erTamZravdoliani

naxSirmzidi konveieris eqspluataciaSi Seyvana. konveieris proeqti

daamuSava firmebma: `anderson staratklaidi” (didi britaneTi) da

`realizacion de eqvifments industrii~ (safrangeTi). amZravi ganla-

gebulia Saxtis zedapirze da moZraobaSi modis 2×5050 kvt simZlavris

mudmivi denis ZraviT. brunvis sixSire, programuli teqnikis saSualebiT,

0-dan 60 wT -1 -mde narnari regulirebiT icvleba konveieris datvirTvis

reJimis mixedviT. amuSavebis momenti, romelic 4-5 wT mimdinareobs,

damyarebul reJimSi muSaobis momentis 106 % ar aRemeteba. tvirTiani

damWimi mowyobiloba ganlagebulia uSualod amZravTan. awevis

vertikaluri simaRle 1000 m-ia. mwarmoebluroba 3200 t/sT. gamoyenebulia

lenti _ tipi St-7100, romlis samsaxuris vada gaTvaliswinebulia 15

welze, xolo mTlianad konveirisa _ 30 welze. lentis sigane 1,3 m;

maqsimaluri siCqare – 8,4 m/wm. awevis energiis xarjvis koeficienti –

0,00021 kvt.sT/t.m [34, 79].

Tanamedrove konveierebis damWimi mowyobiloba lentis sawyisi

daWimulobis avtomaturi regulirebis mizniT aRiWurveba gadamwodebiT.

isev kvlevis stadiaSia damWimi mowyobilobis muSaobis avtomaturi

regulirebis sistema, romelic programuli teqnikis saSualebiT

uzrunvelyofs lentis sawyis daWimulobas garemo pirobebis, amZravis

- 6 -


sakontaqto zedapirebis mdgomareobisa da konveierze tvirTnakadis

sididis mixedviT [34].

motanili teqnikuri maCveneblebi saxasiaToa da minimalurad

asaxavs danarCeni grZeldgariani lenturi konveierebis mravalsaxa

parametrebs, romelTa didi raodenoba amJamad muSaobs msoflios

sxvadasxva qveyanaSi.

ganxiluli magaliTebi da sxva arsebuli danadgarebic

warmoadgens imis utyuar sabuTs, rom wevis Zalebis realizacia

ZiriTadad xorcieldeba: lentis sawyisi daWimulobis (S C) gazrdiT an

amZravze moqnili sawevi organos Semoxvevis kuTxis (α g) matebis xarjze

misi wevis faqtoris (e μαg ) gazrdiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom pirveli

faqtori zrdis danadgaris liTontevadobas, xolo meore iwvevs moqnili

sawevi organos (lentis) daRlilobiT cveTas, _ gaSrevebas an gvarlis

mavTulebis dazianebas da simtkicis Sesustebas. arsebobs sxva

problemebic, romlebic sruladaa warmodgenili SromebSi [72, 73].

amZravis wevis faqtoris (e μαg ) gazrdis erT-erT efeqtur

saSualebas warmoadgens sakontaqto zedapirebis CaWidebis (xaxunis)

stabiluri koeficientis miReba-SenarCuneba. am mimarTulebiT Sesrule-

buli kvleviTi samuSaoebi iTvaliswinebs: amZravi dolis sakontaqto

zedapirebis, an misi amonagis (maRalfriqciuli masaliT futirebis)

sxvadsxva konfiguraciis (sworkuTxa, Sevronuli da a.S.) naWdevebs, an

specialuri amZravebis gamoyenebas (eleqtromagnituri, magnitoeleqt-

ruli, meqanikuri-mimWer mowyobilobiani, pnevmokameriT, vakuumuri da a.S.)

[41, 51, 22, 60, 93, 50, 70, 81 da sxva].

xaxunis mecnieruli safuZvlebis fuZemdeblad da adreuli

Teoriis Semqmnelad iTvlebian: leonardo da vinCi, amontoni, kuloni, de

lia giri, tomlinsoni, parenti, belidori da leonard eileri. am

ukanasknelma winamorbedTa kvlevis Sedegebis axsnisaTvis Seasrula

zusti analizis seria. man miiRo amZravi meqanizmebiT (doliT, borbliT)

mwev organoze (bagirze, lentze) xaxunis Zalis maTematikuri gamosaxu-

leba. am mkvlevarebis Semdgom didi xnis manZilze xaxunis TeoriaSi

mniSvnelovani samuSaoebi ar Seqmnila. am periodis mecnierebi xaxunis

- 7 -


koeficientis angariSisas ar ganixilavdnen aranairi pirobebis gavlenas

da Tvlidnen rom f=const=0,25÷0,3. [43].

xaxunis Teoriis mogvianebiTi mkvlevarebi: xardi, biri, gumbeli,

ernsti, merCenti da bloki sakiTxis Seswavlisas iTvaliswinebdnen

statikur da kinetikur pirobebs, sakontaqto zedapirebis mdgomareobas

(tenianoba, simqise, temperatura) srialis siCqares da kuTr wnevas, rac

srulfasovnadaa warmodgenilia SromebSi [54, 55, 43, 76, 82, 83, 84].

liTonis, elastomerebis da sxva sakompozicio masalebis xaxunis

bunebis Tanamedrove Sexedulebebi Camoyalibda mTeli rigi detaluri

kvlevebis safiZvelze, romelTa avtorebic arian: kragelski, WiWinaZe,

grinvudi, viliamsoni, xanti, boudeni, teibori, rabinoviCi, kurteli,

freitago, ariano, dere, roti, tirioni, Salamaxi, bartenevi, ratneri,

groSi, deriagini da sxva mravalni. maT kvlevebSi yuradReba gamaxvi-

lebulia faqtiuri sakontaqto farTobisa da SemzeTi adsorbirebuli

Sris sisqis gansazRvraze; amJamad cnobilia ramdenime Tvalsazrisi

garegani xaxunis bunebaze da misi ganmartebisaTvis Semotanilia cnebebi:

moxaxune zedapirebis urTierT gadafarvis koeficientis [43] (a. WiWinaZis

mier), xaxunis ormagi bunebis (molekulur-meqanikuri), sakontaqto

zedapirebs Soris mesame _ xaxunis Sris; plastikuri, drekadi da drekad-

plastikuri deformaciis; adgeziuri, kogeziuri, simSvidis, srialisa da

gorvis, sveli, zRvruli da mSrali xaxunis, histerezisis, molekuluri

(SeduRebis) bogirakebis, myari fazis wakveTis, zedapirze kavSirebis

mimarTuli rekombinaciisa [44] da sxva mravali. amgvarad xaxuni

disipaciuri procesia da igi Sesabamisad mimdinereobs winaRobebis

gadalaxvaSi da sakontaqto zedapirebis formis cvlilebebSi da

damokidebulia mraval reologour faqtorze, amitom xSirad avtorTa

kvlevis Sedegebi urTierTs srulad ar emTxveva da iwvevs polemikas. ase

magaliTad, [82] kvlevebis mixedviT xaxunis kieficienti umniSvnelod

icvleba da normaluri Zalis 16-jeradi gazrda xaxunis kieficients

zrdis mxolod orjer. germaniasa da CexoslovakiaSi Sesrulebuli

kvleviTi samuSaoebis mixedviT ki dolisa da lentis sakontaqto

zedapirebze kuTri wnevis 10 5 -dan _ 7×10 5 pa-mde gazrdiT (dolis

sakontaqto zedapiris maRalfriqciuli sworkuTxa naWdevebiani reziniT

- 8 -


amogebis miuxedavad) xaxunis koeficienti mcirdeba 0,7-dan 0,46-mde, xolo

Tu sakontaqto zedapirebi amavdroulad sveldeba da kaliumis mari-

lebis an Tixis Semcveli xsnariT WuWyiandeba, maSin xaxunis koeficienti

0,7-dan 0,11-mde da ufro metadac [35]. xaxunis koeficientis fundamen-

talur kvlevebSi [43] aRniSnulia, rom daSvebebi laboratoriuli

eqsperimentebis dros, romelic iTvaliswinebs mxolod moxaxune sxeu-

lebis bunebis gavlenas xaxunis koeficientis sidideze, arasakmarisia da

ufro metad igi damokidebulia mogvianebiTi da Tanamedrove kvlevebSi

motanil cnebebsa da pirobebze, romelsac rogorc aRvniSneT, zogadad

reologiuri ewodeba.

yuradsaRebia erTi SeniSvna [43]: Tu myari tanis zedapiri gaTa-

visuflebulia afskisagan (rac SeiZleba ganxorcieldes vakuumSi an

mkacr-gansakuTrebul reJimSi xaxunisas), maSin garegani xaxuni gadadis

SinaganSi, zedapirebi eWidebian-duRdebian da erTimeoris mimarT

gadaadgilebisas mniSvnelovnad ziandebian. zogjer am movlenas `sufTa

xaxuns~ uwodeben Tumca misi garegan xaxunad ganxilva arsebiTad ar

SeiZleba. paradoqsulia Sarlota iakobis 1912 wels Sesrulebuli

pirveli samuSaos Sedegebi. vakuumSi xaxunis koeficientis mniSvneloba

aRmoCnda bevrad dabali vidre haerze [82]. SemdgomSi misi cdis

meTodikis arasrulfasovneba dadasturda. uaxlesma kvlevebma uCvenes,

rom vakuumSi xaxuni ar warmoadgens principulad axal process. igi

emorCileba igive zogad kanonzomierebebs, rasac atmosferul pirobebSi.

kerZod, vakuumSi xaxunisaTvis sruliad mizanSewonilia xaxunis

molekulur-meqanikuri Teoria. aseve miTiTebulia, rom vakuumSi xaxunis

adgeziuri mdgeneli gacilebiT maRalia vidre haeris garemoSi,

Sesabamisad, didi unda iyos xaxunis koeficientic [82].

winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens lenturi konveierebis vakuumuri

amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebis optimaluri parametrebis kvlevisadmi

miZRvnil samuSaos, romelic ZiriTadad emyareba (sveli xaxunis

pirobebSi) amZravis moxaxune zedapirebis (vakuum-doli, sakonveiero

lenti) standartul parametrebs (B, D, v, μ, α) da iTvaliswinebs mTel

sakontaqto zedapirze vakuumis (p) Tanabrad ganawilebis uzrunvelyofas,

- 9 -


sakonveiero lentis parametrebis gaTvaliswinebiT (simqise, sixiste,

konstruqcia, kuTri dawneva (P), gaglejis zRvari (S g) da a.S.).

literaturuli mokvlevis mixedviT [34, 35] samTamadno sawarmoebSi

Tanamedrove magistraluri sakonveiero transportis lentis moZraobis

siCqare icvleba ν=5÷8,4 m/wm; lentis simtkicis maragi (m) dinamikuri

(statikuri) _ rezinqsovilianisaTvis m=6,0 (9,5), xolo rezingvarliani-

saTvis m=6,3 (10); amZravi dolis maqsimaluri diametri D=2,45÷2,674 m;

gamoyenebuli maqsimalurad mtkice lentis tipi (2РТЛ-6000, St-6000, an St-

7100), gaglejvis zRvari Sg=6000 an 7100 dkn/sm, sigane B=2,438 m (lentis

maqsimaluri sigane DIN-22102 germanuli standartis mixedviT B=3,2 m.

gemraniaSi Catarebulma Teoriulma kvlevebma, rezingvarliani

lentebis simtkicis Teoriul zRvrad CaTvala 10 000 da 20 000 dkn/sm,

Sesabamisi saorientacio masebiT 84 da 152,5 dkn/m 2 [34], xolo ν=5,2 m/wm

siCqarisa da B=2,2 m lentis siganisas amZravis moTxovnili simZlavre

Sesabamisad 10 700 da 23 500 kvt-is tolad. lentis simtkicis es

Teoriuli SesaZleblobebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom amZravis wevis faqtoris

gazrdis SesaZlebloba jer kidev ar amowurula, miT umetes, rom

vakuumSi xaxunis koeficienti maRalia da amasTan stabiluri [82];

zemoTqmulis mixedviT vadgenT amZravis bazisur models Semdegi

parametrebiT: St tipis lentis sigane B=3,2 m, dolis diametri D=2,674 m;

lentis maqsimaluri siCqare ν maqs=8,4 m/wm, simtkicis zRvari gaglejvaze

S g=7100 dkn/sm (Teoriuli 10 000÷20 000 dkn/sm), simtkicis maragis dinamikuri

(statikuri) koeficienti m=6,3 (10), mwarmoebloba Q=40 000 t/sT (q=1323

dkn/m), amZravis simZlavre Nd=12 000÷15 150 kvt.

lentis simtkicis maragis dinamikuri koeficientis (m din=6,3)

mixedviT dolze lentis swrafobis wertilSi SesaZlo maqsimaluri

myisuri daWimuloba S sw.din=S gamgB/m din=7100×320/6,3=360 635 dkn.

xolo lentis simtkicis maragis statikuri koeficientis

(m stat=10) mixedviT S sw.stat=S gamgB/m stat=7100×320/10=227 200 dkn.

amZravis SerCeuli modelis mier gasaviTarebeli wevis Zalebi ori

pirobis mixedviT ganisazRvreba:

1) rodesac N d=12000 kvt

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F 1=102N dη/ν maqs=102⋅12000⋅0,85/8,4=123 857 dkn

2) rodesac N d=15 150 kvt (3×5050 _ mudmivi denis ZraviT)

F 2=102N dη/ν maqs=102⋅15150⋅0,85/8,4=156 370 dkn

SerCeuli modelis mixedviT, lentis programuli (sawyisi) daWimu-

lobebi pirobebisaTvis: m din=6,3; F 1=123 857 dkn (N d=12000kvt) da F 2=156 370

dkn (N d=15150kvt). iqneba

S C1=S sw.din-F 1=360635-123857=236778 dkn

S C2=S sw.din-F 2=360635-156370=204265 dkn

xolo pirobebisaTvis: m stat=10; F 1=123 857 dkn (N d=12000kvt) da

F 2=156 370 dkn (N d=15150kvt). iqneba

S C3=S sw.stat-F 1=227200-123857=103 343 dkn

S C4=S sw.stat-F 2=227200-156370=70 830 dkn

Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis [60] mixedviT vakuum-

dolis gamoyenebis efeqtur zonad miRebulia

S C.opt=(pRB)÷2pRB=(0,47×66,85×160)÷(0,94×133,7×320)=(40217)÷80434 dkn.

amgvarad, SerCeuli etalonuri modelis vakuum-dolis Sesaferis

eleqtroamZravad SegviZlia miviRoT N d=3×5050=15150kvt, rodesac m stat=10;

S C=S C4=70830 dkn; vinaidan S C.opt=80434>S C4=70830 dkn; saorientacio wevis

faqtori ki iqneba e μα =S sw/S C=227200/70830=3,2

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT narnari gaSvebis SesaZleblobebs maSin

e μα =360635/70830=5,09 (=227200/70830=3,2).

S sw.stat=S gag⋅B/m stat=10000×320/6,3=507 936,5 dkn.

S´ sw.stat=S gag⋅B/m stat=20000×320/6,3=1 015 873 dkn

Tu CavTvliT vakuum-dolis etalonuri modelis parametrebs

zemoTqmulis Sesabamiss, maSin S C.opt=80433 dkn.

xolo wevis faqtorebi:

e(10000) μα =S sw.stat/S C.opt=507936/80433=6,3150 da

e(20000) μα =S sw.stat/S C.opt=101587300/80433=12,63

samuSaos Tema: lenturi konveierebis vakuum-amZravebis sakon-

taqto zedapirebis optimaluri parametrebis kvleva, maRali weviTi

- 11 -


Tvisebis vakuum-amZravis sakontaqto zedapiris, konstruqciuli da

saeqspluatacio parametrebis mecnieruli dasabuTebiT.

samuSaos mizani mdgomareobs vakuum-dolis sakontaqto

zedapirebis iseTi konstruqciisa da vakuumis formirebis iseTi

teqnologiuri procesis damuSavebaSi, romelic uzrunvelyofs rgolur

WvriteSi maRali da Tanabrad ganawilebuli vakuumis Seqmnas.

kvlevis meTodika: eyrdnoba Teoriul da eqsperimentul

kvlevebs, maTematikur modelirebas da maT amonaxsnebs kompiuteruli

uzrunvelyofiT; miRebuli kvlevis Sedegebis Semowmebas laboratoriul

stendze fizikuri modelirebiT.

mecnieruli debulebebi:

avtonomiuri vakuumuri meqanizmebis moqmedebis siswrafe ganisazRvreba

drois erTeulSi sakontaqto zedapiris dguSiseul sivrcesTan

SemaerTebel naxvretis geometriuli da masSi gadinebuli siTxis

hidrodinamikuri parametrebiT;

amZravis sakontaqto zedapirze myisuri, Tanabrad ganawilebuli da

aucilebeli sididis vakuumis Seqmnis procesi mniSvnelovnad

martivdeba da srulyofili xdeba rgolur Wvritesa da dguSiseul

sivrceSi wveTovani siTxis iZulebiTi SeyvaniT da SemdgomSi misi

uwyvet nakadad gawoviT.

amZravis muSaobis uxelsayrelesi reJimebi, romelTa drosac

mniSvnelovnad izrdeba amZravis wevis faqtori, arawrfiv

funqcionalur damokidebulebaSia makroelastohidrodinamikis

marTvad procesebTan, romlebic mxedvelobaSi miiReba vakuum-dolisa

da lentur sakisars Soris msgavsebisa da ganmasxvavebeli niSnebis

ganxilvisas.

mecnieruli siaxlea vakuum-dolis mZlavr lentur sakisrad

warmodgena, romlis safuZvelze Seiqmna axali sakontaqto zedapiri da

misi optimaluri parametrebis saangariSo meTodika;

makroelastohidrodinamikis procesisa da zomerfeldis

ganzogadebuli ricxvis mniSvnelobebis regulirebaze dayrdnobiT

warmodgenilia vakuumis SeqmniTa da misi saWiro dromde SenarCunebiT

- 12 -


vakuum-dolis sakontaqto zedapiris sakonveiero lentTan CaWidebis

koeficientis regulirebis idea.

mecnieruli Sedegebis dasabuTebuloba da utyuaroba dadastu-

rebulia avtoris mier Sesrulebul Teoriuli da mravali eqsperimen-

tuli gamokvlevis Sedegebis dasaSveb zRvrebSi urTierTTanxvdenilobiT

da emyareba drekadhidrodinamikis, vakuumSi fizikuri procesebis,

moculobiTi hidravlikuri manqanebis muSaobis Teoriis, tribonikis da,

saerTod, meqanikis zogad debulebebs.

disertaciaSi Camoyalibebuli mecnieruli siaxleebi da

debulebebi dasabuTebulia SerCeuli Teoriuli modelis (warmodgenilia

SesavalSi, gv.9. - bazisuri modelis saxelwodebiT) SesabamisobiT da

statistikuri monacemebis sakmarisi moculobiT, rac exeba ara mxolod

lenturi konveierebis muSaobas, aramed zogadad tribologiis sakiTxebs.

samuSaos praqtikuli Rirebuleba

— pirvelad aris ganxiluli da gaangariSebuli lenturi

konveieris vakuum-doluri amZravi, rogorc lenturi sakisari;

— rgolur WvriteSi siTxis Sris sisqis gaangariSebisa da avm-is

dguSiseuli sivrcis rgoluri Wvritis vakuum-arxebTan damakavSirebel

naxvretSi siTxis uwyvetad gadadinebis siCqarisa da xarjis gansazRvris

meTodikis damuSaveba;

— kompiuteruli modelirebiT vakuum-amZravis gaangariSebis

zogadi meTodikis Seqmna;

vakuum-doluri amZravis lentur sakisrad ganxilvam saSualeba

mogvca iteraciuli meTodiT dagvemuSavebina sakontaqto zedapirebisa da

mTlianad amZravis konstruqciuli da saeqspluatacio parametrebis

gaangariSebis meTodika, romelic zrdis efeqturobis gansazRvris

SesaZleblobas da gamoyenebis ares;

— avm-iani vakuum-amZravebis gamoyenebiT martivdeba maRali wevis

faqtoris mqone lenturi konveierebis saangariSo konturuli sqema;

— rgolur WvriteSi Tanabrad ganawilebuli da aucilebeli

(0,95×10 5 pa ) vakuumis miRebisaTvis SemoTavazebuli meTodis (xerxis)

praqtikulad realizaciis SesaZlebloba amaRlebs lenturi konveieris

vakuum-amZravebis muSaobis efeqturobas;

- 13 -


— maRali da stabiluri wevis faqtori amcirebs lentis

moTxovnil simtkices (gansakuTrebiT, horizontaluri da mcired

daxrili danadgarebisaTvis), dgaris liTonSemcvelobas, zrdis

danadgaris samsaxuris vadas da kapitaluri da saeqspluatacio

danaxarjebis maqsimalurad Semcirebis safuZvelze efeqturs xdis

vakuum-amZraviani lenturi konveierebis gamoyenebas;

— Teoriuli (kompiuteruli) da eqsperimentuli gamokvlevebis

safuZvelze miRebuli Sedegebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes lenturi

konveierebis rTul hidroteqnikur pirobebSi momuSave xaxunis amZravi

meqanizmebis weviTi Tvisebebis asamaRleblad.

aprobacia: calkeuli Tavebi da mTlianad sadisertacio naSromi

ganxilulia samTo manqanebis, maRaros stacionaruli danadgarebisa da

transportis kaTedris samecniero seminarze. amave Temaze Sesrulda

samagistro naSromi [66] da moxseneba 1998 wlis stu-s studentTa

samecniero konferenciaze.

publikacia: sadisertacio naSromis Sinaarsis ZiriTadi Sedegebi

asaxulia 5 gamoqveynebul samecniero naSromSi.

samuSaos moculoba: disertacia Sedgeba Sesavlis, 4 Tavisa da

daskvnisagan. literaturis nusxaSi motanilia 93 dasaxelebis naSromi,

moicavs 105 nabeWd gverds, 55 naxazs, 7 cxrils da 2 danarTs.

- 14 -


Tavi 1. lenturi konveierebis vakuum-amZravebis

muSaobis saerTo analizi

1.1 zogadi mimoxilva

xaxunis amZravi meqanizmebis Seqmnas da srulyofas or aseul

welze meti xnis istoria aqvs. Teoriuli da inJinruli gaangariSebiT da

konstruqciul gadawyvetilebaTa sisruleSi moyvaniT dainteresebuli

iyo mravali mecnier-mkvlevari, konstruqtori, gamomgonebeli, praqtikosi.

am sferos fundamentalur mkvlevarTa ricxvs ekuTvnian: l. eileri, m.

kretci, m. urazbaevi, grazgofi, n. petrovi, n. Jukovski, o. kammeri, a.

fiberi, e. ivanovi da sxv.

mravali kvlevebi aqvT Catarebuli: v. andreevs, n. biliCenkos, v.

dimitrievs, m. kotovs, b. kuznecovs, n. poliakovs, a. spivakovskis, g.

solods, l. Saxmeisters, i. Stokmans da sxv.

iangariSeba

l. eileris kvlevebis mixedviT xaxunis amZravis wevis Zala

F=S C(e μα -1) (1.1)

SemdgomSi am gamosaxulebam gamoyenebis sferos mixedviT

sxvadasxvanairi interpretacia ganicada. unda aRiniSnos, rom rogorc

lenturi konveierebis muSaobis praqtikuli magaliTebi gviCvenebs, amZra-

vis wevis faqtori (e μα ) arastabiluria. igi, gamowveulia droSi sakon-

taqto zedapirebisaTvis reologiuri da sxva mravali gauTvaliswinebeli

pirobebis cvlilebebiT. aRniSnuli faqti ki mniSvnelovan gavlenas

axdens konveieris teqnikur-ekonomikur maCveneblebze. amZravebis muSaobis

srulyofisaTvis wlebis manZilze ixveweboda misi parametrebis mastabi-

lizebeli kvanZebi da iqmneboda axali tipis specialuri amZravebic.

miuxedavad Catarebuli RonisZiebebisa maRali da stabiluri CaWidebis

koeficientis (μ) miReba-SenarCunebis sakiTxi, gansakuTrebiT atmosferu-

li pirobebis cvalebadobisas (rodesac icvleba temperatura da amZravis

sakontaqto zedapirebis xaxuni mimdinareobs, mSrali, zRvruli, sveli

xaxunisas, Tixisa da sxva samTo qanebis wyalxsnarebiT sakontaqto

zedapirebis daWuWyianebisas da a.S.) ar aris gadawyvetili. amitom,

- 15 -


ezervebi stabiluri wevis faqtoris miRebamde, rogorc me-20 saukunis

bolo wlebis Sromebic gviCvenebs [87], amouwuravia; misi gadawyvetis

gzebi mravalnairia, romelTagan erT-erT perspeqtiul mimarTulebas

warmoadgens vakuum-amZravebis gamoyeneba. am amZravebis kvlevebisas [22, 21,

60, 93], sxva specialur da Cveulebrivi amZravebisagan gansxvavebiT, miRe-

bulia wevis Zalebisa da weviTi faqtoris miRebisa da misi SenarCunebis

sruliad damakmayofilebeli Sedegebi. Sedegebis samarTlianoba dastur-

deba xaxunis klasikuri TeoriiTac [82]. ase, magaliTad: amZravis sakon-

taqto zedapirebis rgolur WvriteSi nebismieri siTxis (zeTisac ki)

moxvedra [22, 60] iwvevs mSral xaxunTan SedarebiT wevis Zalebis gazrdas

da, maSasadme vakuum-amZraviT momuSave lenturi konveieris ekonomiku-

robis garantia, sxva amZravebTan SedarebiT, gacilebiT maRalia. zemoT

motanili faqtebis mixedviT vTvliT, rom lenturi konveierebis erT-erT

perspeqtiul amZravs warmoadgens vakuumuri, romelTa moqmedebis prin-

cipi SeiZleba safuZvlad davudoT, rogorc doluri tipis saTavisa da

kudis, aseve rgolurad Sekrul wrfiv sawevorganoebian Sualedur

amZravebsac.

miuxedavad am sferoSi mecnier-mkvlevarTa mravalwliani muSao-

bisa, Sedegebi ki damajerebelia, magram, Cveni azriT, SesaZleblobis

mxolod minimumia gakeTebuli. logikuri analizisa da mecnierulad

dasabuTebuli debulebebis mixedviT mizanSewonilad migvaCnia vakuum-

amZravebis rekonstruqcia-srulyofisas gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas:

a) recipientebis (vakuum-arxebis) naxvretebamde dayvaniT da hidroaero-

dinamikis (makroelastohidrodinamikis) TvalsazrisiT amZravebis sakon-

taqto zedapirebis ufro metad (arsebulTan SedarebiT) gamartiveba;

b) damokidebuleba amZravi vakuum-dolis kuTxur siCqaresa (brunvis

sixSiresa) da rgoluri Wvretidan siTxis (wveTovanis, gazisebris)

drenaJirebis siCqares Soris;

g) sakontaqto zedapirebis (rgolur) WvriteSi maRali da Tanabrad

ganawilebuli gauxSoebis miRebisa da amZravis sakontaqto zedapiridan

lentis narnarad (aglejvis gareSe) gayris (gacilebis) uzrunvelyofa.

dasaxuli miznis ganxorcielebisaTvis CavatareT sapatento da

literaturuli mokvleva vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebis, konstruq-

- 16 -


ciuli sqemebis, Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis sferoSi. mokv-

leuli masalebis analizma uCvena, rom amZravebis sakontaqto zedapire-

bis parametrebis dadgena xdeboda konkretuli pirobebisaTvis, naxvre-

tebSi, milsadenebSi, recipientebis fasonur nawilebsa da rgolur Wvri-

teSi siTxis (haeris) dinebis winaaRmdegobis gauTvaliswineblad, xolo

vakuumis formireba sakontaqto zedapirebs Soris – pirobiT rgolur

WvriteSi ganixileboda raRac t 0 droSi da ara dolis (amZravis, brtye-

las) brunvis sixSiris Sesabamisad. aRniSnulia reinoldsis, prandtlis

da nusseltis kriteriumebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb [93, 20]; miuxedavad amisa

araferia naxsenebi knudsenis kriteriumisa, vakuum-tumbos moqmedebis

siswrafisa, sakontaqto rgoluri Wvritis efeqturi amotumbvisa da

rTuli labirinT0uli recipientebis gamtarunarianobis Sesaxeb.

bundovnadaa warmodgenili koleqtorebis (urTierTis mimarT) moZravi

nawilebis hermetizaciis xarisxi maTi resursebi da saimedooba. yuradsa-

Rebia koleqtoriani vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebis naklebad efeqtu-

robac, im cnobili faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlis mixedviT blant

reJimSi gazebis (siTxeebis) dinebisas, mrgvali kveTis milsadenebis

gamtaroba ukuproporciul damokidebulebaSia misive sigrZisa da gazis

dinamikuri siblantis koeficientis [22].

1.2. vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebisa da konstruqciuli

sqemebis klasifikacia da analizi

nairsaxeobaTagan amorCeuli da ganxiluli ramdenime saxasiaTo

nimuSis saSualebiT movaxdinoT vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebisa da

konstruqciuli sqemebis klasifikacia da maTi Semdgomi analizi.

klasifikacia movaxdineT: (1) ∗ _ konstruqciis niSniT; (2) _ konveieris

dgarSi ganlagebis niSniT; (3) _ vakuumis Seqmnis principis niSniT da (4) _

zedapiris konstruqciis niSniT (nax. 1.1).

∗ nax.1.1-ze miTiTebulia, rogorc klasifikaciis safexuris nomeri 1, 2, 3, ... 36.

- 17 -


dfreev-fv'hfdt,b

cfrjynfmnj ptlfgbhbc

rjycnhemwbbc ybiybs

3 4 5

cfrjynfmnj ptlfgbhpt

dfreevbc itmvybc ghbywbgbs

rjycnhemwbekb

ybiybs

lufhib

ufykfut,bc vb[tldbs

2

46 47

grZivi Rarebi

ganapira gawoviT

23 3: 41 42

garegani wyaroTi

vakuum-tumboTi

22

6 7 8 9 : 21

rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis

bunebrivi warmoqmniT

gamWoli grZivi Wrilebi

rgolurad Sekruli

wrfivi sawevi brtyelaTi

grZivi segmentebisagan

Sedgenili rkalebiT

grZivi Rarebi

centraluri gawoviT

43 44 45

21′

avtonomiuri

vakuum-meqanizmebiT

perforirebuli

24 25

Sualeduri

msaxvelis paraleluri

erTi rigi

msaxvelis paraleluri

ori rigi

elastikuri masalis sawovarebiT

an perforirebuli

garsakriT

doluri

wrfivi

koleqtoriT

Sevronuli

wriuli

koleqtoriT

kudis

saTavis

- 18 -

33 34 35

centraluri

ganlagebiT

26

muSta-meqanizmebiani

amZraviT

36

sakontaqto zedapirze gaxsnili

recipientebi

periferiuli

ganlagebiT

el.magnitebiani amZraviT

WvriteSi lentTan SexebiT

yvinTia TiTebiani amZraviT

c il i n dr -d gu Si an i

mWedlis an baianis

sabervelis ti pis

sakontaqto zedapirTan dakavSirebuli

gauxSoebis saerTo rezervuari

moqnil rgolTan moqnilkavSiriani

da dolis grZiv

WrilebSi gamWolad gamavali

tvirTiani amZraviT

Rarebis Sesabamisi elastikuri

jibeebiT da garsakriT

32

27

37

38

28

39

perforaciebiT

2: 31

mkveTara

gamanawilebliT

burTula zambarebiani

sarqvelebiT

29

nax. 1.1. vakuum-amZravebis klasifikacia


pirveli niSnis mixedviT arsebobs (5) _ doluri [18, 61, 62] da (6) _

rgolurad Sekruli wrfivi sawevi brtyelaTi warmodgenili amZravebi

[15, 18].

meore niSnis mixedviT arsebobs (7) _ Sualeduri, (8) _ saTavisa da

(9) _ kudis amZravebi.

mizanSezonilad migvaCnia, rom garda doluri amZravebisa,

saTavisa da kudis amZravebad gamoviyenoT rgolurad Sekruli wrfivi

sawevi brtyelaTi warmodgenili srulyofili Sualeduri amZravebic. es

saSualebas mogvcems gamoviyenoT erTi tipis amZravi meqanizmebi, sigrZeSi

praqtikulad SeuzRudavi konveieris mTel dgarSi. Sesabamisad konveieris

mTeli simZlavre Tanabrad ganawildeba dgaris ubnebSi, rac Seamcirebs

sakonveiero lentis sawyis daWimulobas (S C) da mis saWiro simtkices (S g).

amZravebis aRniSnuli saxiT warmodgena uzrunvelyofs unifikaciis

maRal dones da ufro moxerxebuls gaxdis eqspluataciisa da remontis

process.

mesame niSnis mixedviT vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebisa da

konstruqciuli sqemebis farTo asortimentSi gamokveTilia sami

ZiriTadi jgufi: (10) _ amZravebi vakuumis bunebrivi warmoqmniT; (11) _

amZravebi vakuumis garegani wyaroTi _ vakuum-tumboTi da (12) _ amZravebi

avtonomiuri vakuumuri meqanizmebiT. sakontaqto rgolur WvriteSi

vakuumis (10) bunebrivad warmoqmnis idea, magaliTad (10′) elastikuri

masaliT an misi sawovarebiT (nax.1.2) [52] (s.m. 543573) xorcieldeba da

- 19 -


- 20 -

maTive mcire simtkicis gamo

araprqtikulia. (11) _ vakuum-

tumboTi da (13) _ wrfivi an (14)

_ wriuli, (15) _ centraluri

da Tundac (16) _ periferiuli

ganlagebis koleqtorebiT gaux-

Soebis Seqmnas (17) _ saerTo

rezervuarSi, misi Semdgomi da-

kavSirebiT sakontaqto zedapir-

Tan (18) _ burTula-zambaruli

sarqvelebiT (nax. 1.3) (p.1054010),

(19) _ mkveTar-gamanawilebliT

(nax. 1.4) [49]; an uSualod (20) _

perforaciebiT [15] (s.m. 1104070)

naklebad saimedoa, vinaidan Tundac erTi elementis (18, 19 an 20) mtyuneba

(an atmosferosTan mokled SerTva) gamoiwvevs gauxSoebis saerTo (17) _

rezervuarSi vakuumis kargvas da Sesabamisad wevis Zalebis arasta-

bilurobas (Semcirebas). rac Seexeba 3, 11, (13 an 14), (15 an 16), 21 sqemebiT

(ix. nax. 1.1) rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis Seqmnis (cxr. 1.1), mravalgziT

nacadi praqtikulad ganxorcielebuli [7, 8] xerxebia.

nax. 1.4

literaturuli wyaroebiT [71, 54, 55] cnobilia, rom blant reJimSi

gazebis (siTxeebis) dinebisas, mrgvali kveTis milsadenebis gamtarunaria


noba ukuproporciul damokidebulebaSia misive sigrZisa da gazis dina-

- 21 -

mikuri siblantis koe-

ficientis. zemoT aR-

niSnulisa da vakuum-

amZravi sadguris (nax.

1.6) [12] (s.m.581030) gare

qselis mixedviT SeiZ-

leba gakeTdes daskvna,

aseTi – koleqtoriani

amZravebis saeqsplua-

tacio da saremonto

xarjebis naklebad eko-

nomikurobaze. Tu do-

lis recipientebis la-

nax. 1.5

birinTebs (nax. 1.7) [11]

(s.m.543572) da koleqtoris moZravi nawilebis hermetizaciis sakiTxsac

gaviTvaliswinebT, naTeli warmosadgeni gaxdeba rTuli da sakmarisad

didi sigrZis vakuum-arxebis mcire (U) gamtarunarianobis gamo gamaux-

Soebeli meqanizmis moqmedebis siswrafisa (S t) da sakontaqto zedapi-

rebsSorisi rgoluri Wvritidan siTxis drenaJirebis (gawovis), anu efeq-

turi amotumbvis siswrafis (S ef) Seusabamod mcire mniSvneloba amZravis

sakontaqto zedapiris xazovan

siCqaresTan. da bolos, ro-

gorc koleqtoriani vakuum-

amZravebis kvlevis Sedegebidan

Cans [5, 17] koleqtori mniSvne-

lovnad amcirebs tumbos gamo-

yenebis koeficients, radgan

amZravis sakontaqto zedapire-

bis rgolur Wvritidan siT-

xis gawova da masSi saWiro

nax. 1.6.

gaiSviaTebis miReba xorcieldeba (recipientebis) rTuli, didi sigrZis

vakuum-arxebis saSualebiT (recipients adgens: vakuum-tumbos gare qseli


[12] (s.m.581030), koleqtoris wrfivi an rgoluri sakani, amZravis torsuli

badros radialuri xvretebi, dolis msaxvelis paraleluri grZivi

nax. 1.7

- 22 -

arxebi masSi CamontaJebuli

gamosacvleli filtrebiT

(nax.1.7) [11] (s.m.543572) da

bolos rgolur WvritesTan

damakavSirebeli perforaci-

ebi an grZivi Rarebi).

motanili krebsiTi

cxrili 1.1, romelSic war-

modgenilia saavtoro mow-

mobis an patentis yvela saxasiaTo varianti, maT Sesabamis grafikul

nawilTan erTad ufro naTels fens problemis aqtualobas.

meoTxe niSnis mixedviT vakuum-

amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebis kon-

struqciis niSniT (ix. nax. 1.1) Svidi

ZiriTadi saxea gamokveTili. (29) _ gam-

Woli grZivi WrilebiT (nax.1.8 da 1.9);

(30) _ perforirebuli zedapiriT (ix.

nax. 1.6, 1.7, 1.17, 1.18); (31) _ grZivi Rare-

biani ganapira gawoviT (nax. 1.10, 1.11, 1.12,

1.13, 1.14) ∗ , sadac Rarebi (32) erT rigad

an (33) orrigad – amZravi zedapiris

msaxvelis paraleluradaa ganlagebuli

(mag. nax. 1.12, 1.13, 1.14); sxva konstruq-

ciaSi Rarebi (34) Sevronuli ganlage-

bisaa (mag. nax. 1.11). konstruqciebsa da

nax. 1.9

konstruqciul sqemebSi mravladaa warmodgenili (35) _ grZivi Rarebiani

centraluri gawovis sakontaqto zedapirebi (mag. nax. 1.15, 1.16) da bolos (36)

_ grZivi Rarebiani dolis segmentebisagan Sedgenili zedapirebi (ix. nax. 1.10).

∗ 1.14 naxazSi – vinaidan koleqtori centraluri ganlagebisaa, amitom miiReba centraluri

gawovis imitacia da gansxvavdeba nax. 1.11-ze naCvenebi konstruqciisagan,

vinaidan am konstruqciul sqemaSi koleqtorebi periferiebSia ganlagebuli.


cxrili 1.1.

SeniSvna

sakontaqto

zedapiri

avtorebi

teqstSi

naxazis an

literaturaS

i rigiTi

saavtoro mowmobis

an patentis nomeri

da qveyana

vakuum-amZravebis konstruq-ciis

principialuri sqemis formula

(klasifikaciis rigiTi niSnebis

mixedviT)

nomeri

ri

gi

Ti

#

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 1-5; 2-8,9; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-30 gfr pat.# 1028041 [5] perforirebuli 1958w diskuri koleqtori

2 1-5; 2-8,9; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-30 gfr pat.# 1036159 [5] perforirebuli 1959w diskuri koleqtori

3 1-5; 2-8,9; 3-11, 14, 16, 17, 18; 4-30 gfr pat.# 1054010 [5] nax. 1.3 perforirebuli burTula-zambarebiani sarqveli

4 1-5; 2-8,9; 3-11, 14, 15, 21; 4-30 gfr pat.# 1056051 [5] perforirebuli centraluri koleqtori

1957w 1 028 041+Sualeduri amZravis

1-5,6; 2-7; 3-11, 13, 14, 16, 21; 4-31 gfr pat.# 1146028 [5] perforirebuli

5 elementebi

kombinirebuli (grZiv 1953w varskvlava amZravebi firfito-vani

1-6; 2-7; 3-11, 13, 16, 21; 4-31, 36 aSS pat.# 2650695 [5]

6 Rarebiani) rgolurad Sekruli jaWvebiT

7 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-31, 32 ssrk. sm# 280309 [25] nax. 1.12 i. volCeki grZiv Rarebiani 1970w wriuli koleqtori

1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-31, 34 ssrk. sm# 447330 [26] nax. 1.11 i. volCeki, s. smirnovi Sevronuli Rarebi 1975w wriuli koleqtori

8

9 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-36 ssrk. sm# 502805 [28] nax. 1.10 i. volCeki grZivi Rara segmenti 1977w wriuli koleqtori

10 1-5; 2-8; 3-10, 10'; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 543573 [52] nax. 1.2a g. lunevi elastikuri sawovrebi 1977w

11 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 543572 [11] nax. 1.7 k. vasilevi, a. kirpiCevi grZivi Rari, perforacia 1977w RarebSi-filtrebiT

12 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 15, 21; 4-31, 33 ssrk. sm# 580153 [30] nax. 1.14 k. volCeki, v. graCevi grZivi orriga Rarebi 1977w centraluri koleqtoriT

13 1-6; 2-9; 3-11, 13, 16, 17, 20; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 865729 [5] k.vasilevi, d.iungmeisteri perforirebuli 1981wg.b.#35, Sualeduri amZravi

14 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 22, 25; 4-29 ssrk. sm# 132536 [3] nax. 1.8 v. aguSevi da sxv. [2] gamWoli grZivi Wrilebi 1960w elastikuri garsakri

15 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 23, 27; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 475323 [10] nax. 1.18 k. vasilevi, a. kirpiCevi perforirebuli 1975w yvinTia TiTebi

16 1-5; 2-8,9; 3-12, 24, 25; 4-35 ssrk. sm# 543574 [61] nax. 1.15 n. molodini grZivi Rari 1977w

v. musxeliSvili,

1-5; 2-8,9; 3-12, 24, 25; 4-35 ssrk. sm# 676506 [62]

grZivi Rari 1979w miewodeba wyali, saqSenidan

17 a. quTaTelaZe, n. molodini

18 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 28; 4-29 ssrk. sm# 655614 [40] nax. 1.9 i. ermakovi [3] gamWoli grZivi Wrilebi 1979w

19 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 22, 25; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 725965 [58] v. morevi da sxv. perforirebuli 1980w

- 23 -

1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 24, 25; 4-31,32 ssrk. sm# 753727 [57] nax. 1.13 v. morevi da sxv. grZivi Rarebi 1980w

20

21 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 23, 26; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 823238 [13] nax 1.17 k. vasilevi, a. kirpiCevi perforirebuli 1981w el.magnituri amZravi

22 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 23, 25; 4-35 ssrk. sm# 967896 [56] nax.1.16 e. makarovi, v. savenko grZivi Rarebi 1982w

23 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 17, 19; 4-30 _ [49] nax. 1.4 i. kogani perforirebuli 1953wmkveTara gamanawilebliT

24 1-6; 2-9; 3-11, 13, 16, 17, 20; 4-30 ssrk. sm# 1104070 [5] nax. 1.5 k.vasilevi, d.iungmeisteri perforirebuli 1984w.g.b.#27Sualeduri amZravi


sakontaqto zedapirebiT Seqmnil rgolur WvriteSi saWiro da

stabiluri vakuumis miRebis garantia, moZiebuli samecniero-kvleviTi

masalebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gansakuTrebiT koleqtoriani vakuum-amZrave-

- 24 -

bisaTvis SeuZlebelia an nak-

lebad efeqturi. es imiT

aixsneba, rom (hidro)aerodi-

namikuri winaRobebi liTon-

elastomers Soris (rgolur

WvriteSi) gacilebiT didia

(plastikurobisa da drekadi

deformaciis gamo) vidre ko-

leqtoris moZrav kvanZebs

(liToni-liToni) Soris. wina

SromebSi [17, 18, 21] sakontaq-

to rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis formirebis sakiTxi Seiswavleboda sta-

tikaSi, zondirebis meTodiT, amZravisa da sakonveiero lentis zeda-

pirebis rgolur WvriteSi, koleqtoriT, mudmivad CarTuli vakuum-tumbos

magaliTze; rac niSnavs amZravis brunvis sixSiris gauTvaliswineblobas

anu myisieri vakuumis formirebis

cnebis uxeS darRvevas. es sakiTxi

SedarebiT kargadaa warmodgenili

sakvalifikacio naSromSi [60] sadac

dolis brunvis sixSiris mixedviT

miRebulia vakuumis formirebis

oscilogramebi sakontaqto zedapi-

rebis mSrali, zRvruli da sveli

xaxunis pirobebisaTvis. eqsperimen-

tebis Sedegebi naTlad adasturebs

im aucileblobas, rom vakuumis

Semqmneli meqanizmebis, am SemTxve-

vaSi, ukuqceviT-winsvliT moZravi

nax. 1.9

elementebis hermetizaciis xarisxi

nax. 1.10

(msgavsad koleqtoris moZravi nawilebis hermetizaciisa) gacilebiT maRa


li unda iyos, rgoluri Wvritis hermetizaciasTan SedarebiT. unda

aRiniSnos, rom vakuumis sididis oscilogramebi Cawerilia ara uSualod

rgolur WvriteSi, aramed ganivi Rarebis moculobebSi, ris gamoc

SeiZleba oscilogramebis Sedegebsa da sakontaqto zedapirebis rgolur

WvriteSi mimdinare procesebs Soris iyos garkveuli Seusabamoba, Tumca

eqsperimentul monacemebze dayrdnobiT, logikuri analizis safuZvelze

gakeTebulia daskvnebi [60] pirobiT rgolur WvriteSi Tanabrad ganawile-

buli vakuumis warmoqmnis Sesaxeb. amasTan unda SevniSnoT, rom sakiTxis

ufro Rrma analizisaTvis saWiroa elastohidrodinamikis, makroelasto-

hidrodinamikis, histerezisis da adgeziis movlenebis gaTvaliswinebiT,

sakontaqto rgolur da cilindr-dguSis WvriteebSi siTxis (wveTovanis,

airis) moZraobis eqsperimentuli da Teoriuli Seswavla.

nax. 1.11

xaxunis klasikuri Teoriisa da maRali sizustis eqsperimentuli

kvlevebis [54] mixedviT, datvirTvis qveS myofi cilindris elastomerze

srialis xaxunis koeficienti Sedgeba ori komponentisagan: adgeziurisa

da histerezisulis, xolo xaxunis ganzogadoebuli koeficienti f/tgδ

warmoadgens wnevisa da drekadobis modulis fardobis (P/E) funqcias.

srialis siCqaris gazrdiT es Tanafardoba praqtikulad ar icvleba.

Sesabamisad, xaxunis ganzogadoebuli koeficienti mSrali xaxunisas

(SezeTvis gareSe) rCeba daaxloebiT erT doneze. grinvudisa da teiboris

- 25 -


[54] mixedviT liTonis elastomerze srialisas an gorvisas erTnair

gavlenas axdens histerezisis movlena. normanma ki xisti cilindris

- 26 -

elastomerze gorvis xaxunis koefi-

cientis kvlevisas Teoriulad

daadgina, rom histerezisiT (defor-

maciiT) [54] ganpirobebuli xaxunis

koeficienti warmoadgens rbili ma-

salis (mag. rezinis) meqanikuri

danakargis kuTxis tangensis rTul

funqcias. xolo xaxunis adgeziuri

mdgenelis gavlena elastomerze

Seiswavla baldJinma da Salamaxma.

maT daskvnebSi aRniSnulia, rom

adgeziuri xaxunis koeficienti

pirdaproporciul

damokidebulebaSia elastomeris

meqanikuri danakargis kuTxis tangesis da ukuproporciulia misi

simagris.

nax. 1.13.

Cveni samuSaos swori mimarTulebis erT-erT mniSvnelovan

mamtkicebel faqtad migvaCnia d. muris [54] ganzogadoebuli Teoria

gadajerebulad sveli sakontaqto zedapirebisaTvis. masSi aRniSnulia,


om sakontaqto zedapirebis siTxiT uxvad dasvelebisas, maRali xaxunis

koeficientis uzrunvelsayofad saWiroa zedapiridan siTxis mniSvne-

lovani sadrenaJo efeqtis RonisZiebebis Catareba [54]. zemoT motanili

analizis mixedviT, Cveni kvlevis modelad virCevT klasifikaciiT (ix.

nax. 1.1) gaTvaliswinebul vakuum-amZravis Semdeg sqemas: 5, 8, 12, 24, 25,

35+wriuli amonaCarxebi (amZravis sakontaqto zedapiri warmoadgens axal

konstruqcias ix. nax. 1.20T).

nax. 1.15

nax. 1.14

vakuum-amZravebis konstuqciebisa da konstuqciuli sqemebis

klasifikaciam da maTma analizma (Seswavlam) gviCvena, rom sakontaqto

zedapirebs Soris vakuumis Seqmnis qvemoT warmodgenili meqanikuri

modelebi [66] srulad moicavs amZravis rgolur WvriteSi gauxSoebis

dRemde arsebul yvela meTods.

nax. 1.16

- 27 -


pirveli meqanikuri modeliT momuSave vakuum-amZravebi warmoad-

gens (wriul an wrfiv) koleqtorSi amZravis sakontaqto zedapirze da

torsul badroSi (badroebSi) arsebuli vakuum-arxebis erTobliobas

damatebuli vakuum-tumbos Siga da gare qseli koleqtoramde (ix. nax. 1.6).

am modelis sruli daxasiaTeba mocemulia $ 1.2-Si, romlis mixedviT da

mecnieruli debulebebis (ix. Sesavali) zogierTi punqtis gaTvalis-

winebiT recipientebis sirTulisa da tumbos gamoyenebis koeficientis

simciris gamo aRniSnuli modeli naklebad efeqturia.

meore meqanikuri modeliT momuSave vakuum-amZravebi (ix. nax. 1.8.)

vfiqrob arasicocxlisunariania, vinaidan erT elementSi (dolze

Semokrul garsSi) cveTamedegobis, elastikurobis da amonagisaTvis saWi-

ro Tvisebebis SeTavseba SeuZlebelia, xolo Tu es garsi daniSnule-

bisamebr daiSala da ise SeirCa Sesabamisi sakompozicio masalebi, maSin

konstruqcia montaJisa da eqspluataciisaTvis gaumarTleblad rTuli

iqneba. Tumca unda aRiniSnos danarCen modelebTan SedarebiT misi vakum-

arxebis simartive.

nax. 1.17 nax. 1.18

mesame meqanikuri modeliT momuSave vakuum-amZravebi (ix. nax. 1.17.

da 1.18.) muSaunariania da TiTqos eqvemdebareba arxebis TviTgawmendasac,

magram vakuum-arxebis didi sawyisi moculoba, gawmendas daqvemdebare-

- 28 -


uli rTuli formis saknebi da kargvebis SemTxvevaSi vakuumis kompensa-

ciis SeuZlebloba amcirebs aRniSnuli konstruqciis muSaunarianobas.

meoTxe meqanikuri modeliT momuSave vakuum-amZravebSi (ix. nax.

1.15.) rgoluri Wvritis gauxSoeba xdeba cilindr-dguSiani da muSta

meqanizmebiani mowyobilobis gamoyenebiT. misi recipientebis sawyisi

moculoba TiTqmis nulis tolia, xolo gaiSviaTeba amZravis sakontaqto

rgolur WvriteSi SeiZleba ganxorcieldes recipientebis moculobebSi

winaswar miwodebuli wveTovani siTxis gawoviT. gaiSviaTebis es modeli

amcirebs dguSebis svlis sidides, aumjobesebs sakontaqto zedapirze

Tanabrad ganawilebuli gaiSviaTebis Seqmnis pirobas da winamorbedi

mkvlevarebis Sedegebis msgavsad Cvens SemTxvevaSic zrdis vakuumSi

sveli xaxuniT gamowveul weviT Tvisebebs.

am meTodebidan mwevi organos sakontaqto zedapirebis optimalu-

ri parametrebis kvlevisaTvis, virCevT meoTxe meqanikur models, rogorc,

Cveni azriT, yvelaze srulyofils sadac vakuumis formirebisaTvis

gamoyenebulia mravaljer nacadi da mravalmxriv gamocdili, utyuari

moqmedebis, tradiciuli cilindr-dguSiani da muSta meqanizmebiani

mowyobilobebi. garda zemoT CamoTvlilisa konstruqciul upiratesobaSi

aRsaniSnavia vakuum-meqanizmisa da gauxSoebis obieqtis (rgoluri

Wvritis) urTierT kavSiri martivi naxvretis saSualebiT. sakiTxisadmi

kompleqsurad midgomis meTodiT: sakontaqto zedapiri (rgoluri Wvrite)

_ vakuum meqanizmi, vixilavT Tanabrad ganawilebuli gauxSoebis Seqmnis

uzrunvelyofis aucilebel pirobebs:

1) vakuum-tumbos moqmedebis siswrafe (S t) unda eTanadebodes amZravis

sakontaqro zedapirebs Soris rgoluri Wvritidan siTxis (wveTovanis,

gazisebris) srulfasovani drenaJirebis (gawovis) anu obieqtis efeqturi

amotumbvis siswrafis (S ef) uzrunvelyofas.

2) vakuumis wyarosa da amZravis rgoluri Wvritis SemaerTebeli

kvanZis (umjobesia iyos naxvreti da ara rTuli labirinTuli reci-

pienti) gamtaroba (U) unda uzrunvelyofdes vakuumis Smqmneli meqanizmis

gamoyenebis koeficientis (Kt)-s daaxloebiT erTTan tolobas e.i.

K t=S ef/S t≈1 anu K t=U/(U+S t)≈1 rac amZravis kvlevisa da proeqtirebis erT-

erT mniSvnelovan pirobas warmoadgens.

- 29 -


3) amZravis rgoluri Wvritidan siTxis (wveTovanis, gazobrivis)

myisurad gamwovi meqanizmis (vakuum-meqanizmis, vakuum-tumbos koleq-

toris) vakuumuri sistemis hermetizacia unda iyos rgoluri Wvritis

hermetizaciaze ufro srulyofili (maRali monacemebis), amasTan amZravis

sakontaqto zedapirebis parametrebi unda uzrunvelyofdes garemodan

rgolur WvriteSi siTxis minimalur Sewovas.

4) tumbos moqmedebis siswrafe (S t), obieqtis efeqturi amotumbvis

siswrafe (S ef) da maTi SemaerTebeli milsadenebis (naxvretis) gamtaroba

(U) unda ganixilebodes amZravisa da tvirTmzidi lentis Sesabamisi

kuTxuri da xazovani siCqareebis aucilebeli gaTvaliswinebiT.

1.3. vakuumuri amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebis

konstruqciebi

warmodgenili vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebisa da konstruqciu-

li sqemebis (ix. nax. 1.1. da cxr. 1.1) Seswavlisas, sakontaqto zedapirebis

konstruqciis niSnis mixedviT gamokveTili Svidi tipidan (nax. 1.1; 29, 30,

32, 33, 34, 35, 36) praqtikuli (laboratoriuli, naxevradsamrewvelo da

samrewvelo) gamocda gaiara: perforirebulma _ (30) da grZivRarebianma _

(31, 32 da 35) sakontaqto zedapirebma. am zedapirebs detalurad ganvi-

xilavT winamdebare Tavis daskvniT nawilSi. qvemoT ki motanilia

danarCeni TiToeuli zedapiris daxasiaTeba-Sefaseba Sesabamis vakuumis

Semqmnel meqanizmTan kompleqsSi:

1. gamWoli grZiWrilebiani (4-29) zedapiris rgolur WvriteSi

vakuumis Seqmna (sqema 1-5; 2-8; 3-12, 22, 25; 4-29; nax.1.8; an 1-5; 2-8; 3-12,28; 4-29;

nax. 1.9) xorcieldeba martivi konstruqciis mowyobilobiT, magram maT

uaryofiT mxareebs warmoadgens: (nax. 1.8)-Tvis sakompozicio masalis –

elastikuri garsis, rogorc amonagis da amave dros vakuumis Semqmnel

elastikad muSaobis SeuZlebloba, gamoyenebis sferoTa fizikuri Tvise-

bebis SeuTavseblobis gamo; (nax.1.9)Tvis – amuSavebisaTvis arasakmarisi

centridanuli Zalis ganviTareba, dolisa da lentis dabali siCqarisas

da vakuumis kargvisas kompensaciis SeuZlebloba. am zedapiris mimarT

- 30 -


Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevebi samcniero literaturul

wyaroebSi ver moviZieT. sapatento fondis miseul wyaroebSi [40] ki

kargadaa gadmocemuli koleqtoriani da zogierTi avtonomiur meqaniz-

miani amZravebis uaryofiTi mxareebi.

2. grZivRarebiani segmentebisagan Sedgenili rkalebi (4-36), romlis

zedapiris rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis Seqmna (sqema 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-

36; nax. 1.10) xorcieldeba vakuum-tumbosa da periferiuli ganlagebis

wriuli koleqtoriT, moZiebuli wyaroebis mixedviT, praqtikulad ar

gamocdila, magram konstruqciuli sqemis Teoriuli da logikuri

analiziT SeiZleba aRvniSnoT misi uaryofiTi mxareebi, ris mixedviT

SeiZleba gakeTdes praqtikulad misi gamoyenebis vargisianoba. kerZod,

segmentebs Sorisi RreCoebis xarjze sakontaqto zedapirebis urTierT

gadafarvis koeficientis kidev ufro Semcireba (es ki gamoiwvevs dolis

zedapirze kuTri normaluri Zalebis sididis gazdas) da dolis

msaxvelis mTel sigrZeze segmentebis RreCoebs Soris lentis CaRunva da

misi modeba dolis rkalis mTel ganiv Wrilze. es faqtebi uaryofiTad

imoqmedebs lentis samsaxuris vadaze. amgvarad gamoyenebis ZiriTadi

dedaazri – lentis TviTgawmendis SesaZlebloba, romlis mixedviT es

konstruqciuli sqemaa cnobili (romelic safuZvlad udevs gamogonebis

formulas), araefeqturia imis gamo, rom am konstruqciaSi wevis Zalebis

realizacia moxdeba ufro uSualo modebiT, vidre garegani xaxuniT.

3. ganapira gawovis SevronulRarebiani (4-31,34) zedapiris or

koleqtoriani vakuum-dolis konstruqciuli sqema (nax. 1.11) Seqmnilia

lentis centrirebis gaumjobesebis mizniT. centrirebis piroba SeiZleba

marTlac gaumjobesdes, magram SevronulRarebiani zedapiris rgolur

WvriteSi, sadac gauxSoeba xorcieldeba (sqema. 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-31,

34. nax. 1.11) wriuli koleqtorisa da vakuum-tumbos saSualebiT, mTeli

vakuum-sistemis hermetizaciis uzrunvelyofis mizniT saWiroa amZravidan

lentis Camoqanebisa da swrafobis ubnebSi, TiTo wyvili Sevronuli

Raris amorTva. Rarebis amorTva gamoiwvevs vakuumis gavrcelebis zonis

Semcirebas, rac dauSvebelia gansakuTrebiT rgoluri Wvritis drekadi

srialis rkalisaTvis [60]. aRniSnulis gamo Sevronul Rarebiani

sakontaqto zedapirebi, vfiqrob ara racionaluria.

- 31 -


4. vakuum-doli misi msaxvelis paraleluri, or rigi, ganapira

gawovis grZivRarebiani zedapiriT (4-31, 33) da koleqtoruli rgolis

centraluri ganlagebiT (nax. 1.14). gaiSviaTebis es sqema (1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 15,

21) Seiqmna sakontaqto rgolur WvriteSi Tanabrad ganawilebuli vakuu-

mis formirebis mizniT. es konstruqciuli sqema faqtiurad imuSavebs,

rogorc centraluri gawovis grZivRariani vakuum-doli. magram am

sqemaSic rCeba koleqtoriani da rTuli _ labirinTebiani recipientebi.

amasTan doli Sesdgeba ori cilindrisagan, romelTa Soris ganlage-

bulia lentis ara muSa zedapiris figuruli nawili. mZlavri sakon-

veiero amZravebisaTvis aseTi konstruqciis doli miuRebelia [78, 79] misi

konstruqciuli araracionalurobis gamo. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom mis

lilvsa da rgolur Wvriteze imoqmedebs ramodenime aTasi kilovati

simZlavris Sesabamisi mgrexi momenti. wina kvleviT samuSaoebSi [60]

miniSnebulia centraluri gamwovi naxvretebis anu „dabali vakuumis“

centralur nawilSi ganlagebis konstuqciul upiratesobaze. am

WeSmaritad realur faqtzea damyarebuli (nax. 1.15) [61, 62] da misi

Semdgomi, gviani periodis saavtoro mowmobebi (ix. nax. 1.14 da 1.16 da sxv.).

miuxedavad aRniSnuli sakiTxis wina planze wamowevisa ganxiluli

konstruqciuli (ix. nax. 1.14) sqema, vakuumis Seqmnis rTuli sistemisa da

sakontaqto zedapiris fizikuri arasrulyofili konstruqciis gamo,

iTvleba kvlevis sust obieqtad.

5. vakuum-doli msaxvelis paraleluri, erT rigi ganapira gawovis

grZivRarebiani (4-31, 32) zedapiriT da erT periferiul koleqtoriani

vakuum-arxebiT (recipientebiT) (sqema: 1-5; 2-8; 3-11, 14, 16, 21; 4-31, 32; nax.

1.12), warmoadgens lenturi konveieris saTavo dolur vakuum-amZravs, misi

parametrebis Seswavlis pirvel obieqts, romelzec Catarda farTomasS-

tabiani kvleviTi samuSaoebi [22]. ris Sedegad gamovlinda vakuum-dolis

mravali upiratesoba. es Sedegebi Semdgom kvlevebSi [21, 60] kidev ufro

gamoikveTa da bevrad ufro aRmatebuli mniSvnelobebi miiRo. adreuli

kvlevis monacemebi warmodgenilia samecniero literaturul wyaroebSi

[92]. zogierTi gviani Sedegi ki motanili iqneba winamdebare naSromSic.

paragrafis dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, rom detaluri ganxilvis obieq-

tad migvaCnia grZivRarebiani da perforirebuli zedapirebi, maTi Teo-

- 32 -


iuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis dawvrilebiTi analizi. Sedegebi

warmodgenilia am paragrafis (6) da (7) punqtebSi.

6. vakuum-doli msaxvelis paraleluri, erTrigi, centraluri

gawovis grZivRarebiani zedapiriT (4-35) da rgolur WvriteSi avtonomiur

vakuumur meqanizmebiani (avm) gauxSoebis wyaroTi (sqema: 1-5; 2-8, 9; 3-12, 24,

25; 4-35; nax. 1.15) warmoadgens pirvel avm amZravs, _ obieqts, romelzedac

gakeTda Semajamebeli kvleviTi samuSaoebi [60]. naSromis Sedegebis mixed-

viT, daskvniT nawilSi, aRniSnulia centraluri gawovis grZiv Rarebiani

(35) sakontaqto zedapiris upiratesoba ganapira gawovis grZivRarebianTan

(31) SedarebiT; pirveladaa Catarebuli rgoluri Wvritis vakuumuri

zonis upiratesi adgilmdebareobis Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli dasabu-

Teba [60]; Semotanilia cnebebi vakuum-amZravis sakuTari wevis faqtorisa

da lentis optimaluri sawyisi (Camoqanebis Stos) daWimulobis Sesaxeb

(S C ≤2pRB). aRniSvnis Rirsia is faqtoric, rom amave naSromSi

gakeTebulia mimdinare paragrafis me-5 da me-6 punqtebSi ganxiluli

sakontaqto zedapirebis tipebis erTnairi tipzomis vakuum-dolebis wevis

Zalebis analizi (ix. nax. 1.19). nax. 1.19a-ze mocemulia [22, 32] kvlevis

Sedegebi. nax. 1.19b-ze warmodgenilia imave dolis weviTi Tvisebebi,

specialuri samarjvebiT (TamasebiT) centraluri gawovis imitaciis

gakeTebis Semdeg [60]. nax. 1.19g-ze ki igive tipzomis stu-s samTo

manqanebis, maRaros stacionaruli danadgarebisa da transportis

kaTedris laboratoriaSi Seqmnili centraluri gawovis grZivRarebian

wrfiv koleqtorian vakuum-dolze Sesrulebuli eqsperimentebiT

miRebuli weviTi Tvisebebi [60].

warmodgenili Sedegebis mixedviT centraluri gawovis grZivRare-

biani zedapiris mqone vakuum-dolis wevis Zalebi TiTqmis samjer aRe-

mateba (ix. nax. 1.19g; p=608 mm.v.wy.sv; S sw=2800 dkn, S C=200 dkn) ganapira

gawovis grZivRarebiani zedapiris vakuum-dolis wevis Zalebs (ix. nax.

1.19a; p=600 mm.v.wy.sv.; S sw=950dkn., S C=200dkn). garda aRniSnulisa, yuradsa-

Rebia is faqtic, romelic SeiniSneba nax. 1.19a-ze, kerZod, sawyisi daWimu-

lobis (S C) zrdiT 0-dan raRac mniSvnelobamde mcired, magram mainc,

vakuumis TiTqmis yvela sididisTvis mcirdeba, swrafobis wertilSi

lentis daWimuloba, xolo Semdeg zogierT SemTxvevaSi kvlav matulobs.

- 33 -


g)

b)

a)

Sнб, даH

1500

P=200mmHg

1

F0,kg

3800

608

P=0,8 bar

2

P=600mmHg

Sc =400 H

б да

P=500

900

P=450

P=130

3000

bar 340

P=0,526

800

3

P=400

P=300

1000

Sc =200 H

б

да

304

P=0,41 bar

P=200

700

P=350

600

Sc =100 H

б да

Sc б=0

2000

200

P=0,263 bar

P=130

P=250

P=300

P=130mmHg

P=200

500

- 34 -

500

400

Sc б=0

P=0

1000

P=0

300

200

P,kgZ/sm 2

152 304 456 608

0,1(76) 0,3(228) 0,5(380) 0,7(532) 0,9(684)

0

50 100 120

S0,kg

0 50 100 150 200

nax. 1.19


es movlena ar aRiniSneba nax. 1.19b da g-ze dafiqsirebul

eqsperimentebis SedegebSi, rac migvaniSnebs imaze, rom `Wvrituli

elastikuri modebiT” wevis Zalebis realizacia (amZravis muSaobisas,

gansakuTrebiT, rodesac S C≠0) an ar arsebobs an umniSvneloa. am sakiTxis

analizsa da naTelmofenas udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda Cvens mier

SemoTavazebul axali konstuqciis sakontaqto zedapiris damuSaveba-

Seqmnisas da lentis resursebis angariSisas.

7. perforirebul zedapiriani (4-30) konstruqciis vakuum-amZravebi

warmoadgens kvlevis erT-erT saintereso obieqts (1-5 an 1-6; 2-7, 2-8 an 2-9;

3-10, 3-11 an 3-12), romelic gamoyenebulia vakuum-amZravebis TiTqmis yvela

konstruqciuli niSnis SemTxvevaSi. amiT aixsneba mecnierul kvlevebSi

[21, 19, 20, 93] maTze vrclad warmodgenili naSromebi, rogorc vakuumis

formirebis aseve amZravisa da moqnili sawevi organos uerTierTqmedebis

sakiTxebze. Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis bolo monacemebis

mixedviT [93] Seiqmna da gamoicada Sualeduri vakuum-amZravi, romelmac

erTxel kidev TvalsaCinod daadastura rgoluri Wvritis gauxSoebaze

momuSave amZravebis upiratesoba sxva amZravebTan SedarebiT. unda

aRiniSnos, rom dRemde warmodgenil yvela kvleviT samuSaoSi miTiTe-

bulia wevis Zalebis mniSvnelovan wilze, romelic dolis sakontaqto

zedapirze lentis Wvrituli modebiT „elastikuri kbilanuri modebiT“

xorcieldeba. es movlena arasasurvelia amZravis normaluri muSaobis

uzrunvelyofisaTvis da yvelanairi RonisZiebaa mosaZebni da misaRebi,

raTa wevis Zalebis realizacia xdebodes garegani xaxuniT, amasTan,

sakontaqto zedapirze rgolur WvriteSi maqsimaluri da Tanabrad

ganawilebli vakuumis pirobebSi. SromebSi miTiTebulia, rom gaiSvia-

Tebis garegan wyarod gamoyenebul vakuum-tumboebs SeuZlia 70-80 kpa-is

gaiSviaTebis uzrunvelyofa [20]. literaturul wyaroebSi [19] isic

cnobilia, rom raRac mizezebis dros da arc Tu ise iSviaTad,

sakontaqto zedapirze vakuumi mcirdeba 5÷10 kpa-mde. es ki imaze

miuTiTebs, rom gamauxSoebeli meqanizmis, magaliTad tumbos gamoyeneba

arasrulfasovania. Cvens mier moZiebuli masalebis mixedviT ki misi

stabilizaciisa da amaRlebis SesaZlebloba mniSvnelovania. amis realur

magaliTs warmoadgens Tundac nax.1.19-ze warmodgenili Sedegebi.

- 35 -


viTvaliswinebT ra yovelive zemoTTqmuls, vizualurad, winaswari

analizis gaadvilebis mizniT, sakontaqto zedapirebis arsebuli

konstruqciebis Svidive tipis ilustraciisaTvis mogvyavs maTi

gamokveTili fragmentebi (nax. 1.20 a, b, g, d, e, v, z). arsebuli Teoriuli,

eqsperimentuli kvleviTi masalebisa da sakontaqto zedapirebis

konstruqciebisa da konstruqciuli sqemebis analizis safuZvelze Cvens

mier SemoTavazebulia amZravebis axali sakontaqto zedapiri wriuli

amonaCarxisa (perforaciis msgavsi aragamWoli) da grZivi Raris sinTezis

saxiT (nax. 1.20 T).

nax. 1.20

- 36 -

d

T


1.4. sakontaqto zedapirebis rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis

formirebisadmi miZRvnili samuSaoebis analizi

vakuumis cneba fizikasa da teqnikaSi ganisazRvreba, rogorc

gazis mdgomareoba, atmosferulze gacilebiT dabali wnevis pirobebSi

e.i. vakuumi raodenobrivad ganisazRvreba gazis absoluturi wneviT.

vakuumis fizikaSi gamoyenebuli ZiriTadi postulatebi Camoyalibebulia

Semdegi saxiT:

1. gazi Sesdgeba calkeuli molekulebisagan;

2. arsebobs, siCqaris mixedviT, gazis molekulebis mudmivi ganawi-

leba, anu molekulebis erTnairi ricxvi yovelTvis erTsa da imave

siCqares flobs;

3. gazis molekulebis moZraobisas ar arsebobs upiratesi mimarTu-

leba anu gazis molekulebis sivrce izotropulia;

4. gazis temperatura warmoadgens misi molekulebis saSualo kineti-

kuri energiis sazoms;

5. myari tanis zedapirTan urTierTqmedebisas gazis molekula

adsorbcirdeba.

gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom vakuumSi mimdinare mravali fizi-

kuri procesi mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli molekulebis recipientebis

kedlebze dajaxebaTa saSualo ricxvisa (K k) da molekulebis urTierT

dajaxebaTa ricxvis (K m) fardobaze _ K kn= K k/K m; K kn _ aris knudsenis

kriteriumis uganzomilebo koeficienti, romlis mixedviT ganisazRvreba

vakuumis xarisxi: dabali, saSualo, maRali da zemaRali.

dabali vakuumis dros K kn1, da L/d ef>>1 am pirobisaTvis

sakmarisia absoluturi wnevis mniSvneloba p v araumetes 10 -9 pa.

amgvarad, unda vigulisxmoT, rom vakuum-amZravebSi Seqmnili

- 37 -


gauxSoeba dabali da saSualo vakuumis xarisxis zRvrebSia knudsenis

kriteriumis mixedviT da gauxSoebiT miRebuli dolze lentis miWeris

kuTri Zala (0,1÷0,95)×10 5 paskalis farglebSia moqceuli.

vakuum-amZravebis Teoriis kvleviT samuSaoebSi [39, 21, 22] sakon-

taqto rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis Tanabari ganawileba gaTvalis-

winebulia dolis rogorc ganivi, aseve wriuli mimarTulebiT. Tumca, [22,

32] SromebSi xazgasmiTaa miTiTebuli lentis da vakuum-dolis sakon-

taqto zedapirebis, „elastikur kbilanur modebaze“, rac ewinaaRmdegeba

vakuumis Tanabari ganawilebis pirobas. amgvarad, aRniSnul SromebSi

gauxSoebis Tanabrad ganawilebis idea araviTar mamtkicebel debulebebs

ar Seicavs, piriqiT, „elastikuri kbilanuri modebiT“ ufro met

winaaRmdegobaSi vardeba.

perforirebul sakontaqto zedapiriani vakuum-dolis kvlevebSi

[21] miTiTebulia winamorbed mkvlevarTa uzustobebi, romlebic oTxi

punqtis saxiTaa Camoyalibebuli [21]. samuSao miznad isaxavda vakuum-

dolis recipientebSi gazis molekulebis moZraobis winaaRmdegobis

Teoriuli SeswavliT sakontaqto rgolur WvriteSi Teoriuli gaux-

Soebis gansaRzRvras da Semdgom mis eqsperimentulad Semowmebas. warmod-

genilia vakuum-dolis sistemaSi narCeni wnevis cvlilebis ganmsazRvreli

formulebi: haeris turbulenturi moZraobisas, sworkuTxa formis grZivi

RarebisaTvis, wriuli kveTis recipientebisaTvis, sakontaqto rgolur

WvriteSi vakuum-dolis perforaciebis irgvliv da SemoTavazebulia

gasaSualoebuli Teoriuli wnevaTa sxvaobis ganmsazRvreli formula,

romliTac dolis zedapirs awveba lenti. miRebuli normaluri Zalebis

safuZvelze gansazRvrulia amZravi vakuum-dolis weviTi SesaZlebloba

(W 0) da mocemulia formula haeris politropuli procesiT gafar-

Toebaze momuSave vakuum-tumbos mwarmoeblobis (Q) gansazRvrisaTvis.

W 0= S C(e fα -1)+ K1P3[0.8K2Rα´B+mnF1(1-K2)]( e fα′ -1)/736α´

Q=60K d(V arxα´+ V kolα″) × 2.3 lgP s /P b /Rα″t

am gamosaxulebebSi:

K1 _ aris koeficienti, romelic axasiaTebs wnevis cvalebadobas

vakuum-dolis vakuum sistemis Semaval miltuCsa da misi sakontaqto

zedapiris perforacias Soris;

- 38 -


K2 _ koeficienti, iTvaliswinebs rgoluri Wvritis nebismier

wertilSi vakuumis vardnis xarisxs, am wertilis gaiSviaTebis zonis

centridan (perforaciidan) daSorebis Sesabamisad;

P3 _ vakuummetris Cveneba, mm.vr.wy.sv;

R _ amZravi vakuum-dolis radiusi, sm;

m _ perforaciis ricxvi msaxvelis gaswvriv-recipientebze;

n _ recipientebis ricxvi rgolur WvriteSi;

α´ _ rgolur WvriteSi centraluri kuTxe, romelzec iqmneba vakuumi;

α″ _ vakuum-dolis or mezobel recipients Soris biji;

F1 _ perforaciis farTobi, sm 2 ;

B _ lentis sigane, sm;

K d _ koeficienti iTvaliswinebs, rgoluri Wvritidan da vakuum-

sistemis sxva RreCoebidan Sewovili haeris raodenobas;

V arx _ erTi Raris erTeulovani vakuum-sistemis, _ recipientis

moculoba;

wnevebi.

V kol _ koleqtoris saknis moculoba;

R _ politropiis maCvenebeli;

t _amotumbvis dro;

P s da P b _ amZravi vakuum-dolis recipientebSi sawyisi da saboloo

eqsperimetul nawilSi perforaciebs Soris sakontaqto zedapirze

vakuumis gazomva warmoebda zondirebis saSualebiT da miRebuli Sedegi

udardeboda koleqtoris win vakuum-tumbos qselSi CarTuli vakuummet-

ris Cvenebas. eqsperimentebi Sesrulebulia sxvadasxva sididis vakuumisa

da sakonveiero lentis daWimulobisas, agreTve mSrali da sveli sakon-

taqto rgoluri Wvritis SemTxvevebisaTvis. mimdinareobda dakvirvebebi

gavlenaze, romelsac axdenda lentis sixiste da daWimuloba Tanabrad

ganawilebuli vakuumis formirebaze. gakeTebulia Teoriuli da eqsperi-

mentuli Sedegebis analizi da miRebulia Sesabamisi daskvnebic.

magram sakontaqto zedapiris konfiguracia da misi parametrebic

gansazRvrulia mxolod amZravis konstruqciuli (koleqtoris saknis

zomebi, recipientebis biji da a.S.) mosazrebiT, sadac ar figurirebs

- 39 -


iseTi aucilebeli parametrebi rogorebicaa dolis brunvis sixSire,

koleqtoruli rgolis hermetizaciis xarisxi, vakuum-tumbos gare

qselisa da sakuTriv vakuum-dolis recipientebis haeris gamtarunaria-

noba naSromSi [21] warmodgenili ∇R=55×10 -3 sm sisqis rgoluri Wvritis

SemTxvevaSic ki koleqtoruli rgolis RreCos (liToni-liTonTan)

aerodonamikuri winaRoba gacilebiT mcire iqneba amZravis sakontaqto

rgolur Wvritis winaRobasTan SedarebiT, rac sagrZnoblad gazrdis K d-

koeficients (ix. vakuum-tumbos mwarmoeblurobis gamosaxuleba) da

araracionalurs gaxdis konstruqcias. daskvnebSi naTqvamia, rom sveli

rgoluri Wvritis SemTxvevaSi umjobesdeba vakuum-dolisa da lentis

CaWidulobis piroba, vakuumis zonis hermetizaciis amaRlebis xarjze.

Cveni mosazrebebi am sakiTxze srulad emTxveva xaxunis klasikur

Teorias da ganxilulic gvaqvs Tanabrad ganawilebuli gauxSoebis

Seqmnis uzrunvelyofis aucilebel pirobebSi. (ix. I Tavis $ 1.2 daskvniTi

nawili; oTxi piroba).

vakuum-amZravebis rgolur Wvriteebsa da friqciul sakontaqto

farTobebze gauxSoebis formirebis procesis aRwerisadmi miZrvnil

SromebSi [18, 19, 20, 17, 93] gamoyenebulia reinoldsis, prandtlis da

nusseltis kriteriumebi [93], xolo laboratoriuli eqsperimentebi-

saTvis, statikur reJimSi tardeboda zondirebis meTodiT vakuumis

sididis gazomva perforaciebsa, grZiv RarebSi da maT Soris sakontaqto

farTobebze, rac ar Seesabameba vakuumis myisurad formirebis realur

suraTs.

vakuum-tumbos Teoriuli mwarmoeblobis ganmsazRvreli formula

warmodgenilia vakuum-arxebSi (recipientebSi-milsadenebSi) haeris moZ-

raobis winaaRmdegobis gauTvaliswineblad da aqvs saxe [20].

V

Q =

t

0

p

ln

p

sadac, V a _ aris gasauxSoebeli (obieqtis) aparatis moculoba;

a

- 40 -

1

2

t 0 _ gasauxSoebeli moculobidan amotumbvis dro (da ara

moZravi recipientis koleqtoris sakanSi yofnis dro (t m=L s.f/v,), sadac

L s.f._ Sualedi amZravis sigrZea; v _ amZravis brtyelas moZraobis siCqare).

p 1 da p 2 _ aparatSi sawyisi da saboloo wneva.


am Sromebis naklovan mxareebSi SeiZleba srulad aRvniSnoT

igive, rac warmodgenilia zemoT [21] Sromis analizisas.

miuxedavad sadisertacio naSromSi [60] Catarebuli Teoriuli da

eqsperimetuli kvlevebisa, romelic mieZRvna sakontaqto rgolur

WvriteSi mimdinare procesebs, mainc mcire yuradReba aqvs daTmobili

avtonomiur vakuumur meqanizmebiani (avm) amZravebis sakontaqto zedapi-

rebis mTel farTobze vakuumis gavrcelebis xasiaTis Teoriul

Seswavlas. naSromSi [60] miTiTebulia, rom vakuumi mTel sakontaqto

zedapirze Tanabrad vrceldeba imis gamo, rom zedapirebis makro

moculobebi da vakuum-arxebi (Sevsilia) dasvelebulia siTxiT, romelis

gawoviT xdeba vakuumis Seqmna rgoluri Wvritis mTel farTobze.

mtkiceba sarwmunoa, da mainc vakuumis gavrcelebis siCqarisa da xasiaTis

Teoriuli Seswavla am SemTxvevaSic aqtualuria da kvlevis saintereso

amocanas warmoadgens. Cveni azriT mxolod am amocanis srulfasovani

gadawyveta mogvcems vakuum-amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebis optima-

luri parametrebis gansazRvris meTodikas. sadisertacio naSromSi [60]

warmodgenili saerTo daskvnebi, rogorebicaa: 1) axali meTodiT vakuumis

Seqmna; 2) centraluri gawovis martiv recipientebiani avm-iani amZravis

upiratesoba; 3) vakuumis formirebis zonad “SedarebiTi simSvidis rka-

lis” aRiareba; 4) vakuum-amZravebis gamoyenebis efeqtur zonad S C≤2pRB _

programuli (lentis sawyisi) daWimulobis miCneva; 5) “drekadi srialis

rkalze” myisuri “saSualo” sididis vakuumis (ix. 2.5 paragrafis

dasawyisi) SenarCunebiT, amZravisaTvis SesaZlebeli yvelaze didi weviTi

Tvisebebis uzrunvelyofa; 6) rom vakuum-amZravi xasiaTdeba sakuTari

wevis faqtorebiT _ S sw/pRB savsebiT misaRebia da maTi gaTvaliswinebiT

virCevT Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevis Semdgom etaps. am etapis

ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens (vakuumis wyarosTan da vakuum-amZravTan

kompleqsSi) sakontaqto zedapiris racionaluri konstruqciisa da misi

optimaluri parametrebis saangariSod iseTi meTodikis damuSaveba,

romelic marTebuli iqneba Tanamedrove nebismieri standartuli tip-

zomis sakonveiero (vakuum-) amZravis saangariSod.

axali sakontaqto zedapiris yvela parametris angariSi da maTi

Semdgomi Semowmeba eqvemdebareba Cvens mier SerCeuli bazisuri vakuum-

- 41 -


dolis (ix. Sesavlis daskvniTi nawili) misadagebas da Semdgom miRebuli

axali, _ modificirebuli amZravis iteraciul gaangariSebas, romelmac

saSualebaa mogvca Segveqmna amZravis sakontaqto zedapiris geometriuli

zomebisa da sxva aucilebeli parametrebis gaangariSebis meTodika.

1.5. daskvnebi da kvlevis Semdgomi amocanebi

literaturuli da sapantento mokvlevis safuZvelze miRebuli

Sedegebidan daskvnebis saxiT gamovyaviT vakuum-amZravebis konstruirebis

ramdenime yvelaze mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, xolo sakontaqto rgolur

WvriteSi Tanabrad ganawilebuli vakuumis miRebisaTvis kvlevis

amocanebi

daskvnebi:

1. vakuumis formirebis erT-erT perspeqtiul teqnologiur sqemas

warmoadgens, umartivesi recipientebiTa da avm-is rgolur WvritesTan

SemaerTebeli moxerxebuli kvanZebiT aRWurvil avtonomiuri vakuum

meqanizmebiani (avm) vakuum-amZravebis konstruqciebSi mimdinare gaux-

Soebis procesi;

2. vakuumis Seqmnis efeqtur (α ef) zonad miviRoT, “SedarebiTi

simSvidis” rkali (dguSis svlis sidideze damokidebulebiT

α ef≈(0,05÷0,2)⋅α g ), xolo wevis Zalebis realizaciis efeqtur sakontaqto

ubnad “drekadi srialis rkali~, sadac saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi uzrun-

velyofili unda iyos vakuumis kargvebis kompensacia.

3. avm-iani vakuum-dolis rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis formireba da

misi Tanabrad ganawileba unda ganvixiloT kompleqsurad, avm-iani

dolis brunvis sixSirisa da dguSis svlis sididis gaTvaliswinebiT.

4. yvela teqnikuri moTxovna, romelic Camoyalibebulia naSromSi

[60], mizanSewonilad migvaCnia vakuum-amZravis konstruirebis nebismieri

etapisaTvis.

- 42 -


5. vakuumis Seqmnis uxelsayreles pirobas warmoadgens recipien-

tebSi Caketili siTxis adiabaturi an hiperadiabaturi gafarToeba,

romlis dros optimaluri sididis gauxSoveba p=(0,9-0,95)⋅10 5 pa.

6. vakum-amZravis sakontaqto zedapiris konstruqcia unda uzrun-

velyofdes rgoluri Wvritis hermetizaciis aucilebel pirobebs: avm-

ebis urTierT damoukidebel muSaobas (ar unda xdebodes mezobeli

recipientebidan siTxis gawova) da lentis napirebidan (haeris) siTxis

SeuRwevadobas.

kvlevis amocanebi:

1. konstuirebis TvalsazrisiT rgoluri Wvritis sakontaqto

zedapirebze xaxunis wyvilSi liToni_sakonveiero lenti (elastomeri),

friad mniSvnelovania imis codna, Tu ra pirobebia moWarbebuli

(gabatonebuli) SezeTva Tu mSrali xaxuni. Sesabamisad Seswavlili unda

iqnes hidrodinamikur, zRvrul da drekadhidrodinamikur reJimebSi

siTxis (wveTovanis an haeris) moZraobis kanonzomiereba.

2. rgolur WvriteSi xaxunis Zalis warmomSobi meqanizmis

ganxilva unda moxdes inJinruli kvlevisaTvis sruliad misaReb

makroskopul doneze, SedarebiT uxeSi, magram sarwmuno (damajerebeli)

modelis safuZvelze (simqise gaizomos mm-Si).

3. unda damuSavdes meTodika, romelic saSualebas mogvcems

viangariSoT sakontaqto zedapiris optimaluri parametrebi: vakuum-

arxebis biji -_ t, sakonveiero lentis sayrdeni segmentis sigane _δ,

Raris sigane _ β, perforaciis diametri _ a da a.S.

4. miRebuli Teoriuli Sedegebisa da ZiriTadi parametrebis

Semowmeba laboratoriis fizikur da kompiuterul modelze.

- 43 -


Tavi II. sakonveiero amZravebis kvanZebis moxaxune

zedapirebis makrosimqisis Seswavla da analizi

2.1 zedapirebis topografiis (teqsturis) Seswavlis

meTodebi da parametrebi

xaxunis procesis erT-erT saintereso sakiTxs warmoadgens

zedapirebis meqanikuri urTierTqmedebis buneba. aRniSnul sakiTxze

Tundac mxolod warmodgenis SeqmnisaTvis saWiroa zedapirebis

teqsturis Seswavla, risTvisac saWiroa simqisis gazomvis meTodikis

SerCeva. arsebobs simqisis gazomvis: meqanikuri, hidravlikuri da

optikuri meTodebi [54, 55].

zedapirebis topografiis daxasiaTebisaTvis, saWiroa misi aucile-

beli parametrebis dazusteba. dReisaTvis cnobilia erTparametriani

modelis 12 varianti; maTgan yvelaze pirveli iyo 1933 wels nikuraZis

mier SemoTavazebuli. mkvlevarebi imedovnebdnen, rom erTparametriani

modelirebiT SeiZleboda zedapiris profilis sruli aRwera, magram ver

SeTanxmdnen Tu, romeli iqneboda amisaTvis yvelaze Sesaferisi para-

metri. zedapirebis daxasiaTebisaTis erTparametriani modelirebis

arasrulfasovnebaSi darwmunebis Semdeg ruzis, muris da sxva mkvle-

varTa mier SemoTavazebuli iyo sam-sam parametriani modelebi; ufro

mogvianebiT zedapiris teqsturis srulyofili aRwerisaTvis murma

Camoayaliba (mkafiod gamoxatuli) xuTi parametrisagan Sedgenili

modeli. arsebobs zedapiris teqsturis aRweris sxva meTodebic,

magaliTad, ebbotis “sayrdeni zedapiris” cnobili mrudi, romelic

warmoadgens zedapiris uswormasworobebis Sua sibrtyis mimarT Sveri-

lebisa da Rrmulebis procentul ganawilebas [54, 55].

amgvarad zedapiris geometriis sruli daxasiaTebisaTvis, zogierTi

calkeuli SemTxvevisaTvis, sakmarisia sam parametriani modelireba,

xolo zedapiris teqsturis gansakuTrebulobebis zogadi aRwerisaTvis

ki xuTi Semdegi parametria SemoTavazebuli: 1. zoma; 2. forma; 3. Sve-

rilebs Soris manZili; 4. uswormasworobebis pikebis mikrosimqise; 5. us-

- 44 -


wormasworobebis simaRleTa ganawileba. CamoTvlilTagan pirveli sami,

teqsturis aRwerisaTvis aucilebelia. aRniSnulis gamo ruzis da muris

mier erTimeorisagan damoukideblad SemoTavazebuli iyo Semdegi

parametrebi: 1. zomis faqtori _ ε/L; 2. formis faqtori _ shr/ε (shr-

saSualo hidravlikuri radiusi) da 3. Sverilebs Soris manZilis

faqtori _ (1-a/aS): sadac ε-aris zedapiris uswormasworobebis Sverilis

simaRle (iTvleba mudmivad [54]), shr-ganisazRvreba siTxis nakadisaTvis

arxis tipur monakveTze (nakadis zedapiris farTobis SefardebiT svel

perimetrTan); L _ warmodgenili profilis sigrZea, a _ “plato” anu L×L

zedapiris Sverilebis wveroebis saerTo (jamuri) farTobi; aS-zedapiris

nominaluri farTobi anu L 2 .

zedapiris Sverilebis simaRlis cvalebadoba naTlad aisaxeba kon-

turuli grafikebis saSualebiT [54], romelic SeiZleba aigos samgan-

zomilebiani tvifris moculobiTi replikebis (mikroreliefis gamomxat-

veli Txeli apkis) saSualebiT. replikebis miReba SeiZleba Sesaswavl

zedapirze mastikis CawnexviT (magaliTad aralditis [55]) an meieris

meTodiT _ Sesaswavl zedapirze aluminis folgis (kilitas) furclis

moTavsebiT, masze Semdgomi _ rezinis sadebiT dartymiTi moqmedebiT.

sakontrolo zedapirebis uwesrigo teqsturis gamo, misi aRweri-

saTvis sayovelTaod miRebulia maTi warmodgena idealuri formis erT

an SverilTa jgufad; miRebulia kubis, konusis da sferos formis

Sverilebi. arsebobs azri sxva idializebul formebze: kubi, piramida da

naxevarsfero [54]. realuri zedapiris warmodgenisaTvis, umjobesia yvela

formis Sverilis (kubis, konusis piramidis...) erT modelSi gaerTianeba.

arsebobs sxva mniSvnelovani Sexedulebebic [54]. aRniSnulis gamo Camoya-

libebulia moTxovnebi teqsturis (profilis) uwesrigobebis SezRudvaze.

Cveni samuSaos Sinaarsis mixedviT mniSvnelovan moTxovnas warmoadgens

zedapirze drenaJirebis Tvisebebis SenarCuneba, risTvisac aucilebelia,

rom sarini arxebi ar iyos Zalian grZeli da amasTan Zalian Rrma.

deriaginis kvlevebis mixedviT `siTxis moculobiTi Tvisebebi ikar-

geba mxolod RreCos (arxis) 0,1 mkm-mde Semcirebis Semdeg~ [71]; n. pet-

rovma aseT RreCoebSi siTxis moZraobis laminarulobis daSvebis samarT-

lianoba daamtkica; liTonebis meqanikurad damuSavebisas ki maTi

- 45 -


zedapirebis geometriis Seswavlam [33] makrosimqisis zomebis Semdegi

xarisxobrivi monacemebi uCvena: saxarato Caxze Carxvisas _ 0,25÷2,0 mm;

xexvisas _ 12,0÷75,0 mkm; wminda xexvisas _ 2,0÷25,0 mkm; gaprialebisas _ 0,2

mkm. Tu imasac aRvniSnavT, rom vakuum-amZravebis lentTan sakontaqto

zedapiris damuSaveba xdeba CarxviT da sxva meqanikuri operaciebiT,

maSin aRniSnulze dayrdnobiT SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna, rom

sakonveiero lentTan warmoqmnil WvriteSi siTxis moZraoba ZiriTadad

iqneba laminaruli, SenarCunebuli iqneba siTxis moculobiTi Tvisebebi,

xolo WvriteSi siTxis dinebis angariSisaTvis SeiZleba visargebloT

ukumSvadi blanti siTxis moZraobis cnobili gantolebebiT.

2.2 vakuum-amZravebis xaxunis kvanZebis sakontaqto zedapirebis

daxasiaTeba

vakuum-amZravebis xaxunis kvanZebi warmodgenilia sxvadasxva

sakompozicio masalebis konstruqciuli SeTanwyobis saxiT. am kvanZebis

sakontaqto, urTierTis mimarT mimoZravi zedapirebiT xdeba arxebsa

(recipientebsa) da rgolur WvriteebSi vakuumis Seqmnac da garkveuli

periodiT misi SenarCunebac. dRemde cnobil vakuum-amZravebSi, SeiZleba

gamoiyos xaxunis sami ZiriTadi kvanZi:

1. nebismieri konstruqciis koleqtori, romliTac xdeba vakuumis

gare wyarosTan (vakuum-tumbosTan) vakuum-amZravis muSa recipientebis

dakavSireba.

2. amZravisa da lentis sakontaqto zedapirebiT Seqmnili rgo-

luri Wvrite, romliTac xdeba wevis Zalebis realizacia. am kvanZSi

rgoluri Wvritis doliseul zedapirebSi warmodgenilia (ganxiluri

gvaqvs) [67,68] yvela cnobili sakontaqto zedapiris konstruqcia, maT

Soris Cvens mier SemoTavazebuli – grZivRariani, wriuli amonaCarxebiT

(ix. nax. 1.20T).

3. cilindr-dguSiani avm (avtomaturi vakuumuri meqanizmi),

romliTac dolis brunvis Tanxvdenilad, dguSebis ukuqceviT-winsvliTi

- 46 -


moZraobiT martivi vakuum-arxebis da naxvretebis saSualebiT, rgolur

WvriteSi iqmneba gauxSoeba.

ganvixiloT TiToeuli.

1) vakuum-dolis koleqtoris moxaxune zedapirebi liTonisaa da

misi wminda xexviT damuSavebisas simqise iqneba 2÷25 mkm-is zRvrebSi. am

kvanZze liTonis-liTonze xaxunis kvlevebis Sedegad miRebuli

Sexedulebebi gavrceldeba, rogorc xaxunis Teoriis Seswavlisas, aseve

zedapirebis teqsturis ganxilvisas [54, 55, 76, 82, 83, 84].

a)

b)

nax. 2.1.

nax. 2.1.-ze warmodgenilis mixedviT TviToeuli zedapiris simqisis

mier Seqmnili `plato~ zedapiri mcirea (gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu

zedapirebi Termulad damuSavebulia da drekadi da drekadplastikuri

efeqti Semcirebulia). amgvarad didia rgoluri Wvritis makrosimqise.

Sesabamisad didi iqneba siCqarec da WvriteSi gamavali siTxis xarjic.

yovelive es moiTxovs damatebiTi hermetizaciis RonisZiebebis Catarebas,

- 47 -


koleqtoridan recipientebis atmosferosTan mokled SerTvis gamosa-

ricxad.

2) dolisa da lentis rgoluri Wvritis geometriuli makrozomebi

koleqtoris zedapirebiT Seqmnil WvritesTan SedarebiT, Semdegnair

SesabamisobaSi iqneba: gaCarxviT damuSavebisas dolis zedapiris simqisis

zRvrebi 0,25÷2 mm-is farglebSia; xolo Tu elastomerebze xaxunis

kvlevebis Sedegad miRebul Sexedulebebs gaviTvaliswinebT, maSin mas

nax. 2.2.-ze warmodgenili saxe eqneba [54, 55].

a)

b)

nax. 2.2.

- 48 -


ogorc nax. 2.2-dan Cans, _ aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi, dolis

zedapiris simqiseze (makroSverilebze) didia elastomeris deformaciis

xarisxi. Sedegad didia `plato~ zedapiri. amgvarad sakontaqto zedapir-

ze gveqneba erTi-meoresTan kapilaruli arxebiT dakavSirebuli, orive

zedapiris simqiseebiT warmoqmnili (e.w. SemzeTi) siTxis lokaluri

rezervuarebi.

nax. 2.1 da 2.2. da agreTve elastohidrodinamikuri SezeTvis Teo-

riis [76, 55] gaTvaliswinebiT vakuumis sistemebs daqvemdebarebuli

zedapirebi: koleqtorebis SemTxvevaSi, liTonis-liTonTan xaxunisas (nax.

2.1) makrosimqiseebSi ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobs SeduRebis, wakveTisa da

dakawvris (daxvnis) procesebi, xolo liTonis _ elastomerTan xaxunisas

liTonis simqiseebze deformirdeba da mWidrod ebjineba mas elastomeri,

Sesabamisad miRebuli Wvritis kapilaruli arxebi da lokaluri rezer-

vuarebi koleqtoris (liTonis-liTonTan) Wvritis makro simqiseze mcire

iqneba.

rezervuarebidan gawovisaTvis, ki kapilarul arxebSi siTxis

hidroaerodinamikuri winaaRmdegobebi koleqtoruli mowyobilobis Wvri-

tis winaaRmdegobaze naklebi unda iyos, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi siTxis

(haeris) Sewova vakuum-tumboTi moxdeba koleqtors gare sivrcidan (mag.

atmosferodan) da ara amZravi dolis da sakonveiero lentis rgoluri

Wvritidan.

3. cilindr-dguSiani muSta meqanizmi, romelic SromebSi [60, 65, 66]

moxseniebulia, rogorc avtonomuri vakuumuri meqanizmebi (avm) war-

moadgens standartuli zomebis U-s magvari rezinis (da misT.) samaju-

rebis (manJetebis) _ dguSebis, mTlianadziduli uJangavi milebis _

cilindrebis da dakalibrebuli Reroebisagan (dguSebis WokebisaTvis)

Sedgenil meqanizmebs. am meqanizmebis dguSiseuli sivrcis hermetizaciis

gaumjobesebisaTvis SeiZleba gamoviyenoT U-s magvari samajurebis erTob-

lioba, xolo misi muSaobis saimedoobis gazrdis mizniT (konstruire-

bisas da amZravi dolis sakontaqto zedapirebis konstruqciebis kvle-

visas), unda gaviTvaliswinoT avm-is dguSebis optimalurad mcire svla.

fizikuri da kompiuteruli modelebis saSualebiT zemoT motani-

li xaxunis samive kvanZis moxaxune zedapirebis makrosimqiseebsa, loka-

- 49 -


lur rezervuarebsa da kapilarebSi siTxis moZraobis Seswavla

Teoriulad da eqsperimentulad ganapirobebs vakuum-amZravebis sakontaq-

to zedapirebis optimaluri parametrebis dadgenas.

2.3. vakuum-amZravi rogorc lenturi sakisari

avm vakuum-amZravebSi vakuumis Seqmnis procesis optimalur

variantad warmodgenilia [60] rgolur WvriteSi gauxSovebis Seqmnis or-

safexuriani modeli. pirvel safexurSi gaTvaliswinebulia dolisa da

lentis sakontaqto zedapirze siTxis wneviT miwodeba. sawnevo saqSeni

sakonveiero lentisa da dolis zedapiris mimarT ise unda iyos ganla-

gebuli, rom uzrunvelyofdes siTxiT amZravis rgoluri Wvritisa da avm-

is dguSiseuli sivrcis maqsimalurad Sevsebas. am procesiT mTavrdeba

pirveli safexuri, romelic meore safexurSi uzrunvelyofs `Txevadi

dguSiT~ (siTxiT, romelic dguSiseul sivrcesa da rgolur WvriteSi

iqneba Seyvanili) vakuumis formirebas sakontaqto zedapirze. meore

safexurSi, SedarebiTi simSvidis rkalze, iwyeben ra dguSebi (elasto-

meris U-s magvari samajurebi) moZraobas, avm-iani dolis centridan

periferiebisaken, moZraobaSi moyavT, sawnevo saqSenis saSualebiT rgo-

lur Wvritesa da dguSiseul sivrceSi, Cvens mier iZulebiT (wneviT)

Seyvanili siTxe [62]. es procesi ganuwyvetliv meordeba amZravis muSao-

bisas. rogorc zemoT aRwerilidan Cans, vakuumis Seqmnis mosamzadebeli

pirveli safexuris xarisxian Sesrulebas (dguSiseuli sivrcisa da

rgoluri Wvritis lokaluri rezervuarebis siTxiT maqsimalur Sevsebas)

udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs amZravis rgolur WvriteSi gauxSoebis Tanab-

rad ganawilebasa da formirebaSi. amitom vakuumis Seqmnis procesis

Seswavlisas aranaklebi jerovani yuradReba unda daeTmos pirvel safe-

xursac. vakuumis formirebis es epizodi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT, rogorc

wevis Zalebisa da lentis moZraobis siCqaris regulirebis erT-erTi

saSualeba (magaliTad konveieris gaSvebisas).

zemoT aRwerilis mixedviT SeiZleba aRvniSnoT, rom saqSenis

wnevis xarjze rgolur WvriteSi Setanili uxvi siTxis gamo dasawyisSi

- 50 -


dolze lentis xaxuni hidrostatikur reJimSi mimdinareobs, dguSebis

periferiebisaken amoZravebisTanave gadadis zRvrulSi, xolo agrZeleben

ra avm-is dguSebi (intensiur) svlas periferiebisaken xaxuni praqti-

kulad gadadis mSral xaxunSi (imavdroulad vakuumis garemoSi). dgu-

Sebis programul moZraobas axorcielebs winaswari gaTvlebiT daproeq-

tebuli, Wokis bolovanebTan dakavSirebuli mrudwiruli mimmarTvelebi.

aRniSnulis gaTvaliswineba da arsebuli literaturuli wyaroebis

analizi iZleva safuZvels davaskvnaT, rom dguSebis periferiebisaken

svlis dawyebisTanave, rgolur WvriteSi xdeba siTxis iZulebiTi drena-

Jirebis ucilobeli gaaqtiureba.

vakuum-dolis muSaobis procesi, gansakuTrebiT sawyisi momentSi

(rodesac xaxuni mimdinareobs hidrostatikur reJimSi), lenturi

sakisris muSaobis reJimis identuria. Sesabamisad, misi parametrebis

gansazRvrisas, iteraciuli meTodiT SeiZleba gamoviyenoT lenturi

sakisris gaangariSebis Teoriis sakiTxebi.

rac Seexeba xisti sayrdenisa da elastomeris (mag. amZravi dolis

zedapirisa da sakonveiero lentis) urTierTmiaxloebis zust Teoriul

analizs, igi jer ar arsebobs [54].

amgvarad, lenturi konveieris Cveulebrivi doluri amZravebi,

rodesac maT muSaoba uxdebaT sveli xaxuniT e.i. elastohidrostatikur

da elastohidrodinamikur reJimSi, SeiZleba gaviangariSoT, rogorc

mZlavri lenturi sakisari. vakuum-dolebis SemTxvevaSi ki saWiro iqneba

specifikuri procesebis gaTvaliswinebiT (dguSebis svliT drenaJirebis

efeqtis aCqareba; vakuumis formirebis procesisa da dolis xazovani

siCqaris meqanikuri blokireba da a.S) amZravis ZiriTadi parametrebis

angariSis meTodikis damuSaveba.

sakontaqto zedapirebze siTxis (nebismieris) arseboba, vfiqrobT,

saWiroebs SezeTvis klasikuri Teoriis TvalsazrisiTac xaxunis Teoriis

sakiTxebis gamokvleva-damuSavebis aucileblobas. SezeTvis klasikuri

Teoria ki or reJims iTvaliswinebs (nax. 2.3): hidrodinamikurs da

zRvruls. SezeTvis TeoriaSi ZiriTad saangariSo parametrs warmoadgens

zomerfeldis ganzogadebuli ricxvi S0, romelic iangariSeba blanti

- 51 -


xaxunis Zalis SefardebiT Txel SemzeT apkze moqmed wnevis ZalasTan,

anu

S

0

τ L

pL

2

= 2

μU

ηN

= =

pL P

sadac τ aris mxebi Zabva; p _ normaluri (Zala) wneva (Zabva) ; N

_ brunvis sixSire; P _ saSualo dawneva; μ _ siTxis siblante ; U _

siTxis moZraobis siCqare.

- 52 -

(2.1)

zomerfeldis ricxvs fundamentaluri mniSvneloba [55] eniWeba

SezeTvis amocanebis amoxsnaSi da warmoadgens sakisrebis

konstruirebisas erT-erT mniSvnelovan parametrs [54, 55].

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT siTxis Sris sisqe da Sesabamisad

WvriteSi siTxis xarji da moZraobis siCqare dolze lentis

swrafobis wertilidan Camoqanebis wertilamde maqsimalurad mcirdeba

(TiTqmis utoldeba nuls), rac eTanxmeba xaxunis xasiaTis cvlilebas

Txevadidan (hidrodinamikuridan) zRvrulamde da Semdeg ukve mSral

xaxunamde [54, 55]. xaxunis procesis aseTi cvlileba ganpirobebulia

zomerfeldis ganzogadoebuli ricxvis cvlilebiT (ix. nax. 2.3.) [55].

petrovis asimptota

nax. 2.3.


naxazze 2.3 warmodgenili grafikis mixedviT xaxunis koefi-

cientis maqsimaluri mniSvneloba Seesabameba: hidrodinamikuri

reJimisas _ zomerfeldis ganzogadebuli ricxvis maqsimalur

mniSvnelobas, an mSrali xaxunis reJimisas _ zomerfeldis

ganzogadebuli ricxvis minimalur mniSvnelobas. Cveni SemTxvevisaTvis

avm tipis vakuum-amZravis muSaobis optimalur reJims warmoadgens

mSrali xaxunis reJimi, zomerfeldis ganzogadebuli ricxvis (S 0)

minimaluri mniSvnelobisas. (2.1) gamosaxulebis mixedviT S 0-is

Semcireba ganpirobebulia, rodesac: μ _ siTxis siblante, U _ siTxis

moZraobis siCqare an SeiZleba orive erTadac miiswrafis nulisaken.

(U→0)

(μ→0)

e.i.

S

0

( U ≈ 0)

U ( η ≈ 0)

μ

=

pL

- 53 -

= an

2.4. vakuum-amZravis xaxunis kvanZebis stenduri gamocda

pL

≈ 0

2.4.1. xaxunis kvanZebis gamosacdeli stendis mowyobiloba

xaxunis kvanZebis sakontaqto zedapirebis eqsperimentuli

SeswavlisaTvis visargebleT stendis bazisuri nawiliT, romelic Seiqmna

petrov-Jukovskis amocanis mixedviT avm tipis vakuum-amZravis statikaSi

kvlevisaTvis [60]. 2.2 paragrafSi warmodgenili xaxunis kvanZebis

eqsperimentulad SeswavlisaTvis, stendi mzaddeboda nax. 2.4, 2.5. da 2.6-ze

warmodgenili sqemebis Sesabamisad, _ kvlevis etapebis Tanxvdenilad.

sqemebs Tan erTvis stendis rekonstruqciuli kvanZebis foto masala.

kvleva mimdinareobda sam etapad. pirveli etapi (nax. 2.4.) iTvaliswinebda

vakuum-amZravebis sxva da sxva konstruqciis sakontaqto zedapirebiT da

sakonveiero lentiT Seqmnili rgoluri Wvritis hermetizaciis xaris-

xobriv Sefasebas. meore etapi (nax. 2.5.) _ rgolur Wvriteze mierTebuli

koleqtoris SemTxvevaSi vakuum-sistemis mier damatebiT Sewovili siTxis

raodenobis gansazRvras. mesame etapi (nax. 2.6.) _ uSualod avm-is

dguSebis hermetizaciis xarisxobriv Sefasebas.


eqsperimentebi tardeboda samive etapisaTvis maqsimalurad erT-

nair pirobebSi da Sedegebi fiqsirdeboda Sesabamis cxrilebSi. saregu-

lirebel parametrebad miRebuli iyo: lentis swrafobis S s da Camoqa-

nebis S C Stoebis daWimulobebi; vakuumis sidide; xaxunis pirobebi: hidro-

dinamikuri, zRvruli da mSrali; vakuums daqvemdebarebuli sakontaqto

zedapiris _ (recipientis) adgilmdebareoba rgolur WvriteSi da

sakontaqto zedapirebis konstruqciis (tipzomebis 12 ZiriTadi) varianti

(ix. cxrili 2.1.). TviToeuli parametris cvlilebiT Catarebuli

eqsperimentis Sedegebi fiqsirdeboda specialuri nomriT aRniSnul 2.1.

cxrilis damatebaSi (ix. mag. 2.1. cxrilis damateba #1, 2...12 da a.S.). (1...12 _

variantis nomeria, I, II, III _ xaxunis pirobebi. I _ mSrali; II _ zRvruli;

III hidrodinamikuri).

laboratoriuli kvlevis yvela etapze ucvleli iyo Semdegi

monacemebi:

1. dolis diametri, mm; D=360;

2. dolis sigane, mm; Bd=520;

3. Raris (anu misi Sesabimisi recipientis) nomris aTvlis mimarTuleba S C-

dan S s-ken _ P1, P2 . . . Pn;

4. lentis sigane, mm; B l=500;

5. erTnairi parametrebis mqone Rarebis raodenoba (ix. cxrili 2.1.-is

SeniSvnebi);

6. Raris centraluri naxvretis diametri, d nax=6 mm;

7. yvela saxisa da konstruqcis Raaris siRrme, mm; h=2,0.

bazisuri stendis etapis Sesabamisad momzadeba xdeboda vakuumis

pirobebisaTvis misaRebi masalebiT (mag. vakuumuri moqnili milebi),

samarjvebiT da xelsawyoebiT. etapis Sesatyvisi cdebis Catarebisas

gamosacdeli kvanZis mdgomareoba maqsimalurad Seesatyviseboda

realurs. cdebis Catarebisas vakuum-dolis dgaris mimarT saWiro

mdgomareobaSi fiqsireba (ix. cxr. 2.1.), xorcieldeboda dolis lilvze

damagrebuli xrutuna Tvalisa da CarCoze damontaJebuli sarekelas

saSualebiT. saCeris aseTi konstruqcia saSualebas gvaZlevda

dagvefiqsirebina dolis mocemuli (saWiro) zedapiri nebismier poziciaSi

- 54 -


goluri Wvritis mimarT lentis swrafobis, Camoqanebis an maT Soris

nebismier ubanSi.

vakuumis wyarod gamoyenebuli iyo oryvinTiani mimdevrobiTi

moqmedebis meqanikuri ВН-2МГ tipis vakuum-tumbo. misi saSualebiT

amotumbvis siswrafe 3947 pa (0,04 at) wnevisas Seadgens 20,88 m 3 /sT.

varia

ntis

#

I sqema

ba

bb

bg

Bl

SC

Ss

la

lb

lg

abg aab

- 55 -

II sqema

ba

bb

bg

a

SC

Bl

dnax

Ss

lg

d

lb

la

cxrili 2.1.

b a b b b g a ab a bg l a l b l g SeniSvnebi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 gluvzedapiriani _ gaCarxuli α=π

2

3

gaCarx.

16

16

16

16

16

_

10

10

10

_

280

280

280

280

280

cxrili 2.1.

nR=12 4* vakuum-dolis 16 20/10 sakontaqto 20/10 10 zedapirebis 30 konstruqciuli 280 420 420 parametrebi

5* 20/10 20/10 20/10 30 30 420 420 420 n

zomebi (ricxviTi mniSvnelobebi) mm-Sia

R=10

6* 20/10 20/10 gaCarx. 30 _ 420 420 _

7 20 20 20 40 40 420 420 420 nR=5 8 20 20 10 40 23 420 420 420 nR=1 9 10 10 10 10 10 420 420 420 nR=14 10 10 10 10 15 15 420 420 420 nR=12 11 10 10 10 20 20 420 420 420 nR=9 12 20 20 10 40 20 420 420 420

* 20/10 ∼ Seesatyviseba d/b (ix. 2.1. cxrilis II sqema)


dolis sakontaqto zedapiris saxesxvaobebi cxrili 2.1.-is mixedviT

- 56 -

varianti I

varianti II, III


- 57 -

varianti IV, V

varianti VI


- 58 -

varianti VII, VIII, IX

varianti X


- 59 -

varianti XI

varianti XII


xaxunis reJimi: rgolur WvriteSi _ I

koleqtorSi _ I

- 60 -

2.1. cxrilis damateba # 7

amZrav dolze sakonveiero lentis Semoxvevis kuTxe α=180°

SeniSvna: a) dolis sakontaqto zedapirze S C-dan α kuTxiT ganlagebuli

#

sami mezobeli Raridan vakuum-tumbosTan mierTebuli iyo centra-

luri (ix. I da II sqema da 2.1. cxrilis damatebis 6, 7 da 8 sveti).

b) laboratoriuli stendis awyoba xdeboda: cxrilis 6, 7, 8,

svetisaTvis nax. 2.4.-ze warmodgenili sqemiT; xolo 9, 10, 11,

svetisaTvis nax. 2.5.-ze warmodgenili sqemiT.

S C, dkn

S s, dkn

P⋅10 5 , pa

recipientebis

mdebareoba SC-is mimarT α°

p a , pa

koleqtoris

gareSe

q b

rot ,

l/sT

p g , pa

sqemaSi CarTuli

wriuli

koleqtorisaTvis

p a′ , pa

q b

rot ′ ,

l/sT

p g′ , pa

SeniSvnebi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1

10 0 1200 0 0 7800 0

50 850 0,92 90 0 1180 0 0 7780 0

170 0 1310 0 0 7880 0

2

10 0 1180 0 0 7800 0

100 1650 0,92 90 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

170 0 1150 0 0 7880 0

3

10 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

150 2100 0,92 90 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

170 0 1100 0 0 7880 0

4

10 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

200 2470 0,92 90 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

170 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

5

10 0 1100 0 0 7880 0

300 2930 0,92 90 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

170 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

6

10 0 1100 0 0 7880 0

400 3260 0,92 90 0 1100 0 0 7800 0

170 0 1100 0 0 7800 0


2.4.2 eqsperimentuli kvlevis meTodika da gamzomi aparatura

vakuum-amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebis optimaluri parametre-

bis eqsperimentuli kvlevisaTvis damuSavda meTodika, romelic iTvalis-

winebs xaxunis TiToeuli kvanZis gavlenis Seswavlas sakontaqto zedapi-

ris weviT Tvisebaze. kvlevis aseTi meTodika gamarTlebulia wina kvle-

vebis [60] Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiTac, romlebSic vakuumuri gawovis

mxolod adgilmdebareobis Secvlam TiTqmis samjer gazarda erTnairi

konstruqciisa da tip-zomis zedapiris weviTi Tviseba. meTodika iTvalis-

winebs kvleviTi samuSaoebis sam etaps, xolo sakvlevi konstruqciis

SerCeuli zedapirebi ganvaTavseT laboratoriuli kvlevebisaTvis gan-

kuTvnil ori vakuum-dolis zedapirze. zedapirebis pirveli eqvsi

varianti (ix. cxrili 2.1.) ganTavsebulia erT dolze, xolo misi kvlevis

Sedegebi Setanilia cxrilebSi, romlebic inomreboda 2.1. cxriliT

gaTvaliswinebuli variantis nomris Sesabamisad, magaliTad varianti #1-

is kvlevis Sedegebi Setanilia cxrilSi, romelic aRricxulia

Semdegnairad (2.1. cxrilis damateba #1). zedapirebis meore eqvsi (7÷12 ix.

cxrilSi 2.1.). varianti ganTavsebulia meore dolze, xolo kvlevis

Sedegebi fiqsirdeboda Sesabamis cxrilebSi, magaliTad (2.1. cxrilis

damateba #7 da a.S.) Tu 2.1 cxriliT gaTvaliswinebul variantze

eqsperimenti tardeboda ramdenimejer, cvladi parametrebis (mag. vakuumi,

sawyisi daWimuloba(S C), xaxunis reJimi da a.S.) gavlenis SeswavlisaTvis,

maSin cxrilSi sadac Sesabamisi sidideebi fiqsirdeboda Segvqonda

damatebiTi aRniSvna (mag. 2.1. cxrilis damateba #7).

samive etapiT eqsperimentebis Sesrulebisas, anaTvlebis aReba

(magaliTad vakuumis sididis, haeris xarjis da a.S.) warmoebda sami

mezobeli Raridan, romelTagan vakuumis wyaroSi CarTuli iyo mxolod

centraluri Rari. Tu Rarebs Sorisi segmentis saSualebiT moxdeboda

centraluri Raris recipientis mokled SerTva ganapira Raris

recipienTebTan, maSin es movlena aisaxeboda am Rarebis recipientebze

CarTuli vakuummetrebis saSualebiT e.i. dafiqsirdeboda ara mxolod

centraluri Raris vakuummetris Cveneba, aramed danarCeni orisac (ragind

umniSvnelo, magram mainc).

- 61 -


nax. 2.4.

- 62 -



nax. 2.5.

- 63 -


pirveli etapis kvleviTi samuSaoebis Sesrulebis Semdeg, stendi

mzaddeboda meore etapisaTvis nax. 2.5.-ze warmodgenili sqemis mixedviT.

amisaTvis 12k vakuumuri milis saSualebiT wriuli koleqtoris moZravi

nawili uerTdeba amZravi dolis rgolur Wvrites 12 centraluri

naxvretis saSualebiT. koleqtoris meore naxevari _ uZravi nawili, 10

vakuum-milis saSualebiT ki ukavSirdeboda РС-3 (РС-5) tipis rotametris

miltuCs da 8 vakuummetrisa da 14 wrfivi koleqtoris saSualebiT

irTveboda ВН-2МГ tipis meqanikur vakuumtumboSi. nebismieri saWiro

recipientis vakuum-sistemidan CarTva amorTvis operaciebi xorcielde-

boda 6 ventilis saSualebiT

mesame etapis kvleviTi samuSaoebisaTvis stendi nax. 2.6-ze warmod-

genili sqemis mixedviT mzaddeboda. amisaTvis avm vakuum-dolis axal

konstruqciul anakrefze (ix. foto masala nax. 2.6). uSualod 12

centraluri naxvretisa da 10 vakuumuri milis saSualebiT xdeboda avm-

is dguSiseuli sivrcis mierTeba vakuumis wyarosTan 9 rotametrisa, 8

vakuummetrisa da 6 ventilis gavliT 14 wrfivi koleqtoris saSualebiT.

am etapze dguSiseuli sivrcis hermetizacia mowmdeboda individualurad

sxvadasxva sididis vakuumisa da dguSiseuli sawyisi moculobebis dros.

Sedegebi kvlav fiqsirdeboda cxrilebSi zemoT motanili sqemisa da

aRniSvnebis saSualebiT.

vakuum-dolis sakontaqto zedapirebis 12-ve varianti, rogorc

konstruqciis aseve geometriuli parametrebis mixedviT damzadda

winaswari, _ makro elastohidrodinamikuri Teoriisa da eqsperimentuli

kvlevebis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

yvela saWiro fizikuri sididis gazomvisaTvis laboratoriul

stendSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo Sesabamisi aparatura. aTvlebi warmoebda:

sawyisi (programuli) daWimulobis (S C) gazomvisaTvis _ ДПУ-0,5 tipis

dinamometridan; swrafobis wertilSi lentis daWimulobis (S s)

gazomvisaTvis _ ДПУ 5-2 tipis dinamometridan; sakvlev recipientebSi

gamavali siTxis xarjis gasazomad _ РС-3 (РС-5) tipis rotametridan,

vakuum-arxebSi gauxSoebis mniSvneloba _ ВО tipis vakuummetridan.

- 64 -


5

4

6

nax. 2.6.

- 65 -


Tavi III. vakuum-amZravis optimaluri sakontaqto

zedapiris damuSaveba da Teoriuli gamokvleva

3.1. teqnikuri moTxovnebi sakontaqto zedapiris mimarT

miuxedavad winamorbed mkvlevarTa mier miRebuli maRali

teqnikuri maCveeeneblebisa [5÷32; 56÷63] vakuum-amZravebi kvlavac

saWiroeben konstruqciisa da vakuumis Seqmnis teqnologiuri procesis

Semdgom srulyofas. gansakuTrebiT es exeba (1-5; 2-8; 3-11-14-16-21; 4-30-31)

sqemiT momuSave (ix. nax. 1.1. vakuum-amZravebis klasifikacia) amZravebs.

amZravebis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi da is problemuri amocanebi,

romelTa gamoc umjobesia zogierT konstruqciaze uari ganvacxadoT,

vrcladaa warmodgenili winamdebare naSromis 1.2 da 1.3 paragrafebSi.

viTvaliswinebT ra Cvens mier Catarebuli sapatento da samecniero-

kvleviTi samuSaoebis analizis Sedegebs mizanSewonilad migvaCnia

vakuum-amZravis sakontaqto zedapiris konstruqciisa da optimaluri

parametrebis damuSaveba-gaangariSebisas gaviTvaliswinoT Semdegi

teqnikuri moTxovnebi:

1. vakuum-amZravis sakonveiero lentTan sakontaqto rgolur

WvriteSi vakuumis formireba umjobesia ganxorcieldes avtonomiuri

vakuumuri meqanizmebiT (avm), romlebic (romelTa dguSiseuli sivrce)

sakontaqto zedapiris vakuum-arxebTan dakavSirebuli iqneba eqsplua-

tacia-remontisaTvis moxerxebuli da martivi kvanZebis saSualebiT;

2. amZravi vakuum-dolis margi qmedebis koeficientis gazrdis

mizniT, aucilebelia sakontaqto rgolur WvriteSi vakuumi iqmdebodes

hidrodinamikur reJimSi maTi muSaobis uzrunvelyofiT;

3. sakontaqto zedapirebis konstruireba-damuSavebisas, saWiroa

gaviTvaliswinoT rgoluri Wvritis warmoqmneli zedapirebis (lenti _

amZravi doli) simqiseebis iseTi mniSvnelobebi, romelTa drosac

SenarCunebuli iqneba siTxis moculobiTi Tvisebebi (ix. b. deriaginis

- 66 -


kvlevebisa da n. petrovis Sexedulebebis citireba. $ 2.1. gv. 2) da

uzrunvelyofili iqneba swrafi da srulyofili drenaJirebis procesi.

4. Tanabrad ganawilebuli gauxSoebis Seqmnis uzrunvelyofi-

saTvis ganmeorebiT vadasturebT im oTxive aucilebel pirobis

samarTlianobas, romelic Cvens mier ganxilulia 1.2 paragrafis daskvniT

nawilSi;

5. grZeldgariani sakonveiro danadgarebis saTavsi, kudis da

Sualeduri amZravebis damuSavebisas umjobesia (sasurvelia)

gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas erTgvarovani elementebisagan Sedgenili

anakrefi mwevi btyela (sakontaqto zedapiri), rac uzrunvelyofs

unifikaciis maRal dones da ufro moxerxebuls gaxdis eqspluataciisa

da remontis process;

6. vakuum-amZravis sakontaqto zedapiris konstruqcia unda

uzrunvelyofdes rgoluri Wvritis hermetizaciis aucilebel pirobebs:

avm-ebis urTierTdamoukidebel muSaobas (ar unda xdebodes mezobeli

recipientebidan siTxis gawova) da lentis napirebidan siTxis (haeris)

SeuRwevadobas.

7. amZravis vakuumuri recipientebis gare da Siga moculobebis

sidideebi unda uzrunvelyofdes vakuumis Seqmneli meqanizmebis

optimalur reJimSi muSaobas;

8. sakontaqto zedapiris geometrriuli parametrebis SerCeva-

gaangariSeba unda moxdes amZravis (sakonveiero lentis) kuTxuri

(xazovani, wrfivi) siCqaris gaTvaliswinebiT.

9. avm-ebiani vakuum-dolis dguSebis (plunJerebis da a.S.)

ukuqceviT-winsvliTi moZraobis uzrunvelmyofi muSta meqanizmebis

profilis gaTvla aucileblad unda moxdes e.w. “SedarebiTi simSvidis”

rkalis konkretuli pirobebisaTvis dasaSvebi sididis zRvrebSi.

10. saerTod yvela danarCeni (me-9 punqtis garda) tipis vakuum-

amZravebis recipientebsa da mis mimdebare sakontaqto zedapirebis

Sesabamis nawilze, vakuumis programuli mniSvnelobis formireba unda

dasruldes koleqtorebis (wriuli, wrfivi) vakuumuri saknis saSualebiT

α S.s. _ “SedarebiTi simSvidis” rkalis farglebSi.

- 67 -


11. sakontaqto zedapirebis optimizaciis miRwevis erT-erT

mniSvnelovan winapirobas warmoadgens amZravis ganxilva lenturi

sakisris rangSi; amasTan avm-is dguSiseuli sivrcis zedapirTan

SemaerTebeli centraluri naxvretis SerCeuli (naangariSebi) diametri,

unda uzrunvelyofdes siTxis nakadis uwyvetad gadadinebas vakuum-

sistemis recipientebSi _ sakontaqto zedapirze ganlagebuli gare

moculobebidan (Rarebidan, perforaciebidan da a.S.) vakuumis Semqmneli

meqanizmis muSa moculobamde (magaliTad dguSiseul sivrcemde).

sakontaqto zedapirebisa da mTlianad vakuum-amZravis konstruq-

ciisaTvis wayenebul erT-erT mniSvnelovan moTxovnas warmoadgens amZ-

ravi sadguris daSla-awyobisas, misi TiToeuli kvanZisa da Semadgeneli

nawilis advili misadgomoba, kompaqturoba, saremontod vargisianoba da

a.S.

3.2 vakuum-amZravis axali tipis sakontaqto zedapiri da misi

daxasiaTeba

vakuum-amZravebis Teoriis kvleviT samuSaoebSi [5÷32, 60] sakon-

taqto rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis Tanabrad ganawileba (rac sakontaqto

zedapirebisa da mTlianad amZravis efeqturad gamoyenebis aucilebel

pirobas warmoadgens) gaTvaliswinebulia, rogorc ganivi, aseve amZravis

wriuli (amZravze sakonveiro lentis swrafobidan Camoqanebis

wertilisaken) mimarTulebiT. samecniero-kvleviTi samuSaoebis gamoqvey-

nebul wyaroebSi warmodgenili Sedegebi xSirad urTierTis gamomricxavi

daskvnebiT mTavrdeba. ase magaliTad, erTi da igive naSromSi [22]

miTiTebulia, rom sakontaqto zedapirze vakuumis gavrceleba lentis

swrafobidan Camoqanebis mimarTulebiT Tanabari da maRalia, amasTan

amave naSromSi laparakia sakontaqto zedapirebis grZiv Rarebsa da

sakonveiero lents Soris “elastikuri kbilanuri modebis” arsebobis

SesaZleblobaze. es versia mkafiodaa gamokveTili volCekis sadiser-

tacio naSromSi, sadac igi cdilobs laboratoriuli eqsperimentis

- 68 -


SedegebiT gaamarTlos hipoTeza “elastikuri kbilanuri modebis”

arsebobaze (ix. nax. 1.19a). am hipoTezas igi mTeli damajereblobiT

ganixilavs imis gamo, rom misi laboratoriuli eqsperimentebis miTi-

Tebul grafikul nawilze (nax. 1.19a) naTlad Cans wevis Zalebis klebis

movlenebi sakonveiero lentis sawyisi daWimulobis gazrdisas (Cveni

azriT es movlena aixsneba eqsperimentis ara swori dagegmviTa da

CatarebiT). daaxloebiT msgavs Sedegebzea saubari mogvianebiT Sesrule-

bul kvlevebSic [60, 93]. Tumca SemdgomSi, ara mTlad mtkicebiT formaSi,

magram mainc Cveni azriT WeSmaritebasTan miaxlovebuli formiT

naSromSi [60] aRniSnulia, “rom wevis Zalebis gadacema vakuum-amZravebSi

xorcieldeba ara mxolod Wvrituli modebiT aramed, ZiriTadad lentisa

da dolis sakontaqto zedapirebis urTierTxaxunis Sedegad”. es

formulireba mainc mianiSnebs imaze, rom sakiTxi moiTxovs seriozul

Seswavlas. am mizniT vfiqrob Seswavlili iqna TiTqmis yvela kvleviTo

samuSao (ixile literaturis citireba), romelic exeboda perfori-

rebuli da Ria arxebiani sakontaqto zedapirebiT wevis Zalebis

realizacias. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom kvleviTi samuSao [60] arcerTi

cdis Sedegis grafikuli saxiT warmodgenil daskvniT nawilSi (ix. mag.

nax. 1.19b da g) wevis Zalebis Semcirebis faqti lentis sawyisi

daWimulobis zrdis SemTxvevaSi ar fiqsirdeba. amitom daujerebeli da

gaugebaria [60] samuSaos avtoris mier gakeTebuli daskvnis da Cvens mier

zemoT motanili am daskvnis citirebuli Sinaarsis samarTlianoba da

avtoris mier am movlenis aseTnairad aRiarebis mizezi.

aRniSnuli sakiTxis garkvevis mizniT, Cvens mier Sesrulda

eqsperimentebis seria sxvadasxva tipis lentebisaTvis, rodesac dolis

sakontaqto zedapirs lenti exeboda erT SemTxvevaSi muSa, xolo meore

SemTxvevaSi aramuSa SemonafeniT.

Cvens mier Catarebuli eqperimentebis SemTxvevaSic sawyisi

(programuli) daWimulobis zrdisas (0-dan Smax=500 dkn) wevis Zalis

araviTar SemcirebiT cvlilebas adgili ar hqonia. piriqiT, rogorc es

[60] naSromSia aRniSnuli, mxolod dolis sakuTari wevis faqtoris

amowurvis Semdeg, iwyeboda Camoqanebis wertilSi sakonveiro lentis

sawyisi (programuli) daWimulobis zrda, rac Tavis mxriv zrdida

- 69 -


swrafobis wertilSi daWimulobas. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos is umniSvnelo,

magram mainc Cvens mierac SeniSnuli iqna sakonveiro lentis defor-

maciebi, romelsac adgili hqonda Raris Wrilis adgilze amovardnili

amZravi dolis zedapiris seqtorul nawilze. Tumca am “deformaciis”

gavlena da “elastikuri kbilanuri modebis” faqti ver davafiqsireT.

yovelive zemoT aRniSnulis gamo SevimuSaveT axali formis

(konstruqciis) sakontaqto zedapiri (ix. nax. 1.20T), romelic akmayo-

filebs 3.1 paragrafSi warmodgenil yvela im teqnikur moTxovnas,

romlebic waeyeneba vakuum-dolis sakontaqto zedapirebs.

naxazze 1.20T warmodgenilia axali sakontaqto zedapiris centra-

luri nawilis fragmenti. lenturi konveierisaTvis simetriis RerZze,

vakuum-dolis zedapiris msaxvelis centrSi gakeTebulia garkveuli

diametris amonaCarxi _ 1, romlis fskerze avm-is dguSiseul sivrcesTan

dasakavSireblad gakeTebulia naxvreti 2, mis marjvniv da marcxniv

dolis zedapirze msaxvelis gaswvriv ganlagebulia 1 amonaCarxis msgavsi

3-3′ da a.S. wriuli amonaCarxebis mwkrivi.

amonaCarxebi dolis mezobel msaxvelebze da amdenad mTel

sakontaqto zedapirze Wadrakuli ganlagebisaa, xolo TiToeul

msaxvelze iwyeba da mTavrdeba im pirobiT, rom sakonveiero lentma

srulfasovnad gadafaros isini da imavdroulad ar moxdes maTi

saSualebiT siTxis (airis, wveTovanis) Sewova atmosferodan (an siTxis

rezervuaridan). msaxvelze wriuli amonaCarxebi erTmaneTs da yvela

erTad centraluri 2 naxvretis saSualebiT ukavSirdeba avm-is

dguSiseul sivrces 2 naxvretis diametris toli siganis 4 grZivi RariT,

romlis fskeri wriuli amonaCarxis fskeris donezea.

mezobel msaxvelze, romlis bijic SeirCeva (im pirobiT) iseTi

angariSiT, rom wina msaxvelze ganlagebuli amonaCarxebis mimarT

Wadrakulad ganlagebuli analogiuri konfiguraciis bijis

amonaCarxebidan da misi kuTvnili vakuumis aredan ar moxdes siTxis

gawova da amave dros, arc siTxiT gajerebuli rgoluri Wvritis

sakontaqto zona unda darCes umoqmedod, _ siTxis gawovis gareSe.

amgvari meTodiT Sesrulebuli dolis sakontaqto zedapiris ori

- 70 -


mezobeli vakuumuri arxidan TiToeuli imuSavebs damoukideblad,

rogorc avtonomiuri erTeuli.

aseTi konfiguraciis sakontaqto zedapiris SemTxvevaSi, misi erTi

bijis tolfasad lentis dazianebisas, amZravi imuSavebs wevis Zalebis

umniSvnelod Semcirebul reJimSi. koleqtoriani dolis SemTxvevaSi ki

sakonveiro lentis Zalze mcire dazianebac ki gamoiwvevs mTel vakuum-

sistemasa da rgolur WvriteSi vakuumis mniSvnelovan cvlilebas

(Semcirebas), Sesabamisad wevis Zalebis Semcirebas da vakuum-amZravis

sakonveiro lentis mimarT srialis reJimze gadasvlas.

Cveni azriT, aRniSnuli movlena warmoadgens mniSvnelovani

avariuli situaciis mizezs, gansakuTrebiT mZlavri grZeldgariani

sakonveiro sistemebis SemTxvevaSi, rac mniSvnelovnad Seamcirebs

danadgaris droSi gamoyenebis koeficients.

vakeTebT ra, winamdebare naSromSi, am etapisTvis Sesabamis

saboloo daskvnis analizs, gamomdinare zemoT motanili yvela

mtkicebiTi mosazrebidan, Cveni eqsperimentuli kvlevis obieqtad vsaxavT

yvela konstruqciis sakontaqto zedapirs (ix. nax. 1.20). gansakuTrebuli

yuradReba ki mieqceva axali tipis zedapiris kvlevas, rogorc

perspeqtiul, sakonveiro lentisaTvis karg sayrden da mcire sawyisi

moculobis mqone centraluri gawovis vakuum-arxebiT daproeqtebul

sakontaqto vakuum-zedapirs.

3.3. hidrodinamikur reJimSi momuSave vakuum-dolis lentTan

sakontaqto WvriteSi siTxis Sris sisqis gansazRvra

rogorc ukve viciT, hidrodinamikur (sveli xaxunis) reJimSi

momuSave vakuum-amZravis wevis faqtori da wevis Zalebi, identur

pirobebSi da sxva principze momuSave amZravebis (magaliTad futirebul

zedapiriani dolebiT; eleqtro-magnituri, magnito-eleqtruli, pnevmo-

kameriani da a.S. sxva specamZravebi) SemTxvevebTan SedarebiT [92]

gacilebiT meti da ufro stabiluria.

- 71 -


zemoT motanili versiis gaTvaliswinebiT da imis mxedvelobaSi

miRebiT, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi sakonveiro amZravebis muSaoba isedac

ZiriTadad mimdinareobs uxvad tenian pirobebSi, am paragrafSi Sevecaded

hidrodinamikur reJimSi momuSave vakuum-dolsa da lentur sakisars

Soris identurobis paraleli gagvevlo da uSualod lenturi

konveierebis amZravebis gaangariSebis TeoriaSi pirvelad iteraciuli

operaciebis saSualebiT (gansakuTrebiT lenturi konveieris amZravis

“SedarebiTi simSvidis” rkalis ubanze) gamogveyenebina SezeTvis

gaangariSebis klasikuri meTodebi da maTi Sedegebi.

gamoyenebaSi igulisxmeba drekadhidrodinamikur reJimSi momuSave

lenturi sakisris im variantis SerCeva, romelSic brunviT moZraobaSia,

rogorc lilvi (Cvens SemTxvevaSi vakuum-dolis sakontaqto zedapiri)

aseve lenti, SemdegSi am variantisaTvis gaangariSebis cnobili

meTodikis moZebnis safuZvelze Cveni sakvlevi obieqtis _ amZravi vakuum-

dolis zedapirisa da sakonveiro lentis rgolur WvriteSi siTxis Sris

sisqis gansazRvra, xolo xaxunis Semdgomi saWiro reJimis miRwevisaTvis,

zomerfeldis ganzogadebuli (S0) ricxvis im mniSvnelobis gansazRvra,

romelic saZiebo reJims Seesabameba.

zemoT motanili TiToeuli RonisZiebis SerCevisa da gaTvlis

Semdgom, saWiroa amZravi vakuum-dolis muSaobis iseTnairi reJimis

SerCeva, romelSic nebismieri kuTxuri siCqarisaTvis, rgolur WvriteSi

Cvens mier SerCeuli reJimi gabatondeba. am ukanasknelis ganxorcieleba

ki SesaZlebelia vakuumuri meqanizmebis dguSebis Wokis bolovanebis,

muSta meqanizmebis iseTi simrudis mimmarTvelebTan dakavSireba,

romlebic uzrunvelyofen siTxis uwyveti nakadiT dinebas dolis

sakontaqto zedapirisa da dguSiseuli sivrcis SemaerTebel naxvretSi,

drois konkretuli xangrZlivobisaTvis. nakadis uwyvetobis ganxorciele-

bisaTvis ki vfiqrobT saWiro iqneba naxvretis diametris gaangariSeba

dolis brunvis kuTxuri siCqarisa da siTxis parametrebis gaTvalis-

winebiT.

magram, vinaidan lenturi sakisrisagan gansxvavebiT xaxunis

amZravi meqanizmis daniSnulebas warmoadgens maqsimaluri xaxunis (wevis)

Zalis ganviTareba, SevecdebiT xaxunis procesis Semdgomi marTviT,

- 72 -


amZravis “drekadi srialis” (α d.s.) Sesabamis rkalze, makroelastohidro-

dinamikuridan zRvrulSi da bolos lentis drekadi srialis procesis

mSral reJimSi gadayvanas, riTac saSualeba gveZleva vifiqroT xaxunis

koeficientis sididis gazrdaze (ix. $ 2.3. nax. 2.3) rgoluri Wvritis im

ubanSi, sadac lentis daWimulobis kleba (da Sesabamisad lentis

drekadi srialiT moZraobis dawyeba) da sakontaqto zedapirze

normaluri Zalebis Semcireba mimdinareobs [85] anu es niSnavs, xaxunis

koeficientis gazrdas amZravis lentTan sakontaqto zedapiris (roluri

Wvritis) im ubanze, sadac mimdinareobs wevis Zalebis realizacia. am

sakiTxebis ufro vrceli da Rrma analizi, manqanebis kvanZebSi mimdinare

xaxunis saxeobiT dawyebuli, zedapiris xarisxisa da maTi fizikur-

qimiuri Tvisebebis ganxilviT, cveTis, SezeTvis, zedapirebis rRvevis

saxeobebis, sakontaqto simtkicisa da daRlilobis da a.S. mraval sxva, _

XXI saukunisaTvis Sesaferisi manqanaTmSeneblobis ganviTarebisaTvis

saWiro sakiTxze (rasac winamdebare naSromSi srulfasovnad ver

SevZlebT, maTi mravalferovnebisa da moculobis sididis gamo) SesaZle-

belia moZiebul iqnas Tanamedrove metad saintereso triboteqnikis [33]

(tribologiis, tribonikis) literaturul wyaroebSi (ix. literaturis

CamonaTvali) da internetis saSualebiT.

xaxunis Zalis sididis marTvis procesis realurad Sesrulebis

(ganxorcielebis) idea dagvebada mosriale zedapirebis wyvilis SezeTvis

reJimis gacnobisas, romelic warmodgenilia grafikuli saxiT – koordi-

natebSi: zomerfeldis ganzogaoebuli (S0) ricxvi, xaxunis (f) koeficienti

(ix. $ 2.3 nax. 2.3).

am sakiTxis Tundac mxolod miaxloebiTi modelirebisaTvis,

saWiroa sakontaqto rgolur WvriteSi siTxis Sris sawyisi da

Sualeduri sisqis gansazRvra. misi mniSvnelobis codna saWiroa Tundac

imitom, rom movaxerxoT vakuum-amZravis recipientebis gare, _ sakontaqto

zedapiris vakuum-arxis siTxiT Sevsebamde moculobis arsebuli

optimaluri parametrebis (gansazRvra) dadgena. am pirobis dakmayofi-

lebis Semdeg vfiqrobT, rom rgoluri Wvritis hermetizaciisac da (avm)

avtonomiuri vakuumuri meqanizmebisac, rogorc avtonomiuri erTeulis

muSaobac, TavisTavad mogvardeba.

- 73 -


swored am sakiTxs eZRvneba winamdebare naSromis es paragrafi.

cnobilia, rom amZravi dolis mimarT sakonveiro lentis

fardobiTi simrude – (1/r′) SeiZleba ganisazRvros formuliT [53].

2

d h

2

1 =

ds

r′

2 ⎡ ⎛ dh ⎞ ⎤

⎢1

+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎢⎣

⎝ ds ⎠ ⎥⎦

3

2

es simrude cvalebadia s-is anu amZravi dolis rkalis

mimarTulebiT. igi fizikuri modelis mixedviT SeiZleba Caiweros

Semdegi saxiT

1 1 1

r′

= −

(3.2)

r R

radgan amZravi dolisa da sakonveiro lentis sakontaqto

WvriteSi siTxis sisqe h umniSvnelod icvleba dolis rkalis gaswvriv

(amZravis SedarebiTi simSvidis rkalze β S.s. rac praqtikuladac

dasturdeba), amitom (dh/ds) 2 SeiZleba ugulebelvyoT, maSin (3.2)-Si (3.1)-is

gaTvaliswinebiT miviRebT

- 74 -

(3.1)

2

1 1 d h

= −

(3.3)

R

2

r ds

saidanac lentis simrudis radiusi amZravis mimarT

−1

2 ⎡1 d h⎤

R = ⎢ − 2 ⎥

(3.4)

⎣r

ds ⎦

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom moxaxune zedapirebs (doli –

sakonveiro lenti) Soris siTxis h Sre Cveulebriv imdenad Txelia, rom,

blanti xaxunis Zalebi gacilebiT didia inerciis Zalebze, maSin

WvriteSi arsebuli siTxis meqanikuri qcevis aRmweri navie-stoksis

gantoleba daiyvaneba reinoldsis yvelaze ufro zogadi formis (3.5)

gantolebaze

( ρh)

3

3

∂ ⎛ ρh

∂p

⎞ ∂ ⎛ ρh

∂p


∂ ∂

∂ ρ

= ( U −U

) + h ( U + U ) +

x ⎜ ⋅

x ⎟ +

y ⎜ ⋅

y ⎟ 6 1 2 6ρ

1 2 12

∂ ⎝ μ ∂ ⎠ ∂ ⎝ μ ∂ ⎠

∂x

∂x

∂t

( h)

xolo Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT, rom Wvritis Semqmneli zeda

zedapiri (ix. nax. 3.1) elastomeria, maSin (3.5) gantolebaSi U1=U, ρ=const

(3.5)


h

r= /2

Dd

- 75 -

(ix. nax. 3.2) Sesabamisad

(3.5) gantolebis marjvena

nawilis bolo Sesakrebi

nulis tolia, xolo

meore Sesakrebi pirveli

miaxlovebiT SeiZleba ga-

movricxoT da miviRebT,

nax. 3.1.

rom ukumSvadi erTganzomilebiani

denadi siTxisaTvis reinoldsis gantoleba Cveni pirobebi-

saTvis SeiZleba CavweroT (3.6) gamosaxulebis saxiT.

v= Mh

Mt

h

μ, ρ, p

∂ ⎛ 3 ∂p

⎞ ∂h

⎜h

⎟ = 6μU

∂s

⎝ ∂s

⎠ ∂s

U1

U2

y

z, h

miviRoT, rom lentis “SedarebiTi simSvidis” _ Rβ S.s. Sesabamis

rkalze wonasworobis pirobebis mixedviT lilvis mxridan moqmedebs

normaluri Zala.

x

(3.6)

T

P = (3.7)

R

gantolebaSi (3.7) (3.3)-is gaTvaliswinebiT miviRebT, rom

−1

2 ⎛

1 d h ⎞

p = T ⎜ − 2 ⎟ da

r

⎝ ds




3

∂p

⎛ d h ⎞

= T ⎜

⎜−

(3.8)

3

∂s

⎝ ds ⎠

am gantolebebSi p –aris lokaluri wneva siTxeSi; ρ da μ –

Sesabamisad simkvrive da absoliturad siblante; h – siTxis Sris sisqe;

U1 da U2 – Sesabamisad zeda da qveda sakontaqto zedapirebis srialis

siCqare; T da P – Sesabamisad lentis daWimuloba da normaluri Zala (ix.

nax.3.2).

Bd

Bl

dnax

nax. 3.2.

R


(3.6) gantolebaSi (3.8)-is gaTvaliswinebiT miviRebT e.w. lenturi

sakisris gantolebas

3

∂ ⎛ 3 ∂ h ⎞ 6μU

∂h

h = ⋅

s ⎜

s

⎟ 3

∂ ⎝ ∂ ⎠ T ∂s

cnobilia, rom a. grasgofis, n. Jukovskis, o. kammerris, a. fiberis,

a. friderixis, e. gutiaris da sxva mraval mecnier-mkvlevarTa mier

amZravis sakontaqto zedapiri gayofilia or nawilad: mosrialed – Cveni

SemTxvevisaTvis e.w. “drekadi srialis” da aramosrialed anu “SedarebiTi

simSvidis” ubnebad [1] aRniSnulis gamo SeiZleba miviRoT, rom

aramosriale ubanze U=0, xolo tvirTmzidi lentis daWimuloba T=const;

maSin

6μU

∂h

⋅ = 0

T ∂s

∂ ⎛


⎜h

∂s


3

- 76 -

3

∂ h ⎞

= 0 3 ⎟

∂s


Tu (3.10) gamosaxulebas vaintegrirebT, miviRebT

3

∂ h C

= 3 3

∂s

h

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.11)

radgan h/h0=(1-Δh) da Δh


6μU

T

= 3

a

- 77 -

= const

maSin (3.9) tolobis orive mxaris integrebiT miviRebT

anu

(3.13)

3

3 ∂ h 3

h + a h − c = 0

(3.14)

3

∂s

3

∂ h a

+ 3

∂s

h

am SemTxvevaSic avRniSnoT

h

h

0

= 1−

Δh

3

2

c

− = 0 3

h

anu h = h ( 1−

Δh)

(3.15)

0 (3.16)

Tu gantolebas (3.16)-s gaviTvaliswinebT (3.15)-Si da miRebul

Sedegs gavyofT h0-ze maSin


3

( 1−

Δh)

∂s

3

+

h

3

0

3

∂ Δh

a h

+ 3

∂s

a

3


2 4

( 1−

Δh)

h ( 1−

Δh)

3

0

4

h0

( 1−

Δh)

( 1−

Δh)

0

c

− c

= 0

3

3

= 0

(3.17)

(3.18)

Tu c-s SevarCevT ise, rom Sesruldes toloba a 3 h0=c, maSin

1

Tu ( ) 3

1−

Δh

SeiZleba CavweroT, rom

wevrebs, maSin

3

∂ Δh

+ 3

∂s

h

3

0

3

a Δh

( 1−

Δh)

3

= 0

(3.19)

gamosaxulebas gavSliT progresiis mwkrivad, maSin

Δh

( 1−

Δh)

3

= Δh

( ) 3

2 3

1+

Δh

− Δh

+ Δh

+ ........

Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT meore da ufro maRali rigis

3

3 2 4

( 1 + Δh)

= Δh

+ 3Δh

+ Δh

+ Δh

= h

Δh

Δ

da (3.19) gantoleba Caiwereba Semdegi saxiT

3

∂ Δh

a

+ 3

∂s

h

3

3

0

Δh

= 0

(3.20)

miRebuli gantolebis zogadi amonaxsni moicema Semdegi saxiT [45]

() s

λ1S

λ2S

λ3S

Δ h = Ae + Be + Ce

(3.21)


sadac A, B, C mudmivebia, xolo λ 1, λ 2, da λ 3 maxasiaTebeli

gantolebis fesvebia. (3.20) gamosaxuleba SeiZleba warmovadginoT,

rogorc

e.i.

amgvarad,

maSin

amitom

3

a

y′ ′

+ μ y = 0,

sadac μ = ; 3

h

3

0

- 78 -

y = e

λS

⎛ a ⎞

3 λS

⎛ a ⎞ λS

y ′ +


⎟ y = 0 , anu λ e + = 0

⎝ h


⎟ e ;

0 ⎠

⎝ h0


3 ⎡

3 ⎛ a ⎞ ⎤

λS

S

⎢λ

+


⎟ ⎥e

= 0 , vinaidan e ≠ 0


0 ⎣ ⎝ h ⎠ ⎥⎦

λ

3

2

3 ⎛ a ⎞

⎛ a ⎞⎛

2 a a ⎞

λ +


⎟ = 0 ; ⎟ = 0 2

⎝ h


⎜λ

+


⎟⎜

⎜ λ − λ +


;

0 ⎠

⎝ h0

⎠⎝

h0

h0


am gantolebis fesvebi iqneba

a

λ + = 0 ; anu

h

o

2

a a ⎛ a ⎞

± − 4 2 ⎜


h0

h0

⎝ h0


λ 2,

3 =

;

2

1

a

= −

h

0

2

0

3

2

a

2 a a

λ 1 = − ; λ − λ + = 0 ; 2

h

h h

3 2

2

a a

+ ⋅i

h0

h0

λ 2 =

;

2

3

0

λ =

a

a

λ ; λ = ( 1+

i 3)

; λ = ( 1−

i 3)

2

2h0 Tu gamoviyenebT eileris formulas

β

e i

= cos β + i sin β

3

2h0 maSin (3.21) gantolebidan SeiZleba CavweroT, rom

a

Δ h

Δ h

() s

a

h

() s

= Ae

= Ae

a

− S

h0

a

− S

h0

+ Be

+ Be

a

h

a

( 1+

i 3 ) S

( 1−i

3 )S

2h

+ Ce

a

2h0 0

a a

a a

S iS 3

− iS

2h0 2h0

2h0

2h0

⋅ e

+ Ce

() ⎟ − S

S ⎛ ⎞

S ⎛ ⋅

⋅ ⎞

h

2 a 3 ⋅ s a 3 ⋅ s 2 a 3 s a 3 s

0

0

Δ = + ⎜


0

h s Ae Be

+ ⎜


cos + i sin


Ce


cos − i sin

⎝ 2h0

2h0

⎠ ⎝ 2h0

2h0


a

h

⋅ e

0


3

0

2

3a 2

h0

2

⋅i


Δh

a


a

h

a 3 ⋅ s

2h

h0

2 0

() s = Ae + ( B + C)

e cos + i(

B − C)

s

- 79 -

0

e

a

s

2h0

a 3 ⋅ s

sin

2h

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT a-s mniSvnelobas (3.13) gamosaxulebidan da

aRvniSnavT, rom B+C=B1 da maSin SeiZleba CavweroT

Δh

Δh

6μu

s

6μu

s

6μu

3

8Th

6μu

s

6μu

3

8Th

−3

3

3

3

3

3

Th0

8Th0

8Th0

() s = Ae + B e cos 3 3s

+ C e sin 3 3s

6μu

s

3μu

s

1

3μu

3

4Th

−3

3

3

3

3

3

Th0

4Th0

4Th0

() s = Ae + B e cos 3 3s

+ C e sin 3 3s

1

0

0

1

3μu

s

1

3μu

3

4Th

0

0

0

(3.22)

miRebul (3.22) gantolebaSi A, B1, C1 namdvili mudmivebia da

ganisazRvreba konkretuli amocanis pirobidan.

3.4. vakuum-dolis rgoluri Wvritis dguSiseul sivrcesTan

SemaerTebel naxvretSi siTxis uwyvet nakadad dinebis kvleva

ganvixiloT hidrodinamikur reJimSi momuSave vakuum-dolis

lentTan sakontaqto WvriteSi, siTxis Sris sisqis Semcirebis

(minimumamde dayvanis) mizniT, vakuum-meqanizmebiT (dguSebiT) naxvretSi

siTxis uwyvet nakadad gawovis konkretuli SemTxveva (nax. 3.3.).

v0

p

p 0

dnax

Bl

nax. 3.3.

v

σ0

σ


vigulisxmoT, rom masobrivi Zala aris siTxis simZimis Zala da

naxvretis win RarSi da naxvretis Semdeg dguSiseul sivrceSi, wnevaTa

Soris sxvaobiT gamowveuli erTeulovani Zala.

kerZo SemTxvevaSi, roca siTxe ukumSia, SemosazRvrulia Sekruli

myari zedapiriT (Cvens SemTxvevaSi Raris konturebiT) da Z RerZi

SegviZlia mivmarToT vertikalurad zeviT, maSin SegviZlia bernulis

gantolebis mixedviT davweroT

2

v p

Z + + = const

2g

ρg

- 80 -

(3.23)

aRvniSnoT, rom σ aris naxvretis farTobi (ix. nax. 3.3.); σ 0 –

siTxis zedapiris farTobi RarSi; v – siTxis siCqare naxvretSi, v0 –

siTxis siCqare zedapiris wertilSi (RarSi); p 0 – siTxis wneva RarSi; p –

siTxis wneva dguSiseul sivrceSi.

Raris σ 0 zedapirSi gamavali siTxis raodenoba drois erTeulSi

iqneba _ σ 0v0, xolo naxvretSi gamavali siTxis raodenoba ki σv. siTxis

dinebis uwyvetobis pirobis mixedviT

σ 0 v0 = σv

(3.24)

(3.23)-is gaTvaliswinebiT SegviZlia davweroT

2

2

v0

p0

v p

zg + + = zg + +

2 ρ 2 ρ

(3.25)

(3.24) da (3.25) gamosaxulebebis saSualebiT SegviZlia

ganvsazRvroT naxvretSi siTxis dinebis siCqare

v

0

v

2

0

σ

= v ;

σ

(3.26)-Si (3.27)-is gaTvaliswinebiT

avRniSnoT p0 − p = Δp

maSin

0

2 p0

2 2 p

+ = v +

(3.26)

ρ ρ

v

2

v

σ

2

0

2

= 2

σ 0

2

v

(3.27)

2

2 σ 2 p0

− 2 p

− v = ,

2

σ ρ

2

2 ⎛ σ ⎞ 2Δp

v ⎜ ⎟


1− = 2

σ ⎟

⎝ 0 ⎠ ρ

0

(3.28)


da

2

2Δpσ

v =

(3.29)

ρ

0

2 2 ( σ −σ

)

xolo Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom

maSin (3.28) gantolebidan

2

0

0

2

σ

≈ 0

σ

Δp

v =

ρ

2

naxvretSi gamavali siTxis xarji Q = σv

xolo naxvretis kveTis aucilebeli farTobi

2

2

Q

⎛ πd

⎞ nax Q

σ = ; anu ⎜ ⎟ = 2

v

⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ ⎠ v

am gamosaxulebidan

2 ( d )

saidanac naxvretis diametri

d

() 1

2

8ρQ

π Δp

- 81 -

2

(3.30)

(3.31)

(3.32)

2

nax = (3.33)

2

= 0,

95

Q ⋅

ρ

Δp

nax

4

(3.34)

rogorc (3.34) gamosaxulebidan Cans naxvretis diametris sidide

pirdapirproporciulia siTxis saWiro xarjisa da misi siblantisa da

ukuproporciulia wnevaTa sxvaobisa, romelic amZravis amuSavebisTanave

myisurad izrdeba dolisa da lentis sakontaqto WvriteSi (RarSi,

perforaciaSi, maTi kombinaciiTYSeqmnil arxSi da a.S.).

e.i. damokidebuleba SeiZleba CavweroT

d

nax

⎛ Q

= f



, ρ ⎞


Δp


es piroba aucileblad unda gaviTvaliswinoT sakonveiero

amZravis konstruirebisa da damzadebis dros.

Tu (3.30) gamosaxulebas, ragind mcire, magram nulisagan gansxva-

vebul mniSvnelobas mivaniWebT, maSin (3.32)-Si (3.28)-is gaTvaliswinebiT


Q

v

2

σ =

2

; 2

da

2

0

2

ρσ

Q

2

2 ⎛ σ ⎞

ρ ⎜

⎜1−


2

⎝ σ 0 ⎠

2Δp

2

2 −2

2

σ =

; σ ( ρσ 0 ) ρ

2 1

σ = anu

2

2Δp

σ + Q ρ

Q

2

0

(3.36) gaviTvaliswinoT, rom

d

xolo d ( 2)

2

nax(2)

- 82 -

2

0

2

2Δp + Q = Q

2

2 Q ρ

σ = (3.35)

2

Q ρ

2Δp

+

σ

4Q

= ⋅

π

2 2

Q ρσ 0

= (3.36)

2

2Δpσ + Q ρ

2

σ 2

0

2

2

2 ⎛ πd

⎞ nax σ = ⎜ , maSin



4 ⎟⎟


2

ρσ

2

2Δpσ

+ Q

0

ρσ

0

nax = 0,

95 Q ⋅ 4

2

0

(3.37)

2 2

Δpσ

0 + Q ρ

2

σ

amgvarad, Tu CaTvliT, rom ≈ 0 , maSin naxvretis diametrs

2

σ

viangariSebT (3.34) formuliT; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi angariSs Cava-

tarebT (3.37) gamosaxulebiT. ganvsazRvroT (3.34) da (3.37) gamosaxulebebiT

naangariSeb diametrebs Soris sxvaoba.

0

amisaTvis (3.37) gantolebis fesqveSa gamosaxuleba warmovadginoT

qvemoT motanili saxiT:

2

2

2 2

ρσ ρ ⎛ ρσ ρ ⎞

0

0

ρ Q ρ

= + ⎜

2 2

2 2

2 2

pσ 0 Q ρ p ⎜

− ⎟ = +

Δ + Δ pσ

0 Q ρ p ⎟

⎝ Δ + Δ ⎠ Δp

Δp

σ 0 + ΔpQ

maSin (3.37) formula SeiZleba CavweroT

d

nax

( 2)

=

0,

95

Q ⋅

xolo sxvaoba, sm

=

− d

dnax 1

( 2)

nax(

)

0,

95

Q ⋅

4

4

=

ρ ⎛


Δp



2 2

ρ Q ρ

+ 2

Δp

Δp

σ + ΔpQ

0,

95

4


Q ⋅ ⎜



4

2

0

2

ρ

2

Q ρ ⎞

1+

−1⎟

2 2

Δpσ

+ ⎟

0 Q ρ


2

ρ

2 2

ρ Q ρ

+


2 2

2

Δp

Δp

σ + ΔpQ

ρ

0

4

ρ ⎞

⎟ =

Δp



2

ρ

(3.38)


davuSvaT, rom siTxis (wylis) temperatura t, °C=18°, maSin

ρ=0,00105 dkn/mwm; Δp=0,95 kg/sm 2 =9500 dkn/m 2 ;

Qmax=504 sm 3 ; b×l×h=3,36×250×0,6 sm 3 (SerCeuli etalonuri modelisaTvis)

Qmin=50,4 sm 3 ; b×l×h=2×42×0,6 sm 3 (laboratoriuli stendisaTvis)

σ0(max)= 840 sm 2 , SerCeuli etalonuri modelisaTvis;

σ0(min)= 84 sm 2 , laboratoriuli stendisaTvis;

am monacemebis mixedviT laboratoriuli stendisaTvis (3.38)

gantolebidan miviRebT

( d − d )

=

=

nax

0,

95

0,

95

( 2)

nax(

1)

⋅ 7,

099 ⋅

= 1,223170 ⋅10

( d − d )

nax

4

min

0,

95

1,10526 ⋅10

⋅ 7,

099 ⋅ 0,018233⋅

−9

=

sm

50,

4

-7



⋅⎜



4

4

0,

00105 ⎛


9500 ⎜


4

2

50,

4 ⋅ 0,

00105

1+

2 2

9500 ⋅84

+ 50,

4 ⋅ 0,

00105

2,667168 ⎞

1+

−1⎟

=

67032000 + 2,667168 ⎟


4

-8

( 1+

3,978965 ⋅10

−1)

= 0,12296426365

⋅ ( 1,000000009947

-1)

xolo SerCeuli modelisaTvis

( 2)

nax(

1)

= 3,868024 ⋅10

max

−9

sm

0,

95

504 ⋅

4

= 0,

95 ⋅ 22,44994432

⋅ 1,10526 ⋅10

= 0,

95 ⋅ 22,44994432

⋅ 0,018233⋅

=

4

0,

00105 ⎛


9500 ⎜


-7


⋅⎜



4

4

266,7168 ⎞

1+

−1⎟

=

6703200000 + 266,7168 ⎟


- 83 -


−1⎟

=



2

504 ⋅ 0,

00105 ⎞

1+

−1⎟

=

2 2

9500 ⋅840

+ 504 ⋅ 0,

00105 ⎟


4

-8

( 1+

3,9789472 ⋅10

−1)

= 0,3888633⋅

( 1,000000009947

-1)

aqedan gamomdinare (3.34) gamosaxulebiT naxvretis diametris

naangariSebi sidide dasaSvebi cdomilebis areSia, amitom proeqtirebisas,

rogorc SedarebiT martivs, rekomendacia eZleva (3.34) formuliT

sargeblobas. gavarCioT (3.34) gamosaxuleba detalurad

d

nax

() 1

=

0,

95

Q ⋅

4

ρ

Δp

=

=


cxrili 3.1.

, ricxviTi mniSvnelobebi ρ =f (t, ° C)

ρ

Δp

4

0.001797 0.001518 0.001307 0.001140 0.001004 0.000895 0.000803 0.000655 0.000551 0.000470 0.000407 0.000357 0.000317 0.000284

ρ ⋅10-6 dkn/mwm

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

t, °C

Δp, atm

Δp

dkn/m 2

500 0,05 0.043541 0.041742 0.040209 0.038858 0.037644 0.036577 0.035599 0.033831 0.032400 0.031137 0.030037 0.029069 0.028218 0.027453

1000 0,10 0.036613 0.035101 0.033812 0.032676 0.031654 0.030758 0.029935 0.028449 0.027245 0.026183 0.025258 0.024444 0.023728 0.023085

2000 0,20 0.030788 0.029516 0.028432 0.027477 0.026618 0.025864 0.025172 0.023922 0.022910 0.022017 0.021239 0.020555 0.019953 0.019412

3000 0,30 0.027820 0.026671 0.025691 0.024828 0.024052 0.023371 0.022746 0.021616 0.020702 0.019895 0.019192 0.018573 0.018030 0.017541

4000 0,40 0.025889 0.024820 0.023909 0.023105 0.022383 0.021749 0.021167 0.020116 0.019265 0.018514 0.017860 0.017284 0.016778 0.016324

- 84 -

5000 0,50 0.024485 0.023473 0.022611 0.021852 0.021169 0.020569 0.020019 0.019025 0.018220 0.017510 0.016891 0.016346 0.015868 0.015438

6000 0,60 0.023394 0.022427 0.021604 0.020878 0.020225 0.019653 0.019127 0.018177 0.017408 0.016730 0.016138 0.015618 0.015161 0.014750

7000 0,70 0.022509 0.021580 0.020787 0.020089 0.019461 0.018910 0.018404 0.017490 0.016750 0.016097 0.015528 0.015028 0.014588 0.014192

8000 0,80 0.021770 0.020871 0.020105 0.019429 0.018822 0.018289 0.017799 0.016916 0.016200 0.015569 0.015018 0.014534 0.014109 0.013726

9000 0,90 0.021139 0.020265 0.019521 0.018865 0.018276 0.017758 0.017283 0.016425 0.015730 0.015117 0.014583 0.014113 0.013699 0.013328

9500 0,95 0.020855 0.019993 0.019259 0.018612 0.018030 0.017520 0.017051 0.016204 0.015519 0.014914 0.014387 0.013923 0.013516 0.013149

10000 -1 0.020589 0.019739 0.019014 0.018375 0.017801 0.017296 0.016834 0.015998 0.015321 0.014724 0.014204 0.013746 0.013343 0.012982


cxrili 3.2

, ricxviTi mniSvnelobebi ρ =f (t, ° C)

2 Δ p

ρ

=

cxrilis

v

0.001797 0.001518 0.001307 0.001140 0.001004 0.000895 0.000803 0.000655 0.000551 0.000470 0.000407 0.000357 0.000317 0.000284

p⋅10-6 dkn/mwm

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

t, °C

Δp, atm

Δp

dkn/m 2

500 0,05 746.0 811.6 874.7 936.6 998.0 1057.0 1115.9 1235.6 1347.2 1458.6 1567.5 1673.7 1776.1 1876.5

1000 0,10 1055.0 1147.8 1237.0 1419.1 1411.4 1494.9 1578.2 1747.4 1905.2 2062.8 2216.8 2366.9 2511.8 2653.7

2000 0,20 1492.0 1623.3 1749.4 1687.6 1996.0 2114.1 2231.9 2471.2 2694.4 2917.3 3135.0 3347.3 3552.2 3752.9

3000 0,30 1827.3 1988.1 2142.6 1867.6 2444.6 2589.2 2733.5 3026.6 3299.9 3572.9 3839.5 4099.6 4350.6 4596.4

4000 0,40 2109.9 2295.7 2474.0 2006.9 2822.8 2989.7 3156.4 3494.8 3810.4 4125.7 4433.5 4733.8 5023.6 5307.4

- 85 -

5000 0,50 2359.0 2566.6 2766.1 2122.0 3156.0 3342.6 3528.9 3907.3 4260.1 4612.7 4956.8 5292.6 5616.6 5933.9

6000 0,60 2584.1 2811.6 3030.1 2221.0 3457.2 3661.7 3865.7 4280.3 4666.8 5052.9 5429.9 5797.7 6152.6 6500.3

7000 0,70 2791.2 3036.9 3272.9 2308.2 3734.2 3955.1 4175.5 4623.2 5040.7 5457.8 5865.0 6262.2 6645.6 7021.1

8000 0,80 2983.9 3246.6 3498.8 2386.6 3992.0 4228.1 4463.8 4942.4 5388.7 5834.6 6269.9 6694.6 7104.4 7505.9

9000 0,90 3164.9 3443.5 3711.1 2457.9 4234.2 4484.6 4734.5 5242.2 5715.6 6188.5 6650.3 7100.7 7535.4 7961.2

9500 0,95 3251.6 3537.9 3812.8 2491.3 4350.2 4607.5 4864.3 5385.9 5872.2 6358.1 6832.5 7295.3 7741.9 8179.3

10000 -1 3336.1 3629.8 3911.8 2523.5 4463.2 4727.2 4990.7 5525.8 6024.8 6523.3 7010.0 7484.8 7943.0 8391.8


am gamosaxulebaSi ρ aris rgoluri Wvritis, dolis zedapiris

arxebis, centraluri naxvretisa da dguSiseuli sivrcis sawyisi mocu-

lobis Semavsebeli siTxis (wylis) siblante, romelic mniSvnelovnad

icvleba temperaturis gavleniT. viTvaliswinebT ra im farTo (areals)

diapazons, romelSic muSaoba uxdeba lenturi konveieris amZravs,

mizanSewonilad migvaCnia siTxis (wylis) siblante ganvixiloT tempera-

turis cvlilebis t =0÷100 °C-is zRvrebSi. Sesabamisad warmovadgineT

(3.34) gamosaxulebiT naangariSebi Sedegebis is ganmasxvavebeli

mniSvnelobebi, romelic miiReba 4

- 86 -

ρ

Tanamamravlis cvlilebiT.

Δp

Sedegebi warmodgenilia cxr. 3.1-Si. mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs ganicdis

siTxis moZraobis siCqarec. misi savaraudo cvlilebebis saorientacio

mniSvnelobebi, rogorc temperaturisa da siblantis, aseve vakuumis

mixedviT mocemulia cxr. 3.2.

miRebuli cxrilebis (cxr. 3.1 da 3.2) saSualebiT, nebismieri

sididis vakuumisa da diametris dolisaTvis, romelic brunvis sixSiriT

da geometriuli zomebiT eqvemdebareba standartiT gaTvaliswinebul

monacemebs, SegviZlia viangariSoT dolis sakontaqto zedapiris da avm-

is damakavSirebeli naxvretis diametri, romelic siTxis nakadis

uwyvetad gadadinebas uzrunvelyofs, Wvritedan dguSiseul sivrceSi.

amasTan, aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom es procesi unda

dasruldes dolis mTeli sakontaqto zedapiris 10-20 %-ze e.i.

“SedarebiTi simSvidis rkalze”; amisaTvis, vangariSobT Raris Sesatyvisi

moculobis siTxis im mniSvnelobas, romlis uwyvet nakadad gadadineba

SesaZlebelia “SedarebiTi simSvidis” ubanSi vakuumuri meqanizmebis

saSualebiT (misive dguSiseul sivrceSi).

( 0,


0,

2)

πRd

v

vSesaZlo =

vcxrili

= 628

v

v

lenti

(3.39) gamosaxulebaSi

cxrili

( 0,

314 ÷ 0,

) Rd

lenti

(3.39)

Δp

v =

ρ

2

cxrili da misi mniSvnelobebi aiReba

3.2 cxrilidan Sesabamisi svetis _ Δp da striqonis ρ=f(t °C) gadakveTaze.


aseve, cxr. 3.1. aiReba 4

ρ

gamosaxulebis ricxviTi mniSvnelobebi, xolo

Δp

lentis (dolis) standartuli siCqare Sesabamis sacnobaro litera-

turidan [88, 89, 90, 91, 92].

cxrilSi 3.2-Si mocemulia erTeulovan droSi naxvretidan uwyvet

nakadad momdinare siTxis siCqare (xarji). rogorc cxrilidan naTlad

Cans siTxis siCqare, temperaturis zrdiT (da Sesabamisad siblantis

SemcirebiT) izrdeba. ase magaliTad 500 dkn/m 2 gaiSviaTebisas da 0 °C-dan

100 °C-mde siTxis temperaturis momatebiT, siTxis siCqare (xarji)

icvleba 746-dan 1876-mde m/wm. erTidaigive simkvrivisas (mag. ρ=179⋅10 -6

dkn/mwm) ki izrdeba ra vakuumis mniSvneloba 5000 pa-dan 100 000-mde, 0 °C

garemosa da Sesabamisad siTxis temperaturisas, siTxis siCqare da

Sesabamisad xarji izrdeba 746-dan 3336-mde m/wm. xolo Tu temperatura

100 °C miaRwevs maSin siTxis siCqare vakuumis imave zRvrebSi cvlile-

bebisas 1876-dan 8392-mde m/wm izrdeba.

aRniSnuli faqti da is SemTxveva, rom konveieris amZravi muSaobas

iwyebs, sakontaqto zedapirze _ WvriteSi SedarebiT didi siblantis

mqone siTxiT (dabali temperaturis gamo) da vakuumis gareSe, rac

amZravis srulfasovan amuSavebamde gagrZeldeba, gvafiqrebinebs, _

naxvretis zoma, romelSic siTxem uwyvet nakadad unda idinos, saWiroa

gavTvaloT (3.2.) cxrilis v cxrilis da vakuumis sididis saSualo

(Sesabamisi) mniSvnelobis mixedviT (3.38) formuliT, xolo vakuumis

Seqmnis zonad unda miviRoT “SedarebiTi simSvidis” ubnis raRac

garkveuli nawili (misi sidide mniSvnelovnad iqneba damokidebuli avm-is

dguSis svlis maqsimalur mniSvnelobaze, rac Tavis mxriv ganapirobebs

muSta meqanizmis profils _ simrudes da misi eqscentrisitetis

mniSvnelobas). ubnis am nawilis sididis gaTvaliswineba moxdeba (3.38)

formulis mricxvelSi (0,1÷0,2) ricxvebidan, an mis maxloblobaSi

romelime saWiro cifris CasmiT.

nax. 3.4 warmodgenilia (3.2. cxrilis monacemebiT agebuli) vakuum-

dolis muSaobis sami reJimis Sesabamisi mrudi:

- 87 -


ρ,

dkn/mwm

2000 -1 2 3 3336 4 5

1600

1200

800

400

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,05

Δp

dkn/m 2

746

1492

1876

2791

6 7

3164

2984

2359

2110

3753

0 700 2100 3500

nax. 3.4.

4900 6300 7700

- 88 -

5307

5934

7021

8392

7506

7961

v, m/wm

mrudi – 1 aRwers process, rodesac v=f(ρ), ρ=f(t) da t=(0÷100) °C. am

dros Δp=500 dkn/m 2 =const;

mrudi – 3 aRwers process, rodesac v=f(Δp), Δp=0,05→-1 anu 500

dkn/m 2- dan 10 000-mde. Aam dros t=0 °C, xolo ρ=0,001797 dkn/mwm;

mrudi _ 2 aRwers process, rodesac v=f(ρ), ρ=f(t) da t=(0÷100) °C. am

dros Δp≈-1 anu 10 000 dkn/m 2 = const;

mrudi _ 4 aRwers process, v=f(Δp), Δp=0,05→-1 anu 500 dkn/m 2 -dan 10

000 dkn/m 2 -mde. am dros t=100 °C, xolo ρ=0,000284 dkn/mwm.

mrudi – 5 aRwers process, rodesac v=f(ρ), ρ=f(t°C) da t=(0÷100) °C. am

dros Δp=0,2 anu 2000 dkn/m 2 =const, xolo ρ=(284÷1797)⋅10 -6 ;

mrudi _ 6 aRwers process, rodesac v=f(Δp), Δp=0,05→-1 anu 500

dkn/m 2- dan 10 000-mde. Aam dros t=20 °C, xolo ρ=0,001004=const dkn/mwm;


1-3 da 2-4 reJimebis aRmweri mrudebi gadakveTis wertilebiT

gvaZleven im optimalur reJimebs, romelTa saSualebiT SegviZlia

ganvsazRvroT naxvretis optimaluri diametris saangariSod ρ da Δp-s

sawyisi monacemebi. maTive saSualebiT (3.39) formuliT ganisazRvreba

sakontaqto zedapiris vakuumuri arxis saorientacio moculoba, rome-

lic Semdgom grZiv parametrebSi gadaiTvleba yoveli konkretuli

SemTxvevisas. aseTi reJimuli wertilebis moZebna SesaZlebelia yoveli

konkretuli SemTxvevisaTvis cxrilebis (3.1) da (3.2)-is monacemebis

saSualebiT.

ganvixiloT Cvens mier SerCeuli:

a) laboratoriuli vakuum-dolisa (ix. winamdebare naSromis

Sesavali nawili); da

b) bazisuri (etalonuri) modelis vakuum-dolis magaliTze v SesaZlo-s

mniSvnelobis (3.39) gantolebiT da naxvretis d nax diametris optimaluri

zomis (3.34) gamosaxulebis gaangariSebis meTodika (wesi).

a) laboratoriuli vakuum-dolisaTvis B l=0,5 m; D d=0,36 m; α=180°;

Δp=0,95; v d=1,25÷1,6 m/wm; t=20 °C; maSin nax. 3.4.-dan (1-3) mrudebis reJimuli

wertilidan Δp≈0,2 dkn/m 2 -dan v=1600 m/wm; Sesabamisad cxrilidan (3.2)

viRebT (Δp-v)-saTvis ρ=1518⋅10 -6 da v cxr=1623 xolo 3.1 cxrilidan (ρ-Δpmax)

mixedviT 4

d

v

ρ

-s mniSvnelobas _ 0,01999; da bolos

Δp

0,

15πR

v

SesaZlo =

d

vcxrili

lenti

xolo

=

0,

15


3,

14

1,

0


- 89 -

0,

18

⋅1623

= 137,

59794 , m/wm

= 0,

95

ρ

Q ⋅ 4 = 0,

95⋅

Δp

−6

1518⋅10

138 ⋅ 4

0,

2

= 0,

95⋅11,

747 ⋅0,029516

= 0,

33 , sm

b) analogiurad iangariSeba bazisuri modelisaTvis Bl=3,2 m;

nax

D=2,674 m; α=180°; Δp=0,95 dkn/sm 2 ; v d=8,4 m/wm; t=20 °C;

v

0,

15πR

v

SesaZlo =

d

vcxrili

lenti

=

0,

15


3,

14

1,

0


1,

337

⋅ 5242 =

3301,

0289

, m/wm

xolo

dnax

= 0,

95

ρ

Q ⋅ 4 = 0,

95⋅

Δp

−6

1518⋅10

3301 ⋅ 4

0,

95

= 0,

95⋅

57,

454⋅

0,29516 = 1,611 sm


Tavi IV. Teoriuli, eqsperimentuli da kompiuteruli

kvlevis Sedegebi da maTi analizi

4.1. Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli kvlevis Sedegebi da maTi

analizi

mecnieruli kvlevis utyuarobisa da dasabuTebulobis dadas-

turebis mizniT, winamdebare TavSi, movaxdineT Cvens mier Sesrulebuli

Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli gamokvlevis Sedegebis urTierTTanxvdeni-

lobis dasaSveb zRvrebSi arsebobis analizi. imavdroulad viTvaliswi-

nebdiT da veyrdnobodiT: makroelastohidrodinamikis, vakuumSi fizikuri

procesebis, moculobiTi hidravlikuri manqanebis muSaobis Teoriis,

tribonikis da saerTod meqanikis zogad debulebebs.

Teoriuli kvlevebis Sedegad miviReT vakuum-dolis sakontaqto

zedapirebisaa da maTi vakuumis wyaroebTan SemaerTebeli kvanZebis ∗ (Cveni

SemTxvevisaTvis wriulamonaCarxebiani grZivi Rarebis moculobebis avm-

is dguSiseul sivrcesTan SemaerTebeli _ naxvretebi) uxelsayrelesi

geometriul parametrebis (milsadenebis _ naxvretebis sigrZis da

diametris, grZivi arxebis moculobebis, maTi upiratesi geometriuli

formebisa da zomebis da a.S.) da rgolur WvriteSi mimdinare xaxunis

reJimis teqnologiuri procesis upirates pirobebSi warmarTvis Teo-

riuli sqema (ixile drekadhidrodinamikuri anu zomerfeldis ricxvTan

dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi); rodesac cocia, _ Cveni SemTxvevisaTvis

sakonveiero lenti, _ sayrden zedapirze anu vakuum-dolis sakontaqto

zedapirze tangencialuri moZraobiT ganapirobebs misi Semkavebeli _

SemzeTi siTxis gamownexvas.

miviReT, rom gasauxSoebeli da gamauxSoebeli meqanizmebis

SemaerTebeli elementis, _ naxvretis diamteri (ix. 3.33).

d

= 0,

95

Q ⋅

nax

4

(4.1)


koleqtorian vakuum-dolebSi igi warmoadgens sakmarisad grZel da rTullabirinTul

recipientebs (vakuum-arxebs).

- 90 -

ρ

Δp


Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom am gamosaxulebaSi erTeulovani

drosTvis Q=v, maSin

Δp

Q =

ρ

2

;

d nax-is mniSvnelobis saangariSod saWiroa daviTvaloT grZivi

arxis moculobis (v=Q)-s is realuri mniSvneloba, romlidanac `drekadi

srialis~ rkalis garbenamde, siTxe uwyvet nakadad, gadadindeba

dguSiseul sivrceSi amitom vsargeblobT (3.38) gamosaxulebiT

( 0 , 1÷

0,

2)

πRd

Q = vSesaZlo

=

vcxr

(4.2)

v

lent

v SesaZlo-s miRebuli mniSvneloba warmoadgens vakuum-dolis

sakontaqto zedapiris grZivi arxis moculobas, xolo (4.1) gamosaxu-

lebiT naangariSevi d nax-is mniSvneloba warmoadgens wriuli amonaCar-

xebis erTmaneTTan da avm-is dguSiseul sivrcesTan SemaerTebeli grZivi

Rarebis siganes.

eqsperimentuli monacemebis mixedviT wriuli amonaCarxebis

optimaluri diametri d amonaC=3d nax; xolo amonaCarxebis centrebs Soris

manZili l amonaC=2d amonaC=6d nax.

amonaCarxebis raodenoba erT grZiv arxze

n

amonaC

grZivi arxebis biji

=

Bl

− 2d

2d

amonaC

amonaC

amonaC

- 91 -

B

=

6d

l

nax

−1

t = ( 4 ÷ 4,

5)

⋅ d = ( 12 ÷ 13,

5)

⋅ d

arxebis raodenoba dolis sakontaqto zedapirze

grZivi arxis farTobi

( 3d

)

πDd

πDd

D

n arx = =

= ( 0,

26 ÷ 0.

23)

t ( 12 ÷ 13,

5)

d

d

πd

4

nax

Sarx =

2

amonaC ⋅ namonaC

+ namonaC

⋅ dnax



B

2

nax

l

l

Sarx = ⋅⎜

1⎟

⎜ 1⎟

⋅ dnax

⋅3

4 ⎜


6d


+



nax 6d


nax

π






B



d

nax

d

nax

amonaC

da bolos wriulamonaCarxebiani grZivi arxis farTobi

d

nax


S = d 1,

678B

−10,

065d

)

(4.3)

arx

nax ( l

nax

gamosaxulebis (3.39) da (4.2) mixedviT

v

SesaZlo

0,

1πD

=

v

- 92 -

lent

xolo vakuum-dolis SerCeuli etalonuri modelisaTvis

lent

d

v

cxr

0, 1πDd

0,

1⋅3,

14⋅

2,

674

vSesaZlo = vcxr

=

vcxr

= 0,

0999⋅

v

v

8,

4

cxr

(4.4)

maSin (4.3.) da (4.4) gamosaxulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT etalonuri

modelis Raris siRrme

h

Raris

v

=

s

SesaZlo

arxisa

=

d

nax

0,

0999

( 1,

678B

l

⋅ v

cxr

−10,

065d

amgvarad, vakuum-dolis sakontaqto zedapiris yvela geometriuli

zoma gamosaxulia naxvretis d nax diametris vakuum-dolis D dol _ diamet-

ris da sakonveiero lentis B lent siganis saSualebiT. aRniSnuli paramet-

rebis angariSisas vsargeblobT (cxrili 3.2)-is monacemebiT, saidanac

cxrilis ricxviT mniSvnelobebs virCevT im regionis gabatonebuli

klimaturi pirobebis mixedviT, sadac unda imuSaos dasaproeqtebelma

obieqtma (lenturma konveierma, modernizebuli vakuum-amZraviT).

4.2. kompiuteruli kvlevis Sedegebi da maTi analizi

zemoT motanili saproeqto samuSaoebis Sesrulebis Semdeg,

kompiuteruli modelirebis saSualebiT, movaxdineT Cvens mier

daproeqtebuli da gaangariSebuli vakuum-dolis sakontaqto zedapirisa

da sakonveiro lentis rgolur WvriteSi siTxis Sris sisqisa da mTeli

Semoxvevis kuTxis [orive: “SedarebiTi simSvidis” [0÷0,2]π da „drekadi

srialis“ (0,2÷π ) radianze] sazRvrebSi misi cvlilebis Seswavla.

aRniSnulis ganxorcielebis mizniT Cvens mier miRebul (3.22.)

gamosaxulebaSi А, В1, С1 namdvili mudmivebis gansazRvrisa da Δh(s)-is

cvlilebis kompiuteruli modelis SedgenisaTvis visargebleT qvemoT

nax

)


motanili konkretuli magaliTis pirobebiT. kerZod: Tu (3.16)

gamoaxulebaSi

h

Δ h = 1− gaviTvaliswinebT „SedarebiTi simSvidis“ da

h

0

„drekadi srialis“ Sesabamis rkalebze vakuumis Seqmnisa da siTxis

drenaJirebis

CavweroT:

Cvens mier SemoTavazebul procesebs, maSin SeiZleba

„SedarebiTi simSvidis“ rkalis centralur nawilSi h=h0

amitom S=0,1π, maSin h=h0 da Δh(s)=0;

agreTve S=0,1π, da h=h0 da (Δh(s))′=0;

xolo, rodesac 0,1π


h

αmax=π rad _ dolze lentis Semoxvevis kuTxe;

p=0,35÷0,95 dkn/sm 2 _ vakuumis sidide;

R=133,7 sm _ vakuum-dolis radiusi;

B l=320 sm _ lentis sigane;

E=6000÷20000 dkn/sm lentis drekadobis moduli;

n arx=50 _ dolze vakuum-arxebis saerTo raodenoba;

m=6,5÷9,5 simtkicis maragis koeficienti.

0

⎛ 6μU


= 0, 643R⎜


⎝ T ⎠

2

3

nawilSi siTxis Sris sisqe;

_ `SedarebiTi simSvidis rkalis~ centralur

vakuum-dolis etalonuri modelis sakontaqto zedapirze arxebis

saerTo raodenoba n arx=50 ; maTgan rgoluri Wvritis (0,2÷π ) radiani

kuTxis Sesabamisi `SedarebiTi simSvidis rkalze~ ganTavsdeba (4÷5) arxi-

nomrebiT K=24, 23, 22, 21. danarCeni 20÷1 vakuum-arxi (0,2π÷π) radianis tol

kuTxeze `drekadi srialiT~ imuSavebs mTel sakontaqto zedapirze

vakuumis danakargebis TandaTanobiTi kompensaciiT K=20-dan K=1-ken.

ganvixiloT vakuum-dolis muSaobis ori SesaZlo reJimi:

1) `SedarebiTi simSvidis~ rkalis K=24÷21 arxebSi vakuumis sawyisi

mniSvneloba p=0,35 dkn/sm 2 ; xolo (0,2π_π) radianis `drekadi srialis

rkalze~ miviRoT vakuumis zrda p=0,35-dan 0,95 dkn/sm 2 -mde, K=20-dan K=1-ken

vakuum-arxisaken zrdis bijiT 0,03÷0,1 dkn/sm 2 (mxedvelobaSi miiReba

vakuumis kargvebic);

2) `SedarebiTi simSvidis~ rkalis K=24÷21 arxebSi vakuumi aRwevs

maqsimalur p=0,95 dkn/sm 2 mniSvnelobas. K=20-dan K=1-ken vakuum-arxebSi ki

`drekadi srialiT~ xdeba mTel sakontaqto zedapirze Seqmnili vakuumis

SenarCuneba (aRniSnul process adgili eqneba uxvad dasvelebuli da

dguSiseuli sivrcis siTxiT maqsimalurad Sevsebis SemTxvevaSi). (ix. IV

Tavis danarTi II).

yvela SesaZlo varianti monacemi Setanili iqna kompiuterSi Δh(s)-

is, S=0÷π, radianis sazRvrebSi, cvlilebis SeswavlisaTvis. ori maTgani

IV Tavs Tan erTvis.

- 94 -


p R B μ δ P=F2/2 U1 U ho a

0.35 133.7 320 0.63 0.1167 14974.4 0.005 0.003366247 0.004859 0.840583

F1 F2 Fo S exp(-aS) exp(aS/2) cos(1.73aS/2) sin(1.73aS/2) b1(S=π/10) b2(S=π) b3(S=π/10)

186789 29949 480000 0.31416 0.767914 1.141152647 0.974023753 0.226445862 0 1 0

3.1416 0.071306 3.744875807 -0.654465666 0.756091722

a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33

0.76791 1.1115 0.2584 0.071306 -2.450893 2.831469598 -0.645495682 0.266977922 0.266975

1.2

D Dx Dy Dz X=Dx/D Y=Dy/D Z=Dz/D

-3.5395 -0.2278 0.3718 -0.92249 0.064346 -0.10504681 0.260625535

1

0.8

0.6

dh

0.4

0.2

a S exp(-aS) exp(aS/2) cos(1.73aS/2) sin(1.73aS/2)

0.84058 0.1 0.3142 0.767914 1.141153 0.974023753 0.226445862

0.84058 0.2 0.6283 0.589692 1.302229 0.897444543 0.441127297

0.84058 0.3 0.9425 0.452832 1.486042 0.774240851 0.632891069

0.84058 0.4 1.2566 0.347736 1.695801 0.610813416 0.791774571

0.84058 0.5 1.5708 0.267032 1.935168 0.4156527 0.90952341

0.84058 0.6 1.885 0.205057 2.208322 0.19889779 0.980020239

0.84058 0.7 2.1991 0.157466 2.520033 -0.02819036 0.999602573

0.84058 0.8 2.5133 0.120921 2.875742 -0.25381394 0.96725306

0.84058 0.9 2.8274 0.092857 3.281661 -0.46625126 0.884652339

0.84058 1 3.1416 0.071306 3.744876 -0.65446567 0.756091722

- 95 -

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

S

IV Tavis danarTi 1.

0.6 0 0.6 0.3 10 0.08535188 0.35 20 0.02833 S dH

0.57 1 0.5027 0.27 11 0.067743056 0.35 21 0.024984 0.31416 0

0.54 2 0.42 0.24 12 0.053103292 0.35 22 0.022033 0.62832 0.064894637

0.51 3 0.3498 0.21 13 0.040976861 0.35 23 0.01943 0.94248 0.153395133

0.48 4 0.2903 0.18 14 0.03097427 Σ 0.094777 1.25664 0.263506102

0.45 5 0.24 0.15 15 0.022762975 ΣΣ 3.431637 1.5708 0.391409279

0.42 6 0.1976 0.12 16 0.016059358 1.88496 0.53110086

0.39 7 0.1618 0.09 17 0.010621813 2.19912 0.674118853

0.36 8 0.1317 0.06 18 0.006244772 2.51328 0.809403089

0.33 9 0.1065 0.03 19 0.002753568 2.82744 0.923334345

Σ 3.0003 Σ 0.336591843 3.1416 1


p R B μ δ P=F2/2 U1 U ho a

0.95 133.7 320 0.63 0.1167 40644.8 0.005 0.000565495 0.00076 2.125058

F1 F2 Fo S exp(-aS) exp(aS/2) cos(1.73aS/2) sin(1.73aS/2) b1(S=π/10) b2(S=π) b3(S=π/10)

507002 81290 480000 0.31416 0.512934 1.39626964 0.837840381 0.545915283 0 1 0

3.1416 0.001261 28.16391009 0.873537261 -0.486757284

a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33

0.51293 1.1699 0.7622 0.001261 24.60222 -13.7089884 -1.090014394 -0.159564455 -0.159575

1.2

D Dx Dy Dz X=Dx/D Y=Dy/D Z=Dz/D

34.7864 0.0651 0.749 -1.19331 0.00187 0.021531613 -0.034303922

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

dh

0.2

0

a S exp(-aS) exp(aS/2) cos(1.73aS/2) sin(1.73aS/2)

2.12506 0.1 0.3142 0.512934 1.39627 0.837840381 0.545915283

2.12506 0.2 0.6283 0.263101 1.949569 0.403953007 0.914779737

2.12506 0.3 0.9425 0.134954 2.722124 -0.1609441 0.986963524

2.12506 0.4 1.2566 0.069222 3.800819 -0.67364394 0.739056052

2.12506 0.5 1.5708 0.035506 5.306968 -0.96786809 0.251458484

2.12506 0.6 1.885 0.018212 7.409958 -0.94819399 -0.317691907

2.12506 0.7 2.1991 0.009342 10.3463 -0.62100235 -0.783808702

2.12506 0.8 2.5133 0.004792 14.44622 -0.0924077 -0.995721255

2.12506 0.9 2.8274 0.002458 20.17082 0.466156551 -0.884702249

2.12506 1 3.1416 0.001261 28.16391 0.873537261 -0.486757284

- 96 -

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

-0.2

-0.4

S

IV Tavis danarTi 2.

0.6 0 0.6 0.3 10 0.08535188 0.35 20 0.02833 S dH

0.57 1 0.5027 0.27 11 0.067743056 0.35 21 0.024984 0.31416 0

0.54 2 0.42 0.24 12 0.053103292 0.35 22 0.022033 0.62832 -0.043729618

0.51 3 0.3498 0.21 13 0.040976861 0.35 23 0.01943 0.94248 -0.101343026

0.48 4 0.2903 0.18 14 0.03097427 Σ 0.094777 1.25664 -0.151360405

0.45 5 0.24 0.15 15 0.022762975 ΣΣ 3.431637 1.5708 -0.156307517

0.42 6 0.1976 0.12 16 0.016059358 1.88496 -0.070494424

0.39 7 0.1618 0.09 17 0.010621813 2.19912 0.13986355

0.36 8 0.1317 0.06 18 0.006244772 2.51328 0.464707275

0.33 9 0.1065 0.03 19 0.002753568 2.82744 0.814620683

Σ 3.0003 Σ 0.336591843 3.1416 1


ZiriTadi daskvnebi

lenturi konveierebis amZravi vakuum-dolebis da maTi arsebuli da

axali sakontaqto zedapirebis konstruqciebis muSaobis, rgolur

WvriteSi makro-elastohidrodinamikuri reJimisas vakuumis Seqmnis proce-

sebis analizis, sakontaqto zedapirze siTxis Sris sisqisa da misi

sadrenaJo efeqtis Teoriuli da eqsperimentuli gamokvlevis da

kompiuteruli modelirebis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT miRebulia

Semdegi daskvnebi:

1. SemoTavazebuli axali konstruqciis sakontaqto zedapiri

warmoadgens sakonveiero lentisaTvis optimalur sayrden da mcire

sawyisi moculobis mqone centraluri gawovis vakuum-arxebiT warmoqmnil

sakontaqto vakuum-zedapirs.

2. avtonomiur vakuumurmeqanizmebiani (avm) amZravebi SemoTavaze-

buli axali sakontaqto zedapiriT, racionaluria da iZleva saSualebas:

_ sakontaqto zedapirze, rgolur WvriteSi, vakuumi Seiqmnas

praqtikulad ukumSvadi wveTovani siTxis (Txevadi dguSis) saSualebiT;

_ identuri wevis Zalebisas sxva tipis amZravebTan SedarebiT,

gamoyenebul iqnes ufro naklebi simtkicis lenti an gaizardos

sakonveiero dgaris sigrZe;

_ rogorc ganivi, aseve amZravis wriuli mimarTulebiT, maRali da

Tanabrad ganawilebuli vakuumis ganviTarebiT aamaRlos misi efeqturad

gamoyeneba margi qmedebis koeficientisa da amZravis sakontaqto

zedapirze dayvanili kuTri simZlavris gazrdiT;

_ vakuumis formireba davasruloT kompaqturi avm-iT mTeli

sakontaqto rgoluri Wvritis (0,05÷0,2)⋅α g Sesabamis rkalze, romelic

iwyeba amZravze lentis swrafobis wertilidan anu e.w. “SedarebiTi

simSvidis rkalze”;

3. makroelastohidrodinamikur reJimSi momuSave vakuum-dolis

lentur sakisarTan gaigivebis Semdeg, iteraciuli operaciebis saSuale-

biT, lenturi konveierebis amZravebis gaangariSebis TeoriaSi pirvelad,

gamoyenebuli iqna SezeTvis gaangariSebis klasikuri meTodebi.

- 97 -


4. makroelastodinamikur reJimSi, sakonveiero lentis drekadad

mosriale da vakuum-dolis zedapirebis wyvilis SezeTvis reJimisa da

xaxunis xasiaTis cvlilebis marTvis safuZvelze, zomerfeldis

ganzogadebuli ricxvis mniSvnelobis cvlilebiT gaizarda xaxunis

koeficientis mniSvneloba da, Sesabamisad, amZravis wevis faqtori da

misi wevis Zala.

5. navie-stoksisa da reinoldsis gantolebebze dayrdnobiT gani-

sazRvra dolisa da sakonveiero lentis sakontaqto WvriteSi siTxis

Sris h sisqe, misi h0 mniSvneloba Semoxvevis saZiebo kuTxis (α S.s.)

centralur nawilSi da maT Soris gansxvaveba Δh ori konkretuli

SemTxvevisaTvis: 1) rodesac sakontaqto zedapiri gayofilia ”drekadi

srialis” da aramosriale anu “SedarebiTi simSvidis” ubnebad da 2)

pirobisaTvis, romlis mixedviT sakontaqto zedapirze “simSvidis rkali”

ar arsebobs. orive SemTxvevisaTvis miRebulia gantolebebi Δh, h0 da h-is

gaangariSebisaTvis, ris safuZvelzec damuSavebulia vakuumis Seqmnis

procesis srulyofisaTvis sakontaqto zedapiris grZivi arxebis

optimaluri konstruqcia da gansazRvrulia maTi sawyisi aucilebeli

moculobis mniSvneloba.

6. damuSavebulia rgoluri Wvritedan vakuumis Semqmneli meqanizmis

(kerZo SemTxvevaSi dguSiseuli sivrcis) moculobasTan damakavSirebel

naxvretSi siTxis uwyvet nakadad gadadinebis gaangariSebis meTodika,

romelic uzrunvelyofs Tanabari da saWiro vakuumis sididis formi-

rebasa da SenarCunebas, romelic misaRebia nebismieri diametris

amZravisaTvis, lentis nebismieri siCqarisaTvis, temperaturuli reJimisa

da vakuumis saWiro sididis gaTvaliswinebiT.

7. fizikuri da kompiuteruli modelebis saSualebiT vakuum-

amZravebis vakuums daqvemdebarebuli moxaxune zedapirebis makrosimqi-

seebis, lokalur rezervuarebsa da kapilarebSi siTxis moZraobis

Teoriulad da eqsperimentulad Seswavlis safuZvelze dadgenilia

vakuum-amZravebis sakontaqto zedapirebisa da vakuumis Semqneli

meqanizmebis (vakuum-arxebis da maTi urTierTdamakavSirebeli kvanZebisa

da naxvretebis, cilindr-dguSebis da muSta meqanizmebis da a.S.)

optimaluri parametrebi.

- 98 -


8. Catarebuli kvleviTi samuSaoebis SedegebiT damuSavda teqnikuri

moTxovnebi vakuum-amZravebis yvela teqnologiuri rgolisaTvis,

romelmac gviCvena, rom Tanabari da aucilebeli vakuumis formireba

damokidebulia ara mxolod sakontaqto zedapirebis konstruqciisa da

vakuumis Semqneli meqanizmebis SesaZlo amotumbvis siswrafeze, aramed

maTi SemaerTebeli naxvretebis (recipientebis) gamtarobis unarzec.

- 99 -


gamoyenebuli literatura

1. Андреев А.В. Передача трением М. «Машиностроение», 1978-176 с.

2. Ампилогова Н.В. Обоснование эксплуатационных свойств и разработка

высокомодульных лент для конвейеров горной промышленности. Автореф.докт.

диссерт. Москва 1996 – 28 с.

3. Агушев В.А. и др. «Приводной барабан для ленточных конвейеров.» Авт. св. СССР от

05.10.59 г. № 132536 – Бюл. Изобр. №19, 1960 г.

4. Борохович А.И., Пискун И.А. «Экспериментальные исследования ленточного

конвейера на воздушной подушке». – Известия высших учебных заведений.

Горный журнал №5,1983 г., с.61-64

5. Васильев К.А. «Вакуум-приводы ленточных конвейеров». ЦНИИЭИ тяжмаш,1980г.

№38 – 50 с.

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