biologia - Ganatleba

ganatleba.org

biologia - Ganatleba

marina sexniaSvili, darejan lorTqifaniZe

biologia

X

gamomcemloba

`saqarTvelos macne~

2009


edaqtori levan mnaTobiSvili

m. sexniaSvili, d. lorTqifaniZe

ISBN 978-9941-406-24-9

© gamomcemloba

`saqarTvelos macne~

Tbilisi

2009


Tavi I

memkvidreobiTobis molekuluri safuZvlebi


4

1.1

H

H

N

rogor xdeba niSan-Tvisebis formireba?

H

O

C

OH

CH SH 2

aminomJava cisteini

cilebi

memkvidreobiToba aris organizmis Tviseba, Seinaxos da gadasces Tavisi niSan-Tvisebebi

STamomavlobas. memkvidreobiTobis elementa-

rul funqciur erTeuls ki geni warmoadgens,

romelic organizmis calkeuli niSan-Tvisebis

Sesaxeb Seicavs informacias. niSan-TvisebaSi

igulisxmeba organizmis (ujredis) agebulebis,

fiziologiuri, bioqimiuri procesebis Taviseburebebi.

1. daasaxele adamianis ramodenime

niSanTviseba?

niSan-Tvisebis formirebisaTvis aucilebelia mravali nivTierebis, upirveles yovlisa,

specifikuri Tvisebebisa da funqciis mqone cilebis sinTezi. magaliTad, yvavilis

gvirgvinis furclebis Seferiloba damokidebulia gvirgvinis furclebis ujredebSi

garkveuli saxis pigmentebis arsebobaze. pigmentebis warmoqmnaSi ki monawileobs

specifiuri cila _ fermenti.

2. ra iciT cilebis Sesaxeb?

ujredis organuli naerTebidan

raodenobrivad da funqciebis mravalferovnebis

mixedviT gamoirCeva

cilebi. cila polimeruli naerTia

da masSi monomerebis rols aminom-

Javebi asruleben.

pigmentis granulebi

H

H

N

H

C

O

CH3 aminomJava alanini

3. Seadare erTmaneTs aminomJavebi da gansazRvre:

a) ra nawilebi aqvT saerTo da ra gansxvavebuli;

b) am elementebidan romlis atomebia orive aminomJavas SemadgenlobaSi?

ujredebi

fermenti

OH


aminomJavebis gansxvavebul nawils radikals uwodeben da

aRniSnaven R-iT.

ujredebSi170-zemetisaxisaminomJavaa

aRmoCenili, magram amTgan

20 saxis aminomJava Rebulobs

monawileobas cilis sinTezSi

(ix. aminomJavebis cxrili, (?4).

mcenareebi20-vesaxisaminomJavas

asinTezeben ufro martivi niv-

Tierebebidan.cxovelebiTviTon

ver asinTezeben zogierT ami-

aminomJavebis zogadi qimiuri

formula

nomJavas da isini maT sakvebTan

erTad iReben. aseT aminomJavebs

Seucvlels uwodeben.

karboqsilis jgufi _ COOH aminomJavas aniWebs mJavas Tvisebebs,

aminojgufi _ NH 2 ki _ fuZe Tvisebebs. amitom aminomJavebi amfoteruli

bunebisaa da erTmaneTs advilad ukavSirdebian. erTi

aminomJavas karboqsilis jgufidan OH-sa da meore aminomJavas

aminojgufidan H-is SeerTebiT warmoiqmneba wylis molekula,

gamoTavisuflebuli valentobis xarjze ki ori aminomJava ukavSirdeba

erTmaneTs peptidur-kovalenturi bmiT da miiReba

dipeptidi, sami aminomJavas dakavSirebiT _ tripeptidi, mravali

aminomJavas dakavSirebiT ki _ polipeptidi. polipeptiduri

jaWvi iwyeba aminojgufiT da mTavrdeba karboqsilis jgufiT.

H 2 N

f. sengerma gaSifra (1944-54ww.) hormon insulinis aminomJavuri

Tanmimdevroba, risTvisac man nobelis premia miiRo.

aminomJavebis dakavSireba da dipeptidis warmoqmna.

H

C

R 1

O

C +

OH

H

H

N

H

C

R 2

COOH

H 2 N

peptiduri bma

4. cxrilSi Seucvleli

aminomJavebi

gansxvavebuli feri-

Taa warmodgenili.

gaecani cxrils da

daasaxele Seucvleli

aminomJavebi.

oci standartuli

aminomJa

alanini

arginini

asparagini

asparaginis mJava

valini

histidini

glicini

glutamini

glutaminis mJava

izoleicini

leicini

lizini

meTionini

prolini

serini

Tirozini

treonini

triftofani

fenilalanini

cisteini

5. warmoidgine, rom tripeptidis warmoqmnaSi monawileobs mxolod ori sxvadasxva _

A da B aminomJava, maSin yvela tripeptidis SesaZlo aminomJavuri Tanmimdevroba aseTi

iqneba: AAA, BBB, AAB, ABA, ABB, BAA, BAB, BBA. aqedan gamomdinare, tripeptidebis saxeobrivi

raodenobis ganmsazRvreli formula iqneba 2 3 =8.

a) am formulis gamoyenebiT gansazRvre, 100 aminomJavisgan Sedgenili ramdeni saxis polipeptidis

ageba SeiZleba ori sxvadasxva aminomJavisgan? 20 sxvadasxva aminomJavisgan? b)

Seadgine zogadi formula, ramdeni saxis polipeptiduri jaWvis ageba SeiZleba 20 standartuli

aminomJavisgan? g) gaaanalize miRebuli Sedegebi da gaakeTe daskvna.

H

C

R 1

O

C N

H

H

C

R 2

COOH

+ H 2 O

miuxedavad imisa, rom molekulis SenebaSi monawileobas Rebulebs 20 saxis aminom-

Java, cilis molekulebis mravalferovneba usazRvroa, radgan TiToeuli cilisaTvis

damaxasiaTebelia Tavisi gansakuTrebuli aminomJavuri Semadgenloba, Tanmimdevroba

da raodenoba.


6

1.2

pirveladi

struqtura

cilis struqtura da Tvisebebi

ra gansazRvravs cilis Tvisebebs?

yovel cilas gaaCnia Tavisi specifiuri sivrcobrivi (geometriuli) forma, anu

konfiguracia, rac gansazRvravs mis Tvisebebsa da funqciebs. cilebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia

sircobrivi organizaciis oTxi sxvadasxvanairi done: pirveladi, meoreuli,

mesameuli da meoTxeuli struqturebi.

cilis pirveladi struqtura warmoadgens gaSlil polipeptidur jaWvs, romelsac

qmnis kovalentur-peptiduri bmebiT dakavSirebuli aminomJavebis garkveuli

Tanmimdevroba.

meoreuli

struqtura

cilis struqturebi

mesameuli

struqtura

meoTxeuli

struqtura

yvela cilisaTvis pirveladi struqturis garda, damaxasiaTebelia meoreuli struqturac.

meoreul struqturaSi cilis polipeptiduri jaWvi nawilobriv spiraluradaa daxveuli.

am dros erT xveulze myof NH-jgufis wyalbadisa da mezobel xveulze myof

CO-s Jangbads Soris warmoiqmneba wyalbaduri bmebi.

zogierTi cila imyofeba meoreul struqturaSi da aqvs Zafiseburi forma, maT

fibrilur cilebs uwodeben. isini wyalSi uxsnadebi arian, gamoirCevian didi meqanikuri

simtkiciT. fibrilur cilebs miekuTvneba miozini, keratini.

umravlesoba cilebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia kidev ufro maRali donis _ mesameuli

struqturebi. am dros cilas aqvs kompaqturi burTulis _ globulis saxe da aseTi

konfiguraciis cilebs cila-globulinebi ewodeba. isini xsnadebi arian. cila-globulinebia

fermentebi, antisxeulebi, zogierTi hormoni.

cocxal ujredebSi aRmoCenilia cilis kidev ufro rTuli sivrcobrivi forma meo-

Txeuli struqtura. am SemTxvevaSi cila Sedgeba ramdenime polipeptiduri jaWvisgan.

meoTxeuli struqtura axasiaTebs magaliTad hemoglobins, romlis molekulac Sedgeba

oTxi calkeuli polipeptiduri jaWvisagan (2α da 2β jaWvisgan).

mesameuli da meoTxeuli struqturis warmosaqmnelad aucilebelia wyliani garemo.

wyali ukuaqcevs aminomJavebis wyalSi uxsnad-hidrofobur radikalebs, isini erTmaneTs

ukavSirdebian hidrofoburi bmebiT.


insulini

2. ganixile sqema da Tanmimdevrulad aRwere aq gamosaxuli procesebi. axseni, ram gamoiwvia

eriTrocitis normaluri formis Secvla? ra daskvnas gaakeTeb am magaliTidan?

hemoglobinis

molekulebis

normaluri

konfiguracia

ormxriv

Cazneqili

diskos formis

eriTrociti

janmrTeli

adamiani

α

hemoglobini

aminomJavebis normaluri Tanmimdevroba

hemoglobinis erT-erT β polipeptidur jaWvSi

valini histidini leicini treonini prolini glutaminis glutaminis

mJava mJava

β

hemoglobinis

molekulebis

anomaluri

konfiguracia

namgliseburi

formis

eriTrociti

namgliseburi anemiiT

daavadebuli adamiani.

kolageni

1. daakvirdi sxvadasxva cilis molekulebis

sivrcobriv struqturas da

gansazRvre TviTeuli maTganisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

umaRlesi struqtura?

aminomJavebis anomaluri Tanmimdevroba

hemoglobinis igive β polipeptidur jaWvSi

valini histidini leicini treonini prolini valini glutaminis

mJava

polipeptidur jaWvSi erTi monomeris Secvlamac ki SeiZleba organizmis niSan-

Tvisebis mniSvnelovani cvlileba gamoiwvios.

7


8

3. ra gansxvavebaa moxarSuli

da umi kvercxis cilas fizikur

Tvisebebs Soris. ra faqtorma

gamoiwvia moxarSuli kvercxis

cilis Tvisebebis Secvla?

cilis denaturacia, meoTxeuli struqturis (1) daSla mesameul (2), meoreul (3) da pirvelad (4)

struqturad.

zogjer denaturirebuli cila, romelsac SenarCunebuli aqvs pirvelad struqturaSi

misTvis damaxasiaTebeli aminomJavuri Tanmimdevroba, Sesaferis pirobebSi kvlav

aRidgens misTvis damaxasiaTebel konfiguracias, rasac renaturacia ewodeba.

4. rogor fiqrob, moxarSuli kvrcxis cila aRidgens misTvis damaxasiaTebel maRal

struqturebs? ratom?

cilis bunebrivi

k o n f i g u r a c i a ,

Sesabamisad, misi

Tvisebebi da funqciebidamokidebulia

cilis pirveladstruqturaSi

amonomJavur

Tanmimdevrobaze.

kovalentur bmebTan SedarebiT, wyalbaduri da

hidrofoburi bmebi susti bmebia. amitom sxvadasxva

fizikur-qimiuri faqtorebis (maRali an dabali temperatura,

dasxiveba, mJavebis, tuteebis, marilebis

koncentrirebuli xsnarebi, meqanikuri zemoqmedeba)

gavleniT advilad irRveva cilis maRali struqturebi

pirvelad struqturamde. cilis bunebrivi

struqturis rRvevas denaturacia ewodeba.

k

aiRe ori kvercxis cila da Tanabrad gadaanawile is 7WiqaSi;

#1 WiqaSi temperature unda iyos oTaxis temperatures Sesabamisi,

#2-Si SigTavsi gaaTbe 45mde, #3-Si 70-mde., Caamate: #4-Si erTi

sufris kovzi sufris marili, #5-Si 2-3 wveTi marilmJava, #6-Si

_ erTi sufris kovzi saWmeli soda, #7-Si _ samedicino spirits

ramdenime wveTi;

daakvirdi, Seicvleba Tu ara cilis konsistencia WiqebSi. Cilis

Semkvriveba denaturaciis maCvenebelia;

ganmarte, romel WiqaSi moxda denaturacia da ra faqtorma

gamoiwvia;

ra iyo cdaSi damokidebuli da damoukidebeli cvladi; gaiTvaliswine,

rom movlena, romelsac Seiswavli sxvadasxva pirobebSi,

aris damokidebuli cvladi, xolo pirobebi, romelsac cvli,

damokidebuli cvladebia;

Catarebuli muSaobis Sesaxeb dawere oqmi.


1.3

niSan-Tvisebis formirebaSi cilebi ratom asruleben mniSvnelovan rols?

cilis mravalferovneba (rogorc struqturis, ise fizikur-qimiuri Tvisebebis

mixedviT) ganapirobebs mis mraval biologiur funqcias. amitomac ukavSirdeba cilebs

organizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebebi.

cilebis funqciebidan erT-erTi aris samSeneblo anu struqturuli funqcia. magaliTad,

struqturul funqcias asruleben: cilebi, romlebic Sedian plazmuri membranis

da ujredis organoidebis membranebis SemadgenlobaSi, kolageni (Zvlebis, myesebis,

xrtilebis komponenti), keratini (Tmis, bewvis, frCxilebis, rqebis komponenti) da sxva.

ujredgare garemo naxSirwylebi

cilebi

aRsaniSnavia cilebis satransporto

funqcia. magaliTad,

xerxemlianebSi O 2 -

is transportireba xdeba

eriTrocitebSi arsebuli

cila _ hemoglobinis saSualebiT;

garda amisa, ujredul

membranebSi CaSenebulia santransporto

cilebi, romlebic

garemodan ujredSi da ujredidan

garemoSi nivTierebaTa

cilis funqciebi

lipidebi

citoplazma

plazmuri membranis struqtura

nivTiereba

cilis

molekula

1 2 3

transportirebaSi Rebuloben monawileobas.

cilebi asruleben mamoZravebel funqciasac. mamoZravebel funqcias asruleben

kumSvadi cilebi _ miozini da aqtini, romlebic ganapirobeben kunTebis SekumSvas,

erTujredianebSi wamwamebis, Soltebis moZraobas.

aqtini

nivTierebaTa gadaadgileba membranaSi cilis

molekulebis daxmarebiT.

zogierTi hormoni qimiuri bunebiT cilaa. magaliTad, insulini, glukagoni, somatotropini

da sxva. hormonebi aregulireben organizmSi mimdinare sasicocxlo procesebs.

9


10

ujredebs membranaSi aqvT specialuri cilebi (2), romlebic reagireben ujredTan

misul hormonze, magaliTad, insulinze (1). aseT cilebs hormonis receptorebi (mim-

Rebi) ewodeba. insulinis zemoqmedebiT receptori aqtiurdeba, Tavis mxriv moqmedebs

glukozis satransporto cilebze (3) da xels uwyobs am cilebis mier glukozis swraf

transportirebas (4) ujredSi. receptoris gaaqtiureba ganapirobebs agreTve ujredSi

Sesuli glukozis glikogenad gardaqmnas (5).

glikogeni

glukoza

5

4

3

glukoza

1

2

insulinis receptoris moqmedeba. receptoris da hormonis urTierToba

hormonis zemoqmedeba receptorze garkveul pirobebSia SesaZlebeli. kerZod,

hormonis molekulis (1) urTierTqmedebas cila-receptoris molekulasTan (2) aadvilebs

hormonis da receptoris molekulebis sivrcobrivi agebulebis msgavseba.

aseT SemTxvevaze amboben, rom hormoni da receptori molekulis formiT Tanxvdebian

erTmaneTs.

1. hormonebi mxolod konkretul ujredebze moqmedeben, anu aqvT egreTwodebuli

samizne ujredebi. axseni es faqti.

2. ra saWiroa hormonis da receptoris urTierTobis TaviseburebaTa codna? an raSi

gamogvadgeba hormonis molekulis agebulebis codna?

adamianis zrdas ganapirobebs zrdis hormoni _ somatotropini, romelsac gamoyofs

Sinagani sekreciis jirkvali _ hipofizi. zrdis hormoni aqtiurad gamoiyofa axalgazrdis

organizmSi, Semdeg ki, rodesac zrdasrul asaks vaRwevT, am hormonis raodenoba

mniSvnelovnad mcirdeba.

zogierT SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad hipofizSi simsivnis ganviTarebisas, zrdis hormoni

Zalian didi raodenobiT gamoiyofa zrdasrul adamianSic. es iwvevs akromegalias:

avadmyofs ezrdeba saxis Zvlebi, ena, xelis mtevani, terfi, uziandeba saxsrebi, Zvlebi,

Sinagani organoebi.

zrdis hormonis gamoyofas aregulirebs hormoni somatostatini. somatostatini

cilaa. mas gamoimuSavebs Tavis tvinis nervuli ujredebi.

somatostatini urTierTqmedebs hipofizis ujredebis Sesabamis

receptorebTan. receptorebi aqtiurdebian da aferxeben am

ujredebis mier zrdis hormonis gamomuSavebas.

hipofizis simsivnis dros zrdis hormoni gadaWarbebuli

raodenobiT gamoiyofa da somatostatinis raodenoba aRar

aris sakmarisi zrdis hormonis gamoyofis regulaciisaTvis.

aseT SemTxvevaSi iyeneben qimiur warmoebaSi xelovnurad

Seqmnil qimiur nivTierebebs, magaliTad sandostatins, romlebic

somatostatinis msgavsad urTierTqmedeben somatostatinis

somatostatini

receptorebTan da aferxeben zrdis hormonis gamomuSavebas.

1

2


3. sandostatinis molekulis agebuleba unda iyos Tu ara somatostatinis molekulis

msgavsi? pasuxi ganmarte

4. ra mniSvneloba aqvs somatostatinis agebulebis codnas akromegaliis mkurnalobisaTvis?

5. sandostatinis moqmedebas hipofizze SeiZleba vuwodoT “somatostatinis receptoris

`motyueba~? pasuxi ganmarte.

1

antisxeuli (marcxniv) da misi dakavSireba antigenTan (marjvniv)

didi mniSvneloba aqvs cilebis damcvelobiT funqcias. magaliTad, antisxeulebi,

interferoni cilebia; aseve fibrinogeni da Trombini, romlebic sisxlis Sededebas

ganapirobeben.

antisxeuli aris imunuri cila, romelsac warmoqmnis limfocitebi. antisxeuls

organizmi gamoimuSavebs SemoWrili ucxo sxeulis _ antigenis sawinaaRmdegod. antigeni

SeiZleba iyos baqteriis membranis zedapirze arsebuli cilis an naxSirwylis

molekula, mkvdari ujredebidan gamoyofili toqsini da sxva. hormonisa da receptoris

urTierTobis msgavsia antisxeulis da antigenis urTierToba. antisxeulis da antigenis

SekavSirebac xdeba maTi molekulebis sivrcobrivi agebulebis msgavsebis gamo.

antisxeuli ukavSirdeba antigens. antisxeulis molekulis erTi nawili (1) qmnis antigenTan

bmas (2). miRebuli naerTi ileqeba, an xdeba antigenis gardaqna da ganeitraleba,

rac xels uwyobs leikocitebis mier antigenebis ganadgurebas.

k

moiZie informacia:

interferonis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb;

interferonis aRmoCenaSi qarTveli mecnierebis wvlilis Sesaxeb.

6. ratom moqmedebs antisxeuli

ZiriTadad mxolod erT konkretul

antigenze?

7. CamoTvale cilis funqciebi.

axseni ratom asruleben cilebi

mniSvnelovan rols niSan-Tvisebis

formirebaSi.

2

cilebis funqciebidan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania

katalizuri funqcia. zogierT cilebs

aqvT bioqimiuri reaqciebis siCqaris gazrdis

unari. aseT cilebs fermentebs uwodeben. yovel

ujredSi asobiT sxvadasxva fermentia. maTi daxmarebiT

xorcieldeba mravalricxovani qimiuri

reaqciebi.

1

11


12

1.4 fermentebi

ra Tvisebebi axasiaTebs fermentebs?

fermentebi biologiurad aqtiur molekulebs miekuTvneba, rac imas niSnavs, rom

ferments sul mcire koncentraciis drosac SeuZlia didi raodenobis nivTierebis

gardaqmna. igi nebismier nivTierebas ar gardaqmnis, moqmedebs konkretul naerTze,

romlis amocnobis unaric aqvs.

fermenti xasiaTdeba Semdegi ZiriTadi TvisebebiT:

yvela fermenti warmoadgens cila-globulins;

igi zrdis reaqciis siCqares, magram TviTon am reaqciaSi arc ixarjeba da arc icvleba;

safuZvliani gamokvlevebis Sedegebma aCvenes, rom umravlesoba fermentebis

molekulebi gacilebiT didi zomisaa, vidre substratis (dasakatalizebeli nivTiereba)

molekulebi da rom substrat-fermentis kompleqsSi substratTan kontaqtSi Sedis

fermentis molekulis Zalian mcire nawili (3-12 aminomJavuri naSTi), rasac fermentis

aqtiur centrs uwodeben;

fermentis aqtiuri centri da substratis an (substratebis) molekula formiT

erTmaneTs Seesabameba;

fermentebi gavlenas ar axdenen reaqciis produqtis (an

produqtebis) Tvisebebze;

fermentuli reaqciebi Seqcevadia;

fermentebis aqtivoba icvleba pH-is, temperaturis,

wnevis da rogorc substratis, ise TviT fermentis koncentraciis

mixedviT;

fermentebixasiaTdebianspecifiurobiT,e.i.erTigarkveuli

fermenti akatalizebs mxolod erT konkretuli saxis reaqcias.

4

3

1

2

substrati

aqtiuri centri

substrat-fermentis

modeli

fermentis mier disaqaridis molekulis gardaqmna

magaliTad, disaqaridi ori monomerisagan

Sedgeba (1). fermenti ukavSirdeba disaqaridis

molekulas (2) da iwvevs monomerebs Soris bmis

gawyvetas (3). “amis Semdeg fermenti moscildeba

daSlil molekulas (4).

aris fermentebis gansakuTrebuli jgufi _

alosteruli fermentebi.alosterulsuwodeben

fermentebs, romelTa aqtiurobac regulirdeba

ara maTi substratiT, aramed sxva nivTierebiT,

aqtiuri centri

fermentis molekuluri

modeli

supstrati supstrati

1

fermenti fermenti

1. a) sqemaze warmodgenilia alosteruli

fermenti. SeadareT erTmaneTs

fermentis A da B mdgomareoba: romel

mdgomareobaSia aqtiuri fermenti?

pasuxi daasabuTe.

b) am SemTxvevaSi ra ganapirobebs fermentis

aqtiur da araaqtiur formas?

c) ganmarteT am procesSi monawile

cifrebiT aRniSnuli komponentebi.

romelic ukavSirdeba fermentis aqtiuri centridan moSorebul gansakuTrebul ubans. es

nivTiereba _ alosteruli efeqtori iwvevs Seqcevad cvlilebas fermentis aqtiuri centris

struqturaSi da gavlenas axdens mis aqtivobaze. Tu efeqtori amaRlebs mis aqtivobas, mas

alosteruli aqtivatori ewodeba, Tu piriqiT, amcirebs mis aqtivobas, mas alosteruli

inhibitori ewodeba.

A

2

3

B

4

5


2. daakvirdi, mocemul mruds da axseni,

substratis koncentraciis gazrdiT

dasawyisSi ratom izrdeba fermentuli

reaqciis siCqare, xolo Semdgom ki

ratom rCeba ucvleli substratis

koncentraciis gazrdis miuxedavad?

(gaiTvaliswine, rom substrati

ukavSirdeba fermentis aqtiur

centrs).

fermentuli

reaqciis

siCqare (V)

10 20 30 40 50 60 t C

o

k1

rogor gavigoT, Slis Tu ara amilaza

saxamebels?

piris RruSi sanerwyve jirkvlidan

gamoiyofa nerwyvi. nerwyvi Seicavs ferments

_ amilazas.

gamoiyene wyalxsnari, romelic Seicavs

amilazas;

moamzade 10 ml puris fqvilis wyalxsnari

da gadaanawile Tanabrad or sinjaraSi.

sinjarebi danomre: #1 da #2;

#1 sinjaraSi daumate 1 ml. fermentiani

siTxe, xolo #2-Si 1 ml sufTa

wyali;

5 wuTis Semdeg orive sinjaraSi Caumate

3-3 wveTi iodi;

daakvirdi, romel sinjaraSi Seicvleba

SigTavsis feri?

daafiqsire Sedegebi. monacemebi gaanalize.

(daeyrdeni faqts, rom saxameblis

wyalxsnari iodis Tanaobisas lurj fers

iZens. Tu saxamebeli daSlilia, iodi

wyalxsnars aRar gaalurjebs): Seicvlida

Tu ara fers sinjaris #1 SigTavsi, Tu

iods CaawveTebdi nerwyvis Semcveli

siTxis Camatebamde? ra gansxvavebaa

sinjarebSi #1 da #2 cdis dayenebis

pirobebs Soris? risTvis dagWirda

sinjara #2?

gaakeTe saboloo daskvna saxamebelze

amilazas moqmedebis Sesaxeb.

reaqciis

siCqare

V (maqs)

substratis koncentracia

3. a) daakvirdi mruds da axseni, Tu rogor

gavlenas axdens temperatura fermentis

aqtivobaze.

b) axseni, fermentis denaturaciam rogor

SeiZleba moaxdinos gavlena mis katalizur

aqtivobaze.

k2

rogor moqmedebs temperatura fermentis

aqtivobaze?

kuWis wveni Seicavs ferments – pefsins,

romelic Slis cilebs, magaliTad rZis

cilebs, kvercxis cilebs.

gamoikvlie, ra temperaturul pirobebSi

moqmedebs pefsini. amisaTvis daakvirdi pefsinis

moqmedebas sxvadasxva temperaturaze

da daadgine, ra temperaturaa optimaluri

(saukeTeso) pefsinis moqmedebisaTvis da ra

temperatura zRudavs mis moqmedebas.

danomre sinjarebi (##1,2,3,4,5,6) da

yvelgan Caagde erTnairi zomis moxarSuli

kvercxis cilis naWeri;

yvela sinjaraSi Caasxi erTnairi raodenobis

da koncentraciis pepsinis wyalxsnari.

temperatura sinjarebSi unda iyos nuls

zeviT: #1-Si 1-2C°, #2-Si 5C°, #3-Si 25C°,

#4-Si 35C°, #5-Si 45C°, #6-Si 70C°.

dainiSne dro da gansazRvre romel sinjaraSi

moineleba cila ufro swrafad,

romel sinjaraSi darCeba cila mounelebeli?

monacemebi Seitane cxrilSi. aage pefsinis

aqtivobis temperaturaze damokidebulebis

diagrama, gaanalize da gamoitane daskvna

pefsinis aqtivobaze temperaturis moqmedebis

Sesaxeb. ra iyo cdaSi damokidebuli

da damoukidebeli cvladi? cdis Sedegidan

gamomdinare, ra aris pefsinis moqmedebis

optimaluri temperatura.

dawere oqmi.

13


14

savarjiSoebi _ cilebi

1. aminomJava cisteinis Sesaxeb ra ufro srulfasovan warmodgenas

iZleva, zogadi formula C 3 H 7 O 2 NS. Tu molekulis

sivrcobrivi modeli? pasuxi ganmarte.

2. fermenti qimiuri TvalsazrisiT warmoadgenen:

a. polisaqaridebs.

b. aminomJavebs.

g. cilebs.

3. fermenti moqmedebs naerTze im SemTxvevaSi, Tu:

a. SeuZlia masTan Zalian axlo kontaqtSi Sesvla;

b. sivrcobrivi formiT Tanxvdeba gardasaqmnel nivTierebas;

g. orive pasuxi sworia.

4. cilis struqturuli funqciis magaliTia:

a. fermentis molekulebis monawileoba nivTierebaTa

gardaqmnaSi;

b. hormonebis mier samizne ujredebis funqciis regulacia;

g. cilis molekulebis monawileoba plazmuri membranis SenebaSi.

5. davuSva, aris cilis ori molekula, romlebic Sedgeba erTidaigive da erTnairi raodenobis

aminomJavebisagan. qvemoT moyvanili mtkicebebidan orive marTebulia. ratom?

es SeiZleba iyos cilis ori erTnairi molekula.

es SeiZleba iyos cilis ori gansxvavebuli molekula.

6. davuSva, rom cilis molekulis SedgenilobaSi Semavali uklebliv yvela aminomJava

amJRavnebs hidrofilur Tvisebebs. imoqmedebda es cilis struqturul agebulebaze?

pasuxi ganmarte.

7. daasabuTe, rom cilis molekulis yvela Taviseburebas misi pirveladi struqtura

gansazRvravs.

8. CamoTvale plazmur membranaSi CaSenebuli cilebis funqciebi.

9. daasrule winadadeba:

1) cilis monomeria ----------------------------------------------------------------------

2) yvela aminomJavas saerTo nawilebia: -----------------------------------------------

3) cilebis mravalferovneba ganpirobebulia ---------------------------------------

4) cilis denaturacia aris -------------------------------------------------------------

5) cilis renaturacia SeuZlebelia, rodesac ---------------------------------------

10. Seavse cxrili:

cilis sivrcobrivi organizaciis doneebi maxasiaTeblebi

pirveladi struqtura

S

N

C

O

H

cisteinis sivrculi

modeli


nukleinis mJavebi

organizmebSi niSan-Tvisebebis gamovlena damokidebulia mTel rig bioqimiur procesebze,

romlebic fermentebis uSualo monawileobis gareSe ar warimarTeba. fermentebis

specifiuroba damokidebulia misi polipeptiduri jaWvis aminomJavur Semadgenlobasa

da Tanmimdevrobaze, am informaciis matarebeli ki genia.

geni lokalizebulia qromosomaSi. qromosomebi Sedgebian cilebisa da nukleinis

mJavebisgan.

mecnierebaSi didxans iyo sakamaTo da kvlevis

sagani _ cilebi iyo memkvidreobis matarebeli,

Tu nukleinis mJavebi. gamokvlevebiT dadginda,

rom nukleinis mJavebTan aris dakavSirebuli

memkvidreobiTi informaciis Senaxva da gadacema.

k

1.

geni aris dnm-is ubani,

romelic Seicavs informacias

gansazRvruli cilis

pirveladi struqturis

Sesaxeb.

Sveicarielma mecnierma

fridrix miSerma 1868 wels

nukleinis mJavebi aRmoaCina

birTvSi.

dnm-is molekulis sivrculi modeli

moiZie informacia, ra wvlili Seitana

rozelind frenklinma dnm-s

struqturis aRmoCenaSi.

ra kavSiria cilasa da gens Soris?

1. geni cila niSan-Tviseba.

axseni, ras gulisxmobs es sqema.

ujredSi nukleinis mJavebi warmodgenilia dezoqsiribonukleinis

mJavis (dnm) da ribonukleinis

mJavis (rnm) saxiT.

dnm cilis msgavsad, polimeria. eukariotul organizmebSi

dnm-s ZiriTadi nawili ujredis birTvSia

moTavsebuli. dnm aris agreTve mitoqondriebsa da

qloroplastebSi. prokariotebSi dnm citoplazmaSia

ganTavsebuli.

dnm-is molekula polimeruli naerTia, romlis

monomerebi nukleotidebia. nukleotidi oTxi saxisaa:

adeniniani, Timiniani, citoziniani da guaniniani.

dnm-is molekula erTmaneTis mimarT spiralurad daxveuli

ori polinukleotiduri jaWvisgan Sedgeba.

1953 wels amerikelma biologma j. uotsonma da

ingliselma fizikosma f. krikma Seqmnes dnm-is

molekulis orjaWviani sivrculi modeli.

1


16

2. daakvirdi nukleotidebisagebulebas.

ramdeni da ra

da ra nawilisagan

Sedgeba TiToeuli

maTgani?

3. Seadare erTmaneTsnukleotidebi:

ra aqvT maT saerTo

agebulebaSi da riT

gansxvavdebian?

4. saidan warmodgeba

nukleotidebis

saxelwodebebi?

dezoqsiribonukleotidebi

1.

adenini

(azotovani fuZe)

2.

fosformJavas

naSTi

fosformJavas

naSTi

dezoqsiriboza

(naxSirwyali)

fosformJavas

naSTi

guanini

3. (azotovani fuZe)

4.

dezoqsiriboza

(naxSirwyali)

fosformJavas

naSTi

1. adeniniani, _ A; 2. Timiniani_ T; 3. guaniniani _ G; 4. citoziniani _ C.

5. daukvirdi nukleotidebis sqemas da miuTiTe,

romeli cifrebiT nukleotidis romeli nawilia

aRniSnuli?

1 2 3

T

A

G

C

dnm-is nukleotidebi sqematurad

dnm-s polimerSi nukleotidebi mravaljer

meordeba. nukleotidebi uerTeba

erTmaneTs da qmnis dnm-is erT jaWvs. nukleotidebis

dakavSireba jaWvSi xorcieldeba

erTi nukleotidis naxSirwyalsa da

meore nukleotidis fosformJavas naSTs

Soris kovalenturi bmis warmoqmniT.

Timini

(azotovani fuZe)

dezoqsiriboza

(naxSirwyali)

citozini

(azotovani fuZe)

dezoqsiriboza

(naxSirwyali)

nukleotidebis dakavSireba erT jaWvSi


dnm-is molekulis ori jaWvis nukleotidebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba azotovani

fuZeebiT. Tu sqemas daakvirdebi, aRmoaCen, rom azotovani fuZeebi erTmaneTs SemTxveviT

ar ukavS irdeba. erT jaWvSi arsebul adenins ori wyalbaduri bmiT ukavSirdeba meore

jaWvis Timini, xolo guanins _ citozini sami wyalbaduri bmiT. azotovani fuZeebis

erTmaneTTan dakavSireba xdeba sivrculi (geometriuli) formis SesabamisobiT. nukleotidebis

ganlagebis am princips ewodeba komplementurobis principi. amitom dnm-

Si A-s raodenoba yovelTvis tolia T-s raodenobis, xolo G-s raodenoba yovelTvis

tolia C-s raodenobisa. A-s da T-s raodenoba SeiZleba ar iyos G-s da C-s raodenobis

toli.

G

C

G

T

A

G

C

C

A A

T

G

A

dnm-is ori jaWvis erTmaneTTan dakavSireba

A

C

A A

C

G

T

C

fosformJavas

naSTi

naxSirwyali

azotovani

fuZe

komplementarobis principi uzrunvelyofs azotovan fuZeebs Soris maqsimaluri

raodenobiT bmis warmoqmnas da ormagi spiralis mTel sigrZeze jaWvebs Soris Tanabari

manZilis dacvas. amitom yoveli komplementuri nukleotidis wyvilis zoma spiralis

RerZis gaswvriv aris 0,34 nanometri _ nm (1nm = 10 -6 mm).

komplementarobis

principiT

Sepirispirebuli

nukleotidebi.

nukleotidebi

T

A

C

G

6. sqemis mixedviT

gamoicani romeli

nukleotidebi

arian ganlagebuli

erTmaneTis mopirispired.

7. warmoidgine, rom

dnm-is erTi jaWvis

monakveTi aseTia: A-

A-G-A-C-C-C-C-C-T-

A-T-T-T-T, a) rogori

iqneba misi komplementuri

monakveTi

meore jaWvSi?

b) dnm-is romeli

TvisebiTisargeble

meore jaWvis agebis

dros?

g) gansazRvre dnms

am fragmentis

sigrZe.

G G

A

G

C

rnm-is agebuleba.

ribonukleinis mJava (rnm), iseve

rogorc dnm, polimeria. isic Sedgeba

nukleotidebisagan. aris gansxvavebac

dnm-s da rnm-s agebulebas

Soris. rnm, dnm-sgan gansxvavebiT,

erTjaWviania.

T

A

T

A

17


18

8. sqemaze mocemuliribonukleotidebis

agebuleba

Seadare me-16 gv.

mocemul dnm-s nukleotidebissqemas.

a) ra msgavseba

da gansxavebaa maT

Soris?

b) romeli nukleotidi

ar aris rnm-

Si?

1.

fosformJavas

naSTi

adenini

(azotovani fuZe)

riboza

(naxSirwyali)

ribonukleotidebi

guanini

3. (azotovani fuZe)

4.

fosformJavas

naSTi

riboza

(naxSirwyali)

fosformJavas

naSTi

fosformJavas

naSTi

1. adeniniani, _ A; 2.uracilini _ U; 3. guaniniani _ G; 4. citoziniani _C.

1 2 3

U

A

G

C

rnm-is nukleotidebi sqematurad

2.

uracili

(azotovani fuZe)

riboza

(naxSirwyali)

citozini

(azotovani fuZe)

riboza

(naxSirwyali)

rnm ramdenime saxisaa: informaciuli,

ribosomuli, trasportuli. informaciuli

da transportuli rnm-ebi cilis sinTezSi

monawileoben, xolo ribosomuli rnm Sedis

ribosomis SemadgenlobaSi da mis funqcionirebas

ganapirobebs. maT Tvisebebsa da

funqciebs dawvrilebiT Semdeg paragrafebSi

gaecnobi.

9. Seadare erTmaneTs dnm da rnm qvemoT mocemuli cxrilis mixedviT:

nukleinis

mJavebi

dnm

rnm

jaWvis

ricxvi

naxSirwyali

nukleotidebi

azotovani

fuZe

fosformJavas

naSTi

funqciebi


1.6

memkvidreobiTi materialuri masalis kvlevis istoria

cila Tu dnm?

gasuli saukunis Sua wlebSi bevri mecnieri muSaobda imis dasadgenad, ra nivTiereba

_ cila Tu dnm, asrulebda memkvidrobiTi materialuri masalis rols. qvemoT warmogidgenT

yvelaze mniSvnelovan kvlevebs.

k1

1928 wels frederik grifiti ikvlevda pnevmoniis (filtvebis anTebis) gamomwvev

baqteriebs _ pnevmokokebs. man aRmoaCina, rom kafsuliani plevmokokebi iwveven

filtvebis anTebas (radgan kafsula icavs maspinZlis imunuri sistemisgan), ukafsuloebi

ki, ar iwveven filtvebis anTebas.

pirobiTad, kafsuliani baqteriebis xazi aRvniSnoT rogorc PV, (pirveli asoebi

sityvebisa Pneumonia _ filtvebis anTeba da Virulent-virulenturi anu daavadebis

gamomwvevi), ukapsuloebi ki aRvniSnoT, rogorc NV (Nonvirulent _ aravirulen-

turi).

cocxali NV cocxali PV mkvdari PV

I II III IV

cocxali NV +

mkvdari PV

cdis pirvel etapze grifitma sacdeli virTagvebis erT jgufSi cocxali NV baqteriebiT

savse siTxe Seiyvana. cxovelebi cocxlebi darCnen (I). virTagvebis meore jgufs Seuyvana

cocxali PV baqteriebi. dasnebovnebuli virTagvebi ki ramdenime dReSi avad gaxdnen da

daixocnen (II).

cdis Semdeg etapze grifitma winaswar mokla PV baqteriebi maRali temperaturis

zemoqmedebiT da baqteriebis Semcveli siTxe Seasxura virTagvebis sxeulSi. virTagvebi

avad ar gamxdaran (III).

amis Semdeg grifitma virTagvebis sxeulSi erTdroulad Seiyvana mkvdari PV da cocxali

NV baqteriebis Semcveli siTxe. virTagvebi avad gaxdnen da daixocnen (IV). grifitma gamoyo

daxocili cxovelebis organizmidan baqteriebi da aRmoaCina, rom NV baqteriebs gauCnda

iseTive kapsula, rogoric qonda PV-s.

ra moxda PV mikrobebi gacocxldnen? grifitma ivarauda, rom mkvdari kafsuliani pnevmokokebis

mier gamoyofili raRac nivTierebis zegavleniT cocxali ukafsulo pnevmokokebi

kafsulianebad gardaiqmneba.

1. ganmarte grifitis cdis Sedegi: ratom gadarCa virTagvebis erTi nawili da ratom

daiRupnen sxvebi.

2. SeinarCunes Tu ara virulenturoba mkvdarma PV baqteriebma?

3. rogor fiqrob, grifitma am cdiT daadgina, PV-is romeli nivTiereba _ cila Tu dnm

atarebda informacias kafsuliani garsis Sesaxeb?

19


20

k2

warmoidgine rom im periodis mecnieri xar, Sen unda gaagrZelo grifitis mier wamowyebuli

kvleva da pasuxi gasce SekiTxvas: PV-s romelma nivTierebam _ cilam Tu dnm-m SesZina

NV-s axali niSan-Tviseba.

warmoidgine, rom SegiZlia gaimeoro grifitiseuli cda. Sens gankargulebaSia pnevmokokis

orive xazi: PV da NV, sacdeli virTagvebi da SegiZlia Caataro cdis yvela procedura.

imavdroulad Sen damatebiT gaqvs ori saxis fermenti: proteaza, romelic iwvevs cilis

denaturacias da dezoqsiribonukleaza, romelic Slis dnm-s polimers. am enzimebiT Sen

SegiZlia SerCeviTad imoqmedo pnevmokokebze da Seni survilis mixedviT gamoiwvio cilis

an dnm-s molekulebis daSla.

dagegme cda, Camowere misi yvela etapi;

gansazRvre, rogor gamoiyeneb enzimebs, baqteriebs da sacdel cxovelebs;

ivaraude, ra Sedegs miiReb da ra daskvnas gamoitan am Sedegebze dayrdnobiT.

frederik grifiti osvald eiveri

is cda, romelic Sen dagegme da warmosaxviT Caatare kidevac, sinamdvileSi Caatara

osvald eiverim 1928 wels. eiverim daadgina, rom mkvdari PV-dan cocxal NV-Si gadasuli

dnm atarebda informacias PV-s kapsulis Sesaxeb.

mecnierebi yovelTvis cdiloben mravaljer gadaamowmon miRebuli faqti, raTa

darwmundnen mis sisworeSi.

amitom eiveris Semdgom, cdebi dnm-ze gaagrZeles marTa Ceizma da alfred herSim.

Ceizma da herSim gamokvleva Caatares 1952 wels. rogorc iTqva isini cdilobdnen

moepovebinaT damatebiTi eqsperimentuli mtkicebulebebi, rom dnm atarebs informacias

organizmis niSan-Tvisebebis Sesaxeb.

Ceizi da herSi muSaobdnen baqteriofagze. im periodisaTvis codnis done aseTi iyo:

mecnierebma icodnen, rom fagi jdeba baqteriis sxeulze,

xsnis garss da ujredSi SeuSvebs raRac nivTierebas, romelic

atarebs informacias virusis Sesaxeb. vurusis es informacia

gadaecema baqterias da mas aiZulebs daiwyos fagis

dnm-isa da cilis sinTezi.

virusisagebulebidangamomdinareCeizidaherSifiqrobdnen,

rom es nivTiereba aris dnm an cila. maT gamoiyenes radiaqtiuri

izotopebi raTa gaegoT fagis ra nivTireba Sedis

baqteriis ujredSi. izotopebi asxiveben didZal energias,

romlis registraciac SeiZleba specialuri xelsawyoebiT.

fagebis nawili gamoiyvanes radiaqtiur fosforian garemoSi,

nawili ki _ radiaqtiur gogirdian garemoSi.

1. radiaqtiuli fosfori da gogirdi Sedianfagis organuli

nivTierebebis SemadgenlobaSi. rogor fiqrob romel

nivTierebaSi Cajdeba gogirdi da romelSi fosfori?

marTa Ceizi da alfred herSi

dnm

baqteriofagi

cilovani

garsi

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