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32

II

memkvidreobiTobis

molekuluri safuZveli


am Tavis mizania gaecnoT memkvidruli

informaciis Senaxvis, gadacemisa da

realizaciis meqanizmebs

33


2.1

34

memkvidreobiTobis molekuluri

safuZveli – dnm. dnm-s struqtura

gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi gaCnda varaudi, rom memkvidrul masalas yvela

cocxali organizmisaTvis, agreTve, virusebisaTvis, SesaZloa, warmoadgendes

nukleinis mJavebi – dnm da rnm. aRmoCnda, rom nukleinis mJavebis Taviseburebebi

gansazRvraven genetikuri informaciis Senaxvasa da gadacemas. dnm-s

struqturis dadgeniT SesaZlebeli gaxda, gagvego, Tu rogor qmnian ujredebi

da, Sesabamisad, organizmebi Tavisnairs, rogor aris maTSi kodirebuli

memkvidruli informacia.

Cven ukve viciT, rom nukleinis mJavebi miekuTvneba naerTTa jgufs,

romlebsac polimerebi ewodeba. polimeris molekula grZeli jaWvia, romelSic

mravaljer meordeba SedarebiT martivi struqtura – monomeri. Tu monomers

A asoTi aRvniSnavT, maSin polimeris struqtura SeiZleba ase daiweros:

A – A – A – A – A.

nukleinis mJavebis monomers warmo

ad gens nukleotidi. igi Sedgeba

sami nawilisagan:

gavecnoT nukleotidebis age bule

bas. arsebobs 4 saxis nukleotidi

(sur. 35).

fosformJavas

naSTi

a

azotovani fuZe

citozini

1. yoveli nukleotidis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis ori erTnairi da erTi gansxvave-

buli komponenti. daasaxeleT isini.

rogorc xedavT, nukleotidebi erTmaneTisagan mxolod azotovani fuZiT

gansxvavdeba.

nukleotidebs azotovani fuZis Sesabamisad eniWeba saxelwodeba, kerZod:

adeniniani (a), Timiniani (T), guaniniani (g) da citoziniani (c).

a

b

g

a – fosformJavas naSTi, b – 5-naxSirbadiani

naxSirwyali – pentoza, g – azotovani fuZe.

g g g g

b

azotovani fuZe

guanini

b

azotovani fuZe

Timini

a a

a

naxSirwyali

citoziniani guaniniani Timiniani adeniniani

sur. 35

b

azotovani fuZe

adenini

g


dnm-s jaWvSi nukleotidebis SeerTeba, asaxulia 36-e suraT ze.

a

b

g

sur. 38. azotovani fuZeebis ori wyvili sam-sami cikluri komponentiT (a, b, g)

a

nukleotidebisagan iqmneba Za-

lian grZeli molekula – poli-

nuk le o tiduri jaWvi.

dnm-s qimiuri Sedgenilobis dad-

guanini

genis miuxedavad, jer kidev araferi

iyo cnobili dnm-s struqturaze.

misi kvleva 50-iani wlebis dasawyiSi

ame ri kelma qimikosma lai nus poling

ma daiwyo. parale lurad lon -

citozini

donis samefo kolej Si mo ris uilkinsi

da rozalind fran kli ni (sur.

37a) cdilobdnen am prob le mis gadaWras

rentgenul-struq turu li

ana liziT. am kvlevebiT dad ginda

adenini dnm-s molekulis mxo lod zo gadi

struq tura.

sur. 36. dnm-s jaWvi

kembrijis universitetis ka ven -

diSis laboratoriaSi jeims uotsonma

da frensis krikma (sur. 37b) airCies gansxvavebuli midgoma. gamoiyenes ra

yvela qimiuri da fizikuri monacemebi, isini See cad nen SeeqmnaT dnm-s sivrcu li

modeli. uilkinsis da franklinis rentgenogramebidan

Canda, rom dnm-s spiraluri

struqtura hqonda, amave dros,

1951 wels ervin Cargafma gamoaqveyna

mona cemebi, cnobili `Cargafis wesis~

sa xel wodebiT, rom lis mixedviT dnm-Si

a nukleo tidebis raodenoba tolia T

a b

nuk leotidebis, xolo g nu kle o tidebis

sur. 37. a. rozalind franklini;

rao denoba – c nukleo ti debis ricxvis, b. jeims uotsoni da frensis kriki

a=T da g=c.

Timini

2. gansazRvreT romeli komponentebiT ukav-

Sirdeba erTmaneTs mezobeli nukleotidebi.

uotsonma SeniSna, rom aseTi Tanafardobisas azotovani fuZeebi zustad

Seesabameba erTmaneTs da rom ori aseTi wyvilis saerTo zoma da forma

erTnairia, radgan Seicavs sam-sam ciklur komponents (a, b, g) (sur 38).

b

g

35


36

am monacemebze dayrdnobiT, uotsonma da

krikma daadgines, rom dnm polinukleotiduri

jaWvis ori spiralisagan Sedgeba. polinukleotidebis

jaWvebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs azotovan

fuZeebs Soris warmoqmnili wyalbaduri bmebi.

erTi jaWvis adeninis pirdapir yovelTvis dgas

spiralis meore jaWvis Timini, xolo guaninis

pirdapir – citozini. sxva varianti ar SeiZleba

iyos. erTi nukleotidi meorisaTvis damatebiTi

(Semavsebeli) nukleotidis rols asrulebs (sur.

39). am movlenas komplementarobis principi

ewoda (laT. compliment – damateba).

a

g

g

T

a T

g

c

c

c

T a

g

1 nm

c

c

g

g

c

g

c

c

g

sur. 39. wyalbaduri bmebi

nukleotidebis azotovan

fuZeebs Soris

sabolood uotsonma da krikma Seqmnes dnm-s

samganzomilebiani struqtura, romelic daxveul

kibes mogvagonebs (sur. 40).

1962 wels jeims uotsons, frensis kriks da moris

a

g

T

c

uilkins s am namuSevrisTvis nobelis premia mieniWaT.

a T

dnm ZiriTadad mcenareebis da cxovelebis

ujredebis birTvSia moTavsebuli da mcire odenobiT

sur. 40. dnm-s samganzomilebiani

struqtura – citoplazmaSi mdebare organoidebSi, kerZod,

mitoqondriebsa da qloroplastebSi. baqteriebSi

erTi, maryuJad Sekruli dnm moTavsebulia citoplazmis centralur nawilSi.

aqve mdebareobs meore, mcire zomis, aseve maryuJad Sekruli dnm – plazmida.

3. SemoxazeT swori debuleba:

a. monomerebis simravle qmnis:

1) azotovan fuZeebs; 2) polimers; 3) wyalbadur bmebs; 4) plazmidas.

b. nukleotidis SemadgenlobaSi ar gvxvdeba:

1) cximovani mJava; 2) naxSirwyali; 3) azotovani fuZe; 4) fosformJava.

g. genetikur informacias atarebs:

1) atf; 2) dnm; 3) fosformJava; 4) azotovani fuZe.

a

g

T

a

a

c

T

c

a

T

T

g


4. komplementarobis principiT swori kombinaciaa

a) g – c b) a – T g) T – c d) a – T

g – c g – c g – a g – a

a – g c – g c – c c – T

5. SeajameT, ra iciT dnm-s agebulebis Sesaxeb: Tavad SeavseT gamotovebuli

adgilebi.

a. dnm Sedgeba ori jaWvisagan, TiToeuli jaWvi Sedgeba ... .

b. dnm-s nukleotidebi oTxnairia: adeniniani, guaniniani, ... da ... .

g. dnm-s ori jaWvi erTmaneTis pirispir mdebareobs da ori jaWvis mopirispire

nukleotidebi erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba ... bmiT.

6. `sixarulisagan uceb meSvide caze aRmovCndi, radgan mivageni pasuxs kiTxvaze,

romelic amden xans gvawvalebda: ratom aris ... ... raodenoba Tanabari~ – es

citata j. uotsons ekuTvnis.

a. daazusteT, dnm-s romeli komponentis raodenobas gulisxmobda igi?

b. Tqveni azriT, dnm-s sivrculi modelis Seqmnis romel etapze iTqva es

fraza?

7. gaasworeT Secdomebi:

8. a) daakvirdiT 41-e suraTze gamosaxul

dnm-s. rogor fiq robT, daculia Tu ara

nukleotidebis komplemen ta robis principi?

pasuxi daasabuTeT.

b) aRniSneT, ra kanon zomie rebaa azotovan

fuZeebs So ris wyalbaduri bmebis rao denobaSi.

g) aawyveT dnm-s modeli fe radi qaRaldebis,

plasti linis an sxva masalis gamo yenebiT

(sxvadasxva fe ris masala pirobiTad

nukleotidebis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneT;

erT jaWvze nukleo tidebis Tanamimdevroba

Tqveni survilis mixedviT SearCieT).

gansazRvreT, rogori iqneba dnm-s modelis

meore jaWvi.

g

a

a

c

c

g

a

a

T

g

sur. 41

c

T

g

a

g

g

c

a

T

c

37


2.2

38

dnm-s funqciebi

dezoqsiribonukleinis mJavas axasiaTebs TviTgaormagebis unikaluri unari

da asrulebs umniSvnelovanes funqciebs: 1) inaxavs memkvidrul informacias, 2)

warmoadgens matricas (laT. `matrix~ – yalibi, nimuSi) birTvidan citoplazmaSi

genetikuri informaciis gadacemis procesSi.

uotsonis da krikis mier Semo Tavazebuli dnm-s struqturis mo deli

imiTac aris saintereso, rom gvkarnaxobs, rogor SeiZleba xdebodes dnm-s

gaormageba. or magi spiralis warmomqmnel jaW vebs SeuZlia gaSla da daSo reba,

ris Semdeg TiToeuli maTga ni gaxdeba e. w. matrica, romelzec komplemen tarobis

principiT nukleo tide bis axali jaWvi aigeba. es procesi Semdegnairad

xorciel deba: specialuri fermentis – dezoqsiribonukleazas – moqmedebiT

dnm-s Sepirispirebul nukleotidebs Soris wyalbaduri bmebi irRveva da ormagi

jaWvi ixsneba (sur. 42). gaxsnili dnm-s

TiToeul jaWvze arsebul nukleotidebs

komplementarobis principiT (a – T; g –

c) Seupirispirdeba da fermentebis moqmedebiT

daukavSirdeba birTvSi arsebuli

Tavisufali nukleotidebi (maT organizmi

sakvebTan erTad iRebs).

1. romeli bmiT daukavSirdeba Tavisufali

nukleotidebi dnm-s TiToeul jaWvze arsebul

nukleotidebs?

c g

am procesis Sedegad miiReba dnm-s

T

ori molekula. TiToeulSi erTi jaWvi

Zveli, dediseuli dnm-saa, meore ki axalia.

a

miRebuli molekula dediseuli molekulis

zusti aslia, amitomac dnm-s gaormagebis

process replikacia (laT. `replicatio~ –

fermenti – dezoqsiribonukleaza

gameoreba) ewodeba.

es mov lena iseT ujredebSi gvxvdeba,

sur. 42. dnm-s gaormageba – romel Tac gayofis unari aqvT. am dros

replikacia

xdeba dnm-s axali molekulis sinTezi.

rogorc xedavT, dnm-s axali jaWvi Seiqmna dediseuli jaWvis mixedviT, anu,

Zveli jaWvi gamoyenebulia nimuSad, matricad axlis SeqmnisaTvis. ujredSi axali

molekulebis Seqmnas nimuSis mixedviT ewodeba matriculi tipis reaqcia.

g

T

a

c

a

c

T

T

a

g

a

T

*

a

T

T

a

c g

a T

T a

g c


2. davuSvaT, rom dnm-s dediseuli molekulis erT jaWvze

nukleotidebis ganlageba aseTia:

g-g-T-a-T-c-a-a-g-c

a) rogori iqneba nukleotidebis Tanamimdevroba dediseul

meore jaWvSi da replikaciis Sedegad miRebul axal

molekulebSi?

b) plastilinis, feradi furclebis an sxva masalis

gamoyenebiT daamzadeT dnm-s molekulis modeli ise, rom

SeZloT misi or jaWvad daSla da replikaciis procesis

modelireba.

sur. 43. dnm-s replikacia

3. sqematurad gamoxateT replikaciis procesi, dediseuli jaWvebi gaaferadeT

wiTlad, xolo axalwarmoqmnili jaWvebi – lurjad. gaagrZeleT replikaciis

procesi (axalwarmoqmnili jaWvi gaaferadeT sxvafrad) da daakvirdiT warmoqmnil

oTx axal molekulaSi wiTeli da lurji jaWvebis ganawilebas. rogor fiqrobT,

gaormagebis gagrZelebis SemTxvevaSi `emuqreba~ Tu ara dakargva sawyis –

matricul jaWvebs?

4. rogor fiqrobT, gWirdebaT Tu ara sakvebi imisaTvis, rom Tqvens ujredebSi

warimarTos matriculi tipis reaqciebi?

5. dnm-s molekulis gaormageba mimdinareobs

saocari sizustiT: axalwarmoqmnili molekula

Zveli molekulis absoluturad identuria.

amaSi aris Rrma biologiuri azri, radgan

dnm-s struqturis daSla Secvlida organizmisTvis

damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvi se bebis

ganviTarebas; Tumca, zogjer, qimi uri da

fi zikuri faqtorebis zegavleniT (ultraiisferi

da maionizebeli gamosxiveba, maRali

tem peratura da sxv.) warmoiqmneba dnm-s

gansxva vebuli molekula. aseT SemTxve vaSi

spe cialuri fermenti `gamoicnobs~, sxva fermentebi

ki Caasworeben im ubans, romelic ar

Seesabameba matricul dnm-s.

SeasruleT `gamomcnobi~ fermentis funqcia,

SeasworeT da aRadgineT dnm-s molekula

matricis mixedviT.

a

b

g

a

c

T

T

c

g

a

a

c

T

c

g

a

T

g

a

T

g

T

a

T

a

c

T

T

c

g

a

T

g

a

a

g

c

T

T

g

a

g

T

c

g

a

sur. 44

a

c

T

T

c

g

a

c

T

T

g

a

a

g

c

T

39


2.3

40

genetikuri kodi

krikis da uotsonis mosazrebiT, genetikuri informacia, romelic Taobidan

TaobaSi gadaecema da ujredis metabolizms gansazRvravs, warmodgenilia dnm-s

molekulaSi nukleotidebis TanamimdevrobiT. mogvianebiT dadginda, rom dnm-s

grZeli Zafisebri molekula Seicavs informacias mocemuli ujredis mTeli rigi

cilebis Sesaxeb (cilis molekula, iseve rogorc nukleinis mJavebis molekulebi,

polimeria da mis monomers aminomJava warmoadgens). cnobilia bevri sxvadasxva

aminomJava, magram cxovelTa, mcenareTa da mikrobTa ujredebis cilaSi mxolod

20 aminomJava gvxvdeba, maT `jadosnurs~ uwodeben.

aminomJavebis Tanamimdevroba gansazRvravs cilis pirvelad struqturas,

magram es ar aris cilis struqturuli organizaciis saboloo done.

1. moiZieT informacia cilis struqturuli organizaciis sxva doneebis Sesaxeb.

daazusteT, ra rols asrulebs cilis pirveladi struqtura cilis saboloo

konfiguraciis SeqmnaSi?

gairkva, rom dnm-s molekulaSi nukleotidebis Tanamimdevroba gansazRvravs

aminomJavebis Tanamimdevrobas cilis molekulaSi. es damokidebuleba nukleotidebsa

da aminomJavebs Soris cnobilia genetikuri kodis saxelwodebiT.

amJa mad dadgenilia, rom cilaSi yovel aminomJavas Seesabameba dnm-s jaWvSi

3 nuk leotidisagan Semd ga ri Tanamim dev roba – tripleti. dnm-s kodi mTlia -

nad gaSifrulia: yo veli amino mJavisaTvis zus tad aris dad genili misi makodirebeli

nu kleo tidebis – trip le tis, igive kodonis Sedge ni loba.

tabulaSi (sur. 45) moyvanilia

pirveli

meore fuZe mesame

fuZe a g T c fuZe im trip letebis Sedgeniloba,

fen ser Tir cis a romle biTac kodirebulia ci lis

fen ser Tir cis g mole kulis 20-ve aminomJava.

a

lei ser T

g

T

c

lei ser tri c

lei pro his arg a

lei pro his arg g

lei pro gli arg T

lei pro gli arg c

ile tre asn ser a

ile tre asn ser g

ile tre liz arg T

meT tre liz arg c

val ala asp gli a

val ala asp gli g

val ala glu gli T

val ala glu gli c

sur. 45. tripletebi, romle biTac kodirebulia

ci lis mole kulis 20-ve aminomJava

tabuliT sargebloba advi lia. tripletSi

pirvel nuk leo tids iReben

marc xena verti ka luri sveti dan,

meores zemo ho rizon tu ridan, mesa mes

– mar j ve na ver ti kaluri sve ti dan. sadac

sa mi ve nukleo ti didan wa mo su li

xazebi erT maneTs gada kve Ts, iqneba am

tripletiT ko di rebuli amino mJava.

cilis mo lekulis sin Tezis dros

infor ma cia gada itaneba i-rnm -dan,

ami tom saxeldebac i-rnm-s nuk leo -

tidebis trip let Ta Sed ge ni lobis

mixed viT xdeba.


yoveli kodoni Seesa ba meba konkretul aminomJa vas. dnm-s molekulis mo na-

kveTs (tripletebis erTo bliobas), romelic Sei cavs informacias er Ti cilis

pirveladi struq turis Sesaxeb, geni ewodeba.

dnm-s kodSi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, erTi da igive aminomJava kodirebulia ara

mxo lod erTi tripletiT, aramed ramdenimeTi – oriT, oTxiT da eqvsiTac ki.

2. moiZieT 43-e suraTze ori, oTxi da eqvsi tripletiT kodirebuli aminomJavebi.

kodis aseT Tvisebas, savaraudod, memkvidruli informaciis saimedod

Senaxvasa da gadacemas ukavSireben.

3. monawileoben Tu ara cilebi memkvidruli informaciis gadacemaSi?

es problema ingliseli mikrobiologebis f. grifitsis da o. eiveris 1928 wels

Catarebuli saintereso cdebiT dadginda. gaecaniT am cdebis Sinaarss da gaeciT

pasuxi SekiTxvas:

arsebobs ori, erTma ne Ti sagan garegnulad gansxva vebuli,

baqteria – pnevmokoki xorkliani zeda piriT (a tipis baqteria)

da gluvi zedapiriT (b tipis baqteria) (sur. 46). b

a b

tipis baqteriebi dafarulia ci lo vani kafsuliT da iwvevs

filtvebis anTe bas cxovelebsa da ada mianebSi. a tipis

sur. 46

baq teriebi ukafsuloa da ar iwvevs fil tvebis anTebas. rodesac f. gri fits

b

virTagvebis or ganizmSi Sehyavda b tipis

baq te riebi, ramdenime dRis Sem deg isini

iRupebodnen (sur. 47). a tipis baqte-

sur. 47

riebiT virTagvebi ar avaddebodnen;

virTagvebi ar avaddebodnen maSinac,

Tu maT Seuyvandnen gacxelebiT daxocil

b tipis baqteriebs (sur. 48).

magram, rodesac virTagvebs f. grifitma

b

Seuyvana a tipis cocxali baqteriebi da

gacxelebiT daxocili b tipis baqterie-

sur. 48

bis narevi, maSin isini daavaddnen filtvebis anTebiT da ramdenime dReSi

daiRupnen (sur. 49).

f. grifitsma daaskvna, rom b tipis

baqteriebidan gamoiyo raRac ucnobi

niv Tiereba, romelmac SeaRwia cocxal

b

a tipis baqteriebSi, gamoiwvia maTSi

kafsulis warmoqmna da gardaqmna isini

a

daavadebis gamomwvev baqteriebad.

1944 w. o. eiverim gaimeora f. grifitsis

sur. 49

cdebi da aRmoaCina, rom am process gansazRvravda dnm, romelic ar ziandeboda

baqteriebis gacxelebisas.

41


2.4

42

dnm da fenotipi. mutacia

dnm-s struqturis dadgenis Semdeg cxadi gaxda, rom dnm warmoadgens genis

saSen masalas, magram ar iyo cnobili, rogor gadascems igi informacias. bevrad

gvian dadginda, rom genebis gamovlena fenotipurad maT mier producirebuli

cilebiT aris ganpirobebuli. am cilebs miekuTvneba fermentebic – cilebi,

romlebic akatalizeben qimiur reaqcias ise, rom TviTon ar icvlebian. suraTze

warmodgenilia (sur. 50) kavSiri dnm-s da fenotips Soris, anu rogor vlindeba

geni fenotipurad. es procesi iwyeba dnm-s jaWvidan.

geni gansazRvravs fermentis warmoqmna s, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mcenaris

feno tips gansazRvravs. mocemul SemTxvevaSi ge nis moqmedebiT miRebuli cila

fermen tia, romelic pigmentis warmoqmnaSi mo na wileobs. igi akatalizebs

kodoni

fermentTan

dakavSirebuli

molekula

pigmentis

winamorbedi

molekulebi

a.

cila

fermenti

sur. 50. dnm-s molekulis mutacia

1 mutageni – qimiuri agenti, romelic iwvevs genis fizikur an qimiur dazianebas.

dnm

a c c g T a a c c c T a a c c g c a a c c c T a

informaciuli

rnm

u g g c a u u g g g a u u g g c g u u g g g a u

pigmentis

molekulebi

kodoni

cilis molekula

aminomJavebiT

pigmentis

winamorbedi

molekulebi

b.

a b

deformirebuli

cila

fermenti

yvavilebi


eaqcias, romel Sic monawileobs pigmentis winamorbedis mo lekula. erTi aseTi

molekula ukve dakavSi re bulia fermentTan. fermenti gardaqmnis am molekulebs

pigmentis molekulebad. pig mentis molekulebi grovdeba da wiTlad Re bavs

yvavilis gvirgvinis furclebs.

mutacia iwvevs dnm-s cvlilebas. cilebi, romlebic Secvlili genebiT

warmoiqmneba, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs cvlilebebs – cvlis cilas da, Sesa ba misad,

mcenaris fenotips (sur. 50a).

mutacia SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos qimiuri mu tagenebiT, gamosxivebiT an sxva

faq torebiT. davuSvaT, rom ultraiisferma gamosxivebam daa zia na mcenareuli

ujredis dnm. 50b suraTze asaxul SemTxvevaSi ultra iisferma gamosxivebam

gamoiwvia mutacia da azotovani fuZe Timini Seicvala azotovani fuZe

citoziniT. transkripciis procesSi dauzianebel informaciul rnm-Si unda

yofiliyo azotovani fuZe adenini, magram, am SemTxvevaSi, mis nacvlad `Cajda~

azotovani fuZe guanini. rogorc iciT, informaciul rnm-s sami azotovani fu-

Ze warmoadgens kodons; aRweril SemTx ve vaSi pirveli kodoni normaluria da

warmoiqmneba normaluri aminomJava (a), rac Seexeba Semdeg kodons, masSi moxda

mutacia da warmoiqmna `araswori~ ami nomJava (b). bunebrivia, amis Sedegi

iqneba is, rom, miuxedavad sxva kodonebis sisworisa, cilis molekulaSi moxdeba

cvlileba.

moyvanil magaliTSi cilis molekula monawileobda mcenaris pigmenturi

molekulebis warmoqmnaSi, magram viciT, rom Cveni cilis molekula `gafuWda~,

ris Sedegadac warmoiqmna defeqturi cila, romelsac ar SeuZlia funqcionireba

– pigmenti ar warmoiqmneba. es moaxdens gavlenas yvavilze: igi ar Seifereba.

Tqven darwmundiT, rogor Secvala dnm-s mutaciam yvavilis garegnuli ieri.

zog SemTxvevaSi mutacias SeuZlia letaluri Sedegi – organizmis sikvdili

gamoiwvios. aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac genetikuri mutacia ar axdens gavlenas

cilis molekulaze.

1. 51-e suraTze asaxulia

adamianSi genuri mutaciis

nimuSi. gaixseneT eriTro

citebis romel paTologias

iwvevs es mutacia.

G

A

A

C

T

T

glutaminis

mHJava

sur. 51. genuri mutacia

G

T

A

C

A

T

valini

43


2.5

44

ribonukleinis mJava – rnm

genebis moqmedebis meqanizmSi bolomde gasarkvevad bioqimikosebs dasWirdaT

imis gageba, Tu rogor gardaiqmneba dnm-Si arsebuli informacia cilis

molekulaSi aminomJavebis Tanamimdevrobad – pirdapir, Tu raRac `Sualeduri

nivTierebis~ daxmarebiT.

am procesSi `Suamavlis~ arsebobis dasturs warmoadgens is faqti, rom

dnm ujredis birTvSi imyofeba, xolo cilis molekulis awyoba citoplazmaSi

mimdinareobs.

1940 w. bioqimikosebma daadgines, rom am procesebSi monawileobs sxva

nukleinis mJava, kerZod, ribonukleinis mJava. igi Zalian hgavs dnm-s molekulas

da gansxvavdeba misgan sami niSniT (52-e suraTze isrebiTaa miniSnebuli).

adenini

uracili

adenini

Timini

guanini guanini

citozini citozini

sur. 52. a. ribonukleinis mJava b. dezoqsiribonukleinis mJava

1) rnm-s molekula warmoadgens nukleotidebis erTmag jaWvs, 2) rnm-s

molekulaSic oTxi saxis nukleotidia, aqedan sami saxis azotovani fuZe dnm-s

msgavsia. esenia: adenini, guanini da citozini, xolo meoTxe, azotovani fuZis

Timinis nacvlad, uracilia * , 3) rnm-s nukleotidebSi naxSirwyali warmodgenilia

riboziT, saidanac warmodgeba saxelwodeba ribonukleinis mJava – rnm.

1. saidan warmoiqmneba dnm-s saxelwodeba?

mogvianebiT aRmoaCines, rom cilis sinTezSi monawileobs sami tipis rnm:

ribosomuli, satransporto da informaciuli. maTi saxelwodeba maT mier

* uracili – qimiurad Timinis msgavsi azotovani fuZe, romelic gvxvdeba rnm-Si.


Sesrulebul funqciebs Seesabameba. informaciul rnm-s gamoaqvs informacia

birTvidan (sur. 53).

ribosomuli rnm (sur. 54) gvxvdeba ribosomis SemadgenlobaSi. satransporto

rnm (sur. 55) gvxvdeba citoplazmaSi. arsebobs mravali tipis satransporto

rnm, TiToeuli ukavSirdeba konkretul aminomJavas da cilis sinTezis adgilze

gadaaqvs.

rnm-s molekula bevrad ufro moklea dnm-Tan SedarebiT. misi sigrZe

ramdenime aTeul nanometrs (nm) udris, maSin rodesac dnm-s sigrZe aseul aTas

nanometrs aRwevs.

sur. 53. informaciuli

rnm (i-rnm)

daaxloebiT aTjer didia

satransporto rnm-ze

sur. 54. ribosomuli

rnm (r-rnm)

axasiaTebs yvelaze didi

molekulebi, romlebic

Sedian ribosomis

SemadgenlobaSi

2. romeli qimiuri elementebi gvxvdeba nukleinis mJavebis SemadgenlobaSi?

3. ra warmoadgens memkvidrul informacias im virusebSi, romlebic ar Seicaven

dnm-s?

4. SemoxazeT swori debuleba:

a) es molekula erTjaWviani polimeria da birTvsa da citoplazmaSi gvxvdeba:

1) dnm 2) rnm 3) cximi.

b) romelia dnm-s nukleotiduri Tanamimdevroba?

1) aagccTTcg 2) gaauucagu 3) agccauguc.

g a

c u c

g

g g

g a

sur. 55. satransporto rnm

(t-rnm)

zomebis mixedviT is

yvelaze patara rnm-a

g) rnm genetikur informacias atarebs:

1) baqteriebSi 2) virusebSi 3) lurj-mwvane wyalmcenareebSi.

d) ribosomul rnm-s Sesaxeb yvelaferi sworia, garda

1) gvxvdeba ribosomis SemadgenlobaSi

2) Seicavs azotovan fuZeebs: adenins, uracils, guanins, citozins

3) rnm sxva molekulebTan SedarebiT yvelaze mcire zomisaa.

a g

g

c

g

g

a

u

u

u

a

c

u

g

a

c

c

c

a

g

a

c

c

a

c

g

c

u

u

a

a c u

g a c a c

g

u g u g c

c

T

u

a

g

g

g

u

c

a

a a

45


2.6

46

transkripcia

imisaTvis, rom cila warmoiqmnas, mis pirveladi struqturis Sesaxeb infor-

macia unda moxvdes citoplazmaSi ribosomebTan. es procesi oretapiania da

masSi monawileobs samive tipis rnm:

pirvel etapze fermentis monawileobiT dnm-s molekulaze, romlis erTerTi

jaWvi asrulebs matricis rols, komplementarobis principiT, Tavisufali

nukleotidebiT aigeba informaciuli rnm-s erTjaWviani molekula (sur. 56).

Tavisufali nukleotidebisagan nukleinis mJavebis (magaliTad, dnm da rnm)

molekulebis SeqmnaSi monawile fermentebs polimerazebi ewodeba. SegaxsenebT,

rom rnm-Si nukleotid T-is nacvlad gvxvdeba nukleotidi u. amrigad, rnm-Si

dnm-s a nukleotidebis pirdapir `dgeba~ u, T-s pirdapir – a nukleotidi.

a

T

a c

a

dnm

g

a

T

c

g

sur. 56. transkripciis procesi

T

a

a

T

gG

c

T u g c u a c

a c g a T g c

g

informaciuli rnm

warmoqmnili informaciuli rnm-s jaWvi dnm-s jaWvis aslia.

am gziT informacia, romelsac geni Seicavs, TiTqos gadaiwereba informaciul

rnm-ze. am process transkripcia (laT. transcriptio – gadawera) ewodeba.

eukariotul ujredebSi transkripciis procesi mimdinareobs birTvSi, xolo

prokariotul ujredebSi es procesi citoplazmaSi mimdinareobs, radgan maT

birTvi ar gaaCniaT.

1. SegviZlia Tu ara, mivakuTvnoT transkripcia matriculi tipis reaqciebs?

pasuxi daasabuTeT.

warmoqmnili i-rnm amave dros asrulebs matricis rols, radgan mis mixedviT

xdeba cilis molekulis sinTezi. amitomaa, rom i-rnm-s sxvanairad matricul

rnm-sac uwodeben. cilis informaciis gadaweris Semdeg dnm-s molekulis

aRniSnuli monakveTi kvlav ibrunebs pirvandel formas, jaWvebi isev erTdeba

wyalbaduri bmebiT da ormagi spiralis saxes iRebs (sur. 57).

T

a

c

g

a

a

T

g

g

c

u

c

a

T

a

g

c

T

a

a

T

g

c


sur. 57. dnm-s molekulis pirvandeli formis adgena transkripciis Semdeg

cilis warmoqmnis procesSi monawile samive tipis rnm-s transkripcia

mimdinareobs birTvSi (sur. 58). mogvianebiT samive tipis rnm gamodis birTvidan

da monawileobs cilis molekulis awyobaSi.

transkripciis Semdeg iwyeba cilis sinTezis meore etapi – translacia

(laT. translatio – gadatana, gadaTargmna).

3

1

dnm

ribosomuli rnm

4

1 – forebi birTvis

gar s Si

2 – aminomJavebi

3 – satransporto rnm

aminomJaviT

4 – citoplazma

sur. 58. samive tipis

rnm-s transkripciis

pro cesi

2. rogor fiqrobT, gWirdebaT Tu ara sakvebi imisaTvis, rom Tqvens ujredebSi

warimarTos transkripcia? pasuxi daasabuTeT.

3. transkripcia mimdinareobs dnm-s ori jaWvidan erT-erTze. aqvs Tu ara

mniSvneloba, dnm-s romeli jaWvi Seasrulebs matricis rols? pasuxi daasabuTeT.

4. axla Tqven gaqvT sakmarisi informacia imisaTvis, rom SeqmnaT transkripciis

modeli. amisaTvis aiReT genis mcire monakeveTi sami kodoniT:

c a g g g T a c c

genis am monakveTis mixedviT aageT i-rnm-s Sesabamisi monakveTi. ar dagaviwydeT,

rom rnm-Si T-s nacvlad aris u.

ra ganapirobebs imas, rom transkripciis Sedegad i-rnm-s gaaCnia dnm-s kodis

Sesabamisi informacia?

1

2

47


2.7

48

translacia

cilis sinTezisaTvis saWiroa rogorc ribosomebisa da i-rnm-s arseboba, ise

saSeni masalac – ami nomJavebi. citoplazmaSi aminomJavebi garkveuli raodenobiT

yovelTvis aris (garedan aRwevs mza saxiT an war mo iqmneba ujredSi cilebis

d

g

c

g

g

a

u

u

u

a

a

c

c

a

c

g

c

u

u

v

daSlis Sede gad).

ribosomebTan aminomJavebi miaqvs satrans-

porto rnm-s (t-rnm-s) (sur. 59).

suraTze naCvenebia t-rnm-s moleku lis

rTuli maryuJisebri struq tura, romelic

a

a c

g a c a c

u g u g

c

T

u

a

g

g

u

g

c

formiT samyu ras foTols mogvagonebs. misi

forma komplementur nukleotidebs Soris

warmoqmnili wyalbaduri bme biT (a, b, g, d

ubnebi) ganisazRvreba. t-rnm-s erT mxa res

(suraTze aRniSnulia e-asoTi) moTav sebulia

g

u

nukleotidebisgan Semdgari trip leti,

c

u

g a

c

a

a

romelsac antikodoni ewodeba. t-rnm-s

sapirispiro mxares (suraTze aRniS nu lia

v-asoTi) monakveTia, romelsac antiko donis

Sesatyvisi aminomJava uerTdeba.

SegaxsenebT, rom cile bis SenebaSi

monawileo bas iRebs 20 sxvadasxva amino mJa va. Sesabamisad, ar sebobs zomiTa

da formiT erTmaneTis msgavsi, magram antikodonis mixedviT erTmaneTisagan

gansxvavebuli, sul mcire, 20 t-rnm.

a

g

g

g

g

a

c

g

a

u c

a g

a

c

c

b

c

a g

g

e

sur. 59. satransporto rnm

1. zog SemTxvevaSi i-rnm-ze pirveli

meore fuZe mesame

SeiZleba warimarTos erT - fuZe u (a) c (g) a (T) g (c) fuZe

dro ulad ramdenime ci lis

molekulis sin Tezi. erTma

neTisagan maT da saci leblad

arsebobs spe cia lu ri

tripletebi, rom le bic ar

Seicaven infor ma cias ami-

u (a)

c (g)

fen

fen

lei

lei

lei

lei

lei

ser

ser

ser

ser

pro

pro

pro

Tir

Tir

his

his

gli

cis

cis

tri

arg

arg

arg

u (a)

c (g)

a (T)

g (c)

u (a)

c (g)

a (T)

no mJavebze, mag ram miu Ti Te-

lei pro gli arg g (c)

ben cilis mole ku lis sin Te-

ile tre asn ser u (a)

zis dasasrulze, anu as ruleben

`sasveni niSnis~ rols.

a (T)

ile

ile

tre

tre

asn

liz

ser

arg

c (g)

a (T)

sxvanairad maT stop-sig -

nalebs uwodeben.

mo ZebneT da amoiwereT cxrilidan

stop-signalebi.

g (c)

meT

val

val

val

val

tre

ala

ala

ala

ala

liz

asp

asp

glu

glu

arg

gli

gli

gli

gli

g (c)

u (a)

c (g)

a (T)

g (c)

sur. 60. genetikuri kodi (radgan informacia ikiTxeba informaciuli

rnm-dan, tripletebi miTiTebulia informaciuli rnm-s mixedviT. frCxilebSi

aRniSnulia dnm-s Sesabamisi tripletebi).


aminomJavebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs ribosomebi,

romlebic eukariotebSi, endoplazmuri ba dis membra-

nebis gare zedapirzea gan la gebuli. ribo so ma (sur. 61)

umciresi, magram uaRresad speciali ze buli organoidia.

igi Sedgeba didi da mci re na wi lebis, anu suberTeu-

lebisagan. Ti Toeuli suberTeuli Sedgeba ribo so muli

rnm-s da cilisagan.

i-rnm-s molekulaze cilis sinTezs erTdroulad

araerTi ribosoma awarmo ebs. ribosomebis jgufs,

romelic mona wileobs erTi da igive cilis sinTezSi, polisoma (berZn. `poli~

– mravali, `soma~ – sxeuli) ewodeba. cilis molekulis awyobisas, ribosoma

i-rnm-s Zafisebr molekulaze marcxnidan marjvniv gadaadgildeba wyvetilad,

triplet-triplet. ribosomis im monakveTis zoma, romelSic translacia xdeba,

or triplets Seesabameba. es ribosomis funqciuri centria.

rogorc ki i-rnm moxvdeba citoplazmaSi, mas ukavSirdeba ribosoma. rogorc

aRvniSneT, eukariotul ujredebSi ribosomebi mdebareobs endoplazmur badeze,

xolo prokariotul ujredebSi, magaliTad, beqteriebSi, isini Tavisuflad

`dacuravs~ citoplazmaSi. i-rnm-s sami azotovani fuZisagan Semdgari jgufi

(kodoni) gansazRvravs cilis molekulaSi aminomJavis tips. ribosoma-i-rnm-s

kompleqsis warmoqmnis garda, citoplazmaSi sxva procesic mimdinareobs,

kerZod, t-rnm-s dakavSireba zustad gansazRvrul aminomJavasTan. 62-e suraTze

t-rnm

lizini

g

alanini

a

g

u

g

c

informaciuli

rnm

t-rnm

serini

alanini

a

alanini

lizini

ribosoma

lizini

triptofani

t-rnm t-rnm

a

u

u

u a

g

g

c

c c

c c c

sur. 62. translaciis procesi

t-rnm

sur. 61. ribosoma.

t-rnm

TirozinisTvis

t-rnm

c g g g a c u a g u

u

g

a

a

c

u

u

c

valini

a

49


50

Cans, rom aminomJava lizini Tavisuflad `dacuravs~, maSin rodesac lizinis

meore molekula ukve dakavSirebulia t-rnm-Tan. rogorc gaxsovT, t-rnm-s

ukavSirdeba antikodonis Sesabamisi aminomJava. magaliTad, aminomJava alaninis

t-rnm-s antikodonia aug, xolo lizinis – ccc. garda amisa, citoplazmaSi

xedavT t-rnm-Tan dakavSirebul triftofansa da valins.

Tvali mivadevnoT, Tu rogor mimdinareobs translaciis procesi. t-rnm

Tavisi aminomJaviT miemarTeba i-rnm-Tan dakavSirebul ribosomasTan. Zalze

mniSvnelovania am procesSi i-rnm-s kodonisa da t-rnm-s antikodonis daaxloeba

komplementarobis principiT. sqemaze am poziciaSi imyofeba aminomJava alaninisa

da aminomJava lizinis matarebeli ori t-rnm. aminomJava alaninis Sesabamisi

tripletis translacia ukve damTavrda, xolo lizinis Sesabamisi tripletis

translacia axla iwyeba. aminomJava alanini ukve SeuerTda mis winamorbed

aminomJava serins, romelic Tavisufldeba misi matarebeli t-rnm-sagan. serinis

gverdiT imyofeba aminomJava alanini, romelic ukve ganTavisuflda t-rnmsagan.

rogorc sqemidan Cans, ribosomisken miemarTeba aminomJava triftofanis

matarebeli t-rnm.

rogorc xedavT, ribosoma i-rnm-ze marcxnidan marjvniv micocavs da, rodesac

garkveul manZils gaivlis, i-rnm-ze `adis~ meore, mesame da a. S. ribosoma.

2. SeecadeT, gaarkvioT, romeli aminomJava iqneba Semdegi.

translaciis procesi mTavrdeba, rodesac i-rnm-s molekulaze stop-kodoni

gascems saTanado signals. am stadiaze cilis molekula ganTavisufldeba

ribosomisagan da ganicdis Semdgom gardaqmnebs.

amis Semdeg cila misTvis damaxasiaTebel unikalur geometriul

samganzomilebian konfiguracias warmoqmnis.

cilis sinTezis reaqcia rTulia, masSi monawileobs mravali fermenti da

ixarjeba didi odenobiT energia.

3. gamoiyeneT cxrili da daasaxeleT aminomJavebis prolinis, asparaginis,

glutaminis, leicinis Semqmneli tripletebi.

4. romeli aminomJavebis koduri tripletebia: cga, uuu, caa, aca.

5. sxvadasxva masalis (plastilini, Zafi, biseri, feradi qaRaldi, muyao)

gamoyenebiT SeqmeniT transkripciisa da translaciis modeli.

matricad gamoiyeneT dnm-s molekulis orive jaWvi (TiTo jgufma TiTo

jaWvi). SeadareT, rogoria cilis miRebul molekulebSi aminomJavebis raoba

da Tanamimdevroba. gaakeTeT daskvna: aqvs Tu ara mniSvneloba, dnm-s romeli

jaWvi Seasrulebs matricis rols? miiReba Tu ara erTnairi cilis molekulebi?

pasuxebi daasabuTeT.


genis moqmedebis regulacia

(laq-operoni)

dResdReobiT varaudoben, rom adamianis ujredi Seicavs 25000-mde gens

(maTi ricxvi sabolood dadgenili ar aris). drois umetes nawilSi genebis

umravlesoba umoqmedoa, maTi mxolod mcire raodenoba monawileobs cilebis

sinTezis procesSi. magaliTad, kunTovan ujredebSi moqmedebs am ujredebisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli cilebis ganmsazRvreli genebi, xolo sxva genebi umoqmedodaa.

nervul ujredebSi gansxvavebuli genebi aqtiuroben da a. S. genebis `CarTvis~

da `gamorTvis~ meqanizmi Seiswavles baqteriul ujredebze, romlebic genebis

SedarebiT mcire raodenobas Seicavs.

1940-ian wlebSi frangma mkvlevarebma fransua Jakobma da Jak monom

gamoikvlies baqteriebSi genebis moqmedebis regulacia da maTve SemoiRes cneba

operoni – genis moqmedebis regulaciis erTeuli.

ganvixiloT magaliTi:

imisaTvis, rom nawlavis Cxiris (Escherichia coli) baqteriam gadaamuSaos

naxSirwyali laqtoza, mas sWirdeba sami fermenti.

63-e suraTze asaxulia am baqteriis magaliTze genis moqmedebis regu laciis

meqanizmi. pirvel SemTxvevaSi naxSirwyali laqtozas gareSe, xolo meore

SemTxvevaSi (sur. 64) – misi Tanaobisas. rodesac baqteriis saarsebo garemoSi

ar aris laqtoza, igi ar gamoimuSavebs laqtozas gadamamuSavebel fermentebs,

xolo, rodesac laqtoza aris garemoSi, baqteria gamoimuSavebs laqtozas

gadamuSavebisaTvis saWiro fermentebs.

baqteriisaTvis am fermentebis ganmsazRvreli genebi 63-e suraTze aRniSnulia

a, b da g asoebiT. isini struqturuli genebia. am sami struqturuli genis

win mdebare dnm-s monakveTs operatori ewodeba. misi funqciaa `CarTos~

an `gamorTos~ mocemuli struqturuli genebis transkripciis procesi.

operatoris win mdebare ubans ewodeba promotori. igi transkripciis procesSi

geni-regulatori promotori operatori

cila-represori

rnm-polimerizas

molekula

a b g

sur. 63. genebis moqmedebis regulacia

laqtozas gareSe

2.8

51


52

cilarepresori

geni-regulatori promotori

laqtozas

molekula

rnmpolimeraza

i-rnm

fermentebisTvis

rnmpolimeraza

informaciul rnm-s sinTezSi monawileobs. mas ukavSirdeba rnm polimeraza. Tu

ki operatorTan ar aris dakavSirebuli e. w. cila-represori, rnm-polimeraza

axdens struqturuli genebis transkripcias; cila-represoris Sesaxeb informacias

ki atarebs geni-regulatori, romelic moSorebiT mdebareobs.

rodesac laqtoza ar aris baqteriis garemoSi, geni-regulatoris mixedviT

iqmneba cila-represori. isari gviCvenebs, rom represori ukavSirdeba

operators. iqve Cndeba rnm-polimerazas molekula, romelic ukavSirdeba

promotors. cila-represori ar aZlevs ferments saSualebas, gaaaqtiuros

struqturuli a, b da g genebi. amitom, rodesac garemoSi ar aris laqtoza,

misi gadamamuSavebeli fermentebi arc warmoiqmneba.

axla davuSvaT, rom adamianma dalia Wiqa rZe da mis nawlavebSi moxvda

laq toza. am SemTxvevaSi ujreds sWirdeba fermentebi, rom igi SeiTvisos.

laqtozas molekula (sur. 64) uerTdeba cila-represors da es kompleqsi

veRar ukavSirdeba promotors. Sesabamisad, rnm polimeraza gadaadgildeba

qromosomis gaswvriv da aaqtiurebs struqturul genebs. Sedegad miiReba

informaciuli rnm, romelic atarebs informacias laqtozis gadasamuSaveblad

saWiro fermentebis (laq -laq -laq -is) Sesaxeb. am operons laq-operoni

1 2 3

ewodeba.

1. SeadgineT operonis modeli feradi qaRaldebis, plastilinis an sxva

saSualebebis gamoyenebiT da moaxdineT am ori procesis modelireba.

2. struqturuli genebis moqmedebas Trgunavs:

a. promotori b. represori g. fermentebi d. baqteria.

laq 1

sur. 64. genebis moqmedebis regulacia laqtozas Tanaobisas

3. cila-represoris warmoqmnas gansazRvravs:

a. struqturuli genebi b. rnm-polimeraza

g. geni-regulatori d. promotori.

laq 2

laq 3


genis moqmedebis regulacia

(trip-operoni)

axla ganvixiloT operoni, romelic marTavs aminomJava triptofanis sinTezs;

mas trip-operoni ewodeba. nawlavis Cxiris baqteria asinTezirebs triptofans

da am procesisTvis iyenebs xuT ferments. sailustraciod ganvixilavT

triptofanis sinTezis regulacias sami fermentis monawileobiT (sur. 65).

geni-regulatori

cilarepresori

geni-regulatori

promotori operatori d

a b g

triptofanis

molekula

promotori operatori d e v

rnm-polimeraza rnm-polimeraza

trip 1

trip 2

trip 3

sur. 65. genebis moqmedebis regulacia triptofanis gareSe

cilarepresori

triptofan represoris

kompleqsi

e v

sur. 66. genebis moqmedebis regulacia

triptofanis Tanaobisas

struqturul genebs, romlebic am fermentebs kodirebs (d, e, v), esazRvreba

operatori, romelic `CarTavs~ an `gamorTavs~ aRniSnul genebs. rogorc

xedavT, trip-operoni struqturiT laq-operonis msgavsia. ganvixiloT genis

moqmedebis regulaciis meqanizmi, rodesac ujreds ar `hyofnis~ triptofani

(sur. 66). regulatoruli genis saboloo produqtia cila-represori, romelsac

triptofanis gareSe ar SeuZlia daukavSirdes operators. Sesabamisad, rnmpolimeraza

daubrkoleblad gadaadgildeba da aaqtiurebs struqturul

2.9

53


54

genebs. warmoiqmneba trip 1 , trip 2 da trip 3 fermentebi, romlebic aucilebelia

triptofanis sinTezisTvis.

rogorc xedavT, trip-operonis gaaqtiureba xdeba garemoSi triptofanis

ararsebobis SemTxvevaSic, maSin rodesac laq-operonis aqtivacia SesaZlebelia

mxolod laqtozas Tanaobisas.

axla ganvixiloT genebis moqmedebis regulacia triptofanis Tanaobisas

(sur. 63). aq situacia ramdenadme icvleba: triptofan-represoris kompleqsi

ukavSirdeba operators, xels uSlis rnm-polimerazas gadaadgilebas da,

Sesabamisad, struqturuli genebis gaaqtiurebas; amitom ar xdeba triptofanis

gadasamuSavebeli fermentebis warmoqmna.

genis moqmedebis regulacia ganxilul SemTxvevaSi icavs ujreds Warbi

fermentebis dagrovebisagan.

rodesac triptofani gamoileva garemoSi, fermentebi, romlebic saWiroa

misi gardaqmnisaTvis, xelaxla warmoiqmneba.

eukariotul ujredebSi genebis moqmedebis regulaciis principebi baqteriebSi

aRwerili meqanizmis msgavsia. gansxvaveba is aris, rom eukariotebSi

genis aqtivobis regulacia damatebiT gulisxmobs kontrols sxvadasxva etapze:

transkripciis procesSi da transkripciis Semdgom (romeli genebi da ra

siCqariT unda transkripcirdes, ra cvlilebebi unda ganicados gadawerilma

i-rnm-m), translaciis procesSi da mis Semdgom (ramden xans unda iyos i-rnm

citoplazmaSi da rodis dakargavs is ribosomebTan dakavSirebis unars, ra

damatebiTi gardaqmnebi unda ganicados translaciis produqtma – polipeptidma,

rom daiwyos aqtiurad funqcionireba).

1. daakvirdiT 63-e suraTs.

a) daasaxeleT a, b da g monakveTebis saxelwodeba da funqcia.

b) SeadareT triptofanis da laqtozas ganmsazRvreli genebis regulacia. ra

msgavsebas da gansxvavebas xedavT?

2. amoarCieT genebis moqmedebis regulaciis swori Tanamimdevroba baqteriis

garemoSi triptofanis Tanaobisas:

a. 1. rnm polimeraza gadaadgildeba daubrkoleblad da aaqtiurebs struqturul

genebs;

2. triptofan-represori ukavSirdeba operators da xels uSlis rnm-polimerazas;

3. triptofanis molekula ukavSirdeba represors.

b. 1. triptofan-represori ukavSirdeba operators da xels uSlis rnm-polimerazas;

2. triptofanis molekula ukavSirdeba represors;

3. rnm polimeraza gadaadgildeba daubrkoleblad da aaqtiurebs struqturul

genebs.

g. 1. triptofanis molekula ukavSirdeba represors;

2. triptofan-represori ukavSirdeba operators da xels uSlis rnm-polimerazas;

3. rnm-polimeraza ver gadaadgildeba da ver aaqtiurebs struqturul genebs.


SeamowmeT Tqveni codna

I. SemoxazeT swori debulebebi:

1. dnm-s molekulaSi qimiuri kavSiri myardeba:

a) nukleotidebis fosformJavas naSTebs Soris;

b) mezobeli nukleotidebis naxSirwylebs Soris;

g) mezobeli nukleotidebis fosformJavas naSTs da naxSirwyals Soris.

2. romeli rnm-s molekulaa yvelaze grZeli:

a) satransporto;

b) informaciuli;

g) ribosomuli.

3. romel reaqcias udevs safuZvlad matriculi principi:

a) atf-is molekulis sinTezs;

b) glukozis sinTezs naxSirorJangisa da wylisagan;

g) lipidebis warmoqmnas;

d) aminomJavebisgan cilis molekulis awyobas.

4. ujredis romeli struqturaa gamosaxuli naxatze:

a) endoplazmuri bade;

b) vakuoli;

g) plazmuri membrana;

d) t-rnm.

5. antikodonis ubani aqvs:

a) dnm-s; b) i-rnm-s; g) t-rnm-s; d) r-rnm-s.

II. aRwereT 67-e suraTze asaxuli procesi. daasaxeleT operonis Semadgeneli

ubnebi da kiTxvis niSniT aRniSnuli komponentebi.

laqtozas

molekula

? ? ? ? ? ?

?

rnm-polimeraza

sur. 67

i-rnm

?

?

?

fermentebi

2.10

55

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