gamocdili maswavlebeli

nplg.gov.ge

gamocdili maswavlebeli

gamocdili

maswavlebeli

jon safieri

robert goueri

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba

Tbilisi

2010


gamocdili maswavlebeli: swavlebis unarebis ganviTareba. jon safieri, robert goveri, me-5 gamocema

The Skillful Teacher: Building Your Teaching Skills. Jon Saphier, Robert Gower, 5 th Ed.

es wigni mraval kolejSi pedagogikis Seswavlis standarti gaxda. misi avtorebi novatori da gamocdili

pedagogebi arian. “gamocdili maswavlebeli” swavlebis Sesaxeb codnis bazis unikaluri sinTezia, sadac

swavlebis strategiebi morgebulia moswavleTa saWiroebebze. wigni erTgvari praqtikuli gzamkvlevia

maswavleblisTvis romlis mizani swavlebis unar-Cvevebis gaRrmavebaa. masSi Teoria da praqtika Serwymulia da

fokusirebulia saklaso oTaxis 18 mniSvnelovan sferoze. Tanamedrove skolebisTvis araferia imaze arsebiTi,

vidre maswavlebeli Tavisi rwmeniTa da SesaZleblobebiT. maswavleblis ostatoba gavlenas axdens aramarto

moswavlis warmatebaze, mis qulebze, aramed moswavlis mier warmatebisa da keTildReobis gancdazec.

wignis Targmani dafinansda saqarTvelos mecnierebisa da ganaTlebis saministros programiT - `sauniversiteto

saxelmZRvaneloebis ganviTareba~ da ilias saxelmwifo universitetis mier. wigni momzadda ilias saxelmwifo

universitetis mier.

pirveli qarTuli gamocema saavtoro ufleba

ISBN 978-9941-9116-6-8

ilias saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba

qaquca ColoyaSvilis 3/5, Tbilisi 0162, saqarTvelo

Ilia State University Press

3/5 K. Cholokashvili Ave., Tbilisi, 0162, Georgia


Sinaarsi

Sesavali 5

Tavi 1 Sesavali 13

menejmenti

Tavi 2 yuradReba 23

Tavi 3 tempi 37

Tavi 4 sivrce 53

Tavi 5 dro 67

Tavi 6 rutina 89

Tavi 7 disciplina 105

instruqcia

Tavi 8 sicxade 177

Tavi 9 swavlis principebi 217

Tavi 10 swavlebis modelebi 245

motivacia

Tavi 11 molodinebi 267

Tavi 12 pirovnul urTierTobaTa damyareba 311

Tavi 13 saklaso garemo

saswavlo gegma

Tavi 14 miznebi 359

Tavi 15 swavlis gamocdileba 385

Tavi 16 Sefaseba 415

Tavi 17 saswavlo gegmis Seqmna 495

Tavi 18 saboloo miznebi 501

Tavi 19 farTod gaRebuli WiSkari 511

Tavi 20 maswavleblis Sexedulebebi 525

indeqsi 533

3


Sesavali

gamocdili maswavlebeliI

es wigni maswavleblebis dasaxmareblad davwereT. gvsurda maT swavlebis unar-Cvevebis

meti gamocdileba SeeZinaT. Cveni faseulobebi naTelia. Cveni azriT, kargi skolisaTvis mravali

ram aris mniSvnelovani: saswavlo gegma, mSobelTa CarTuloba, sufTa, usafrTxo Senoba.

Tumca umniSvnelovanesi maswavlebelia, misi codna, Sexedulebebi da SesaZleblobebi.

yvelaferi, TiTqmis yvelaferi, rasac vakeTebT emsaxureba maswavleblisa da moswavlis urTierTobis

xelSewyobas da saswavlo garemos, romelsac maswavleblebi arsebuli resursebiT

uqmnian moswavleebs.

Cven gvjera, rom maswavleblis unar-Cvevebs SeuZlia Secvalos ara marto moswavlis testirebis

qulebi (ramdenad mniSvnelovanic ar unda iyos), aramed miRwevebiT kmayofilebisa

da keTildReobis gancdac. imis Tqma rodi gvsurs, rom unars yvela sxva adamianuri Tvisebis

Secvla SeuZlia; magram darwmunebuli varT, rom maswavleblis saqmianoba moswavleTaTvis

gamocdilebis wyaroa da amitom es saqmianoba ostaturi unda iyos.

swavlebis Cveneuli kvleva wignSi sami ZiriTadi koncefciis mixedviT aris warmodgenili:

sisrule, repertuari da Sesabameba.

1. sisrule miuTiTebs Cven mier swavlebis, rogorc mTlianobis gagebaze. Cven im dRis

dadgomas veswrafiT, rodesac vityviT, `es is sferoebia, risganac swavleba Sedgeba.

Tu es sferoebi gecodineba swavlebis yvela instumenti Cvens xelT iqneba~.

2. repertuari im faqts asaxavs, rom swavlebis nebismieri sferos samarTavad maswavlebels

ramdenime gza aqvs. repertuari is koncefciaa, romelic sxvadasxva situaciebSi

strategiaTa da qcevaTa mravalferovani strategiebis SemuSavebas gvaiZulebs.

3. Sesabameba gvaiZulebs vifiqroT, ra qcevis arCeva iqneba upriani repertuaridan

situaciis, jgufis Tu individualuri moswavlisaTvis.

wignis struqtura am sami ideis garSemo trialebs. swavlebis yoveli axali sferos gansaz-

Rvrisa da aRwerisas, Cven mas SesaZlo alternativaTa WrilSi ganvixilavT. Semdeg Sesabamis

alternativas SevarCevT da vnaxavT, ra viciT am alternativis Sesaxeb.

wignis struqtura swavlebis Sesatyvis Zalze specifikur qcevaTa da situaciaTa simravleze

avageT da, Sesabamisad, is sasargeblo unda iyos rogorc TviTganviTarebis, kadrebis

marTvis, zedamxedvelobis da maswavleblis Sefasebis instrumenti. Teoria uSualod praqtikasTan

aris dakavSirebuli. uxvi magaliTebi swavlebis aRwerili qcevis ilustracias emsaxureba.

imedi gvaqvs, rom am gziT mkiTxveli ufro srulad da zustad SeZlebs sakuTari (an sxva

maswavleblis) swavlebis gagebas; da rac ufro mniSvnelovania, is SeZlebs sakuTari saqmianobis

kontrols miznis miRwevisa da moswavleTa moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad.

winasityvaoba me-5 gamocemisaTvis

wina gamocemebis mkiTxvelebi SeamCneven, rom mravali Tavi ganaxlebuli da gavrcobilia,

es gansakuTrebiT exeba Tavebs sicxadisa da molodinis Sesaxeb. damatebulia axali Tavebi

saklaso garemosa da Sefasebis Sesaxeb, rac Cvens profesiul codnaSi maTi mniSvnelobis amsaxvelia.

mimdinare kvleva im Tavebis ganaxlebas edeba safuZvlad, romelTa Sesaxeb Cveneuli codnis

struqtura ar Secvlila, Tumca gaRrmavda. mkiTxveli wignSi iseT monakveTebsac ixilavs,

roca damowmeba 1970-iani wlebiT xdeba. amis mizezi codnis moZveleba an zogierTi Tavis ga-

5


gamocdili maswavlebeli

naxlebisaTvis Cveni mondomebis nakleboba rodia! es is situaciebia, rodesac codnis mniSvnelovanma

sferoebma dakarga miziduloba da iSviaTad Tu Seiswavleba, Tumca swavlebasa

da swavlaSi mniSvnelovan cvladebad rCeba. erT-erTi magaliTia moswavleTa gamocdilebis

struqtura arCevanisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis Sesaxeb (ix. Tavi `swavlis gamocdileba~).

miuxedavad mkvlevarTaTvis yavlgasulobisa, struqturis moswavleebisaTvis morgebis codnas

SeuZlia Tavisi wvlili Seitanos warmatebul swavlaSi.

viciT, rom gamocdil maswavleblebs uzarmazari individualuri praqtikuli codna aqvT

sakuTari sagnis swavlebisa da swavlebis gansxvavebuli saWiroebis bavSvebisadmi misadagebis

Sesaxeb (Edwards 1994). 1 skolebSi Cveni ZiriTadi saqme iyo maswavleblebs, TanamSromlur

garemoSi, erTobliv muSaobaSi davxmarebodiT, Camogveyalibebina jgufebi da gvewarmoebina

erToblivi kvleva. es maswavleblis SesaZleblobis gazrdis gzaa, romelic pirdapir aisaxeba

moswavleTa warmatebebze swavlaSi.

maswavlebelTa individualuri praqtikuli codna skolis gaumjobesebis mZlavri gamouyenebeli

resursia. is droisa da sivrcis uxilav sistematizirebas moiTxovs: magaliTad,

maswavlebelTa yovelTviuri Sekreba konkretul Temaze `gakveTilebis gasaSalaSineblad~. 2

specialistTa jgufi (maswavleblebi) amuSavebs gakveTilis progresul versias, awarmoebs

eqsperiments da urTierTdakvirvebas da saboloo Sedegs warudgens kolegebs. amrigad, yvela

maswavlebeli mogebuli rCeba kolegebis nafiqralisa da warmoebuli aqtiuri eqsperimentebis

Sedegad. amgvari TanamSromlobis Sedegad miRebuli gakveTilebi daxvewili da efeqtiania;

isini maswavlebelTa mowonebas imsaxurebs da yoveli maTganisaTvis misawvdomi xdeba.

avTentur Sefasebaze momuSave maswavlebelTa jgufebi aseve dinamikuri profesiuli saswavlo

gamocdilebis wyaroa, romlis safuZveli maTive individualuri praqtikuli codnaa.

cxadia isic, rom TviT pedagogikaSi sajaro codnis bazis arsebobisa da sirTulis au-

Riareblobis gamo, maswavlebelTa yoveli Taoba iZulebulia Tavidan gamoigonos es codna;

umravlesoba mTeli saqmianobis ganmavlobaSi ver axerxebs aTobiT im mZlavri instrumentisa

da midgomis aRmoCenas, romelsac arsebuli codnis wyalobiT gamoiyenebda. imedi gvaqvs, rom

es wigni arsebuli situaciis gamosworebisaken gadadgmuli nabiji iqneba.

swavleba rTuli saqmianobaa, romelic maRali donis azrovnebas, gadawyvetilebis miRebas

da mravali alternativis Camoyalibebas, ganxilvasa da Sefasebas moiTxovs. azrovneba

da gadawyvetilebis miReba maswavleblis rolis ZiriTadi koncefciebia. informirebuli

gadawyvetilebis misaRebad, gvWirdeba asarCev alternativaTa (gansakuTrebiT, gamocdil

alternativaTa) sruli nakrebi. gvWirdeba sistematuri profesiuli ganaTleba, romelic

droTa ganmavlobaSi Cvens yuradRebas arsebul alternativebs miapyrobs da maTi gamoyenebis

swavlas SegvaZlebinebs. Sedegad Cven SevZlebT gadawyvetilebis miRebas maswavlebliseuli

codnis ori ZiriTadi wyarodan: (1) individualuri da kolegebis praqtikuli codna da (2)

sferoSi dagrovili sajaro pedagogiuri codnis baza. `gamocdili maswavlebeli~ am meore

wyaros – strategiaTa da midgomaTa repertuaris, romelsac sajaro pedagogiuri codnis

baza moicavs – organizebisa da yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomobis mcdelobaa.

swavlis mdidari resursebis xelmisawvdomoba swavlis garantias ar gvaZlevs. amitom am

axal gamocemaSi ori axali Tavi daemata maswavlebliseuli swavlis Sesaxeb. me-19 TavSi Camoyalibebulia

optimaluri pirobebi imisaTvis, rom maswavlebelma iswavlos. aq mocemulia

iseTi dilemebi, rogoricaa balansi maswavleblis avtonomiasa da skolis erTobas Soris, administratorTa

liderobasa da maswavlebelTa mesakuTreobis grZnobas Soris. me-20 TavSi

ganxilulia maswavlebelTa is Sexedulebebi, romelic vrceldeba maT samuSaoze, moswav-

1 Edwards, John. `Thinking, Education and Human Potential`. In J. Edwards, ed., Thinking: International Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

Melbourne: Hawker Brownlow, Education, 1994.)

2 Steven, Harold W., and Stigler, James W. The Learning Gap. New York: Summit Books, 1992

6


gamocdili maswavlebeliI

leebze da maTive profesiul ganviTarebaze. am Sexedulebebs didi gavlena aqvs winsvlis,

swavlisa da mondomebis maswavlebliseul mzaobaze. zogierTi kolega gvarwmunebda, rom es

Tavi wignis pirvel Tavad gveqcia, radgan is Cveni konstituciis, rwmenTa Cvenive nakrebis

gamoZaxilia. SesaZloa isini marTlebi iyvnen. amjerad mas bolo Tavad davtovebT, radgan is

wignis Sejamebasac emsaxureba. is adasturebs faseulobaTa pirovnuli `kompasebis~ gadamwyvet

rols Cveneuli swavlebis bunebasa da mimarTulebaSi.

7


madlierebis niSnad

gamocdili maswavlebeliI

wigni, romelic didi moculobis informaciis sinTezirebas cdilobs, rogorc wesi, mravali

avtorisa da moazrovnis winaSe valSia xolme. yoveli Tavis bolos mocemuli bibliografia

mianiSnebs im individebze, romlebmac gavlena moaxdines Cvens naazrevze.

gansakuTrebiT madlierebi varT bruklinis, kembrijis, karlailis, konkordis da niutonis

(masaCusetsi) ganaTlebis muSakebis, romelTa monawileobam dakvirvebaTa monacemebis

safuZvelze Cvens adreul kvlevaSi wignis struqturis formirebaSi Seitana wvlili. ker-

Zod, jini Calmersma, suzan-jo raselma, suzan stuartma da raisa uaiThedma TavianTi saklaso

oTaxebis karebi gagviRes da swavlebis Sesaxeb mravali mniSvnelovani diskusia Caatares. kim

marSalis detaluri kritika dagvexmara wina gamocemis redaqtirebaSi da ufro gasagebi, Jargonisagan

Tavisufali gaxada Txroba. fasdaudebeli daxmareba gagviwia ronald bartmac.

uzomod madlierebi varT Research for Better Teaching-is gundis kolegebisa da konsultantebis:

luiza tompsonis, meri en haleis, aleqsanrd pletis, paula ruTerfordis, fren prolmanis,

debora ridis, greg qaidris, ken Capmenis, sandra snuperis, marsia buTis da karolina

tripis. maT erTgvarad `gafiltres~ TavianTi olqis skolebis maswavleblebisa da administratorebis

SeniSvnebi da rCevebi. amgvarma ukukavSirma wignis Sinaarsi srulyo da sicxade

Semata. aseve Zalze waadga wigns ramdenime Tavis kritikuli wakiTxva da redaqtireba, romelic

ostaturad Seasrules: pegi maknil makmulenma, luiza tompsonma, fren prolmanma, lin

stuartma, bena kalikma, art kostam da bob garmstonma.

Sida samuSaoebis Sesrulebis process ostaturad uZRvebodnen meri degarmo, evelin

ford-qonorsi, debora ridi da roberta sprengi. meri degarmom uTvalavi dro dauTmo

wignze muSaobis process da erTgvari esTetikuri grZnoba Semata am procesis yovel safexurs.

fasdaudebelia misi Tavdadeba am proeqtisadmi. madloblebi varT axali gamocemis redaqtoris

beverli mileris xarisxianad Sesrulebuli samuSaosaTvis, aseve jon da qristina

gleidebis wina gamocemebSi redaqtoruli da dizaineruli wvlilisaTvis. didad vafasebT

elizabet parsonis wvlils am gamocemis saxelTa saZieblis SeqmnaSi.

dabolos, gansakuTrebuli madloba gvsurs vuTxraT Cvens colebs da ojaxebs maTi mudmivi

mxardaWerisaTvis da im muSaobis mkacri grafikis gagebisaTvis, romelic swavlebis ganviTarebas

emsaxureboda.

9


avtorTa Sesaxeb

gamocdili maswavlebeliI

jon safieri Research for Better Teaching Inc.-is – swavlebis sakiTxebis Semswavleli organizaciis

damfuZnebeli da aRmasrulebeli direqtoria. is zedamxedvelobis, Sefasebis,

kadrebis marTvisa da skolis kulturis sakiTxebSi saqveynod aRiarebuli konsultantia. aTi

wlis ganmavlobaSi is dawyebiTi klasebisa da sabazo skolis maswavlebeli iyo. aseve gaxldaT

qalaqis didi saskolo sistemis gundis lideri, kadrebis mmarTveli, universitetis leqtori

da axalbeda maswavleblebis zedamxedveli. 1980 wlidan doqtori safieri saskolo olqebSi

swavlebis gaumjobesebis grZelvadiani proeqtebis konsultantia.

bob goveri ganaTlebis magistraturis ganaTlebis profesoria masaCusetsSi, louelis

universitetSi, sadac sadoqtoro programis – `lideroba skolaSi~ - mrCevelia. is sajaro

da kerZo skolebis maswavlebeli, direqtori, msxvili kompiuteruli kompaniis treningis

menejeri da sajaro skolebis konsultanti iyo. amJamad doqtori goveri bostonis saskolo

kadrebis marTvisa da ganviTarebis grZelvadian proeqtebSi monawileobs.

rogor dagvyavs cnobierebis donemde is faqti, rom Tqvenc da mec swavlebis unar-Cvevebs

yoveldRiurad viyenebT? ver gadavcemT imas, rac gacnobierebuli ara gvaqvs, rac intuiciuria.

treningis dros maswavleblebs veubnebodi, `uyureT ras vakeTeb da Semdeg Tavad gaakeTeT~.

aRmovaCine, rom maswavleblebma Cemi yvela mavne Cveva gadaiRes da ugulebelyves is,

rac yvelaze Rirebuli iyo gakveTilze, radgan naTlad ar Camovuyalibe saTqmeli.

madelin hanteri

zedamxedvelobisa da kurikulumis ganviTarebis asociacia

erovnuli konferencia

hiustoni 1977

saqmianobis (praqtikis) gageba TviT saqmianobis erTaderTi umTavresi winapiroba da

profesionalis `xarisxis niSania~.

ronald barti

`swavlebis principi da profesia~

swavlebis profesiis kaliforniis komisiisaTvis momzadebuli naSromi

aprili, 1985

11


1

S e s a v a l i

ra aris unari swavlebaSi?

yvelaferi, rac swavlebis

Sesaxeb gainteresebT

swavlebis parametrebi

wignis struqtura

wignis gamoyeneba


a aris unari swavlebaSi?

mindoda mcodnoda, ras risgan vmijnavdi.

robert frosti `kedlis ageba~

Sesavali

swavleba urTulesi saqmianobaa. Cven, rogorc maswavleblebs, moswavleebsa da swavlebis

mkvlevarebs, gvaSinebs swavlebisa da swavlis amocanis mravlismomcveloba. kargi maswavlebloba

sxva mraval TvisebasTan erTad erTad mzrun velobasac gulisxmobs. kargi

pedagogi daxelovne buli praqtikosia, daxelovnebuli konkretul specifikur saqmianoba-

Si. gamocdileba niSnavs, rom adamians SeuZlia raRac iseTis keTeba, risi danaxvac SeiZleba;

rom sxvadasxva individi sxvadasxva donis unarebs avlens; da, rac yvelaze mTavaria, Se giZlia

iswavlo, rogor gaxde gamocdili da ar Sewyvito winsvla.

maswavlebeli gamocdili ar ibadeba, is yalibdeba. gamocdil maswavleblebs aqvT unari,

romelsac iyeneben, Cven ki SegviZlia davakvirdeT saklaso oTaxSi maT saqmianobas da vnaxoT

raSi gamoixateba maTi ostatoba. mravali maTgans ar aqvs sakuTari saqmianobis amsaxveli

terminebi an koncefciebi. maT ubralod „ician“, ra gaakeTon da saqmes Zaldautaneblad da

bunebrivad, SeiZleba iTqvas, intuiciiT akeTeben. CvenTvis es Zaldautanebloba aracnobieri,

avtomaturi, e.w. `Sinagani (tacit) codnaa~ (Michael Polanyi, 1966). am saxis codnis nakli

is gaxlavT, rom is mxolod erTeulebs aqvT da ara rogorc

RvTis wyaloba, aramed droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva gziT

SeZenili. maT ar SeuZliaT am codnis gadacema, radgan ar Seu-

ZliaT sakuTari saqmianobis axsna.

maswavlebeli gamocdili ar

ibadeba, is yalibdeba.

ra Tqma unda, arseboben adamianebi, romlebic pedagogad

ar dabadebulan, iseve rogorc arseboben adamianebi, romlebsac avtomrbolelobis niWi da

unari dabadebidan ar dahyoliaT, zogierT maTgans veranairi varjiSiT ver SesZen am unars.

Tumca im adamianTa udides umravlesobas, romelic dabadebidan gzis grZnoba ar dahyolia,

SeiZleba avtomrboleloba vaswavloT; SeiZleba kompetenturi gavxadoT da TandaTan gavwafoT

am saqmeSi.

am wignis ZiriTadi Tema pedagogiuri daostateba da am sakiTxisadmi Cveni damoki de bulebaa.

Temis gaSlisas, gvsurs, aRvniSnoT, rom swavlebis Cveneuli koncefcii dan calkeul mniSvnelovan

sakiTxebs rodi ugulebelvyofT. Cven vafasebT TanamgrZnob pe dagogs, romelmac

icis, rogor gaicinos, rogor uyvardes. daxelovneba ar ewinaaRmdegeba moazrovne, emociur

arsebad yofnas. Tumca am wignSi xazs vusvamT kargi maswavleblo bis swored im komponents,

romelsac ostatoba hqvia. kargi swavleba gacilebiT me tia, vidre unari, magram kargi maswavlebloba

ar arsebobs unaris gareSe.

gamocdili maswavlebeli, Cveni azriT, is adamiania, romelmac kargad uwyis, ra rTul

saqmes aris SeWidebuli, cdilobs gaacnobieros da gaiazros sakuTari saqme. is saqmes imitom

ki ar akeTebs, rom asea miRebuli an molodinis mixedviT swored ase unda gakeTdes da

ara sxvagvarad, aramed imitom, rom nafiqri aqvs da saukeTeso saqmed miaCnia. is arCevans alternativaTa

repertuaridan akeTebs. mas surs ise akontrolos da areguliros swavleba, rom

dadebiTi gavlena hqondes moswavleebze, daiTanxmos isini sakuTari saqmianobis monitoringze,

ukukavSirsa da sxvadasxva saqmianobis mosinjvaze.

gamocdil maswavlebels sjera, rom moswavleebi warmatebas miaRweven. Tu ase ar xdeba,

isini gadasinjaven xolme programebs, saswavlo gegmasa da sakuTar swavlebas da cdiloben

moswavleebs `moargon~.

gamocdil maswavlebels sizustec axasiaTebs: man zustad icis, ra unda aswavlos, ras niS-

15


Tavi 1

navs warmateba da rogor unda daexmaros moswavleebs warmatebis miRwevaSi. Tu arsebuli

gegma ver imuSavebs, is sxva gegmas SeimuSavebs, romelic teqnikurad aseve zusti da gamar-

Tuli iqneba.

dabolos, gamocdili maswavlebeli `mudam moswavlea~ (Joyce, Clark, Peck, 1981). miuxedavad

Tavdajerebulobisa da kompetenturobisa, jiuti cnobismoyvareobiT mas mudmivi kavSiri

aqvs gare samyarosTan, kvlevebTan, kolegebTan. `ar vici, mag ram mudam vizrdebi, vimdidreb

codnasa da unarebs da vzrdi efeqtianobas~, gveubneba is. gamocdili maswavleblis es uSualoba

da samyarosTan kavSiri profesionalizmis mniSvnelovani elementia.

16

amrigad, ra aris swavlebis unarebi da rogor SeiZleba maTi Camoyalibeba?

yvelaferi, rac swavlebis Sesaxeb gainteresebT

aris Tu ara qvemoT mocemuli is sakiTxebi, romelTa codna gsurT?

1. rogor mivaqcio da SevaCero moswavleTa yuradReba amocanaze? (yuradReba)

2. rogor SevinarCuno movlenaTa Tanabari, swrafi ganviTareba? (tempi)

3. rogor gamoviyeno zedmiwevniT efeqtianad saklaso oTaxis sivrce da aveji? (sivrce)

4. rogor davgegmo movlenebi da vareguliro grafiki, rom moswavleebs swavlisTvis

yvelaze nayofieri dro SevurCio? (dro)

5. romeli proceduruli rutinaa mniSvnelovani, rogor miviRo misgan maqsimaluri

sargebeli? (rutina)

6. rogor mivudge Zalze jiut moswavleebs? (disciplina)

7. rogor unda avxsna cxadad? (sicxade)

8. rogor gavxado gakveTilebi ufro mizanmimarTuli da efeqtiani? (swavlis principebi)

9. rogor vaswavlo azrovneba gakveTilebze? (swavlebis modelebi)

10. rogor gavagebino moswavleebs, rom `rasac vakeTebT, mniSvnelovania; rom maT amis

gakeTeba SeuZliaT da, rom sasurvel Sedegamde xels ar Cavaqnevineb~? (molodinebi)

11. rogor davamyaro kargi pirovnuli urTierToba moswavleebTan? (pirovnul ur-

TierTobaTa damyareba)

12. rogor Sevqmna moswavleebisTvis CarTulobis, riskis gawevisa da Tanaziarobis klimati?

(saklaso oTaxis garemo)

13. ra unda vaswavlo da rogor unda Camovayalibo miznebi? (miznebi)

14. rogor unda movergo moswavleTa swavlis sxvadasxva stils? (swavlis gamocdileba)

15. rogor gavigo, ra iswavla moswavlem? (Sefaseba)

16. rogor Sevqmna/mivusadago maqsimalurad efeqtiani saswavlo gegma? (saswavlo gegmis

Seqmna)

17. ra ZiriTadi Sedegis miRweva msurs Cemi moswavleebisgan? (miznebis dazusteba)

Tu am sakiTxebiT xarT dainteresebuli, SesaZloa, swored es wigni gWirdebaT. masSi zemoT

mocemul yovel kiTxvas (romelTac SemdgomSi avtori `sferodac~ moixseniebs. mTargmn. Sen.)

calke Tavi eZRvneba. isini yvela pedagogisTvis sasargebloa ganurCev lad asakisa, sagnisa Tu

klasisa. garkveulwilad, es kiTxvebi gansazRvraven swavlebas, TviT isini aswavlian. es arsebiTi

sakiTxebia, romelsac gaucnobiereblad Tu gacnobierebulad Tavdauzogavad eWidebian

pedagogebi. faqtobrivad, maTi daxmarebiT maswavlebeli ajamebs saklaso oTaxSi moswavleTa

yvela gadawyvetilebas, moqmedebasa da situacias.


Sesavali

arsebobs pedagogiuri saqmianobis sxva mniSvnelovani sferoebic _ efeqtiani muSao ba kolegebTan,

mSoblebTan, politikur Tu profesiul Sekrebebze; Tumca es wignis Tema ar aris.

gamocdili maswavlebeli“ orientirebulia saklaso oTaxSi interaqtiuri swavlebis unarebze.

rogor vapirebT zemoT CamoTvlil kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemas? amisaTvis swavlebis Sesaxeb

arsebul araCveulebrivad mdidar codnas gamoviyenebT, romelic iseve gabneulia cinizmis,

uwesrigobisa da gaurkvevlobis unayofo napirze, rogorc awyobis molodinSi 1000 nawiliani

naxati-Tavsatexi.

arsebuli codnis mixedviT yovel kiTxvaSi nagulisxmevi samuSaosaTvis Tavis garTmevis

mravali gza arsebobs (magaliTad, amocanisTvis yuradRebis miqcevisa da SenarCunebis _ 40ze

meti, swavlebis modelis SerCevis _ 20-ze meti, miznebis SerCevisa da Camoyalibebis _ 5).

es codna am gzaTa arssac gvixsnis. swavlebis Sesaxeb codnis baza mxolod receptebis dasta

an efeqtiani swavlisaTvis saWiro qcevaTa CamonaTvali rodia (Tumca nawilobriv, asecaa).

codnis baza gvaswavlis, ra arCevani gvaqvs TiToeul sferoSi samuSaod, ZiriTad kiTxvebze

pasuxis gasacemad. gvaswavlis, rom efeqtian swavlebas safuZvlad udevs konkretuli moswavleebisTvis,

situaciisa Tu saswavlo gegmisTvis Ses-

abamisi formis arCeva. swavlebaSi warmatebis sawindaria

Sesatyvisi formis moZebna.

sailustraciod aviRoT TavsmoxvevasTan dakav-

Sirebuli martivi situacia. pedagogi aswavlis patara

jgufs, mas awyvetinebs moswavle (jimi), romelic raRac sakiTxze Seferxda savarjiSos Sesrulebisas.

jimi dasaxmareblad pedagogs mimarTavs. maswavle bels problemis gadaWris ramdenime

gza aqvs imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom jgufis samuSao impulsic SeinarCunos da arc jimi

darCes usaqmod an imedgacruebuli: (1) Tavi aaridos jimis; (2) aniSnos jimis, rom wynarad

ij des, sanam mis dasaxmareb lad saWiro moments ar SearCevs; (3) sxva moswavles sTxovos jimis

daxmareba; (4) aswavlos moswavleebs, rom ar SeiZleba maswavlebels Seawyvetino.

arsebiTad, arc erTi varianti ar aris unaklo. SegviZlia sxvadasxva piroba warmovidginoT,

romelSic TiToeuli varianti yvelaze Sesaferisi iqneba. magaliTad, Tu jimis aklia

Tavdajerebuloba an socialuri unar-Cvevebi, rom daxmarebisTvis sxva moswavles mimarTos,

ukeTesi varianti iqneba, vaniSnoT mas, simSvide SeinarCunos saTanado momentamde. meore mxriv,

Tu jimi zedmetad aris pedagogze damokidebuli, SesaZloa, Tavis arideba saukeTeso varianti

aRmoCndes, gansakuTrebiT, Tu gvjera, rom damatebiTi mcdelobis SemTxvevaSi, is sakuTari

ZalebiT SeZlebs, Tavi gaarTvas problemas. maswavleblis warmateba am situaciaSi damokidebulia

imaze, icis Tu ara man problemis gadaWris arsebuli variantebi da SeuZlia Tu ara konkretul

situacias Sesatyvisi variantis SeurCios.

swored aseve, Tuki swavlebis zemoT CamoTvlil ZiriTad kiTxvebze ramdenime pasuxi arsebobs,

gamocdili maswavlebeli ecdeba ganuwyvetliv gaamdidros sakuTari repertuari da

konkretul moswavleebs, jgufs, situaciasa Tu saswavlo gegmas Sesat yvisi gza SeurCios. swavlebis

Sesaxeb codnis baza aris moqmedebaTa da aqtivobaTa modelebis repertuari, romelic

xelmisawvdomia nebismieri adamianisaTvis, visac swavla, srulyofa da daxelovneba surs.

wignSi yoveli kiTxvis Sesabami si sferosTvis warmogidgenT Cvens mier SerCeul specifikur

variants Sesaferisi magaliTebiT da SemogTavazebT arsebul codnas Sesatyvisi variantis ar-

Cevis Sesaxeb.

swavlebis parametrebi

swavlebaSi warmatebis sawindaria

Sesatyvisi formis moZebna.

swavlebis am sferoebs Cven „parametrebs“ vuwodebT. „parametri“ teqnikuri sityvaa da mecnierebaSi

niSnavs „ucvlels (mudmivs), romlis mniSvneloba gamoyenebis pirobebis mixedviT

17


Tavi 1

varirebs“. swavlebis TvalsazrisiT, aseTi `mudmivis~ magaliTia yuradRebis SenarCuneba an

molodinTa Setyobineba, cvalebadi ki _ sxvadasxva garemoebaSi samuSaos Sesrulebis gzebi.

Cvens CamonaTvalSi yoveli kiTxva swavlebis erT parametrs warmoadgens; paramet ris

aRniSvnisTvis gamoyenebuli sityva teqstSi kursiviT da frCxilebSi iqneba mocemuli. yoveli

parametri swavlebis Sesaxeb mraval pasuxs da saqmianobis variants moicavs da Tavs uyris

konkretuli sferos farglebSi arsebul repertuars. amasTanave, radgan parametrebis erToblioba

qmnis swavlebas, aucilebelia vicodeT, rogor aris isini erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli.

zogierT parametrTan dakavSirebuli unarebi Zalze specifikuria. am unarebs `aqts~ vuwodebT,

radgan isini warmoadgens qmedebas an komentars, romelTa ganxorcielebas wamebi Tu

sWirdeba. aqti aris swrafi, gamorCeuli qceva, romlis dakvirveba da aRricxva SesaZlebelia.

swavlebis mravali unaris axsna aqtis terminiT SeiZleba, mravlis ki _ klasis menejmentiT:

yuradReba, impulsi, molodini, pirovnuli urTierTobis damyareba. es parametrebi, romlebic

aqtebisagan Sedgeba 1.1 sqemis qveda nawilSia moTavsebuli.

sxva parametrebi swavlebis iseT unarebs moicavs, romlis myisierad Sesruleba an da naxva

SeuZlebelia. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs swavlebis modelis ganxorcielebis SesaZ lebloba, rogoric

aris, magaliTad, hilda Tabas (Hilda Taba) cxrasafexuriani induqciuri modeli. am modelis gamoyenebaSi

daxelovnebuli pedagogi, moswavleebze zemoqmede bis mizniT, xelmZRvanelobs mTel

rig movlenebs da garkveul specifikur principebs iye nebs. saqmianoba gansazRvruli drois

ganmavlobaSi konkretuli paternis Sesabamisad mimdinareobs. paternis mixedviT saqmianobis

Sesruleba unaria. es erTiani, dagegmili paketia, romelic ufro didia, vidre misi Semadgeneli

nawilebis jami. swavlebis gasagebad (da ostatobis repertuaris gasafarToeblad) unda SegveZlos

rogorc calkeuli aqtebis, ise maTi paternebis danaxvac, romlebic azrs mxolod ma-

Sin iZens, roca miznobrivi paketis TvalsazrisiT vafasebT. es gansxvavebuli tipis analizia

da swavlebis gasagebad, orives danaxva unda SegveZlos. 1.1 sqemis Sua rigSi is paramet rebi

davajgufeT, romlebic paternebs warmoadgens.

18

abstraqciebi

paternebi

aqtebi

miznebis

dazusteba

swavlis

gamocdileba

saswavlo gegmis

Seqmna

miznebi Sefaseba

swavlebis

modelebi

saklaso

garemo

sivrce dro rutina

disciplina sicxade swavlis

principebi

yuradReba

tempi molodinebi

pirovnuli

urTierTobis

damyareba

sqema 1.1: profesiuli swavlebis Semadgeneli sami saxis codna

es aris swavlebis Sesaxeb codnis Semadgeneli nawilebis dajgufebis erT-erTi gza.


Sesavali

maswavleblis mier ostaturad Sesrulebuli zogierTi mniSvnelovani saqmianobis danaxva

Zalze rTulia. maT Sorisaa uxilavi gadawyvetilebebi, romelTac maSin vamCnevT, roca klass

vakvirdebiT, iseTi saqmianoba, romelic ganxorcielda an skolamde gakveTilebis dagegmvisas

da skolis Semdeg moswavleTa namuSevrebis Semowmebisas. rogorc wesi, es unarebi moicavs

miznebis SerCevas, swavlebis dagegmvas, saswavlo gegmis organizacias da moswavleTa swavlis

Sefasebas. codnisa da unar-Cvevebis es sfero abstraqciebisgan Sedgeba, romlebzec

uSualo dakvirveba SeuZlebelia, magram, miuxedavad amisa, isini marTaven da akontroleben

yvelafers, rac saklaso oTaxSi xdeba. swavlebis es parametrebi 1.1 sqemis zeda areSia ganlagebuli.

sizuste

sivrce

yuradReba

Sefaseba

pirovnuli

urTierTobis

damyareba

miznebis

dazusteba

saswavlo

gegmis ageba

miznebi

molodinebi

swavlis

principebi

dro

swavlis

gamocdileba

saklaso

garemo

swavlebis

modelebi

rutina

tempi disciplina

ZiriTad warmodgenaTa safuZveli

saswavlo

gegmis ganawileba

motivacia

swavlebis

strategiebi

menejmenti

sqema 1.2: pedagogiuri codnis ruka

swavlebis ZiriTadi parametrebi, SesaZloa, martiv funqciur struqturaSi gaerTiandes.

amrigad, Cven ganvixileT ostaturi swavlebis sami saxis parametri, codnis sami saxe, romelic

gamocdil swavlebaSia gaerTianebuli: aqtebi, paternebi da abstraqciebi. sagulisxmoa,

rom swavlebis gareSe damkvirvebels mxolod swavlebis unarTa am gansxvavebu li saxeebis

danaxva SeuZlia sxvadasxva rakursiT. klasis menejmentis parametrebi metwilad aqtebia.

maT SemCnevas didi Zalisxmeva ar sWirdeba, SegviZlia uSualod ganxorciele bis momentSi davakvirdeT

da aRvricxoT. magaliTad, Zneli ar aris yuradRebis am aqtis gansazRvra: „jon,

19


Tavi 1

vagrZelebT! samuSaos vubrundebiT!“ meore mxriv, paternis msgavs parametrebs dakvirvebisas

saSualo Zalisxmeva sWirdeba. damkvirvebelma garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi Tvali

unda adevnos qcevebs, Tavi mouyaros da garkveuli drois Semdeg gansazRvros paterni. abstraqtuli

parametrebis dakvirveba gaazrebuli daskvnebis gamotanis unars moiTxovs ara im

maswavleblisgan, romelic mas axorcielebs, aramed gareSe damkvirveblisgan, romelmac Tavi

unda mouyaros mwir monacemebs da maT safuZvelze da askvnas, ra mizans isaxavs gakveTili. ostaturi

swavlebis gasagebad, aucilebelia codnis am gansxvavebul saxeTa wvdoma da swavlebis

unarTa sxvadasxva rakursis asimilacia.

ostaturi swavlebis parametrebi garda codnis im erTeulTa zomisa (aqtebi, paternebi,

abstraqciebi), romelsac isini moicavs, sxva gziTac, kerZod, funqciebis mixedviTac SeiZleba

dajgufdes. menejmentis parametrebi – yuradReba, tempi, sivrce, dro, rutina da disciplina

swavlebis safuZvelia _ sine qua non (laT. – aucilebeli piroba. mTargmn. Sen.). maT gareSe

swavleba ver ganxorcieldeba. isini kargi swavlebisTvis aucilebeli wanamZRvaria. saswavlo

parametrebi – sicxade, swavlebis modelebi da swavlis principebi – `produqts gvawvdian~;

maTi unar-Cvevebi klasSi interaqtiuri swavlis dros xorcieldeba. motivaciuri parametrebi

– saklaso oTaxis klimati, pirovnuli urTierTobis damyareba da molodinebi moswavleebs

investiciebis mozidvasa da warmatebuli swavlisTvis saWiro Zalisxmevis gamoyenebaSi exmareba.

saswavlo gegmis parametrebi swavlebis dagegmvisTvis saWiro unarebs moicavs. isini

swavlebis, motivaciisa da me nejmentis safuZvelia da maTze maRla dgas. menejmentis unar-

Cvevebi SesaZlebels xdis swavlebas, saswavlo gegmis agebisa – swavlebis dagegmvas, motivaciisa

_ xels uwyobs swavlebas, xolo TviT swavlebis unar-Cvevebi gvawvdis `produqts~.

mTlianobaSi, es parametrebi swavlebis monaxazs qmnis: swavleba maTi mTlianobaa.

1.2 sqemaze gamosaxulia swavlebis parametrebis funqciuri organizacia. mkiTxveli samkuTxedis

qveS SeniSnavs frazas: „ZiriTad warmodgenaTa safuZveli“. wignis TavSi „molodinebi“,

vasabuTebT am warmodgenaTagan umniSvnelovaness: „yvela moswavles maRal doneze

SeuZlia rTuli saswavlo masalis Seswavla“. Semdeg vasabuTebT, rom konkretul pedagogs es

rwmena swavlebis unar-Cvevebis gamdidrebis stimuls aZlevs.

sxva warmodgenebi moicavs pedagogTa urTierTdamokidebulebis rols moswavleTa samsaxurSi,

kolegiuri qcevis mniSvnelobas skolis mkacr kulturaSi, repertuarze dafuZnebul

profesiul codnas da mudmivi swavlis aucileblobas. am warmodgenebs wignis bolo TavSi

ganvixilavT.

20

wignis struqtura

wignis momdevno Tavi exeba menejmentis parametrebs _ mravali CvenganisTvis umniSvnelovanes

aspeqts, romlebic dagvafiqrebs, ratom avirCieT pedagogoba – kargad swavlebisa

da bavSvebze zrunvis gamo. Semdeg gadavdivarT swavle bis, motivaciis, dabolos, saswavlo

gegmis parametrebze, umniSvnelovanes gadawyvetileba Ta miRebis unarebze imis Sesaxeb, ras

emsaxureba ganaTleba, ra unda vaswavloT da rog or gavigoT, iswavles Tu ara. amrigad, wignis

kiTxvisas, specifikuridan da abstraqtuli dan mivdivarT kompleqsurisken, swavlebis

im nawilebidan, romlebic aqtia, aqtis paternia, im nawilebisken, romlebic swavlebis agebis

Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebs exeba.

yoveli Tavi gansxvavebul parametrs mimoixilavs. xSirad imis aRweriT viwyebT, ratom

aris parametri mniSvnelovani da rogor ukavSirdeba is swavlebisa da swavlis saerTo suraTs.

Semdeg parametris gasagebad saWiro koncefciebsa da kategoriebs ganvsazRvravT da

siRrmiseulad vecnobiT yovel kategorias meTodTa im repertuaris gasacnobad, romelsac

pedagogi iyenebs konkretul situaciaSi. amas, SeZlebisdagva rad, xSirad magaliTebiT war-


Sesavali

mogidgenT. Semdeg, rogorc wesi, vikvlevT, ra informacia gvaqvs moswavlis, situaciis, saswavlo

gegmis, maswavleblis arCevanis Sesaxeb. yoveli Tavis bolos mocemulia sakontrolo

gverdi parametris sakvanZo koncefciebis siiT da iseTi formatiT, romelic daexmareba maswavlebels

sakuTari repertuarisa da gadawyvetilebebis analizSi. dabolos, xSirad warmodgenilia

sakontrolo kiTxvari, romlis gamo yeneba mkiTxvels gameorebisa da ganmtkicebisTvis

SeuZlia.

savaldebulo ar aris Tavebis Tanamimdevruli wakiTxva, Tumca saerTo angariSiT, sasurvelia.

magaliTad, kargi disciplina pedagogisTvis yuradRebasTan, impulsTan, molodinebsa

da pirovnuli urTierTobis damyarebasTan dakavSirebuli unarebis safuZvelia. Tu rTuli

klasi gyavT da waikiTxavT Tavs „disciplina“, aRmoaCenT menejmentis zemoT CamoTvlil oTx

parametrs, romelTa daxmarebiT SeZlebT rTul moswavle ebTan muSaobas.

wignis gamoyeneba

Cveni mkiTxvelebi arian rogorc pedagogebi, ise maTTan saswavlo procesSi Cabmuli inspeqtorebi,

Semfaseblebi da kadrebis mmarTvelebi. es profesiuli wignia, romelsac, vimedovnebT,

profesionali pedagogi sakuTari muSaobis analizisTvis gamoiyenebs. TviT gamocdil

pedagogebsac ki SeuZliaT Seamowmon sakuTari unarebi yovel parametrSi arsebul

repertuarTan mimarTebaSi da naxon, ra SeiZleba daematos maT gamocdilebas, efeqtianobas

da gansxvavebuli saWiroebebis Sesatyvisobis maTeul unars, romlis winaSec dRes vdgavarT.

Cveni survilia, swavlebaze saubrisas SevqnaT saerTo ena da koncefciaTa sistema, swavlebis

Sesaxeb mniSvnelovan sakvanZo ideaTa nakrebi, romlis gamoyeneba yvela pedagogs

SeeZleba. Tu erTmaneTis ukeT gagebas SevZlebT, mosalodnelia, rom swavlebis Cveneuli angariSebi

da Sefasebebi ufro sasargeblo gaxdes, konferenciebi _ ufro specifikuri da

produqtiuli, xolo kadrebis ganviTarebis programebi _ ufro konkretuli.

aseve SeiZleba velodoT maswavlebelTa Soris izolaciis da martoobis barierebis Semcirebas,

pedagogTa Ria, urTierTsasargeblo saubrebs swavlebis Sesaxeb samaswavleblosa

da sxva adgilebSi. zogadi profesiuli codnis bazis safuZvelze problemaTa gan xilvas naklebad

eqneba pirovnuli araadekvaturobis (warmodgena, romlis safuZvelia miTi `intuiciuri~

maswavleblis Sesaxeb _ Tu kargi swavleba intuiciuria da Tavs ver varTmevT, e.i.

raRac ise ver aris, rogorc unda iyos) aRiarebis elferi da ufro profesiul problemad

gadaiqceva, romelic codniTa da unarebiT unda gadaiWras.

universitetSi, maswavlebelTa mosamzadebel kursebze, moswavleTa swavlebis procesSi,

sxvadasxva seminarebze aseve gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces unarebisa da saerTo

teqnikuri Sexedulebebis ganviTarebas. swavlebis teqnikuri gageba ar akninebs humanizmis,

bavSvis ganviTarebisa Tu asakis Sesaferisi Sinaarsis, meTodebisa da masalis Sesaxeb detaluri

codnis mniSvnelobas. kargi iqneboda, dawyebiTi klasebis momavalma maswavlebelma

icodes kuizeneris Zelebi (frangi maTematikosi - jorj kuizeneri -1891-1976) da misi gamoyeneba

wonis Tanrigis swavlebi sas. aseve kargi iqneba, Tu saSualo skolis momaval maswavlebels

ecodineba `amherstis~ seriuli gamocema `amerikuli civilizaciis problemebi~ da

misi gamoyeneba. miuxedavad imisa, rom pedagogTa treningi (da kvalifikaciis amaRleba) ukve

uTmobs yuradRebas am sakiT xebs, pedagogikis, rogorc profesiis ganviTarebaSi, droa, TviT

swavlebasac mivxedoT.

21


Tavi 1

22

literatura

Joyce, B.R., C. Chark and L. Peck. Flexibility in Teaching. New York: Longmans, 1981.

Polanyi M. The Tacit Dimension. Garden City, N.Y. Doubleday and Co., 1966.


2

y u r a d R e b a

rogor mivaqcioT da SevaCeroT

moswavleTa yuradReba amocanaze?

Sewyveta

gafrTxileba

Cabma

Tanaziaroba

miRweva


yuradReba

yuradRebis parametri gulisxmobs maswavleblis unars, gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi Car-

Tuli hyavdes moswavleebi amocanaze muSaobaSi, e.i. CarTos isini saswavlo gegmiT

gaTva liswinebul gonivrul aqtivobebSi. (amocanis Sesrulebaze daxarjuli droisagan

gansxvavebiT, arasamuSao dro moicavs iseT qcevebs, rogoricaa ganwyoba, momzadeba, xumroba,

lodini, ocneba, socializacia da mravali sxva, romelTa detalebi jer ar gvainteresebs).

saklaso oTaxSi drois aRricxva bevr

mkvlevars uwarmoebia moswavlis mier amoca- moswavleTa CarTva davalebis SesrulebaSi

naze daxarjuli drois dasadgenad, raTa Sem- kurikulumis ganxorcielebis SINE QUA NON-ia.

deg daxarjuli droisa da Sedegebis korelacia

gaerkviaT (mag., Bennett 1978, Rosenshine 1978). gasakviri araa, rom maT myari dadebiTi korelacia

miiRes: rac met dros xarjavs moswavle saswavlo aqtivobebze, miT ufro ecnoba masalas. am

TavSi gamovikvlevT maswavleblis mier yuradRebis parametris farglebSi ganxorcielebul

moqmedebebs, romelTa mizania maqsimalurad gaizardos moswavleTa mier saklaso oTaxSi davalebaze

daxarjuli dro.

mravali mosazrebiT, menejmentis parametrebis jgufidan yuradRebis parametri wamyvan

rols asrulebs. Tu moswavleebi uyuradRebod ekidebian swavlebas, gakveTilis sikarge, sxva

TvalsazrisiT, azrs kargavs. did Tu patara jgufSi an individualur saswavlo procesSi

moswavleTa CarTva davalebis SesrulebaSi swored yuradRebas ukavSirdeba, menejmentic

xom swored es aris. yuradReba swavlebis wina piroba, kurikulumis ganxorcielebis sine qua

non-ia.

yuradRebis aqtebis repertuari

daxelovnebuli pedagogebi garkveul aqtebs iyeneben moswavleTa yuradRebis samarTavad:

Tavidan mis misapyrobad, Semdeg SesanarCuneblad, xelaxla misapyrobad da a.S. es moqmedeba-

Ta mTavari klasia, romelic „yuradRebis“ parametriT moixsenieba. am mTavar klasSi SeiZleba

ganvasxvavoT maswavleblis qcevis xuTi kategoria. Sewyveta (desist), gafrTxileba (alerting),

Cabma (enlisting), Tanaziaroba (acknowledging), miRweva (winning). daxelovnebuli pedagogis mier

moswavleTa amocanis SesrulebaSi Cabmis repertuari moqmedebaTa yvela kategorias moicavs.

Sewyveta (Tavis danebeba)

Sewyvetis aqti Semdegs ityobineba: „CaerTe am saqmeSi“. is makoreqtirebeli da pirdapiria.

is moswavleebs atyobinebs, rom raRac iseTs akeTeben, rasac ar unda akeTebdnen da aniSnebs,

ra unda gaakeTon (daubrundnen saqmes). pedagogis mier Sewyvetis sxvadasxva moqmedebebs Soris

individualuri moqmedebebi imis mixedviT gansxvavdeba makoreqtirebelia Tu pirdapiri.

zogi moqmedeba sxvaze ufro damajereblad da mtkiced arwmunebs moswavles, rom „saqmeSi

25


Tavi 2

unda CaerTos“. qvemoT mocemulia Sewyvetis moqmedebaTa sxvadasxva saxis nusxa yvelaze radikaluridan

yvelaze loialuramde, Sesabamisi magaliTebiT.

26

1. dasja: „kargi, Tu axla amas ver gaakeTeb, SesvenebiT ver isargebleb~.

2. ardaSveba: „foster, gadi saklaso oTaxidan“.

3. muqara: „Sewyvite an gadi saklaso oTaxidan“.

4. uxeSi sarkazmi: „Tavi isev Sin dagrCa, grand?~ 1 msubuqi SeniSvna: „ar SegiZlia, Sewyvito?“

„meoTxeklaseliviT ratom iqcevi?“

5. brZaneba: „axlave daubrundi samuSaos“. „xelebi ukan gqondes, sanam darwmunebuli ar

iqnebi, rom ar apireb vinmes Seexo“.

6. specifikuri verbaluri Sewyveta: pedagogi asaxelebs qcevas, romelic unda Sewyviton

da moswavles Sesaferis Semcvlel qcevas usaxelebs: „jim, Sewyvite kakuni da

Sens nawers daubrundi“.

7. zogadi verbaluri Sewyveta: maswavlebeli orazrovnad awyvetinebs qcevas: „hari,

morCi“.

8. msubuqi sarkazmi: pedagogi mimarTavs moswavles, romelic eCurCuleba megobar gogonas,

„brendan, moxaruli var, rom axali megobari monaxe“.

9. individualuri Sewyveta: specifikuri an zogadi, magram ise rbilad naTqvami, rom

mxolod is moswavle aqcevs yuardRebas, visac exeba.

10. jgufuri zemoqmedeba: „fred, verc erTi Cvengani ver wava tanvarjiSze, sanam Sen aq

xar“. klaselebi erTvebian: „oh, fred, wamodi ra!“

11. TanatolTa Sejibri: „joni mzadaa, Sen beT?“

12. adgilis Secvla: „jim, gadadi meoTxe magidasTan, geTayva“.

13. „me“-Setyobineba: „klara, mwyins, roca bavSvebs im dros elaparakebi, roca vcdilob,

raRac vaswavlo. ase mgonia, am gakveTilis momzadebisTvis gaweuli mTeli Sroma wyalSi

meyreba“.

14. moqmedeba yuradRebis gaufantavad: mister gleidi midis kenTan, usityvod iRebs

saSlels, romliTac keni TamaSobs, idebs jibeSi, ganagrZobs magidebs Soris siaruls

da diskusias.

15. arCevanis SeTavazeba: mister gleidi xedavs, rom keni saSleliT TamaSobs da wynarad

eubneba: „ken, SegiZlia gadado an momce“.

16. waqezeba: „jil, Caebmebi muSaobaSi? „kargiT, dasxediT da usmineT yuradRebiT“.

17. SeniSvna: „ras unda akeTebde axla Seli?“

18. pirferoba: „Sen metad keTilsindisieri xar saimisod, rom ase gaflango dro“. „daubrundi

samuSaos, Cemo kargo!“

19. signali: zari irekeba, xeli iweva, fortepianos akordi da a.S.; saubris Seuwyvetlad

pedagogi xels maRla swevs, raTa JestiT aRniSnos, `SeCerdi~ im moswavles, romelic

saubris Sewyvetinebas cdilobs, xolo saxis gamometyvelebiT an moZraobiT aniSnebs

„moicade erTi wuTiT da SenTan viqnebi“.

20. pauza da mzera: pedagogi xangrZlivad uyurebs bavSvs.

21. saxelis CarTva: maswavlebeli saubarSi rTavs (magram ar mimarTavs) moswavlis saxels

yuradRebis mipyrobis mizniT: „axla ki, momdevno amocanas – jesi – romelTan Se-

1. miuxedavad Cveni rwmenisa, rom nebismieri moqmedeba konkretuli moswavlisa Tu situaciisaTvis SeiZleba Sesatyvisi iyos,

sarkazmze es ar vrceldeba. vTvliT, rom sarkazmi, sul cota, urTierTobis patara (xolo zogjer, arcTu patara) mkvlelia.

sarkazmsa da iumors Soris zRvris dasadebad lakmusis rolSi Semdeg kiTxvas viyenebT: „nawyeni darCa Tu ara?“ Tu pasuxi

dadebiTia, saqme sarkazmTan gvaqvs, xolo uaryofiTis SemTxvevaSi _ iumorTan.


yuradReba

Widebasac vapirebT, zogierTi msgavsi elementi aqvs – jesi – magram ufro martivia“.

22. daxmarebis SeTavazeba: „Carli, rogor dagexmaro?~ `Carli, gWirdeba daxmareba?~

23. Sexeba: pedagogi moswavles mxarze exeba, rasac SesaZloa axldes (an ara) maswavleblis

aqtivobis Sewyveta da moswavlisaTvis TvalebSi Caxedva.

24. siaxlove: yuradRebagafantul (an yuradRebis gafantvis kandidat) moswavlesTan

axlos dgoma.

gafrTxileba

gamafrTxilebeli moqmedebebi xSirad gamiznulia moswavleTa jgufisTvis da ara individebisTvis.

mas yuradRebis SenarCunebis efeqti aqvs da minimumamde amcirebs yuradRebis

gafantvas. es moqmedeba pirdapir Setyobinebas ar Seicavs; is jgufis yuradRebisa da sifxizlis

SenarCunebas emsaxureba. Sewyvetis moqmedebaTa msgavsad gafrTxilebis moqmedebebic

siZlieris xarisxiT gansxvavdeba. gafrTxilebis aqtebi aqac yvelaze radikaluridan yvelaze

loialuramde aris dalagebuli Sesabamisi magaliTebiT:

1. SiSi: pedagogi amCnevs, rom klass audiokasetis mosmenisas yuradReba efanteba. is

uecrad gamorTavs magnitofons da kiTxulobs: „ratom varaudobT, rom jefersoni

swored amas ganicdida hamiltonis mimarT?

2. moswavlis saxelis gamoyeneba Sesaswavl magaliTSi: „prezidenti jon lini dakavebulia,

rogorc eWvmitanili da braldebuli. vin gaxdeba prezidenti? Cven vfiqrobT,

rom linis dros cxovreba Zneli iyo! axla vice-prezidenti qristian beikeri xdeba

prezidenti. droa, bargi CavalagoT da gadavideT kanadaSi“.

3. pasuxis nawilobriv gameoreba: pedagogi pasuxis dasamTavreblad SekiTxvas sxva moswavles

umeorebs.

4. winaswari gafrTxileba: „sworia, holi, axla Semdegi scade. devid, Seamowme holi

da naxe, sworad gaigo Tu ara“. „axla es Semdegi scade, holi. devidi dagexmareba,

Tu gagiWirdeba“ (orive moqmedeba winaswar afrTxilebs devids, rom SeiZleba mas

mouwios pasuxis gacema. amgvarad SeiZleba erTi kiTxvis dasmiT ori moswavlis yuradRebis

mipyroba.

5. unisoni: „jein, 6X6 aris? sworia. axla ki yvelam erTad – 8X8 aris!“

6. uyurebs erTs, esaubreba meores: pedagogi uyurebs erT moswavles, magram esaubreba

sxva students (grZeldeba Zalian mcire drois ganmavlobaSi).

7. arasruli winadadebebi: `amrigad, rogorc yvelam viciT, winadadebis bolos vsvamT

– . . .“. pedagogma gaSlili xelebi, aweuli warbebi an xelis Jesti gamoiyenos moswavleTa

pasuxis wasaxaliseblad.

8. Tanabari SesaZlebloba: pedagogi rwmundeba, rom yvela gamoZaxebuli Semowmebulia,

xolo moswavleebma gamocdilebiT ician, rom SeiZleba nebismier dros isev gamoiZaxon.

9. arCevanis SemTxveviToba: pedagogi moswavleebs maTi adgilis mixedviT iZaxebs, raTa

maT ver gaTvalon gamoZaxebis Tanamimdevroba. 2 cirkulacia: pedagogi wriulad moZraobs

saklaso oTaxSi.

2 gamokiTxvis SemTxveviTi Tanmimdevroba uaryofiT korelaciaSia dabali socialur-ekonomikuri statusis skolebis SedegebTan,

magram ara maRali socialur-ekonomikuri statusis skolebis SedegebTan (BBBrophy

& Evertson, 1978). maTi azriT, aseTi

gamokiTxva garkveul mRelvarebas ukavSirdeba, rac SeusabamisobaSia dabali socialur-ekonomikuri statusis moswavleebTan,

romlebsac SesaZloa, saswavlo garemoSi meti stabiluroba da daxmareba da naklebi gaurkvevloba sWirdebaT.

27


Tavi 2

28

10. lodinis dro: pedagogi akeTebs pauzas da Tu moswavle kiTxvas swrafad ver upasuxebs,

mcire dayovnebis uflebas aZlevs. es moiTxovs nebisyofas, raTa moiTmino

uxerxuli xuTwamiani pauza, romlis ganmavlobaSic moswavlem SeiZleba SeZlos pasuxis

Camoyalibeba ise, rom replikiT an daxmarebiT ar SevawyvetinoT. pauzis dros

danarCeni moswavleebi iZulebuli arian dafiqrdnen kiTxvaze, imis molodiniT, rom

SeiZleba maT mouwioT pasuxis gacema.

11. mxedvelobiTi kontaqti: pedagogi moswavleebTan mxedvelobiT kontaqts amyarebs.

12. yuradRebis vizualuri da smeniTi gafantvisgan Tavisufleba. maswavlebeli saklaso

oTaxs ise awyobs, rom moswavleTa patara jgufebi piriT kuTxisken arian ganlagebuli

an moSorebuli oTaxis ZiriTadi vizualuri arisgan, anda acalkevebs erTmane-

Tisagan saswavlo, samuSao da xmaurian areebs. meore alternativaa, roca pedagogi

mimarTavs klass: „daxuWeT Tvalebi da momismineT“.

Cabma

yuradRebis mipyrobis nabijTa mesame kategorias Cabmas vuwodebT, radgan misi mizania,

nebayoflobiT Caaba calkeuli moswavle an mTeli klasi kurikulumiT gaTvaliswinebul aqtovobebSi.

CarTvis moqmedebebi emsaxureba moswavlis moxibvlas da aRtacebas saswavlo aqtivobiT

da am gziT mis dainteresebas. is moswavlis yuradRebas aqtivobis mimzidvel mxares

miapyrobs. Cabmis aqtebia:

1. xmis Secvla: pedagogi cvlis saubris tons, daZabulobas, simaRles an intonacias,

raTa xazi gausvas ZiriTads da gamoiwvios interesi.

2. Jesti: pedagogi iyenebs xelis an sxeulis moZraobebs, raTa xazi gausvas ZiriTads an

gaaZlieros interesi.

3. cnobismoyvareobis aRZvra: „axla mainteresebs, ram gamoiwvia es?“

4. molodini: „moicadeT, vidre naxavT ra aris yuTSi!“

5. gamowveva: „es ki yovel Tqvengans gaabriyvebs“.

6. moswavlis damxmared warmodgena: „jim, SegiZlia es werilebi ise daiWiro, rom klasma

dainaxos~? (jims yuradReba efanteboda).

7. sayrdenebi: pedagogi iyenebs SinaarsTan dakavSirebul fizikur obieqtebs.

8. personificireba: „axla biWebo da gogonebo, modiT vnaxoT, Tu SevZlebT kibis motyuebas

da zeviT ise avalT, rom man ver gaigos“. „Tu mister N-i karSi swored axla

gamoCndeba, ra xmebi SeiZleba davaxvedroT, rom Tavi Sin igrZnos?“

9. moswavlis fantaziebTan dakavSireba: „milioni dolari rom gqondes, ramdeni asdolariani

kupiura geqneba?“

Tanaziaroba

zogjer moswavlis uyuradRebobis mizezi skolisa da pedagogis ostatobis miRmaa. mas

zogierTi gareSe movlena Trgunavs (an axalisebs). magaliTad:

y diliT, avtobusSi mgzavrobisas, saukeTeso megobarma uari uTxra mis gverdiTdam-

jdariyo.

y mSoblebi cota xnis winaT daSordnen erTmaneTs.

y SuadRisTvis daniSnulia Cempionatis TamaSi, romelSic is monawileobs.


yuradReba

aseT dros ubralod xmamaRla gamoxatviT, rom gesmiT, ra xdeba moswavlis Tavs, SeZlebT

misi yuradRebis `dapyrobas~. Zalze Znelia (da iSviaTi), marTla gaugo vinmes da, ubralod,

gaiziaro misi grZnobebi, Tumca, am gziT marTlac SeiZleba yuradRebis gaZliereba. magali-

Tad: „vici, rom amaRam hokeis TamaSis gamo aRgznebuli xar, gansakuTrebiT imitom, rom masSi

Cveni sami kunTmagari biWi monawileobs. magram, gTxov, mag Sexvedraze fiqri cota xniT gadado,

dRevandeli gameoreba Zalze mniSvnelovania~.

Svidi wlis jenifers kiTxvis dros yuradReba efanteba. man mzera ramdenjerme miapyro im

adgils, sadac klasSi Semosvlamde iyo (is ucxouri Tojinebis gamofenas awyobda). pedagogi

umal xvdeba, ra aRelvebs jenifers _ sadilis Semdeg, romelic kiTxvaSi mecadineobas mohyveba,

veRar SeZlebs Tojinebis mowesrigebas (Svidi wlis bavSvs es Zalze Soreul perspeqtivad

eCveneba). amrigad, pedagogi Tanaziarobis moqmedebas axorcielebs: „jenifer, vici,

SenTvis raoden mniSvnelovania yvela Tojinis lamazad morTva. gpirdebi, rom sadilamde Se-

Zleb saqmis dasrulebas, oRond, axla, CvenTan erTad unda waikiTxo, radgan amas Semdeg aRar

mivubrundebiT. gpirdebi, rom moaswreb“. Tojinebis mowesrigeba, mozrdilis azriT, iqneb

umniSvneloa, magram aseTma, TiTqosda trivialurma saqmianobam SeiZleba mTlianad moicvas

bavSvi da dablokos misi CarTva, Tu pedagogi ugulisyurobas gamoiCens.

pedagogi amCnevs, rom meri Sewuxebulia da Tanaziarobis aqts mimarTavs: „meri, geSinia,

rom mosasmen centrSi rigs gamotoveb?“ meri Tavs uqnevs. „nu Cqarob da kargad gaakeTe savarjiSo.

rogorc ki daamTavreb, rigSi Sens adgils daikaveb maSinac ki, Tu registraciis

furcelze xelmoweras gamovtovebT“.

zogjer pedagogi mxolod ekiTxeba: „brenda, ra mogdis? CvenTan ar xar“. Semdgomma mondomebulma

da aqtiurma mosmenam SesaZloa es dablokva an moxsnas an vera. asea Tu ise, maswavleblis

mier moswavlis grZnobebis gacnobierebam, SesaZloa, gantvirTos da aqtivobaSi

Cabma gauadvilos.

miRweva

miRwevis aqtebi Cabmis aqtebs hgavs imiT, rom isinic dadebiTia da gulisxmobs saswavlo

procesisadmi moswavlis yuradRebis miqcevas da ara iZulebas. miuxedavad amisa, miRwevis

aqti Cabmis aqtisgan gansxvavdeba, radgan pirveli moswavlis yuradRebas pedagogze mimar-

Tavs, xolo meore – aqtivobaze. miRwevis aqtebi pedagogis pirovnul Tvisebebs emyareba, romelic

„miRwevis“ mediatorad gvevlineba. pedagogis mier ganxorcielebuli „miRwevis“ aqtebi

moicavs:

1. gamxneveba: mimdinare samuSaos Sesrulebisas, pedagogi moswavles, Cveulebriv, xmis

intonaciiTa da saxis gamometyvelebiT amxnevebs.

2. enTuziazmi: „bob, eg marTlac saintereso Temaa naSromisTvis!“

3. Seqeba: „oh, ra mSvenieri namuSevaria, anji“.

4. iumori (sarkazmis gareSe): pedagogi xumrobs pozitiuri, mxardamWeri maneriT, rac

moswavleTaTvisac saxalisoa.

5. inscenireba: pedagogi Tavad warmoadgens gakveTilTan dakavSirebul masalas, anda

moswavlisgan moiTxovs inscenirebas. alternatiuli versia: pedagogi erTveba rol-

Si da Tundac erT winadadebas warmoTqvams im gmiris eniT, romelTanac Tavs aigivebs:

„kargi, axla momRimar orpirTa kabinetSi mivdivar“ (pedagogma pirveli kabinetis sxdomaze

mimavali axlad arCeuli prezidenti a. linkolni gaiTamaSa, romlis misamar-

TiT yvela moxele fiqrobs, rom masze ukeTesi prezidenti iqneboda da mis Tavidan

mocilebaze ocnebobs).

29


Tavi 2

30

yuradRebis qcevis analizi

moqmedebaTa tipebi am xuTi kategoriidan uwyvet rigad SeiZleba ganlagdes: Zalauflebis

gamoyeneba da Zalauflebis gamouyenebloba an iZuleba da mimzidveloba (sqema 2.1). moqmedebebi

da kategoriebi rigis zeda nawilSi pedagogis avtoritetsa da mbrZaneblur da mtkice

mimarTvas iyenebs. rigis qveda nawilSi ki avtoritetis komponenti sul ufro naklebdominanturia.

amrigad, yuradRebis parametri funqciuri maxasiaTeblebis gaswvriv mniSvnelobiT metnaklebad

uwyvet skalas moicavs. funqciuri maxasiaTeblebi is moqmedebebia, romelTa Sedegad

xdeba saswavlo procesSi moswavlis yuradRebis CarTva, SenarCuneba an xelaxla CarTva.

es is funqciuri orientaciaa, romelic xsnis „Seqebis“, „enTuziazmisa“ da „Jestis“ ufro did

parametrad gaerTianebas. Cven vaRiarebT, rom moswavlis yuradRebis mipyroba (gazrdili

warmodgena sakuTar Tavze? motivacia?) ar aris erTaderTi ram, rac „Seqebasa“ an `enTuziazms“

mohyveba. aseve ar aris erTaderTi funqcia, romelTanac SesaZlebelia am qcevaTa dakavSireba.

miuxedavad amisa, vfiqrobT, rom funqciuri TvalsazrisiT, es moqmedebebi, sul

cota, logikurad yuradRebis koncentracias axdenen da gvidastureben, rom yuradReba

logikuri da aucilebeli Suamavalia im Sedegebisa, romlebTanac es moqmedebebi asocirdeba

(mag., miRweva, motivacia). amrigad, maTi dakavSireba yuradRebis Sesatyvisi parametris

sazRvrebSi swavlebis gasagebad, kargi saSualebaa.

Cveni varaudiT, pedagogebi yuradRebis rigs xSirad imeoreben da iyeneben swavlebis

procesSi. yuradRebis romel moqmedebas iyenebT? ramdens da romels iyenebT am xuTi kategoriidan?

rogor aisaxeba Tqvens saqmianobaze yuradRebis aqtebis moqmedeba? zogi pedagogi

yuradRebis aqtebis nimuSebis Tavmoyris mizniT kolegebis an skolis xelmZRvanelobis

dakvirvebis obieqti xdeba. Semdeg am Canawerebs iyenebs sakuTari saqmianobis Sesamowmeblad

da sasurveli gamocdilebis dasagroveblad. maswavleblis es Canawerebi an amgvari analizis

Sedegad gamovlenili yuradRebis aqtebis paternebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT imis Sesafaseblad,

ramdenad Seesabameba pedagogis mier ganxorcielebuli yuradRebis aqti sasurvel

Sedegs.

Sesabamisoba yuradRebis parametrTan

yuradRebis rigi obieqturi nusxaa da ar SeiZleba msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, romelia

ukeTesi,zeda rigSi Tu qveda rigSi ganlagebuli moqmedebebi. vTvliT, rom yvela moqmedebas

aqvs Tavisi adgili da konkretul konteqstSi yoveli maTgani SeiZleba gamogvadges (Cveni

azriT, erTaderTi gamonaklisia sarkazmi, romelic mudam, sul cota, urTierTobis „patara

mkvlelia“).

gamocdili pedagogi am parametris mdidari repertuariT sxvadasxva moswavlis qcevas

sxvadasxvagvarad pasuxobs. qvemoT mocemuli magaliTebi gviCvenebs, ra ostaturad iyenebs

misis T yuradRebis aqtebs calkeuli moswavlis mimarT.

misis T-m icis, rom darili ZalauflebisTvis konfliqtis sababs eZebs da maswavlebels (an

sxva avtoritetul pirs) nebisyofis gamocdas uwyobs. rodesac maswavlebeli Sewyvetis moqmedebaTa

TiTqmis mTel arsenals amowuravs, darili uaresad iqceva. magaliTad, „specifikur

verbalur Sewyvetas“ gamowvevad iRebs, ufro xmamaRla akakunebs fanqars da akvirdeba, rogor

gabrazdeba da ras moimoqmedebs misis T. pedagogma gafrTxilebisa da CarTvis moqmedebaTa

gamoyeneba iswavla. Tu darili zRvars gadadis, pedagogi mtkice moqmedebebiT aCerebs.

Tumca, misis T gaurbis aseT simkacres da darilis yuradRebis mipyrobas `gamowvevis~ aqtiT –

kiTxvis dasmiT, „winaswari gafrTxilebiT~ an „damxmared warmodgeniT“ cdilobs. magaliTad,


avtoriteti

dasja

ardaSveba

muqara

uxeSi sarkazmi

msubuqi SeniSvna

brZaneba

specifikuri verbaluri Sewyveta

zogadi verbaluri Sewyveta

msubuqi sarkazmi

individualuri Sewyveta

jgufuri zemoqmedeba

TanatolTa Sejibri

adgilis Secvla

„me“-Setyobineba

moqmedeba yuradRebis gaufantavad

arCevanis SeTavazeba

waqezeba

SeniSvna

pirferoba

signali

pauza da mzera

saxelis CarTva

daxmarebis SeTavazeba

Sexeba

siaxlove

mimzidveloba

SiSi

moswavlis saxelis gamoyeneba

pasuxis nawilobriv gameoreba

winaswari gafrTxileba

unisoni

uyurebs erTs, esaubreba meores arasruli

winadadebebi

Tanabari SesaZleblobebi

arCevanis SemTxveviToba

cirkulacia

lodinis dro

mxedvelobiTi kontaqti

yuradRebis mxedvelobiTi da smeniTi gafantvis Tavisufleba

xmis Secvla

Jesti

cnobismoyvareobis aRZvra

molodini

gamowveva

moswavlis damxmared warmodgena

sayrdenebi

personificireba

moswavlis fantaziebTan dakavSireba

Tanaziaroba

gamxneveba

enTuziazmi

Seqeba

iumori

inscenireba

sqema 2.1: yuradRebis kontiniumi

yuradReba

Sewyveta

CarTva

dainterseba

Tanaziaroba

miRweva

yuradRebis aqtebis es speqtri maswavlebels mdidar repertuars sTavazobs.

31


Tavi 2

am ukanasknel moqmedebas maSin iyenebs, roca darili fanqars akakunebs: „maS ase, iq marTlac

iyo mefeebis oTxi piramida. daril, SegiZlia Semdeg kadrze gadaweva, rom me piramidis

win ganlagebuli sagnebis Cveneba SevZlo“.

meore moswavle marSa, gansxvavebulia. miuxedavad imisa, xSirad is mecadineobaSi ar erTveba,

`Cabmis~ moqmedebebi, rogorc Cans, Zlier stimuls aZlevs. „es TiTqos Cabmisa da miRwevis

aqtebs saTavisod `Targmnis~ _ TiTqos me veubnebi, rom masTan megobroba an masTan

TamaSi msurs. mas interaqtivoba itacebs da Cemze zedmetad koncentrirebuli xdeba“, ase

xsnis mis saqciels maswavlebeli. vidre pedagogi sxvadasxva gzebsa da SesaZleblobebs eZebs,

raTa daakmayofilos marSas maswavlebelTan siaxlovis es moTxovnileba , is saSualo rangis

Sewyvetis moqmedebebs iyenebs marSas yuradRebis mosapoveblad, rasac warmateba moaqvs.

sxvadasxva moswavle – sxvadasxva saWiroeba – sxvadasxva moqmedeba: gamocdili maswavlebeli

gaazrebulad usadagebs sakuTar moqmedebas moswavleebs.

zogi gamocdili pedagogi moswavleTa mimarT moqmedebebis diferencirebas intuiciiT

axdens. isini cnobili arian, rogorc saklaso oTaxis efeqturi menejerebi. SesaZloa, verc

maT da verc maTi saqmianobis Semfaseblebma ver agvixsnan warmatebis mizezi. ubralod, ician,

rom maT „aTianSi moartyes“. SesaZloa, qvecnobieri gamWriaxobis wyalobiT usadageben yuradRebis

gansxvavebul aqtebs konkretul moswavleebs.

alRos miuxedavad, nebismieri CvenganisTvis sasargeblo iqneba moswavleTa uyuradRebobis

paternebis gaazreba da sapasuxo moqmedebaTa nimuSebis morgeba. SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT,

rom Cveni repertuaris nawils ugulebelvyofT, radgan Zalian gagvaRiziana luizam,

SesaZloa, TviT repertuars sWirdeba gamdidreba, an iqneb, ukeT SevarCevdiT moqmedebas, Tu

uyuradRebobis mizezis moZebnas SevecdebodiT. kolegasTan moswavleze (an klasze) saubari

yuradRebis parametrebis qcevaTa rigis gaTvaliswinebiT, Zalze sasargeblo saqmianobaa.

32


y u r a d R e b a _ s a v a r j i S o

qvemoT mocemuli sakiTxebi saSualebas gaZlevT, gaimeoroT da gaixsenoT moswav-

leTa yuradRebis gamowvevis, SenarCunebisa da xelaxali gamowvevisTvis arsebuli

alternativebi.

gansazRvre WeSmaritia (W) Tu mcdaria (m) debuleba da daasabuTe arCevani.

1. yuradRebis moqmedebaTa gamoyeneba ufro efeqturia

„miRwevis“ moqmedebaTa bolos.

2. uxeSi sarkazmi is moqmedebaa, romelsac wignis avtorebi

ar iwoneben.

3. „me“-SetyobinebiT“ moswavleebs vagebinebT, ris gakeTebas

moveliT maTgan.

4. „daxmarebis SeTavazebis“ moqmedebas maSin avirCev,

roca msurs moswavleebi mSvidobianad miubrundnen

davalebis Sesrulebas.

5. gafrTxilebis moqmedebebi, ZiriTadad, moswavlis

yuradRebis SenarCunebis mizniT gamoiyeneba.

yuradRebis zogierTi moqmedeba Zalian hgavs erTmaneTs an orazrovania. testis

es nawili dagexmarebaT maT Soris gansxvavebis dadgenaSi. yovel kiTxvaSi moqmedebaTa

Soris gansxvaveba unda axsnaT.

1. ra gansxvavebaa Sewyvetis moqmedebas _ „pirferobasa“ _ da darwmunebis moqmedebas

_ „Seqebas“ _ Soris?

2. ra gansxvavebaa „Tanabar SesaZleblobasa“ da „arCevanis SemTxveviTobas“ Soris?

orive gafrTxilebis moqmedebaa.

3. ra gansxvavebaa darwmunebis moqmedebas _ „iumorsa“ da Sewyvetis moqmedebas _

„msubuq sarkazms“ Soris?

4. ra gansxvavebaa CarTvis moqmedebas „molodinsa“ da „gamowvevas“ Soris?

5. ra gansxvavebaa Sewyvetis moqmedebas „adgilis Secvlasa“ da „ardaSvebas“ Soris?

6. ra gansxvavebaa Sewyvetis moqmedebas _ „pauza da mzerasa“ da gafrTxilebis moqmedebas

_ „uyurebs erTs, esaubreba meores“ Soris?

7. ra gansxvavebaa Sewyvetis moqmedebas „siaxlovesa“ da gafrTxilebis moqmedebas

„cirkulacias“ Soris?

8. ra gansxvavebaa Sewyvetis moqmedebas _ „saxelis CarTvasa“ da gafrTxilebis moqmedebas

_ „moswavlis saxelis gamoyenebas“ Soris?

9. ra gansxvavebaa Sewyvetis moqmedebebs „zogad da specifikur verbalur Sewyvetasa“

da „brZanebas“ Soris?

moiyvaneT am moqmedebaTa gamoyenebis magaliTebi.

1. moiyvaneT „moswavlis damxmared warmodgenis“ gamoyenebis magaliTi.

2. klass axal informacias awvdiT. vesi samjer adga Tavisi fanqris gasaTlelad. Tqven

W

W

W

W

W

m

m

m

m

m

` y u r a d R e b a - s a v a r j i S o

33


34

gadawyviteT, rom mas „me-Setyobineba“ gaugzavnoT. daasabuTeT.

3. moiyvaneT magaliTi, rogor gamoiyenebdiT gakveTilSi „sayrdenebs“ gakveTilis Sinaarsze

moswavleTa yuradRebis misapyrobad.

4. moiyvaneT „winaswari gafrTxilebis“ magaliTi.

5. rogor gamoiyenebdiT „arCevanis SemTxveviTobasa“ da „Tanabar SesaZleblobas“ moswavlis

yuradRebis SesanarCuneblad?

ganixileT situacia da SeusabameT Tqveni pasuxi moswavles, situacias an mizans.

1. saSualo skolis maRal klasebSi maTematikis gansakuTrebiT rTul nawils aswavliT.

kiTxvebs calkeul moswavleebs usvamT da, amasTanave, klasis yuradRebis SenarCuneba

gsurT. yuradRebis moqmedebis kargi arCevani iqneba:

lodinis dro xmis Secvla

unisoni cirkulacia

2. gansakuTrebulad mZime saswavlo dRis boloa. moswavleebma kargad imuSaves da dai-

Ralnen. yuradRebis moqmedebis kargi arCevani iqneba:

SiSi gamowveva

Tanaziaroba waxaliseba

3. moswavleTaTvis SerCeuli moTxrobebis nakrebidan nawyvetis xmamaRla wasakiTxad

emzadebiT. yuradRebis moqmedebis kargi arCevani iqneba:

winaswari gafrTxileba inscenireba

muqara mxedvelobiTi kontaqti

4. gakveTilze Tqvens fanjrebTan sxva klasis moswavleebi TamaSoben. yuradRebis moqmedebaTa

Soris kargi arCevani iqneba:

brZaneba Sexseneba

arasruli winadadebebi yuradRebis gafantvisgan dacva

5. moswavleebi mcire jgufebSi davalebis Sesrulebisas saubrobdnen. Tqven sxva davalebis

dawyebamde mTeli jgufis yuradRebis mobilizacia gsurT. yuradRebis moqmedebis

kargi arCevani iqneba:

xmis Secvla signali

zogadi verbaluri Sewyvetis brZaneba


literatura

yuradReba

Bennett, N. `Recent Research on Teaching: A Dream, a Belief, and a Model.’ Journal of Education 160, no

3 (Aujust 1978).

Brophy, J.E. and C.M. Evertson, Learning From Teaching. Boston: Allyn& Bacon 1978.

Church, John and Joe Hasenstab. Teaching with T.E.A.C.H. Emerson, N.J.: Performance Learning Systems,

1985.

Martin, D.L. „Your Praise Can Smother Learning“. Learning (February 1977); 43–51.

Mckenzie, R. and A.M. Schadler. Effects of Three Practice Modes on Attention, Test Anxiety, &

Achievement in a Classroom Association Learning Task. Paper presented at the American Educational

Regional Association, , Boston, Mass., 1980.

Redl, F., and D. Wineman. Controls from Within. Glancoe III: Free Press, 1952.

Rosenshine B.V. Academic Engaged Time, Content Covered, and Direct Instruction. Joural of Education

160, no 3 (August 1978).

Rowe, M.B. Wait Time and Rewards as Instructional Variables: Their Influence on Language, Logic

and Fate Control. Paper presented at the National Association for Research on Science Teaching,

Chicago, III., April 1972.

Tanner, L. Classroom Discipline. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978.

35


3

tempi

rogor SevinarCunoT movlenaTa

Tanabari, swrafi ganviTareba?

uzrunvelyofa

gadafarva

Semavseblebi

Careva

gakveTilis moqniloba

Setyobineba

qvedayofa

molodini


tempi

tempis cneba saklaso oTaxSi movlenaTa Tanabar, uwyvet nakads gulisxmobs (Kounin

1970). swavleba uamrav maxes Seicavs tempisTvis, romlis Semcirebisas moswavleTa

koncentracia irRveva. maT yuradReba efantebaT da veRar axerxeben saswavlo aqtivobaSi

Cabmas. dros uqmad atareben, elodebian momzadebas, dawyebas, organizebas. Tu tempi

klebulobs, moswavleebs bezrdebaT, saqmes eZeben, dro ocnebaSi gahyavT an destruqciulad

iqcevian. meore mxriv, Tu tempi SenarCunebulia, moswavleebi Tanabrad da swrafad gadadian

erTi moqmedebidan meoreze. moswavleTa da aRWurvilobis moZraoba Seferxebis, konfliqtis,

kamaTis an xelis kvris da mujlugunis gareSe xdeba. amgvar gakveTilze dakvirvebisas iseTi

gancda gveufleba, rom `saqme midis~. am TavSi ganvixilavT maswavleblis qcevas, romelic

gamiznulia tempis SesanarCuneblad da movlenaTa samarTavad.

zogadad, tempis cnebasTan mravali parametria dakavSirebuli. mag., yuradReba, radgan

misi saSualebiT xdeba moswavleTa interesis aRZvra da swavlaze fokusireba; rutina aumjobesebs

rogorc procedurebis, ise garemos organizebulobas da aCqarebs ganviTarebas;

samuSaos mimarT molodinebi, radgan maswavleblis sijiute da sizuste moswavleebs samuSaos

avtomaturad Sesrulebisa da erTi saqmianobidan meoreze gadasvlisas individualuri

warmatebis miRwevis saSualebas aZlevs.

tempis cnebas swavlebis sxva parametrebic moicavs. mag., pirovnuli urTierTobis damyareba,

romelic sZlevs moswavleTa winaaRmdegobas da destruqcias da yvelaferi maswavleblis

Canafiqris mixedviT mimdinareobs; sivrce, radgan misi efeqtiani organizeba moswavleebs

saWiro sagnebis moZebnasa da swavlebis procesSi Cabmas uadvilebs da yuradRebis

gafantvas amcirebs; aseTive parametria droc, radgan Sesabamisi ganrigi moswavleebis energiisa

da yuradRebis SenarCunebas uzrunvelyofs da arakeTilgonivruli moTxovnebisagan

gvicavs.

metic, SegiZliaT Tvali gadaavloT miznebis, Sefasebisa da swavlis gamocdilebis kurikulumis

parametrebs tempTan dakavSirebul aspeqtebTan mimarTebaSi: Seusabamo masala (Zalze

rTuli an zedmetad martivi), masalis arasaTanado miwodeba, rasac Sedegad SeiZleba

moswavleTa Tavgabezreba da imedgacrueba mohyves da dairRves saklaso mecadineobis tempi.

ufro farTo mniSvnelobiT, SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT, rom Seusabamo kurikulumsa Tu swavlebas

tempis darRveva SeuZlia. tempis ase farTod gamoyeneba niSnavs mTeli swavlebis erTi

qolgis qveS moqcevas. marTlac, swavlebis nebismier parametrs, qcevis ra pirvelad mizansac

unda iTvaliswinebdes, meoreuli gavlena aqvs tempze. darwmunebuli varT, rom saWiroa swavlebis

im aspeqtebze fokusireba, romlebic, pirvel yovlisa, klasSi tempis SenarCunebas ukavSirdeba.

Cven tempis gansazRvrebis rva ZiriTadi qveparametriT, anu maswavleblis qcevis

saxeebiT SemovifarglebiT, romlis ZiriTadi mizani movlenaTa Tanamimdevrobaa da, romelic

Seusabamo ganxorcielebisa Tu ugulebelyofis SemTxvevaSi, arRvevs movlenaTa Tanamimdevrobas.

39


Tavi 3

40

tempis kategoriebi

tempis rva kategoria ekleqtur jgufs warmoadgens, romlis punqtebic, iseve rogorc

menejmentis sxva parametrebi, swavlis procesSi moswavlis Cabmisa da misi yuradRebis Senar-

Cunebis saSualebas iZleva. menejmentis sxva parametrebSi, qcevisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic

sxvadasxva misiasTan SeiZleba davakavSiroT, es rva kategoria arc erT sxva parametrs ar

esadageba da imTaviTve orientirebulia tempze. maTi saxelwodebebia: uzrunvelyofa, gadafarva,

Semavseblebi, SeWra, gakveTilis moqniloba, Setyobineba, qvedayofa da molodinebi.

uzrunvelyofa

uzrunvelyofa niSnavs sivrcisa da masalebis momzadebas saqmianobisTvis. adekvaturi

uzrunvelyofis pirobebSi ver naxavT, rom maswavlebelma jer moswavleebs mouyaros Tavi,

xolo Semdeg ramdenime wuTiT datovos isini karadidan gakveTilisaTvis saWiro masalis gadmosaRebad.

verc imis momswre gaxdebiT, rom moswavleebs aqtivobisaTvis saWiro masalebis

maragi amoewuroT da maswavlebels damatebiTi masalebi sTxovon. maswavlebelma gakveTilis

dawyebamde unda Seamowmos saWiro masalis raodenoba, Tavi mouyaros mas da moamzados

sivrce; aseve unda moimaragos swavlebisaTvis is aucilebeli nivTebi, romlebic, savaraudod,

dRis ganmavlobaSi dasWirdebaT moswavleebs.

uzrunvelyofa, kargi menejmentis msgavsad, TvalSi sacemi maSin xdeba, rodesac TiTqmis

ar arsebobs. aris kargi uzrunvelyofis bevri niSani. mag.: gakveTilisaTvis gankuTvnili audiovizualuri

masala, winaswar momzadebuli cxrilebi an sademonstracio aRWurviloba;

maswavlebeli informacias dafaze amzadebs da saWiro dros gamoaCens; aseve mzadaa dasarigebeli

savarjiSoebi (handouts). TviT oTaxSi savarjiSoebi, sxvadasxva kompleqti, TamaSebi, audiocentri,

wignebi, samarTavi pulti da xmis misacemi baraTebi, moswavleebisaTvis TvalsaCinod

aris dawyobili; optikuri wamkiTxavi kompiuteris gverdiT devs; iqve bloknotia,

romelSic mocemulia is sami kodi, romlis mixedviTac moswavleebma samuSao unda Seasrulon.

garemos ostatur uzrunvelyofaze maswavlebels cota dro exarjeba, Sedegad ki,

maqsimalurad izrdeba moswavleebze daxarjul dro, da, Sesabamisad, Sedegic.

gadafarva

es termini kouninisagan (Kounin, 1970) visesxeT da miseuli gansazRvreba ganvavrceT: gadafarva

aris ori paraleluri movlenis marTvis unari ise, rom orives erTdroulad mivaqcioT

yuradReba. `marTva~, am SemTxvevaSi, maswavleblis saqmianobis or aspeqts moicavs. pirvelia,

erTdrouli kavSiri yvelaferTan, rac ramdenime jgufSi, adgilas an aqtivobisas xdeba (maswavlebeli

SeiZleba CarTuli iyos erT an or saqmianobaSi an klasSi siarulisas Tvalyurs

adevnebdes ramdenime maTgans); kavSiri niSnavs, rom maswa vlebelma icis aqtivobis buneba, moswavleTa

Sesabamisi qceva da maTi saqmianobis xarisxi. meore aris sirTuleebis gadalaxvaSi

moswavleebisTvis daxmarebis gaweva. sirTuleebi Semde-

`yvelganmyofoba~ aucilebeli pirobaa.

gi mizeziT SeiZleba warmoiqmnas: moswavleebma ver gaiges

miTiTebebi, ar ician, ra gaakeTon Semdeg, ar SeswevT

interpersonaluri uTanxmoebebis mogvarebis unari (mag., masalebis gaziareba, jgufis winsvlisaTvis

saWiro moqmedebebi), awydebian Seusabamod rTul masalas, efantebaT yuradReba

an daamTavres erTi savarjiSo da meoreze gadasasvlelad daxmareba sWirdebaT.

`yvelganmyofobaSi~ (withitness) igulisxmeba, rom maswavlebels `kefazec ki aqvs Tvalebi~,


tempi

xedavs mTel saklaso oTaxs da moswavleebs auwyebs, rom icis, Tu ra xdeba oTaxSi. yvelgan

yofna gadafarvis wina pirobaa (Kounin, 1970) da aucilebelia cudi yofaqcevis umal SesamCnevad

da reagirebis mosaxdenad. amas garda, yvelgan yofna ramdenime erTroulad mimdinare

saswavlo procesis safuZvelia, radgan maswavlebels yvela movlenis mimdinareobasTan kontaqtis

saSualebas aZlevs.

maswavleblebi yvelgan yofnis meoxebiT inarCuneben temps, rodesac saqmianobaSi arsebul

an potenciur dabrkolebas amCneven. qvemoT moyvanilia tempis SenarCunebis ramdenime magaliTi,

roca maswavleblis moqmedeba moswavleebs dabrkolebis gadalaxvaSi an mis Tavidan

acilebaSi exmareba.

moswavles, romelic amTavrebs xelovnebis proeqtze muSaobas, maswavlebeli

ekiTxeba: `jim, sad unda dado namuSevari gasaSrobad?~ `sadurglo magidis qveS~,

pasuxobs jimi. `mSvenieria! Semdeg SegiZlia diliT dawyebuli wignis kiTxva ganagrZo~,

ambobs maswavlebeli. maswavlebelma xazi gausva, romAsaqmianoba dasrulda

da moswavle axal saqmes unda Seudges.

maswavlebeli SeniSnavs, rom moswavlem Tavi ver gaarTva laboratoriul eqsperiments

da eubneba: `mark, Tu gagiWirda, jeins sTxove daxmareba~.

maswavlebeli xedavs, rom bavSvs saRebavi uTavdeba, is JestiT aniSnebs, momiaxlovdio

da axsenebs, rom samuSaos dasrulebisas, qila saRebaviT Seavsos.

maswavlebeli xedavs, rom jgufi gadasaxadTan dakavSirebiT senatoris poziciaze

kamaTobs da mimarTavs: `rogor SeZlebT informaciis dazustebas?~ es moswavleTa

konstruqciul qcevaSi CarTvis gzaa.

gadafarvis mizania, rom maswavleblis yvela moqmedebiT SenarCundes jgufisa Tu

calkeuli individebis tempi maSin, rodesac maswavlebeli jgufs punqtuacias aswavlis,

amecadinebs kiTxvaSi, amowmebs moxsenebas laboratoriuli muSaobis Sesaxeb an sxva saqmianobas

eweva. maswavlebeli marTavs qcevas ise, rom ar adunebs yuradRebas, ar awyvetinebs

da arc erTi wamiT ar Sordeba pirvelad mizans. es gadafarvis warmatebiT ganxorcielebis

saSualebaa, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac maswavlebeli aqtiurad monawileobs konkretul

saswavlo procesSi.

Semavseblebi

dRis ganmavlobaSi isec xdeba xolme, rom maswavlebeli mcire xniT (10-15 wuTi) yovndeba

moswavleTa jgufTan, rodesac araferi ar igegmeba. zogjer es mouxerxebel adgilebSi xdeba,

sadac xeli ar miuwvdebaT standartul saklaso resursebze xelmiuwvdom: mag., skolis Semdeg,

bolo avtobusis molodinSi; holSi, kabinetidan (xatvis, musikis) meore cvlis gamosvlis

molodinSi; klasSi, sadac bavSvebma es-es aris daasrules samuSao da sakmarisi dro aRar

rCeba imisTvis, rom sxva samuSao misce sadilis dawyebamde. ras akeTebs maswavlebeli aseT

situaciaSi tempis darRvevis Tavidan asacileblad?

zogierTi SeiZleba Semogvedvaos kidec, ra unda gaakeTos maswavlebelmao. maTi azriT,

moswavleebi ubralod unda isxdnen da elodnen, maT mocda unda icodnen, radgan aseT SemTxvevebs

Tavidan ver aicileb. maswavlebeli ar aris valdebuli moswavleebi mudmivad gaarTos.

asea, vupasuxebdiT Cven. . . saqmis bolomde miyvana namdvilad sasurvelia, Tumca yovelTvis

rodi amarTlebs. imis molodini, rom rTuli klasebis moswavleebi moTminebiT isxdebian da

moicdian, arakeTilgonivrulia da mas Sedegad destruqcia mohyveba xolme. amis Tavidan

41


Tavi 3

asacileblad da ramdenime wuTis ganmavlobaSi klasis Tavmosayrelad, maswavlebelma, Semavsebeli

unda gamoiyenos. ai, ramdenime magaliTi:

42

saaTis araswori Cvenebis gamo maswavlebeli pirvelklaselebTan erTad 5 wuTiT

adre midis fizkulturis darbazSi. saklaso oTaxSi dabrunebas azri ar aqvs.

is sTxovs bavSvebs, kedelTanAaxlos dasxdnen da ise SemWidrovdnen, rom yvelam

gaigonos da dainaxos, ras ityvis da gaakeTebs maswavlebeli. `sanam velodebiT,

sxva klasi rodis daamTavrebs gakveTils, aswieT xeli, Tu sityva `Tevzis~ riTmas

moifiqrebT~. (is iZaxebs sam bavSvs, romlebic sxvadasxva sityvebs asaxeleben).

`yoCaR! . . .axla moifiqreT sityva, romelic `naTuras~ eriTmeba (is kidev or

moswavles ekiTxeba).

meore magaliTi:

gasaocaria, magram 1-ma da me-4 magidebma 10 wuTiT adre daamTavres geologi uri

eqsperimenti, Seinaxes xelsawyoebi da nawerebi. maswavlebelma icis, rom danar-

Cen moswavleebs maswavlebelTan SekiTxvebi eqnebaT. 1-li da me-4 ma gidebis moswavleTa

drois flangvisa da celqobis Tavidan asacileblad, is swrafad wers

dafaze rva axal sityvas da Tavisufali magidebis moswavleebs 45 wamian ockiTxvian

TamaSs awyebinebs da darCenil moswavleebs ubrundeba.

zogjer, Semavseblebi, zemoT mocemuli magaliTebis msgavsad, uSualod kurikulumis

Sesabamisi rodia. magaliTad, dawyebiTi klasebis maswavlebels SeuZlia bavSvebTan erTad

`gafuWebuli telefoni~ iTamaSos. mexuTeklaselebs maswavlebelma SeiZleba uTxras: `majis

saaTze dauxedavad scadeT gamoicnoT da xelis aweviT maniSnoT erTnaxevari wuTis gasvla~

(TamaSi `drois Semavsebeli~ kargia avtobusSi xmauris ramdenime wuTiT Sesawyvetad). ufrosi

klasebis maswavlebelma, SeiZleba klasTan mimdinare problemebze an saskolo gundebze

saubari daiwyos. es sulac ar aris drois flangva, Tumca, saWiroa, erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvavoT

Semavseblebi, anu iseTebi, romlebsac `carieli~ dro gahyavT da romlebsac damatebiTi

informacia SeaqvT mimdinare kurikulumSi.

Careva

maswavleblis dRe, SesaZloa, swavlebis momentebze aqcentirebul CarevaTa serias

hgavdes. aseTi Careva mravalgvaria: moswavleebi, romelTac davalebis gasworeba surT,

daxmareba, mimarTulebis micema an kamaTis ga nmsjeli

sWirdebaT; zrdasruli stumrebi, kuri-

maswavleblis dRe, SesaZloa, swavlebis

erebi, sajaro misamarTebis gamocxadeba. yoveli

momentebze aqcentirebul CarevaTa

Careva tempis Senelebis potenciuri matarebe-

serias hgavdes.

lia, magram maswavlebeli ise unda Caerios, rom

minimalurad Seamciros maTi gavlena swavlis

procesSi moswavlis CarTulobaze. arsebobs maswavleblis saqmianobis oTxi ZiriTadi done,

romelic CarevasTan gamklavebis unars aRwers:

1. Carevas tempis darRvevis saSualebas aZlevs.

2. Carevas unificirebulad umklavdeba: mag., maswavlebeli arasdros ar aZlevs sxva

klasis moswavleebs SekiTxvis dasmis uflebas (anu ar urigdeba aranair Carevas); Camrevebs

daxmarebisTvis TanatolebTan gzavnis: acdevinebs Camrevebs, sanam ar dadgeba

maTi daxmarebis Sesaferisi dro.

3. Carevas sxvadasxvagvarad umklavdeba; maswavlebeli sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva sa-

Sualebas iyenebs.


tempi

4. Carevaze reaqcias usadagebs moswavlis Taviseburebebs an konkretul situacias:

mag., maswavlebelma icis, rom jeins aramyari koncentraciis unari aqvs da CamrevisTvis

Tundac dagvianebulad gacemuli pasuxi, mas yuradRebas moudunebs (SesaZloa

jeins samuSaoze misabruneblad 15 wuTic ki dasWirdes). zogjer maswavlebels Camrevis

TaviseburebebTan uxdeba morgeba _ Carlis TanaklaselTan agzavnis daxmarebisaTvis,

radgan misi imedi aqvs, jons ki aniSnebs, rom daxmarebisaTvis maswavlebels

daelodos, radgan icis, rom mas klaselisTvis daxmarebis Txovna ar SeuZlia. (Sesa-

Zloa, mogvianebiT romelime bavSvs sTxovos jonis daxmareba). mokled, maswavlebeli

ergeba moswavles an moswavleTa jgufs (Camrevsac da imasac, visac Camrevi xels uSlis).

5. zogjer maswavlebeli situaciaze morgebas ufro cdilobs, vidre moswavleze. mag.,

verbaluri TamaSi-varjiSis dros maswavlebeli SeiZleba saerTod ar Caerios, rom

TamaSis tempi ar daarRvios.

iseve, rogorc sxva yvelaferi, rasac am wignSi ganvixilavT, Carevac gvaxsenebs, rom rac

ufro ukeTesad movargebT Cven reaqciebs moswavleebsa Tu situacias, miT ufro warmatebulebi

viqnebiT.

gakveTilis moqniloba

rogor iqceva maswavlebeli, rodesac gakveTilebi an dagegmili savarjiSoebi jerovnad

ver xorcieldeba? rogor akontrolebs igi temps? unda ganvasxvaoT maswavleblis saqmianobis

oTxi done:

1. yvela SemTxvevaSi agrZelebs gakveTils.

2. anebebs Tavs gakveTils da sxva rameze erTveba.

3. mizans inarCunebs da cdilobs sxvagvarad aswavlos: cvlis gakveTilis formats.

4. axal formats jgufis saWiroebebs usadagebs da/an mas individebis Taviseburebebs

argebs

gTavazobT bolo punqtis magaliTs. moswavleTa jgufi fizikuri varjiSis Semdeg energiiT

aris damuxtuli. maT uWirT abreviaturebis damoukideblad gaSifvra. maswavlebeli

grZnobs amas, dafaze bades xatavs, romelSic abreviaturebs aTavsebs da bavSvebs `koncentraciis”

modificirebul variants aTamaSebs, raSic isini aqtiurad erTvebian. maswavlebelma

gakveTils moswavleebis imwuTieri saWiroebebis gaTvaliswinebiT axali formati moargo.

tempi imiT SenarCunda, rom moswavleebs energiis produqtiulad daxarjvis saSualeba

miecaT.

Setyobineba

tempi SeiZleba dairRves, Tu moswavleebi tranziciisTvis ar arian momzadebulebi (Arlin

1979): Tu maT swrafad awyvetineben erT saqmianobas garkveuli damakmayofilebeli daskvnis

miuRwevlad da meores awyebineben. gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac moswavleebi aqtiurad

arian Cabmuli saqmianobaSi, rogorc es xSirad SemoqmedebiTi wvis dros xdeba xolme. isini

gvewinaaRmdegebian, radgan saqmianobiT gatacebulebs gaCerebas vaiZulebT, iseve, rogorc

Rrmad mZinare ewinaaRmdegeba uxeSad gaRviZebas.

maswavleblebi grZnoben da arbileben am gadasvlas imiT, rom moswavleebs, momzadebis

mizniT, winaswar atyobineben momavali tranziciis Sesaxeb. winaswari Setyobinebis SemTxveva-

43


Tavi 3

Sic ki, zogierT moswavles uWirs Tavisi aqtiurobis iZulebiT Sewyveta. `kidev erTi raRac~...

`damamTavrebineT am gverdis xatva~... (skola ar aris erTaderTi adgili, sadac SeiZleba

amgvari situacia Segvxvdes). maswavlebelma, SeiZleba, ubralod miiyvanos moswavleebi am

wertilamde: ”me 5 wuTis win gagafrTxileT, rom mzad yofiliyaviT. axla ki droa~; an Seu-

Zlia ama Tu im bavSvis winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad sxvadasxva xerxi gamoiyenos. konkretul

saqmianobaze saWiro drois amowurvis Semdeg maswavlebelTa oTxgvar moqmedebas gamovyofT:

44

1. sxva gza ar aris: `laissez-faire~ (nebas rTavs moswavles TviTon moagvaros saqme) an aradamajereblad

arwmunebs bavSvebs.

2. erTi gza: yovelTvis zemoqmedebs bavSvebze.

3. sxvadasxva viTarebaSi sxvadasxva xarisxis enTuziazmiT zemoqmedebs.

4. sxvadasxva moswavleze, misi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gansxvavebulad zemoqmedebs.

mag., maswavlebeli eubneba jenis: `sanam samamde daviTvli, wigni Seinaxe da

karisken wadi~. maswavlebelma icis, rom jeni cdis mis Tanamimdevrulobas dominanturi

Zalis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. noes ki, maswavlebelma SeiZleba ramdenime zedmeti

wuTi dauTmos da mSvidad daexmaros nivTebis dalagebaSi, radgan kmayofilia

misi dilandeli muSaobiT da surs dadebiTi ganwyoba SeunarCunos.

qvedayofa

moswavleTa jgufebi erTi saqmianobidan meoreze an saqmianobis farglebSi sxvadasxva

fazaze gadasvlis dros saklaso oTaxSi siarulisas (mwkrivSi dgebian, iReben paltoebs,

midian biblioTekaSi, iReben mikroskopebs, arigeben furclebs) xSirad ferxdebian. amgvari

`sacobi~ ukmayofilebas, uares SemTxvevaSi ki, drois uqmad gacdenas iwvevs. qvedayofa (anu

fragmentacia, rogorc kunini uwodebs) niSnavs Seferxebis am drois winaswar ganWvretas da

misi Tavidan acilebis mizniT moqmedebas – klasis mcire jgufebad (individebad, wyvilebad,

magidebad, gundebad, im bavSvebad, visac sportuli fexsacmeli acvia) dayofas. amasobaSi,

moZravi rigis gareT mdgomi bavSvebi dakavebulebi arian davalebis dasrulebiT, masalis

SenaxviT, an tranziciis sxva aspeqtebiT (magaliTad, SemavseblebiT).

zogierTi maswavlebeli qvedayofas saswavlo programis mimdinare sakiTxebis ganmtkicebisTvis

iyenebs. mag., avtobusis gaCerebaze mdgom moswavleebs gamravlebis tabulaSi an

sityvebis marTlweraSi avarjiSebs. swori pasuxis SemTxvevaSi wasvlis nebas aZlevs. . . `ai,

Seni bileTi~, ambobs am dros maswavlebeli.

am saxis qvedayofa gansakuTrebiT dawyebiTi klasebis moswavleebTan aris warmatebuli.

ufrosklaselebs, romelTac TavianTi ZalebiT SeuZliaT Tavi gaarTvan areul situacias,

ubralod TavianT nebaze miuSveben xolme. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba warmatebulad miviCnioT

maswavleblis qceva, rodesac igi moswavleebisgan moiTxovs, sxvebsac gadaawodon masala an

yvela moswavlisTvis xelmisawvdom adgilas Seinaxon; saqmianobaTa iseT Tanamimdevrobasa

da/an temps irCevs, rom moswavleTaAmcire jgufebs bunebrivad sxvadasxva dros dasWirdeT

masala. maswavlebeli iTvaliswinebs da Tavs aridebs saqmianobaTa gegmis Tanamimdevruli

bunebiT warmoqmnil `sacobebs~.

molodini

ganvixiloT aseTi SemTxveva: maswavlebeli winaswar atyobinebs klass, rom qveda sarTulze

sasule sakravebis kvintetis koncertze Casasvlelad moemzadon. `mejavreba koncertebi~,

ambobs JorJeta. erTi wuTis Semdeg zogi bavSvi nivTebs alagebs. ori wuTis Semdeg ramden-


tempi

ime bavSvi karebTan ikribeba. JorJeta aravis

uyurebs da gabutuli Cans. `JorJeta Caxval

gamocdili maswavlebeli problemas moelis

darbazSi da naxav, aris Tu ara CvenTvis adg- da misi Tavidan acilebis mizniT moqmedebs.

ilebi?!~ sTxovs maswavlebeli. JorJeta midis.

klasi swrafad mwkrivdeba karTan da maswavlebelTan erTad qveviT Cadis. isini Sua gzaze

xvdebian JorJetas, romelic maswavlebels auwyebs, rom adgilebi aris da klass yovelgvari

protestis gareSe uerTdeba da maTTan erTad Sedis darbazSi.

gamocdili maswavlebeli aseT situacias yoveldRe awydeba. is moelis problemas, anu

SemTxvevas, romelmac SeiZleba tempi Seanelos da yvelafers akeTebs misi Tavidan acilebisTvis.

zrunavs imisTvis, rom moswavleebi cdunebas ar ahyvnen, winaaRmdegobis gawevis unaris

mqoneT ki Cixisgan Tavis daRwevis saSualebas ise aZlevs, rom maT damcirebulad ar

igrZnon Tavi, mosalodnel sirTuleebs SeZlebisdagvarad warmoqmnisTanave agvarebs. qvemoT

gTavazobT ramdenime situacias, romelTa dadebiTi Sedegebi maswavleblis mier molodinis

gamoyenebam ganapiroba.

klasSi moswavleebTan Sexvedramde, saklaso oTaxis dalagebisas, maswavlebeli moelis,

rom zogierTi bavSvi dalagebas sxvebze adre daamTavrebs da umiznod darCeba. (Sexvedra ar

daiwyeba, sanam yvela ar mogrovdeba). igive SeiZleba moxdes ufros klasebSi, rodesac moswavleebi

zaris darekvamde Sedian saklaso oTaxSi yvelanairi wvrilmaniT xelSi. gakveTilis

dawyebis win nivTebi mTel oTaxSia mimofantuli. orive SemTxvevaSi, Tu maswavlebeli

winaswar ganWvrets mosalodnels, is Sekrebis adgilze unda mivides da raime sainteresoTi

(gamocanebiT, zogadi saubriT, TamaSiT, TavsatexiT, dafaze sainteresos weriT) Seaqcios

bavSvebi. Tavis nebaze miSvebuli zogierTi klasi iWidavebs, ikamaTebs an tempis darRvevis

sxva xerxs mimarTavs. Tu maswavlebeli klasis potencials gamoicnobs, is amgvar periodebs

ganWvrets da maT saintereso saqmianobas SesTvazebs.

maswavlebeli xvdeba, rom moswavleTa mcire jgufs geometriaSi axali masalis asaTviseblad

misi daxmareba da dro dasWirdeba, amitom, imgvarad warmarTavs saqmianobas, rom am

dros danarCenma moswavleebma is davaleba Seasrulon, romelsac damoukideblad arTmeven

Tavs proceduris/miTiTebebisa da Sinaarsis TvalsazrisiT. sxvagvarad, man SeiZleba veRar

SeZlos yvela moswavlis mimarT yuradRebisa da daxmarebis moTxovnis dakmayofileba. Sedegad

moswavleebi SeiZleba usaqmod aRmoCndnen da tempi Semcirdes. viTarebis Sesabamisad,

maswavlebeli klasis didi nawilis (rasac isini advilad gaarTmeven Tavs) mimarT zemoxsenebul

gamocdilebas iSveliebs da axali cnebis 10 wuTiani ganxilvi sTvis oTxi moswavle

gamohyavs dafasTan.

molodinis unaris dakvirveba rTulia, aseve Znelia maswavlebelma sakuTar saqmianobaSi

SeamCnios am unaris gamoyeneba, radgan es spontanurad da intuiciiT ufro xdeba, vidre

dagegmilad. is maswavlebeli, romelic sirTules awydeba molodinTan dakavSirebiT,

moigebs, Tu gonebaSi winaswar warmoidgens dagegmil dRes. gansakuTrebiT ki, Tu kolegas

gaumxels da tempTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gadaWraSi daixmars. erTad maT SeiZleba gamoavlinon

potenciuri xelis SemSleli winaaRmdegobebi da garkveuli nabijebi gadadgan

maTi Tavidan acilebisTvis.

mkiTxveli SeiZleba daibnes Semavseblebisa da molodinis garCevisas. isini, marTlac

urTierTdakavSirebuli cnebebia. molodini gonebis Tvisebaa, romelic afrTxilebs maswavlebels,

rom konkretul dros Semavseblis gareSe klasSi problemebi gaCndeba. magram Semavsebeli

molodinze mimaniSnebeli erTi konkretuli reaqciaa. molodini gacilebiT ufro

farTo kategoriaa, vidre Semavseblebi. es azrovnebis stilia, Cveulebriv spontanuri da

xSirad nagulisxmevi, romelic gveubneba: `Tu amas ar gavakeTeb, SeiZleba tempi Seneldes~. es

`amas~ Semavseblis garda bevri ram SeiZleba iyos. mag., pirvelklaselebTan damSvidobebamde

maswavlebels maTi nawili Tixis saxelosnoSi mihyavs, nawili ki sxva kabinetebSi. ase imitom

45


Tavi 3

iqceva, rom icis, Tixaze muSaoba yvelaze popularuli da yvelasTvis sasurveli saqmianobaa.

is moelis, rom Tu TixiT saqmianobas ar moagvarebs da bavSvebi guls ar ijereben, sxva

saqmianobaze gadarTvas ver moaxerxeben. amgvarad, Tanamimdevroba, romliTac is gegmavs aqtivobis

punqtebs, asaxavs miseul molodins, ra SeiZleba moxdes, Tu jer Tixas `ar mixedavs~.

ganzogadebulad, molodini gonebis Tvisebaa, romelic am TavSi aRwerili yvela situaciisTvis

aris damaxasiaTebeli (Careva, Semavseblebi, Setyobineba, gakveTilis moqniloba,

gadafarva, uzrunvelyofa da qvedayofa). am Tvisebis mqone maswavlebeli zemoxsenebuli

Svidi situaciis garda mas bevr sxva faqiz situaciaSi iyenebs. ase rom, amgvari situaciebis

aRwerisaTvis maTi momcveli zogadi kategoria gvWirdeba.

46

tempis mimoxilva

rogorc vnaxeT, tempis parametri dakavSirebulia maswavleblis im qcevebTan, romelTa

Tavdapirveli mizani gakveTilis mimdinareobis SenarCunebaa. am rva qveparametris farglebSi

maswavlebeli mTel rig saqmianobebs axorcielebs, romelTa mizania klasSi tempis

SenarCuneba. rac ufro ostaturad arCevs maswavlebeli tempis miseuli repertuaridan

moswavleTa saWiroebebis, Taviseburebebisa da situaciis Sesatyvis saqmianobas, miT ufro

umtkivneulo da warmatebulia erTi saqmianobidan meoreze gadasvla da miT ufro ukeT aris

SenarCunebuli tempi.


t e m p i - S e j a m e b a

gaixseneT klasi, romelsac bolo dros aswavlidiT an akvirdebodiT. 1, 2, 3,

6, 7 da 8 punqtebi SemoxazeT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu: qceva saWiro dros ganxorcielda

(diax); ar ganxorcielda, Tumca saWiro iyo (ara); ar miesadaga (a/m).

me-4 da me-5 punqtebSi SemoxazeT dakvirvebadi qceva.

1. uzrunvelyofa: amzadebs sivrcesa da masalas. a/m a r a

diax

2. gadafarva: Tvalyurs adevnebs ramdenime saqmianobas

da moswavleebs dabrkolebaTa gadalaxvaSi exmareba. a/m ara

diax

3. Semavseblebi: konstruqciulad

iyenebs lodinis xanmokle periodebs. a/m ara

diax

4. Careva:

tempis darRveva

Tavs arTmevs erTnairi meTodiT

Tavs arTmevs sxvadasxva meTodiT

5. gakveTilis moqniloba:

aiZulebs gaagrZelon

usadagebs reaqcias

a/m

wyvets da sxvaze erTveba

cvlis formats

usadagebs axal formats

a/m

6. Setyobineba: winaswar atyobinebs erTi

saqmianobidan meoreze gadasvlis Sesaxeb. a/m ara

diax

7. qvedayofa: moZrav jgufs ufro mcire jgufebad yofs. a/m a r a

diax

8. molodini: moelis da gverds uvlis tempis winaRobebs. a/m a r a

diax

t e m p i - S e j a m e b a

47


t e m p i - s a v a r j i S o

1. Tqveni sityvebiT SeajameT tempis parametri.

2. miusadageT yoveli qveparametri im punqts, romelsac yvelaze ukeT esadageba.

a. uzrunvelyofa a. `sxva gza scadeT~

b. gadafarva b. yuradRebis gadatana Seferxebis dros

g. Semavseblebi g. fizikuri `sacobebi~

d. Careva d. ori jgufis erTdrouli marTva

e. gakveTilis moqniloba e. `saimoni ambobs. . .~

v. Setyobineba v. erTi saqmianobidan meoreze gadasvlis molodini

z. qvedayofa z. inventaris winaswar momzadeba

z. molodini z. rTuli momentebis molodini

3. aRwereT magaliTebi:

uzrunvelyofis:

Semavseblebis:

SeWrasTan gamklavebis:

4. aRwereT qvedayofis gzebi moswavleTa Semdegi saqmianobebis dros.

iReben masalebs magididan:

arigeben furclebs:

5. ra agvacilebs Tavidan tempis dakargvas, rodesac ramdenime mcire jgufi muSaobs

saklaso oTaxis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi?

6. daasruleT maswavleblis savaraudo komentari gadafarvis qvemoT mocemul

situaciebSi.

a. oTaxis meore boloSi mjdom moswavles davalebis Sesruleba gauWirda.

maswavlebeli ambobs:

b. moswavlem sxvebze adre daasrula testi marTlweraSi. maswavlebeli ambobs:

7. romeli qveparametris ilustracias axdens es scenebi?

a. moswavleebi brundebian sportuli darbazidan TiTo-TiTod an or-orad

t e m p i - s a v a r j i S o

49


50

an ramdenime erTdroulad. maswavlebeli saklaso oTaxSia, mas xelSi

ramdenime axali sagani ukavia da saklaso oTaxSi dabrunebul moswavleebs

ekiTxeba, risTvis SeiZleba maTi gamoyeneba.

magaliTi warmoadgens:

b. maswavlebeli ambobs, `biWebo da gogonebo, xuT wuTSi sasadilod wavalT.

aalag eT magidebi da moamzadeT wignebi karadaSi Sesanaxad.

magaliTi warmoadgens:

g. moswavleTa jgufs aSkarad mobezrda gramatikis gakveTili. maswavlebeli,

Txrobas wyvets, Cerdeba da moswavleebs umzers. Semdeg sTxovs, dafasTan

gamovidnen da gaiTamaSon metyvelebis nawilebi da isaubron, `rogor iqcevian~

metyvelebis es nawilebi winadadebaSi.

magaliTi warmoadgens:

8. rogor aris tempi dakavSirebuli yuradRebis parametrTan?


literatura:

Arlin,M. “Teacer Transitions Can Disrupt Time Flow in Classrooms.” American Educational Research

Journal (Winter 1979): 42-56.

Doyle, W. “Making Managerial Decisions in Classrooms.” In Classroom Management, 78th Yearbook of the Na-

tempi

tional Society for the Study of Education, Daniel L. Duke (ed.) Chicago: Universuty of Chicago Press, 1979,

75-115.

Kounin, J. Discipline and Classroom Management. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970.

Pierson, C., and J. Mansuggi, Creating & Using Learning Games. Palo Alto, Calif.: Learning Handbooks,

1975.

51


4

sivrce

rogor gamoviyenoT

zedmiwevniT efeqtianad

saklaso oTaxis sivrce da aveji?

sivrcis morgeba swavlisaTvis

sakuTreba da privatuloba

sivrcis gamoyenebis rekomendaciebi


arqiteqtorebs, interieris dekoratorebs

da garemos dacvis specialistebs swamT,

rom adamianebis gansxvavebul funqcionirebas

sivrceSi sagnebis ganlageba (da TviT sivrce)

sivrce

sivrceSi sagnebis ganlageba ganapirobebs

adamianis funqcionirebas.

ganapirobebs. isini Tavs imiT irCenen, rom adamianebs efeqtiani funqcionirebisTvis fizikuri

garemos saukeTeso gamoyenebas aswavlian. Cven maTi xedva imave _ komfortisa da

produqtiulobis mizniT ganaTlebaSi unda gamoviyenoT.

am TavSi, romelic swavlebis sivrcobriv parametrs eZRvneba, ganvixilavT, rogor unda

gamoiyenos maswavlebelma saklaso oTaxisa da skolis sivrce. warmogidgenT or msgavss

Sexedulebas imis Taobaze, rogor unda gamoiyenos maswavlebelma sivrce. man aveji, masala da

sivrce gakveTilis miznidan gamomdi nare unda ganalagos. ra miznebs isaxavs gakveTili? rogori

saswavlo garemo sWirdeba am miznebis ganxorcielebas? rogor Seuwyobs xels sivrcis

gamoyeneba gakveTils? savaraudoa, rom gakveTilis miznebis da formis cvlilebasTan erTad

Seicvleba farTobis ganawilebac. maswavlebels bevrnairad SeuZlia sivrcis gamoyeneba, rac

racionalurad unda pasuxobdes swavlebis aqtiur formebs.

sivrcisadmi damokidebulebis meore gza orientirebulia ara mis mravalferovan gamoyenebaze,

aramed moswavleTa konkretul mudmiv sivrcesTan dakavSirebul interesebze: sakuTrebasa

da privatulobaze. moswavleTa saWiroebebi gansxvavebulia da maswavlebels

SeuZlia garkveuli nabijebi gadadgas individualur moTxovnebze mosargebad. Cven sivrces

zemoT dasaxelebuli ori TvalsazrisiT ganvixilavT.

sivrcis morgeba swavlebisaTvis

maswavleblebisa da skolis xelmZRvanelis Sexvedra sxvadasxvagvarad mimdinareobs xolme.

zogi xelmZRvaneli Tavis magidasTan zis da ise esaubreba maswavleblebs, zogi Tavisi

magidis gverdiT dgams maswavleblis skams, zogs magida kuTxeSi udgas piriT kedlisaken da

maswavlebelTan TaTbiris dros skams miabrunebs xolme, zogi patara magidis garSemo atarebs

Sexvedras.

xelmZRvaneli Sexvedris TiToeuli formiT sxvadasxva Setyobinebas awvdis maswavleblebs

da fizikur garemos sasurveli urTierTobis klimatisaTvis iyenebs. swored aseve, maswavleblis

mier saklaso oTaxis sivrcis gamoyeneba metyvelebs moswavlis miseul warmodgenaze

da swavlebis sasurvel formaze. jakob getcelsma (citirebulia Lewis 1979) oTxi

amgvari warmodgena saklaso oTaxis sivrcis oTx gansxvavebul models daukavSira:

1. carieli moswavlis~ imijs is marTkuTxa oTaxs ukavSirebs: `aseTi dizainis saklaso

oTaxSi, romelic standartuli iyo 1900-ian wlebSi da dResac gavrcelebulia, maswavleblis

funqciaa moswavleTa `codniT avseba~. Sesabamisad, saklaso oTaxSi merxebi

mwyobr rigebad dgas, mimarTulia oTaxis wina nawilisken, codnis wyaros, anu mas-

55


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56

wavleblisa da misi magidisken.

2. getcelsi `aqtiuri moswavlis~ imijs ukavSirebs kvadratul oTaxs: `amgvar oTaxSi

aveji moZravia, anturaJi icvleba, maswavleblis magida moswavleTa magidebis gverdiT

idgmeba da moswavle mTavari figura xdeba~.

3. mesame modelia `socialuri moswavle~ da wriuli oTaxi: `swavlebis procesi interpersonaluri

moqmedebebiTa da reaqciebiT mimdinareobs~. swored aseT formas iyenebs

dRes warmatebuli saganmanaTleblo programebis umravlesoba. erT-erT komerciul

saganmanaTleblo programaSi is `magiur wredac~ ki moixsenieba. bavSvebi

ecnobian sakuTar da sxvebis gancdebs, urTierTobis doneebsa da Sedegebs.

4. bolo modelia `stimulis maZiebeli moswavle~ da Ria saklaso oTaxi, sadac `saklaso

oTaxi, holi da skolis tradiciuli aveji saswavlo centrebiT, saerTo avejiT, personaluri

saswavlo sivrciTa da saerTo areebiT aris Canacvlebuli. moswavle ganixileba,

rogorc problemis aRmomCeni da stimulis maZiebeli arseba~.

rasakvirvelia, yvelaferi moswavleebzea damokidebuli, romlebic sxvadasxva rols asruleben:

arian informaciis kargi `mimRebebi~, maswavleblis mier dagegmili davalebis aqtiuri

Semswavlelebi, saklaso diskusiaSi aqtiurad Cabmulebi, sakuTari aqtivobis `Semqmnelebi~

(`stimulis maZiebeli~ moswavle) da a.S. upiratesi arc erTi zemoxsenebuli fizikuri

garemo ar aris; isini, ubralod, erTmaneTissivrcis

modelebi xels uwyoben swavlis

gan gansxvavdebian da sxvadasxva mizans emsax-

sxvadasxva formas.

urebian. maswavleblis mier saklaso oTaxis

sivrcis mravalgvar mowyobasa da gamoyenebas

vakvirdebiT ara mxolod mravalferovnebis, aramed sivrcis modelebis TvalsazrisiTac,

romlebic xels uwyoben konkretuli gakveTilis miznis Sesatyvis swavlis sxvadasxva formas.

maswavlebels sxvadasxva miznis misaRwevad SeuZlia sakmaod xSirad cvalos saswavlo

sivrce. saSualo skolis maswavlebels zemoxsenebuli oTxi modelis Sesabamisad, oTxi Tanamimdevruli

periodi aqvs. cvlileba advilad da swrafad xdeba, radgan moswavleebi icnoben

swavlebis ZiriTad formats da merxebsa da magidebs ramdenime wuTSi, Cveulebriv, Sesvenebaze

awyoben. maswavlebeli, saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi, garkveul dros uTmobs am formatebis

axsnas da moswavleebTan erTad cvlis garemos, rom Semdeg bavSvebma damoukideblad SeZlon

oTaxis mowyoba.

erTxel, mowmeni gavxdiT imisa, rogor daiwyo erT-erTma klasma (ufrosklaselebma) mecadineoba

mwkrivebad dawyobili magidebiT. maT rusuli moTxrobebis citireba da prezentacia

evalebodaT. umcrosklaselebma ki swrafad daajgufes magidebi eqvs-eqvsad `sakomiteto samuSaosTvis~.

es kooperaciuli gunduri samuSao iyo, romlis mizani amerikel dramaturgTa

sxvadasxva nawarmoebis analizis dagegmvasa da momzadebas moiTxovda. maswavlebelma oTaxSi

Semosvlisas acnoba moswavleebs gakveTilis formatis Sesaxeb da pirvelad Semosul ramdenime

moswavles sTxova `komitetisTvis~ magidebis momzadeba. mesame klasis moswavleebi

maswavleblis signalis mixedviT dasxdnen oTaxis mTel perimetrze farTo wreSi dawyobil

magidebTan da moemzadnen diskusiisTvis, romelic mezobeli skolis dawyebiTi klasis bavSvebisTvis

saskolo saxelmZRvanelos Seqmnis proeqts exeboda. isini proeqtis ganrigTan dakavSirebiT

gadawyvetilebis miRebasa da gegmis SemuSavebas apirebdnen. erT-erT klass momavali

saxelmZRvanelos savarjiSoTa nimuSebi unda Seesrulebina da gaeanalizebina. maTi

magidebi ise iyo ganlagebuli, rom moswavleebi maswavlebels uyurebdnen.

merxebis zogierTi bazisuri wyoba xels uwyobs gakveTilis amgvar dinamikurobas. magali-

Tad, `batoni morisis mexuTeklaselebi oTaxis perimetris gaswvriv moTavsebul individualur

magidebTan isxdnen [meore SesaZlo variantia, kedels uyurebdnen]. oTaxis centrSi

darCenil patara adgils, ZiriTadad, formaluri gakveTilisa da mcire jgufebis aqtivo


sivrce

bisTvis iyenebdnen” (Winne and Marx 1982, p.496). sivrcis amgvari dizaini moswavleebs ufro

meti privatulobiT uzrunvelyofs da individualuri muSaobis dros vizualuri stimuli

yuradRebas ar ufantavs. erToblivi muSaobisas, isini TavianT magidebs abruneben da, ai, ukve

wreSi arian... igive SeiZleba iTqvas mTliani jgufis instruqtirebazec. maT SeuZliaT SuaSi

moTavsebul magidebTan imuSaon mcire jgufebad, maswavlebelTan erTad an kooperaciul

jgufebad.

sivrcis Sefaseba saSualebas gvaZlevs, ganvsazRvroT misi racionaluri gamoyeneba. gaazrebulad

davalageT Tu ara sagnebi im saxis instruqtirebisTvis, romlisTvisac moswavleebs

vamzadebT? Tu Cveni pasuxi dadebiTia, Semdegi kiTxva iqneba: vcvliT Tu ara dizains swavlebis

stilis cvlilebis Sesabamisad? amgvarad, maswavleblis mier saklaso oTaxis gamoyeneba

SeiZleba erT-erTi qvemoT moyvanili debulebis mixedviT klasificirdes:

y sivrceze ar zemoqmedebs: mas ucvlelad iRebs (meurvis, wina periodis maswavle-

blebis mier damkvidrebuli tradiciisamebr);

y sivrces tradiciuli dizainis mixedviT awyobs da Tanamimdevrulad da tradiciulad

yovelgvari variaciis gareSe iyenebs.

y sivrces periodulad sacdelad cvlis, yovelgvari racionaluri safuZvlis gareSe,

mxolod mravalferovnebisTvis.

y inarCunebs sivrcis mudmivobas, Tumca saswavlo procesis Sesabamisad.

y sivrces sxvadasxva dros dinamikurad, gansxvavebuli saswavlo miznebisaTvis iyenebs

programis miznebis Sesabamisad.

sivrcis mocemuli dizainis dros, saswavlo masalis adgilmdebareoba swavlis miznisTvis

xelSemwyobi SeiZleba iyos. Cveulebriv, dawyebiTi klasebis maswavleblebi gansakuTrebiT

zrunaven xolme imisaTvis, rom nivTebs adgili SeurCion.

sakuTreba da privatuloba

luisi (Lewis 1979) saklaso oTaxSi an skolaSi moswavlisTvis gankuTvnili sivrcis sakiTxze

saubrobs. is Semdeg sias gvTavazobs:

magida albaT, yvelaze faseuli da daculi sivrcea. zedmetad tradi

ciul klasSi is, SesaZloa, bavSvis erTaderTi personaluri ad

gili iyos. ufro Ria klasebSi ki SeiZleba saziaro iyos an avejis

nawilad aRarc ganixilebodes.

karada xSirad saziaroa. gulisxmobs mosaxerxebel sivrces.

specialuri adgili musikis, xelovnebis kabinetSi da biblioTekaSi Tu klasSi dgi lebi

moniSnulia, maSin garkveuli xarisxis sakuTrebis gancda Cndeba.

skami xSirad individebi Tu jgufebi individualur saku Trebad miiCneven.

robert someri (Robert Sommer 1969) aRniSnavs: ad a mi anebs,

romlebic did dros atareben sajaro adgilebSi (yovelkvireul

konferenciaze, matarebelSi da a.S.), rogorc wesi TavianTi Cveuli

adgilebi aqvT xolme, rac saerTo qonebaze sakuTre bis uflebis

gancdas ayalibebs. maTi fizikuri aryo fnisSemTxvevaSic ki, maT

uflebas konkretul sivr ce ze mezoblebi adastureben.

biWebis da gogonebis erTmniSvnelovnad bavSvis sivrcea. es aris privatuli TavSesa

saabazano fari cremlebis, gabrazebis, Cxubis, saidumlos gandobis, Secdo mis

daSvebis da ocnebis dros. zogierT skolaSi is axali ambebis cen-

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58

tri xdeba xolme moswavleTa sakomunikacio qselisTvis. zogierT

saSualo skolashi is SeiZleba moswavleTa jdufis sakuTreba gaxdes

an SesaZloa skolis administracian daketos.

saTamaSo moedani bavSvebis saerTo kuTvnileba, maTTvis RirsSesaniSNavi sivrcea, Tu

gaiTvaliswinebT Sesvenebisas gatarebul SedarebiT SezRudul

dros.

holi bevr skolaSi saerTo sakuTreba, e.w. `saxalso moedania” sakuTrebis

gancda mis mimarT zustad imis msgavsia, adamians mis saxlTan mdebare

Cixis an quCis mimarT aqvs.

saklaso oTaxi aris yvela SesaZlo gancdis farToasparezi. zogierTi saklaso

oTaxis an misi romelime nawilis mimarT bavSvebs xSirad sakuTrebis

grZnoba uCndebaT xolme. sxva oTaxebSi ki, SesaZloa, mxolod

dafis mimarT hqondeT sakuTrebis gancda.

skolis Senoba sakuTrebis gancda masSi gatarebuli wlebis kvalobaze izrdeba.

intensivobis variacia SeiZleba damokidebu li iy os skolis filosofiaze,

Senobis zomaze da sasko lo iv obaSi bavSvebis Cabmulobis

xarisxze (Lewis 1979, p.130).*

sakuTari adgili aris ara Calis kalaTa an safosto yuTi, aramed samuSao adgili, romelic

mudmivad moswavlisaa. bevr maTgans sivrceSi `sakuTari adgilis~ povnis mZafri moTxovnileba

aqvs. erT-erTi praqtikosi ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi yovelkvira uwevda konsultaciebs

skolas msgavsi `sakuTari~ sivrcis gareSe da Tavs mudmivad arakomfortulad grZnobda.

umcros Tu ufrosklaselebi klasSi yovelTvis erTi da imave adgilis dakavebas cdiloben.

es maTi `adgili” xdeba. kolejis studentebi da zrdasruli adamianebic aseve iqcevian.

sivrcis ganawilebis dagegmvisas, maswavlebelma aucileblad unda gauwios angariSi sivrcis

mimarT moswavlis moTxovnilebas _ misTvis konkretuli sivrcis adekvaturad SerCevas.

yoveli individis survilebi da privatulobis moTxovnileba gansxvavebulia.

privatuli sivrce zRudavs mxedvelobis gafantvasa da xmaurs. amgvari adgilia wingTsacavis

kabina an yvelaze metad privatuli, individualuri praqtikisTvis gamoyenebuli

oTaxi. bevri moswavle mxolod moigebs, Tu

masalis adgilmdebareobam SeiZleba saswavlo amgvari adgili eqneba. gamocdili maswavlebeli

miznebis ganxorcielebas Seuwyos xeli.

xvdeba, vin arian aseTi moswavleebi da sivrces

maTi saWiroebis mixedviT anawilebs. saklaso

oTaxis da skolis sxva damxmare saTavsoebis (biblioTekas, mediacentrebs) Tvalierebisas,

maswavlebeli sakuTar Tavs ekiTxeba: eqnebaT Tu ara Sesaferisi privatuli adgili aseT moswavleebs?

sivrcis gamoyenebis rekomendaciebi

saskolo sivrcis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb literatura metad mwiria, gamokvlevebi _ kidev

ufro naklebi. erT dros Cven mier Catarebulma interviuTa seriam Semdegi aTi rekomendaciis

SemuSavebis saSualeba mogvca. es ar aris e.w. mecnierulad dasabuTebuli codna, es ubralod,

tradiciuli sibrZnea, romelic, sivrcis TvalsazrisiT, klasis Semowmebasa da daskvnis gamotanaSi

dagvexmareba. amasTan, iseT sakiTxebs gvaxsenebs, romlebic ar unda dagvaviwydes.

1. saswavlo masala iseT adgilze unda SevinaxoT, rom bavSvma advilad dainaxos, aiRos

* ibeWdeba gamomcemlis nebarTviT wignidan Yamamoto, K.,ed.,Children in Time and Space.(New York: Teachers College Press,1977 by Teachers

College, Columbia University. yvela ufleba daculia.) gv. 128-169.


da Semdeg isev adgilze dados.

sivrce

2. Tavi aarideT `mkvdar~ adgils, umizno sivrces, romelic SeiZleba moswavleebma

daufiqrebeli da akrZaluli saqmianobisTvis gamoiyenon.

3. zogierT viTarebaSi, usafrTxoebisa da kontrolis mizniT, SesaZloa, upriani iyos

farTobis ise gamoyeneba, rom maswavlebeli yvelafers xedavdes. (es moTxovna Sei-

Zleba Seuferebeli aRmoCndes sxva situaciebSi, rodesac miznad ndobis mopovebas,

privatulobasa da damoukideblobis miRwevas visaxavT).

4. vertikaluri sivrce (kedlebi, Tejirebi, karadebi da gadasaadgilebeli kabinetis

karebi) racionalurad unda iyos gamoyenebuli, mag., gamofenis, saswavlo centrebisa

Tu masalis Sesanaxad. kedelze dakidebulma an Werze Camokidebulma xelovnebis

nimuSebma an farTobis mravaldonianma gamoyenebam (mag., antresoli an sxva konstruqciebi)

SeiZleba gaadidos oTaxis sivrce.

5. kedlidan 90 gradusiT diagonalze moTavsebul Tejirebs SeuZliaT moswavleebis

moqmedebisa da xedvis aris saintereso da winaswar dagegmili mimarTulebiT

warmarTva.

6. klasSi gamovyoT sagamofeno adgilebi, sadac SeiZleba gamovfinoT da davaTvalieroT

moswavleTa SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobis Sedegebi.

7. SeZlebisdagvarad daaSoreT oTaxis aqtiuri moqmedebisa da fiqrisaTvis gankuTvnili

adgilebi, raTaAminimumamde SeamciroT yuradRebis gafantva.

8. yuradRebis gafantvisa da xelis SeSlis Tavidan asacileblad aqtivobis momijnave

areebi daaSoriSoreT da SemosazRvreT.

9. moswavleTa gadaadgilebis dros, areulobis Tavidan asacileblad gaakeTeT gasasvlelebi,

romlebic oTaxis funqciur nawilebs erTmaneTTan daakavSireben.

10. gamouyenebeli aveji energias STanTqavs. amitom, Tu moswavleTa raodenoba skamebis

raodenobaze naklebia, nu miscemT maT saSualebas mTel klasSi gafanton isini, xolo

Tqvensa da maT Soris sivrceSi skami Cadgan. SeamcireT zedmeti skamebis raodenoba,

an oTaxis ukana nawilSi daalageT skamebi ise, rom moswavleebs kontaqti hqondeT

TqvenTan da erTmaneTTan.

amgvarad, sivrcisa da saklaso oTaxis Sesaxeb literaturis gacnoba gvarwmunebs, rom

saWiroa misi gaazrebuli gamoyeneba. SegviZlia Cveni saswavlo sivrce ufro mimzidveli,

efeqtiani da dinamikuri gavxadoT; mokled, SegviZlia sivrce swavlebis xelSewyobis mizniT

vakontroloT da vcvaloT.

59


sivrce - Sejameba

aRniSneT is debuleba, romelic Tqvens saklaso oTaxSi sivrcis gamoyenebis

aspeqtebs asaxavs. a/m aRniSnavs `ar miesadageba~.

1. qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan romeli aRwers saklaso oTaxis organizacias:

maswavleblis zemoqmedebis gareSe

tradiciuli

eqsperimentulad varirebadi

erTgvarovani, magram swavlebis procesisTvis xelSemwyobi

dinamikuri, swavlebis process misadagebuli

2. sakuTrebis gancda da privatuloba Tu aris

uzrunvelyofili? a/m ara diax

3. aris Tu ara privatuli sivrce xelmisawvdomi im

moswavleebisTvis, romlebsac is sWirdebaT? a/m ara diax

4. iyenebT Tu ara qvemoT CamoTvlil parametrebs?

• TvalsaCino da xelmisawvdomi maragi a/m ara diax

• arc erTi `mkvdari~ adgili a/m ara diax

• maswavleblisTvis arc erTi uxilavi adgili a/m ara diax

• vertikaluri sivrcis gamoyeneba a/m ara diax

• diagonaluri Tejirebi a/m ara diax

• sagamofeno adgili a/m ara diax

• aqtiuri adgilis mSvidi adgilisgan gamoyofa a/m ara diax

• areebs Soris sazRvrebi a/m ara diax

• Tavisufali gasasvlelebi a/m ara diax

• gamouyenebeli avejis efeqtis minimumamde

Semcireba a/m ara diax

s i v r c e - S e j a m e b a

61


sivrce - savarjiSo

am aqtivobis mizania, dagexmaroT sivrcis ise mowyobaSi, rom Tqveni miznebisa da

maTi miRwevisaTvis dagegmili aqtivobebis Sesatyvisi gaxdes. waikiTxeT yoveli situacia

da aRwereT an daxazeT, rogor moawyobdiT oTaxs da daasabuTeT. SesaZloa, erTi

gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi oTaxis ramdenimejer gadawyoba dagWirdeT.

1. saSualo skolaSi maTematikas aswavliT da miznad isaxavT, rom moswavleebma

warmatebiT SeZlon erTniSna da orniSna gantolebebis amoxsna. 50 wuTian

gakveTilze maT unda Seamowmon saSinao davaleba, moisminon axali masalis axsna

da daiwyon varjiSi axali masalis Sesatyvisi saSinao davalebis Sesasruleblad.

am dros Tqven saklaso oTaxSi moZraobT da daxmarebas uwevT maT, visac

sWirdeba.

2. meoreklaselebs aswavliT. gyavT 24 moswavle. gsurT, rom diliT 3 saaTis ganmavlobaSi

Tqvenma moswavleebma: (a) erTad daiwyon dRe; (b) oTxkacian jgufebad

mimoixilon masala da ivarjiSon; (g) imuSaon axal davalebaze megobrebTad er-

Tad; (d) mTelma jgufma miiRos instruqcia; (e) davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg

varjiSisaTvis saswavlo centrebs miakiTxon.

3. me-7 da me-8 klaselebs sabunebismetyvelo sagnebs aswavliT. gaqvT didi oTaxi,

romlis ori mesamedi stacionarul laboratoriul magidebs ukavia. darCenil

mesamedze ganlagebulia moswavleTa gadasaadgilebeli magidebi da dafebi.

laboratoriuli magidebi da gadasaadgilebeli merxebi 24 moswavlisTvis

gaqvT. dRes laboratoriuli samuSao unda CaataroT gajerebul xsnarebze.

gsurT, rom SeamowmoT saSinao davaleba, moasmeninoT mokle mimoxilva gajerebul

xsnarebze, laboratoriuli samuSaos mizansa da mimarTulebaze da imu-

Saon oTxkacian laboratoriul jgufebad da dagegmon xvalindeli davalebis

Sesruleba.

s i v r c e - s a v a r j i S o

63


64

4. amerikis istorias 30 moswavles aswavliT. saklaso oTaxSi eqvsi magidaa. TiToeul

magidasTan 5 skami dgas. oTaxi sakmaod didia imisaTvis, rom kedelTan miswioT

magidebi da skamebi sxva konfiguraciiT daawyoT. am kviris 5 dRis ganmavlobaSi

Semdegi saqmianobebi gaqvT dagegmili: 1 dRe: leqcia da diskusia; 2 dRe: moswavleebTan

individualuri Sexvedrebis Catareba semestruli kvleviTi namuSevrebis

Taobaze, sanam klasis danarCeni nawili Tematur jgufebad iyofa bibliografiaze,

gegmaze, ideebsa da problemebze samuSaod; 3 dRe: TiToeuli Tematuri jgufis

moxseneba, pirvel dRes Catarebuli leqciisa da masalebis mimoxilva da sakvanZo

sakiTxebis Semowmeba; 4 dRe: 20-wuTiani videoCveneba, TiToeuli moswavlis mier

videos centraluri Temis xuTwinadadebiani Sefaseba, samkacian jgufebad muSaoba

Sefasebaze SeTanxmebis misaRwevad; 5 dRe: testireba. daxazeT xuTive dRisTvis

oTaxis konfiguracia, romelic yoveldRiuri aqtivobis/aqtivobaTa Sesatyvisi

iqneba.

1 dRe 2 dRe

3 dRe 4 dRe

5 dRe

5. meoTxeklaselebs aswavliT. wels 28 moswavle gyavT, Tumca oTaxSi komfortulad

mxolod 26 eteva. gasul wels kooperaciuli swavlebis meTodi danergeT

da welsac gsurT gagrZeleba, risTvisac moswavleTa 2, 3 da 4-kacian kooperaciuli

jgufebad dayofa aris saWiro. xSirad gsurT moswavleTa codnis Semowmeba.

oTaxSi xuTi kompiuteri gaqvT da, Cveulebriv, oTx saswavlo centrs awyobT

xolme individualuri praqtikisTvis. mTeli jgufis instruqtireba gsurT, rasac

mcire jgufebSi varjiSi mohyveba. Tqven merxebs Soris ivliT da daexmarebiT.

daxazeT oTaxis mowyobis ramdenime varianti Tqvens moTxovnebze mosargebad. Tu

fiqrobT, rom oTaxis konfiguracia yvela miznis Sesatyvisi ver iqneba, axseniT

mizezi.


literatura:

Abramson,P. Schools for Early Childhood. New York: Educational Facilities Laboratory, 1970.

sivrce

Gross,R., and J. Murphy, Educational Change and Architectural Consequences. New York:

Educational Facilities Laboratory, 1968.

Kohn, J., The Early Learning Center. New York: Educational Facilities Laboratory, 1970.

Kritchevsky, S., E. Prescott, and I. Walling. Physical Space.Washington, D.C.: NAEYC, 1969.

Lewis, B. V. ”Time and Space in Schools. ”In Children in Time and Space, K.Yamamato (ed.), New

York: Teachers College Press, 1977, 128-169.

Marshall, K. Opening Your Class with Learning Stations. Palo Alto, Calif.: Learning Handbooks,

1976.

School Review. Learning Environments Whole Issue 82, no.4 (August 1974).

Winne, P. H., and R. W. Marx, ”Students and Teachers View of Thinking Process For Classroom

Learning.” Elementary School Journal ( May 1982): 496.

Zefferblatt,S.M., “Architecture and Human Behavior: Toward Increased Understanding of a

Functional Relationship.“ Educational Technology, (August 1972): 54-57.

65


5

dro

rogor davgegmoT movlenebi da

vareguliro cxrili, rom

moswavleebs swavlisTvis

yvelaze nayofieri dro

SevurCioT?

ganawileba

dro swavlisaTvis

dro instruqtirebisaTvis

pirveli da bolo wuTebi

tempi da ritmi


dro sicocxlis valutaa da maswavleblebi dReSi daaxloebiT eqvsi saaTis ganmavlobaSi

marTaven TavianTi moswavleebis sicocxlis banks _ es Zalze mniSvnelovani

Tanamdebobaa. isini banks `Tavisufali arCevanis’’ drosac ki xelmZRvaneloben, sadac

SesaZlo variantebi maswavleblis mier aris SeTavazebuli da nebadarTuli.

imas, TUu rodis ras akeTeben moswavleebi, ra TanamimdevrobiT da ra drois ganmavlobaSi,

ZiriTadad maswavlebeli akontrolebs; uaxlesi kvlevebidan viciT, rom drois kargad gakontrolebas

didi gavlena aqvs moswav-

leTa swavlaze. aq igulisxmeba is droc,

romelsac moswavleebi saklaso oTaxis

gareT sxva iseT adgilebSi atareben,

rogoricaa kafeteria. skolis mier Se-

Tavazebul yovel garemoSi moswavleebis mier gatarebuli droisa da misi xarisxis gakontroleba

fakultetis wevrebis movaleobaa. es Tavi Seexeba imas, Tu SeZlebisdagvarad rogor

unda vmarToT gaazrebulad is, rom moswavleebma dro gamoiyenon kargad swavlis mizniT.

TavSi codnis am sferos mzardi baza gamoyenebulia, imisaTvis, rom Cveni moswavleebisTvis

drois ukeTesi menejerebi gavxdeT.

moswavleTa drois marTvis sakiTxebi Tavmoyrilia ganawilebis, efeqtianobisa da tempis

irgvliv.

ganawileba

moswavleebis mier drois gamoyenebis Taobaze kvlevis zedapirulma ganxilvam SeiZleba

adamians aTqmevinos: `aba, kidev ra aris axali?~ aSkaraa, rom Tu moswavleebi met dros dauTmoben

maTematikas da nakleb dros gaatareben fuWad, maTematikas ukeTesad iswavlian! magram

yoveli CvenganisaTvis raRac axali da gasaocari aRmoCndeba xolme, Tu zust monacemebs vnaxavT

imis Sesaxeb, Tu sinamdvileSi rogor atareben moswavleebi sagakveTilo dros. 1970-ian

wlebSi davalebebze daxarjuli drois kvlevam mogvca 5.1 sqemaze warmodgenili ufro daxvewili

da damajerebeli koncefciebis seria.

dro

dro sicocxlis valutaa da maswavleblebi TavianTi

moswavleebis sicocxlis banks marTaven.

`skolaSi gatarebuli drois~ wriT dawyebuli sqemis yoveli wre moicavs da aerTianebs

Sida wreebs.

¤ skolaSi gatarebul dros axsna ar sWirdeba.

¤ swavlisTvis ganawilebuli dro niSnavs mocemul saganSi saswavlo samuSaosaTvis

gankuTvnil dros.

69


Tavi 5

70

¤ moswavleTa CarTulobis dro aris is wuTebi, rodesac moswavleebi namdvilad muSao-

¤ akademiuri swavlis dro aris is dro, rodesac moswavleebi zrunaven warmatebis maRa-

¤ interaqtiuri instruqtireba aris uSualod maswavlebelTan instruqtirebisas (in-

skolaSi gatarebuli dro

swavlisTvis ganawilebuli dro

moswavleTa

CarTulobis dro

akademiuri

swavlis dro

interaqtiuri

instruqtireba

(maRali

warmatebis dro)

(muSaobis dro)

(saswavlo sagnebisTvis

gamoyofili dro)

sqema 5.1: davalebisTvis daxarjuli drois kvleva

am diagramaze yoveli koncefcia moicavs da aerTianebs qvedas da mis SigniT mdebares.

ben an eswrebian swavlebas da ar ocneboben, flangaven dros an wesrigdebian.

li maCveneblisTvis. warmatebis maRali maCvenebeli gansxvavdeba moswavleTa CarTulobis

droisagan da CarTulobis drois qvejgufia.

dividualurad, mcire jgufSi, an mTel klasTan erTad) gatarebuli dro. is marto

gatarebuli drois sapirispiroa, rodesac moswavle individualurad asrulebs samuSaos,

muSaobs proeqtze an muSaobs jgufTan erTad, romelsac uSualo interaqcia

ar aqvs instruqtorTan.

skolaSi gatarebuli droidan nawili sagnebis swavlebas eTmoba.Kkvlevam skolebis Sedarebisas,

skolaSi gatarebul droebs Soris mcire gansxvaveba aRmoaCina, samagierod Zalian

didi gansxvavebaa swavlisTvis ganawilebuli drois TvalsazrisiT rogorc skolebs, aseve

klasebs Soris. magaliTad, kaldvelisa da sxvaTa (Caldwell da sxvebi 1982) citirebisas, diSo

(Dishaw) wers:

uSualod mexuTe klasis maTematikisaTvis gamoyofili dro 18-dan 80 wuTamde

meryeobda; mexuTe klasSi kiTxvisaTvis gamoyofili dro _ 51-dan 195 wuTamde.


drois ganawileba aseve SeiZleba icvlebodes konkretuli klasis farglebSic;

magaliTad, erT-erTi kvlevis Tanaxmad (Dishaw 1977) erTi mexuTe klaseli moswavle

yoveldRe maTematikisTvis 39, xolo meore 75 wuTs xarjavda. realurad

gamoyofili drois es gansxvavebebi gviCvenebs, rom zogierT moswavles sxvebTan

SedarebiT SeiZleba konkretuli saswavlo masalis swavlis orjer, samjer an

oTxjer meti SesaZlebloba hqondes.

sxvadasxva sagnisaTvis gamoyofili dro unda asaxavdes skolis farglebSi garkveul konsensuss

imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra sagnebia mniSvnelovani da prioritetuli, radgan aseTi

sagnebi mravladaa. samarTliania Tu ara, rom dawyebiTi skolis konkretuli maswavleblis

niWierebisa da miswrafebebis gamo misi klasi kiTxvisa da weris saukeTeso programas gadis,

magram praqtikulad sxvas arafers? erT-erTi saWiroeba, romelsac drois parametri win wamoswevs

is aris, rom moswavleTa saskolo gamocdileba grZelvadiani perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiT

ganvixiloT. saskolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi romel sagans ra dro xmardeba? aris drois

aseT xarjvaSi garkveuli Tanamimdevruloba da logika? Tu ara, maSin Cven realurad ver

vakontrolebT im ganaTlebas, romelsac gadavcemT. Tu ara, maSin Cven isic ki ar viciT, ras

gadavcemT.

maSin, roca aseTma farTo variaciulobam SeiZleba saSualo skolaSi drois ganawilebis

analizisas ar iCinos Tavi, savaraudoa, rom Tavs iCens Semdeg kategoriasTan mimarTebaSi.

saSualod swavlisaTvis gamoyofili drois 75%-is ganmavlobaSi arian moswavleebi Car-

Tulebi arian an eswrebian swavlebas. aq aseve Zalze farToa moswavleTa CarTulobis drois

diapazoni _ 50-dan 90 procentamde (Fisher da sxvebi, 1978). swored moswavleTa CarTulobisa

da ganawilebuli drois procentuli maCvenebelia mniSvnelovani da ara wuTebis absoluturi

raodenoba.

`ramdenime kvlevis mixedviT CarTulobis maCveneblebi mniSvnelovnadaa dakav-

Sirebuli moswavleTa miRwevebTan (Anderson 1975; Fisher da sxvebi, 1978). ase rom,

gansxvavebebi CarTulobis maCveneblebSi winaswar gansazRvravs moswavlis miRwevas

da xsnis miRwevaSi gansxvavebebis sam mexuTeds (Bloom 1974). sTolingzisa

da kasko vicis monacemebis (Rim & Coller 1978) xelaxalma analizma aCvena, rom

klasebi, sadac meti dro eTmoboda kiTxvasa Tu maTematikas, rogorc wesi, met

miRwevebs aCvenebdnen am sagnebSi. Tumca,Mmoswavlis miRweva yovelTvis uSualod

CarTulobis drois mixedviT rodi icvleba. zogierTi klasisa da sagnisTvis moswavlis

miRwevasa da CarTulobis dros Soris kavSiri Tanabrdeboda, xolo Semdeg

uaryofiTi xdeboda, roca CarTulobis dro ufro didi iyo, vidre konkretuli

sidide~ (Caldwell da sxvebi, 1982).

zemoxsenebuls azri aqvs, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom zogierTi moswavle axal masalas

Zalian swrafad iTvisebs. maTTvis CarTulobis drois nawili SeiZleba nacnob masalaSi

varjiSs moxmardes.

swavlebisTvis gamoyofili drois daaxloebiT 25 procenti, uciloblad menejmentis

amocanebsa (furclebis miReba, xelsawyoebis momzadeba) da moswavleTa yuradRebis mobilizacias

xmardeba. saklaso oTaxis saukeTeso menejerebic ki, am maCveneblis mxolod 5 procentiT

Semcirebas axerxeben, isic maSin, Tu yuradRebis mobilizaciisTvis nakleb dros daxarjaven.

amrigad, 75%-iani CarTuloba karg maCveneblad iTvleba. Tu maCvenebeli daqveiTebas

iwyebs, maswavlebelma CarTulobis gasazrdelad menejmentis strategia unda gadasinjos.

Cven aseve gvWirdeba maswavleblis CarTulobis donis gadasinjva. gamoyofili drois ramdeni

procentia maswavlebeli dakavebuli moswavleebiT, masalebis momzadebis, namuSevrebis

gasworebis an menejmentis sxva amocanebis gamoklebiT? kvlevis mixedviT es procentuli

dro

71


Tavi 5

maCvenebeli maRali unda iyos (Stallings 1980). saSualo skolis maswavlebelTa kvleviT dasturdeba,

rom CarTulobis saSualo maCvenebeli 73 procentia. moswavleebTan (gansakuTrebiT

dabali moswrebis moswavleebTan) interaqciis ufro dabali maCveneblis mqone maswavlebel-

Ta klasebi miRwevis mniSvnelovnad mcire zrdiT (an aranairi zrdiT) gamoirCeoda. es asea

maSinac ki, Tu moswavleebi drois umetes nawils davalebis Sesrulebas axmaren. sTolingsi

(1980) xsnis, rom:

72

moswavleebi asruleben davalebas, magram maswavlebeli ar aswavlis. im klasebSi,

sadac ar iyo zrda, moswavleebi drois 28%-s weriTi davalebebis SesrulebisTvis

iyenebdnen, 22%-s _ Cumad kiTxvisTvis, xolo maswavlebeli menejmentis

sakiTxebs drois 27%-ze mets axmarda.

dabolos, moswavleebs warmatebis maRali maCvenebeli CarTulobis drois mxolod

nawilSi aqvT. am dros literaturaSi `akademiuri swavlis dro~ (ratom ar SeiZleba `didi

warmatebis dro~ vuwodoT?) da rogorc aqamde, misi xangrZlivoba, klasebis mixedviT varirebs

_ magaliTad, ZiriTadi unarebis wvrTnaze saSualod dabali moswrebis klasebSi dReSi

16, xolo saSualod maRali moswrebis klasSi dReSi 111 wuTamde. sxvaTa Soris, saSualod

maRali da dabali moswavleTa SesaZleblobis doneze ar miuTiTebs. is ukavSirdeba maswavleblis

mier moswavleebisaTvis akademiuri

swavlebisTvis gamoyofili drois daaxloebiT swavlisTvis meti drois `gamonaxvis~ unars.

25 procenti, uciloblad menejmentis amocanebsa saSualoze maRali donis maswavleblebi `sada

moswavleTa yuradRebis mobilizacias xmardeba.

Sualo klasebisaTvis orjer da kidev ufro

met dros akademiur swavlaze, xolo dabali

moswrebis klasebisaTvis eqvsjer da kidev ufro met dros~ uzrunvelyofen (Caldwell da sxvebi,

1982). es gamaognebeli cifrebi gvaiZulebs yuradRebiT davakvirdeT, rogor iyeneben

moswavleebi saskolo dros, radgan maRali warmatebis dro da miRweva mWidro korelaciaSia

da monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom maswavleblebs, romlebic TavianTi drois gamoyenebas swavloben,

mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi SeaqvT moswavleTa ukeT swavlaSi (Stallings 1980).

Cven xuT mexuTe klasSi moswavleTa drois gamoyenebas vikvlevdiT engelisagan (Engel

1977) adaptirebuli teqnikiT. is klass xuTwuTiani intervalebiT akvirdeboda da yovel moswavleze

Canawers akeTebda. CanawerSi aRniSnuli iyo, ras akeTebda moswavle da amasTanave

yuradRebisa da CarTulobis ra maCvenebli hqonda. am monacemebiT yoveli moswavlisaTvis

feradi Zeluri grafiki gakeTda, sadac ferebi aRniSnavda dRis ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva saswavlo

aqtivobebze daxarjul dros. ferad Zelze Savi jvari uyuradRebobisa da CaurTvelobis

xarisxs aRniSnavda. yvela Zelis gaerTianebam erT grafikze, maswavlebels arsebiTi

monacemebi misca rogorc calkeul moswavleze, ise mTeli klasis modelze. erT-erTi maswavlebeli

drois did nawils uTmobda klasis menejments _ furclebis darigebas, dagegmvas,

gakveTilidan gakveTilze gadasvlisTvis mzadebas, meores moswavleTa CarTulobis dabali

done hqonda mcire jgufebSi _ wynari, mokrZalebuli, magram mudmivi da muSaobisTvis xelis

SemSleli _ usagno saubrebis gamo hqonda. mesamem aRmoaCina, rom misi moswavleebi sakmaod

xSirad iyvnen CarTuli individualur davalebebsa da proeqtebSi da dRis ganmavlobaSi mxolod

5 wuTiT iRebdnen maswavleblis pirdapir instruqciebs. yvela maswavlebelma monacem-

Ta naxvis Semdeg garkveuli cvlilebebi Seitana efeqtianobis gazrdis TvalsazrisiT. es cvlilebebi

moicavda tempisadmi met yuradRebas, sivrcis axleburad mowyobas, instruqtirebis

drois axleburad dagegmvas da moswavleTa qcevisadmi maTi molodinebis garkvevas.A imis Tqma

gvsurs, rom maswavleblebma manamde ver SeZles realobis danaxva, vidre calkeuli moswavleebisa

da mTeli klasis Sesaxeb obieqturi monacemebis pirispir ar aRmoCndnen. monacemebis

saSualebiT maT efeqtianobis amaRlebas miaRwies. akademiuri swavlis dro da interaqtiur

instruqtirebaze moswavleTa mier daxarjuli dro SeiZleba yvelasTvis naTeli iyos, magram

sakuTari klasis Sesaxeb konkretuli monacemebi axali prioritetebis aRmoCenis saSualebas

mogvcems.


lainhardti da sxvebi (Leinhardt da sxvebi 1981) aseT komentars akeTeben: `maswavleblebi

fxizlad unda iyvnen warumatebeli bavSvebis mimarT. maSin, roca davalebaSi CaurTvelad

gatarebuli drois saSualo maCvenebeli 15% iyo, zogierTi moswavlisaTvis is 30%-s aRemateboda.

maSin, roca maswavleblis mier instruqtirebis (kiTxvaSi) saSualo dro dReSi 16 wuTi

iyo, imave klasis farglebSi is dReSi 14-dan 35 wuTamde meryeobda. maSin, roca Cumad kiTxvaSi

gatarebuli saSualo dro dReSi 14 wuTi iyo, zogierTi moswavle arc erTi wuTi ar kiTxulobda

Cumad. sabednierod, maswavleblebs SeuZliaT mniSvnelovnad Secvalon warumatebel

moswavleTa gamocdileba da saqmianoba ise, rom ucvleli datovon yvelaferi warmatebulebisTvis~.

Tumca, pirvel yovlisa, maswavlebelma unda gaigos, vin arian es moswavleebi

da rogor ikargeba dro.

swavlis dro

benjamin blumis (Benjamin Bloom) naSromma `ostaturi swavla~ Cveni codnis baza drois Sesaxeb

kidev erTi mniSvnelovani koncefciiT _ swavlis droiT _ gaamdidra. am koncefciis

mixedviT, moswavleebs SeuZliaT iswavlon nebismieri ram, Tu maT codnisa da unar-Cvevebis

Sesabamisi wina piroba da swavlisTvis adekvaturi dro aqvT. swavlisTvis adekvaturi dro

rodi niSnavs maTTvis masalis micemas da lodins, sanam aiTviseben; es niSnavs axali masalis

analizs, zust mimdinare Sefasebas da konkretuli Temebis ganmeorebiT swavlebas im moswavleebisTvis,

visac sWirdeba da ara mxolod maTTvis.

`ostaturi swavlis~ mixedviT, dro moswavleebTan erTad pasuxs maswavlebelsac sTxovs.

cudi swavlisTvis mxolod moswavleebs ver davadanaSaulebT. Cven unda SevamowmoT saku-

Tari mizandasaxuloba da davrwmundeT, rom moswavleebs axali masalis Sesatyvis `porciebs~

vTavazobT; magaliTad, ar unda avuxsnaT saxelmZRvanelos meore Tavi, Tu pirveli Tavi jer

ar amouwuravT.

`ostaturi swavla~ instruqciis individualizebis formaa, magram individualizeba aq

ufro mets niSnavs, vidre sakuTar temps, vidre programuli masalis gavlas. es niSnavs porciebad

dayofili instruqciis naTel da gasageb Tanamimdevrobas da am porciebis miwodebis

gzebis arCevans. pirvel yovlisa ki niSnavs moswavleTa codnis monitorings da ostatobis

kriteriumis miRwevamde ardanebebas.

dabolos, es niSnavs xelaxali swavlebis dagegmvasa 1 da imavdroulad Temis gavrcobisaken

mimarTul aqtivobebs im moswavleebisaTvis, romlebic pirvel jerze `Caswvdnen~. amgvari

`ormagi wre’’ menejmentisa da dagegmvis sirTuleebs asaxavs, romelic mZime Sromaa ramdenime

movlenis erTdoeulad marTvas miuCveveli maswavleblisaTvis. es swavlebis parametrTa

urTierTdamokidebulebis kargi magaliTicaa. swavlis drois mokle mimoxilvam migvabruna

tempis, sivrcis, miznebis, saswavlo gamocdilebisa da saklaso oTaxis klimatis parametrebTan.

instruqtirebis dro

mecnierTAa sakvlevi kidev erTi sferoa is, Tu ra raodenobis interaqtiur instruqtirebas

iReben moswavleebi, rac gulisxmobs maswavlebelTan erTad masalaze muSaobisas

aqtiurad gatarebul dros da ara damoukideblad muSaobas, weriT davalebebs

an Cumad kiTxvas. interaqtiur instruqtirebasTan dakavSirebiT kvlevam gviCvena, rom

1 xelaxali swavlebis sistemisa da misi (rogorc faseuli movlenisa da ara romelime moswavlis siClungis dada sturebis)

saWiroebis Sesaxeb detaluri msjeloba ix. me-13 TavSi.)

dro

73


Tavi 5

misi meti `raodenoba~ ukeTesi Sedegis wina pirobaa (Stallings & Kaskowitz 1974). saqme martivadaa:

aRmoCena, rom rodesac maswavleblebi (da ara moswa vlis sagakveTilo drois

didi nawilis momcveli samuSao rveulebi da sxva damoukidebeli davalebebi) aswavlian,

savaraudod, moswavleebi swavloben, arc ise gasakviria, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT maswavleblis

ukukavSiris, Sedegebis codnis, xelmZRvanelobis xarisxisa da zemoT ganxiluli

swavlis sxva principebis mniSvnelobas. am aRmoCenam zogierTi miiyvana iqamde, rom mxari dau-

Wira (Rosenshine 1981) mTeli klasis pirdapiri instruqtirebis modelis, rogorc swavlebis

yvelaze efeqtian formas, rac namdvilad gaugebaria. gamokvlevis mixedviT interaqtiuri

instruqtirebis wili mniSvnelovania, magram `pirdapiri instruqtirebis modeli misi miRwevis

mxolod erTi gzaa da mxolod unarebis swavlebisTvis gamodgeba. me-10 TavSi ganxiluli

swavlebis yvela modeli uzrunvelyofs interaqtiuri swavlebis dros. TanatolTa

swavlebas SeuZlia uzrunvelyos interaqtiuri swavlebis dro. mniSvnelovani interaqtiuri

instruqtirebis atributebi, Cveni azriT, moicavs gasageb axsnas, myisier ukukavSirs, Sedegebis

codnas da Sesatyvis xelmZRvanelobas.

amas garda, garkveuli saxis swavlisTvis pirdapiri instruqtirebis modeli erTaderTi

an saukeTeso gza ar gaxlavT, magaliTad, moswavleebisTvis adgilmdebareobis swavlebisas

(ix. me-10 TavSi `sakanonmdeblo modeli~), mec-

rodesac maswavleblebi aswavlian, savaraunieruli

meTodis swavlebisas (ix. me-10 TavSi

`aRmoCenis modeli~). amrigad, mkiTxvelebs

dod, moswavleebi swavloben.

vurCevT, rom perspeqtivaSi hqondeT pirdapiri

swavlebis Tanamedrove popularoba.

pirdapiri swavleba efeqtiania unar-Cvevebis swavlebisas da is interaqtiuri instruqtirebis

drois did nawils moicavs. Tumca unar-Cvevebis garda sxva zRva masalac arsebobs da uamravi

sxva modelic, romelic interaqtiur swavlebas uzrunvelyofs.

axla ki vkiTxoT sakuTar Tavs, swavlebis gamoyenebuli modelis miuxedavad sakmarisi

uSualo kontaqti gvaqvs Tu ara moswavleebTan. aq didi riskis qveSaa individualizebuli

programebi. maTi cudad organizebis SemTxvevaSi, moswavleebma, aqtiurobisa da CarTulobis

miuxedavad, SeiZleba dReSi mxolod ramdenime wuTiT moaxerxon maswavlebelTan urTierToba,

rac ar aris sakmarisi. aseT SemTxvevaSi maswavlebelma moswavleebs meti jgufuri

samuSao unda Seasrulebinos an ise marTos individualuri muSaoba, rom moswavleebi meti

ukukavSiriTa da xelmZRvanelobiT uzrunvelyos.

maswavlebelTan gatarebuli ramdeni droa sakmarisi? rozenSaini (1981) askvnis: `amJamad,

saklaso cxovrebis udavo faqtia, rom moswavleebs damoukideblad muSaobisTvis TavianTi

drois 60-dan 75%-mde sWirdebaT. SeiZleba Tu ara am procentuli maCveneblis Semcireba, an

swavlebis ise organizeba, rom moswavleebi damoukideblad muSaobisas ufro CarTuli iyvnen,

momavali kvlevis sakvanZo sakiTxebia~. amrigad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom Tu moswavle akademiuri

drois 25-40% pirdapir aris CarTuli maswavlebelTan, kargi maCvenebelia. eWvgareSea,

rom mravali klasis maCveneblebi Zalian Sors dgas am cifrebisagan.

Cven isic unda gvaxsovdes, rom interaqtiurma instruqtirebam SeiZleba moicvas an ar

moicvas kargi pirdapiri swavlebis atributebi. lainhardtma da sxvebma (1981) sanimuSo

klasebSi aRmoaCines, rom kiTxvaSi maswavleblis instruqciis 16 wuTidan 14 `zogad instruqciaze~

(prezentacia da miTiTebebis micema) modioda. danarCeni 2 wuTidan moswavleebi 1 wuTs

maswavleblis TandaswrebiT davalebis Sesrulebaze xarjavdnen, xolo 1 wuTs kiTxvis swori

elementebis modelirebis axsnaze. amrigad, pirdapiri swavlebis drosac ki, SesaZlebelia,

rom moswavleebma miiRon mcire pirdapiri ukukavSiri da axsna-ganmarteba.

ra udevs safuZvlad sxvadasxva klasSi CarTulobis drois, didi warmatebebis droisa da

interaqtiuri swavlebis drois gansxvavebebs? ras akeTeben saSualoze maRali donis maswavleblebi

iseTs, rasac ar akeTeben sxvebi?

74


unari menejmentis parametris (yuradReba, tempi, sivrce,) didi nawilia. kouninis (evertsonamde

da brofamde) kvlevebi moswavlis miRwevas maswavleblis am unarebs ukavSirebs.

isini cdiloben gazardon moswavlis CarTulobis dro, xolo menejmentsa da disciplinaze

naklebi dro daxarjon. amrigad, uSualod swavlisTvis daTmobili drois gazrdiT testebSi

ukeTes Sedegebs unda velodoT. Tumca, sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac, rom kargi menejerobis

miuxedavad, `auTvisebeli drois arseboba, rogorc Cans, gardauvalia. saSualod kiTxvisa da

maTematikisaTvis gamoyofili droidan moswavleebi saaTSi daaxloebiT 16 wuTi CarTulebi

ar arian; samma maRali donis maswavlebelma es raodenoba 12 wuTamde Seamcira. saSualo da

maRali donis maswavlebelTa klasebSi moswavleebi rvidan cxra wuTamde gakveTilebsa Soris

Sualedebsa da lodinSi xarjavdnen. ase rom, gansxvaveba akademiuri CarTulobis yvelaze

maRali maCveneblis (meti wuTis) mqone da da saSualo maswavleblebs Soris saaTSi daaxloebiT

oTxi auTvisebeli wuTi iyo. didwilad Aam gansxvavebis mizezi iyo is, rom maRali donis

maswavleblebi davalebis gareSe gatarebul dros saaTSi daaxloebiT oTx wuTamde amcirebdnen~

(Rosenshine 1981). magram maRali donis maswavleblebi TviT sagansac met dros uTmobdnen.

amrigad, menejmentis unarebis garda akademiurad CarTuli drois sxvadasxvaobis

mizezebis sias SegviZlia erTi mizezic davumatoT: drois ganawilebis prioritetebi mkafiod

unda iyos gamokveTili da maT frTxilad movekidoT.

didi warmatebis droSi gansxvavebebis mizezebs SeiZleba mivakvlioT davalebaTa SesatyvisobaSi,

maswavleblis diagnostikur gamWriaxobaSi, damoukidebeli davalebis micemamde

instruqciisa da miTiTebebis adekvaturobaSi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, amis mizezia maswavleblis

Semdegi unarebi: axsnis sicxade,

saswavlo gamocdilebis struqturireba da is, rac gakveTilis pirvel da bolo wuTebSi

miznebis morgeba individebisa da jgufebi-

xdeba, moswavles yvelaze ukeT amaxsovrdeba.

saTvis. Tumca am mizezebis dadgena didad ver

dagvexmareba, Tu dros parametrad ganvixilavT

da gvainteresebs, konkretulad ra unarebia saWiro misi warmatebiT marTvisTvis. aqamde

vambobdiT, rom drois kargi menejmenti sxva parametrebis kargad marTvas ukavSirdeba.

metwilad es asecaa. Tu moswavleebi davalebas asruleben, produqtiulebi da warmatebulebi

arian, es drois kargad marTvaze metia; es warmatebuli swavlebaa. farTo masStabiT moswavlis

drois kargad gamoyeneba kargad swavlebis kriteriumia, igi Sedegia yvelafrisa, rasac

kargi ganaTleba gulisxmobs. Tumca, arsebobs ramdenime unari, romelic, udavod, TviT

drois efeqtiani menejmentis nawilia. modiT, drois parametris is aspeqtebi ganvixiloT,

romlebic mas maswavleblis unarTa sferoSi TavisTavads xdis.

pirveli da bolo wuTebi

Tanamimdevrobad wodebul swavlis principSi aRvniSneT, rom gakveTilis pirveli da bolo

wuTebi moswavles yvelaze ukeT amaxsovrdeba. amitom maswavlebelma gansakuTrebuli yuradReba

drois swored am or monakveTs unda miaqcios. aq nagulisxmebia drois mokle monakveTebi,

daaxloebiT, 5 wuTi. rogor unda gamoiyenos maswavlebelma es wuTebi?

pirvel yovlisa, es wuTebi ubralod ar unda gaflangos. Tuki SesaZlebelia, ar unda moaxmaroT

organizebasa da menejments _ namuSevrebis Tavmoyras, avejis dalagebas, bavSvebis

adgilebze dasmas, dagvianebulTa lodins. ar daamTavroT gakveTili duned damoukideblad

momuSave moswavleebiT, romlebic saSinao davalebis Sesrulebas iwyeben, alageben an saubroben.

dawyebuli samuSao gakveTilis bolo 5 wuTamde 5 wuTiT adre daamTavreT da es dro

moswavleebTan urTierTobisTvis gamoiyeneT: mouxmeT maT da sTxoveT, yuradReba gaamaxvilon

Catarebuli gakveTilis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze. daavaleT, mimoixilon, Seajamon, an

raime mniSvnelovan saqmianobaSi CaerTon am bolo wuTebis ganmavlobaSi.

dro

75


Tavi 5

tempis kargi unaris mqone maswavlebels yvelaze ukeT SeuZlia pirveli wuTebis upiratesobiT

sargebloba. is maswavlebeli, romelic moswavleebTan erTad regularulad ajamebs

gakveTils, ufro bolo wuTebis upiratesobas gamoiyenebs. Tumca Sejameba bolo wuTebis

kargad gamoyenebis erTaderTi gza ar aris. swori gamoyenebis sxva magaliTebia: davalebis

yuradRebiT micema, moswavleTa dayeneba saintereso dilemis winaSe (`dasasruli daboloebis

gareSe~), moswavleTa individualuri CarTva sakamaTo sakiTxebSi da sxv. mTavaria, rom

pirveli da bolo wuTebi ki ar gavflangoT aramed gamoviyenoT, saintereso da mizanmimar-

Tuli gavxadoT.

76

tempi da ritmi

`morgeba~ mniSvnelovani sakiTxia yovel parametrTan mimarTebaSi. Cven wamovayeneT mosazreba,

romlis mixedviT parametri Seicavs repertuars da maswavleblis ostatoba gamoisaxeba

imiT, rom SeuZlia sxvadasxva variantebi moargos individebs, jgufsa da kurikulus. es

tempsa da dagegmvasac exeba. erTi da igive tempi yvela klasSi ver gamogvadgeba. karolin

evertsonma (Carolyn Evertson 1982) aRmoaCina, rom maswavleblis mier SerCeuli aqtivobebis

tempi, mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeboda da Zlieri da susti jgufebis Sesatyvisi iyo. dabali

moswrebis moswavleebs monawileobaSi CarTvisa da misi mitovebis aSkara tendencia aqvT, gansakuTrebiT

maSin, rodesac samuSaos Sesrulebisas, sxedan. zogi maTgani saerTod uars ambobs

monawileobaze. evertsoni aRwers da komentars akeTebs maRali donis maswavleblis or

klasze, raTa aCvenos sxvadasxva tempis moqmedeba sust moswavleebze.* viwyebT `b~ maswavlebliT:

(maswavlebelma es-esaa dafaze dawera davaleba, romelic magidebTan msxdomma

moswavleebma unda Searsulon). `me wigni ar maqvs!~ ambobs meri. `Sexede im

Taroebs~, upasuxebs maswavlebeli da uCvenebs. `isini Cveni araa~, uarobs meri.

`zogierTi Cvenia~, amSvidebs maswavlebeli. meri wigns iRebs. Ciko xels iwevs da

ambobs: `me daxmareba mWirdeba~. daaxloebiT xuTi moswavle maSinve iwyebs davalebis

Sesrulebas. (gakveTils 12 moswavle eswreba). danarCenebi saubroben,

iweven xels an midian maswavleblis magidasTan. maswavlebeli rendis uxmobs:

`modi, rendi~. mas leric mihyveba. `leri, daanebe Tavi~, sTxovs maswavlebeli.

leri maswavleblis magidasTan dgeba. Ciko isev iwevs xels. `Ciko, ra gWirdeba?~

ekiTxeba maswavlebeli. `daxmareba~, upasuxebs Ciko. `kargi, erT wuTs moicade~,

sTxovs maswavlebeli.Lleri maswavleblis magidasTan jdeba da saubrisas uyurebs.

Ciko yviris: `masw., damexmarebiT?~ `diax, Ciko, magram aq modi~, sTxovs

maswavlebeli. `auh, metismetad Sors xarT~. maswavlebeli yuradRebas ar aqcevs

da isic maswavleblis magidasTan midis. (am droisTvis maswavleblis magidasTan

xuTi moswavlea.)

situaciis aRwera sakmaod arsebiTad gviCvenebs im sirTules, romelic SeiZleba susti

klasis moswavleebs hqondeT aqtivobis dawyebasa da masSi warmatebiT monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT.

erT momentSi maswavleblis magidasTan xuTi moswavle iyo da maTi umravlesoba

daxmarebas elodeboda. (am merxebTan Sesasrulebeli aqtivobis ganmavlobaSi maswavlebeli,

saboloo angariSSi, Tavis magidasTan cxra moswavles daexmara). amdeni moswavlis erTmaneT-

Tan aseTi siaxlove xSirad problemebisa da usaqcielobis mizezi xdeboda, razec maswavlebeli

iZulebuli iyo, epasuxa.

* ibeWdeba nebarTviT. Evertson, C. `Differences in Instractional Activities in Higher- and Lower Achieving Junior High English

and Math Classes.` Elementary School Journal 82/4 (1982): 329-350. © 1982 University of Chicago Press. yvela ufleba daculia.


es dialogi davalebaze cud orientaciasac asaxavs, rac, rogorc wesi, susti klasisTvis

aris damaxasiaTebeli. Cikos saqcieli tipobrivia bevri neli moswavlisTvis. is seriozulad

ar ekideboda akademiur aqtivobas, ar hqonda saswavlo amocanaze muSaobis dawyebis survili

da monawileobis interesi. davalebaze erTi moswavlis cudi orientacia SeiZleba sxvebis

usaqcielobis mizezi gaxdes, raSic Tavad davrwmundebiT:

maSin, roca maswavlebeli merisTan muSaobas cdilobs, meri Cikosgan iRebs magaliTs

da maswavlebels aRizianebs. is xels stacebs furclebis asakinZs. `oh, oh,

modi aq, meri”, xmamaRla ambobs maswavlebeli. mogvianebiT meri Tavis furcels

maswavlebels gamostacebs, WmuWnis da eubneba: `Tqven Cems furcelze dawereT.

Tqven ar unda daweroT Cems furcelze~ da jdeba. am dros bili lerisTan TamaSsa

da saubars agrZelebs. `bili, modi aq!~ mkacrad ambobs maswavlebeli. `swored

amas ambobs maswi da es misTvisacaa~, xmamaRla ambobs leri. Semdeg bili Tavis

merxs ayiravebs, leri ki mReris: `waiyvane, waiyvane, waiyvane Seni merxi naviviT~.

rodesac maswavlebeli amden moswavles cal-calke aqcevs yuradRebas, is ver SeZlebs klasis

efeqtian monitorings, xolo moswavleebs kidev ufro uWirT maswavleblis yuradRebis

mipyroba.

`qalbatono, me usasrulod ver davicdi~, yviris xelaweuli Ciko. `erTi wuTiT~,

pasuxobs maswavlebeli. `qalbatono!~ yviris marki xmamaRla. maswavlebeli yuradRebas

ar aqcevs mas da meris daxmarebas agrZelebs. Semdeg is midis pemTan,

romelsac didi xania xeli aweuli aqvs. `me daxmareba mWirdeba~, yviris am dros

erTi gogona wina merxidan. mas xeli aweuli aqvs, magram mainc yviris. maswavlebeli

Sexedavs mas da eubneba: `kargi, erT wuTSi mand viqnebi~.

unda aRiniSnos, rom moswavleebidan ori ubralod ki ar yviris, maT xelebic aweuli aqvT.

maT ician, rom ubralod xelis aweva iseTi efeqturi signali ar aris, rogorc yvirili. maswavlebeli

am garemoebaSi Tanamimdevrulad ar iTxovda (arsebiTad, saerTod ar iTxovda),

rom daecvaT wesi da ar eyviraT.

`romeli saaTia?~ yviris Ciko. bili pasuxobs. maswavlebeli arc erTs ar aqcevs

yuradRebas. bili da Ciko iseT epiTetebs cvlian, rogoricaa `yeyeCi~. maswavlebeli,

romelic wina merxTan mjdom gogonas exmareba, yuradRebas ar aqcevs

maT. Semdeg biWebs Sexedavs da ekiTxeba: `Ciko, kidev gWirdeba raimes gakeTeba?~

`ara~, upasuxebs Ciko. `maSin, wynarad iyavi~, ambobs maswavlebeli.

ZiriTadi konfliqti sust klasebSi maswavleblis or moTxovnas Soris arsebobda: moswavleebis

daxmarebasa da Seusabamo, Semawuxebeli qcevis kontrols Soris. am magaliTSi

maswavlebels ar undoda Seewyvita informaciis miwodeba win mjdomi gogonebisTvis, Tumca,

sabolood, mainc iZulebuli gaxda ase moqceuliyo, roca davalebaSi CaurTvel moswavleTa

usaqcielobis safrTxe Seiqmna.

`v~ maswavleblis susti klasis SedarebiT maRali miRweva ki, ufro zedmiwevniTi ganxilvisken

gvibiZgebs. man mniSvnelovnad meti dro dauTmo samuSaos Sesworebasa da ganxilvas

(13.7 wuTi) da masalis prezentacias _ leqcias an damoukidebeli samuSaos gacnobas (14.4

wuTi). mniSvnelovnad ufro naklebi dro bolo damoukidebel aqtivobas (22.5 wuTi), vidre es

zogadad damaxasiaTebeli iyo susti klasebisTvis. garda amisa, gansxvavebulad iyo struqturirebuli

leqcia an damoukidebeli samuSaos Sesavali faza, intervalebSi ki xSirad gamoyenebuli

iyo ori an meti Zalian xanmokle, Zalian fokusirebuli damoukidebeli aqtivoba.

am klasSi leqcia an saboloo jdomiTi aqtivobis gacnoba Cveulebisamebr Semdegi modeliT

mimdinareobda:

dro

77


Tavi 5

78

`v~ maswavlebeli midis dafasTan, sadac weria 25 cifri da iwyebs pirvelis damrgvalebas.

es samuSao moswavleebs furcelze unda gaakeTebinos. `minda, pirveli

xuTi Tqven gaakeToT~, ambobs is. cifrebi mocemulia xuT svetad. `roca

daasrulebT, pastebi daawyveT~, agrZelebs is. moswavleebi cifrebs weren, maswavlebeli

ki klasSi dadis. daaxloebiT 6 wuTis Semdeg klass aCerebs da devids

pasuxebs ekiTxeba. devidi warbebs Wmuxnis da ambobs, rom ar gaukeTebia. `vis

SeuZlia daxmareba?~ _ kiTxulobs maswavlebeli. `me~, ambobs roberti. maswavlebeli

Semdeg svetebze gadadis, xolo bolos `a~ svetze, romelic uaxloes

aseulamde unda damrgvaldes. bolo svetze muSaobisas kermiti yviris: `saSinao

davalebac gveqneba?~ `erT wuTSi mogcemT davalebas~, eubneba maswavlebeli.

`Tu am yvelafers gavakeTebT, davalebis mosacemad dro aRar dagvrCeba~, ambobs

kermiti. `yvelafris gakeTebas ar vapirebT~, upasuxebs maswavlebeli. Semdeg dafasTan

midis, moswavleebs mimarTavs da meore svetis mimoxilvas iwyebs. is jeks

pirvelis damrgvalebaSi daxmarebas sTxovs, romelmac TQva, rom Sedegi ver miiRo.

`me, ubralod, daxmareba gTxove~, eubneba maswavlebeli. jeki davalebis

Sesrulebas cdilobs. maswavlebeli exmareba. (gakveTilis bolomde darCenilia

daaxloebiT 10 wuTi, maswavlebeli damoukidebel davalebas aZlevs.)

Semdegi epizodi leqciis an diskusiis kidev erTi magaliTia, romelSic CarTulia mokle

damoukidebeli samuSaoebi.

[maswavlebeli] ambobs, rom aTwiladebis Sekrebaze isaubreben. arsebiTad, mTeli

ricxvebis Sekrebisagan didad ar gansxvavdeba. maswavlebeli pirvel amocanas

jons axsnevinebs. `miTxari, ra davwero~, eubneba mas. joni umatebs sams

da ors da ambobs, rom xuTia. Semdeg umatebs eqvss da cxras da ambobs, rom TxuTmetia;

wers xuTs da imaxsovrebs erTs. `sad vwerT am erTians? aq?~ ekiTxeba

maswavlebeli. `ara, erTiani dawereT rvis maRla~, karnaxobs joni. Semdeg rvas

umatebs da iRebs cxras. maswavlebels eubneba, rom aTwiladi cxrasa da xuTs Soris

daweros. `Zalian kargi!~ ambobs maswavlebeli dasrulebisas. Semdeg iwyebs

aTwiladebis gasameorebeli kiTxvebis dasmas. is svams kiTxvebs da axsenebs moswavleebs:

`aswieT xeli da miTxariT, romel adgilzea aTwiladi~. meore magaliTis

gasakeTeblad dafasTan greisis iZaxebs, romelic uars ambobs da amitom

maswavlebeli eduards mimarTavs. eduardi amocanas xsnis da kiTxulobs, `miTxariT,

ra aris mcdari~. `ho, modi vnaxoT, rogor SeiZleba mivxvdeT?~ eubneba

maswavlebeli. moswavleebi yvirian, rom SemowmebisTvis gayofa SeuZliaT. 9:28

saaTze maswavlebeli dafaze mesame magaliTs wers. klass avalebs, rom davaleba

TavianT furclebze Seasrulon, unda gaagrZelon da mesame nomeric gaakeTon

da darwmundnen, sworad gaakeTeben Tu ara. maswavlebeli klasSi siaruls iwyebs

da amowmebs, sworad xsnian Tu ara moswavleebi amocanas. oTaxSi Cumi saubaria,

maswavlebeli isev dadis. 9:41 saaTze maswavlebeli ambobs: `modiT, vnaxoT~. (is

dafaze xsnis amocanas, Semdeg kidev erT amocanas aZlevs damoukidebeli samuSaosTvis,

isev dadis da amowmebs).

`v~ maswavlebeli sust klasebSi damoukidebeli samuSaos Sesrulebas Tavs arTmevs leqciaSi

xanmokle segmentebad damoukidebel samuSaoTa (an am samuSaos gacnobis) CarTviT,

gakveTilis mimdinareobis SenarCunebisTvis pasuxismgeblobas ki drois mokle periodeb-

Si moswavleebTan erTad inawilebs. gakveTilis am formatis upiratesobebi Zalze aSkaraa:

pirvel yovlisa, xangrZliv aqtivobasTan SedarebiT xanmokle damoukidebeli samuSaos Sesrulebisas,

moswavleebi metad iqnebian orientirebuli davalebaze. leqciaSi CarTuli damoukidebeli

samuSaoebi saleqcio gakveTilis mTlianobis SenarCunebis saSualebas iZleva,

rac Tavis mxriv, damoukidebel samuSaos Seuwyobs xels. meore: leqciaSi CarTuli es xan-


mokle damoukidebeli aqtivobebi maswavlebels saSualebas aZlevs ufro swrafad uzrunvelyos

informaciis miReba, vidre xangrZlivi damoukidebeli aqtivobebis dros. mas SeuZlia

moaxdinos leqciis ganmavlobaSi axsna-ganmartebebis saWiroebisamebr modificireba ise,

rom ar Sewyvitos xangrZlivi damoukidebeli aqtivoba, rogorc es xSirad xdeba xolme sust

klasebSi.

amrigad, `v~ maswavleblis susti klasi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba `b~ maswavleblis susti

klasisagan. `b~ maswavlebels bevrad ufro xangrZlivi damoukidebeli samuSaoebi da ufro

xanmokle Semowmebisa da saleqcio aqtivobebi hqonda, ramac SesaZloa gaurTula saqmianoba,

radgan damoukidebeli samuSaos Sesruleba xSirad problema xdeba sust klasSi. `v~ maswavlebelma

minimumamde Seamcira es problema Tavis sust klasSi imiT, rom Seamcira damoukidebeli

samuSaos xangrZlivoba, ramac xeli Seuwyo misi moswavleebis ufro maRal orientacias

davalebaze. Sedareba gviCvenebs, rom grZeli, xangrZlivi damoukidebeli samuSaoebi araefeqtiania,

arTulebs menejmentis problemebs da minimumamde amcirebs sust klasebSi davalebaze

orientacias.

bevr maswavlebels rogorc Zlieri, ise susti klasebi hyavs. SeuZliaT Tu ara maT zemoT

xsenebuli `v~ maswavlebeliviT Secvalon situacia da gansxvavebuli tempiT uxelmZRvanelon

sxvadasxva klass? swored amas vgulisxmobT am nawilis saTaurad gamotanil `tempsa da ritmSi~.

SegviZlia vnaxoT, rogor axerxebs maswavlebeli drois struqturirebas calkeuli individebisTvis,

rogorc es `v~ maswavlebelma gaakeTa mTeli klasisTvis. aseTi cvalebadobis

mizezebi udavod scildeba globalur sityvas `SesaZlebloba~. evertsonis kvlevaSi `Sesa-

Zlebloba~ gamosaSveb gamocdebze warmatebas niSnavda. gansxvaveba Zlier da sust klasebs

Soris gvqonda. sisustisa da siZlieris mravali mizezi arsebobs garda memkvidreobiT Sesa-

Zleblobisa, rac niWierebas gulisxmobs. Zalian unarianma, magram impulsurma an gonebagafantulma

moswavleebma SeiZleba ukeT iswavlon, roca maTi tempi kargad fokusirebuli xanmokle

aqtivobebiT regulirdeba. gamocdili maswavlebeli amgvari garemos Seqmnas cdilobs

maTTvis, visac es sWirdeba, klasis danarCeni nawili ki am dros gansxvavebuli tempiT muSaobs.

Cven unda SegveZlos ganvsazRvroT, rogor marTavs maswavlebeli temps da qvemoT

CamoTvlilidan romel models Seesabameba:

y tempis aranairi modeli

y stabiluri rutina

y saswavli momentebis variantebi

y kurikulumis prioritetebis cvlilebis moqniloba

y individebsa da jgufebze morgeba

dro

79


d r o - S e j a m e b a

1. Seesabameba Tu ara yovel saganze gamoyofili dro

maswavleblisa da skolis prioritetebs? diax ara

2. aris Tu ara moswavlis CarTulobis dro akademiuri

swavlisaTvis gamoyofili drois 75%-ze meti? diax ara

3. maswavleblis urTierToba moswavleebTan gamoyofili

akademiuri drois 75%-ia Tu meti (im sagakveTilo

droisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic saorganizacio da

menejmentis sakiTxebs xmardeba _ furclebis

gasworeba, masalebis momzadeba)? diax ara

4. aqvT Tu ara moswavleebs sakmarisi dro, saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi, xelaxali swavlebis sistemisTvis? diax ara

5. Seesatyviseba Tu ara maRali warmatebis dro moswavleebis

damoukidebel muSaobas? diax ara

6. aqvs Tu ara yovel moswavles maswavlebelTan interaqtiuri

instruqtirebis sakmarisi dro? diax ara

7. nayofierad gamoiyeneba Tu ara pirveli da bolo

wuTebi? diax ara

8. dagegmva da tempi gviCvenebs:

• tempis aranair models diax ara

• stabilur rutinas diax ara

• saswavlo momentebis variantebs diax ara

• kurikulumis prioritetebis cvlilebis moqnilobas diax ara

• individebsa da jgufebze morgebas diax ara

d r o - S e j a m e b a

81


82

s k o l a S i d r o i s g a n m s a z R v r e -

l i k o n c e f c i e b i s m i m o x i l v a

mokled gansazRvreT Semdegi koncefciebi:

1 swavlisTvis gamoyofili dro

2. moswavlis CarTulobis dro

3. akademiuri swavlis dro

4. interaqtiuli instruqtireba


d r o - s a v a r j i S o

SeamowmeT, rogor gaigeT skolaSi drois menejmentTan dakavSirebiT Catarebuli kvleva.

dawereT `W~ - WeSmariti, xolo `m~ mcdari debulebebis win.

1. moswavleTa umralesobas SeuZlia iswavlos nebismieri ram, Tu maT aqvT

codnis wina piroba, unari da sakmarisi dro.

2. im drois raodenoba, romelsac moswavleebi xarjaven mniSvnelovan da

sworad SerCeul davalebebze, mniSvnelovnadaa dakavSirebuli miRwevasTan.

3. akademiuri swavlisTvis gamoyofili drois daaxloebiT 25 procenti,

rogorc Cans, saorganizacio da menejmentis sakiTxebs xmardeba.

4. roca maswavleblebi uSualod muSaoben moswavleebTan (masalebis momzadebis,

nawerebis gasworebis an menejmentis sakiTxebis garda), izrdeba

moswavleTa miRwevebi.

5. maswavleblebs, romlebic swavloben gamoyenebul dros, SeuZliaT mniSvnelovani

cvlilebis moxdena da moswavleTa swavlis gaumjobeseba.

6. roca maswavlebeli gamocdilia menejmentis parametrebSi (yuradReba,

tempi, sivrce, dro, rutina), moswavleTa miRwevebi izrdeba, radgan naklebi

dro ikargeba menejmentsa da disciplinaze.

7. rogorc wesi, gakveTilis pirveli da bolo wuTebi yvelaze ukeT

amaxsovrdebaT moswavleebs.

8. gakveTilis iseTi tempis SerCeva, rom sust moswavleebs fokusirebul

aqtivobaTa mokle periodebi hqondeT, SeiZleba am moswavleebisTvis Sesatyvisi

ritmi iyos, gansakuTrebiT heterogeniul klasebSi.

9. `maRali warmatebis dros~ moswavleTa miRwevebi matulobs.

d r o - s a v a r j i S o

83


84

d r o s T a n d a k a v S i r e b u l i p r o b l e m e b i

droze gavlenas axdens swavlebasTan dakavSirebuli codnis bazis mravali sfero _

tempi, rutina, molodini, disciplina, sicxade, yuradReba, sivrce da a. S. maswavlebels

met produqtiuli dro misces an arsebulis nawili waarTvas. qvemoT moyvanili

aqtivobis mizania, aCvenos kavSiri swavlebis sxva parametrebsa da problemebs Soris,

romlebic Tavs iCens sawyis etapze drois dakargvis an arasakmarisi drois saxiT.

dawereT, ra SeiZleba gaakeTos maswavlebelma qvemoT mocemul situaciebSi, raTa

ufro efeqtianad gamoiyenos dro.

1. gakveTilis dasawyisSi maswavlebeli xuT wuTs xarjavs imisaTvis, rom Seamowmos

daswreba, esaubros, im moswavleebs, romlebic ar eswrebodnen wina dRes da dafaze

daweros miznebi da gegma.

2. periodis bolos maswavlebeli 5 wuTs andomebs saSinao davalebis micemas, namuSevrebis

Segrovebas da imas, rom moswavleebma gaasworon TavianTi skamebi.

3. yoveldRiurad maTematikis gakveTilze maswavlebeli xarjavs 15-20 wuTs imaze,

rom sxvadasxva moswavles dafaze awerinebs TiTo amocanas da klasis danarCen

nawils uxsnis maT amoxsnas.

4. yoveldRiurad klasSi instruqciis drois nawili ixarjeba moswavleebze,

romelTac ara aqvT saweri kalami, daaviwydaT wigni an ar Seasrules saSinao davaleba.

5. maswavlebeli testisaTvis mimoxilvas mTeli klsisaTvis atarebs moswavleebis

gamoZaxebiT individualurad kiTxvebze pasuxis gasacemad. am aqtivobas testamde

sWirdeba mTeli dRe.

6. bunebismetyvelebis 50-wuTian gakveTilze maswavlebeli aCvenebs 30-wuTian videofilms

vulkanebze. moswavleebi upasuxeben kiTxvebs mTlian jgufur ganxilvaSi

15 wuTis ganmavlobaSi videofilmis Semdeg, bolo 5 wuTs ki xarjaven dafidan

saSinao davalebis gadmoweraze.

7. baRis maswavlebeli gakveTilis drois 10 wuTs xarjavs imaSi, rom Tavis moswavleebs

exmareba qurTukebis SekvraSi, qudebis daxurvaSi da SesvenebisTvis fexsacmelebis

CacmaSi.

8. meSvide klasis cocxal mecnierebaTa salaboratorio samuSaosaTvis mosamzadeblad

moswavleebi midian oTaxis wina nawilSi, raTa eqsperimentisaTvis saWiro


gamxsneli, saWreli iaraRebi, nimuSebi da rveulebi aiRon. 8 wuTis Semdeg yvela

moswavles isev dasWirda masalebi.

9. inglisuris gakveTilze maswavlebeli yovel moswavles 5 wuTis ganmavlobaSi esaubreba,

klasis danarCeni nawili ki damoukidebel samuSaos asrulebs. am process

ori gakveTili sWirdeba.

10. gansakuTrebuli ganaTlebis moswavleebisTvis gankuTvnil saswavlo centrSi

maswa vlebels 5 moswavle hyavs. yvela maTgans aqvs ganaTlebis gansxvavebuli individualuri

gegma. moswavleebTan individualurad muSaobisas, mas xSirad awyvetinebs

danarCeni oTxi, romlebic damoukidebeli samuSaos Sesrulebas da

problemebis gadalaxvas cdiloben.

11. fizkulturis gakveTilze maswavlebeli xSirad kargavs 35-wuTiani periodis 5

wuTs klasis dagvianebis gamo.

12. moswavleebis mcire jgufTan muSaobisas, mexuTe klasis maswavlebels xSirad

uSlian xels is moswavleebi, romlebic damoukidebel samuSaos sxvebze adre am-

Tavreben.

13. maswavlebeli diliT mexuTeklaselTa ramdenime literaturul jgufs xvdeba. mas

problemebi aqvs klasidan klasSi gadasvlasTan dakavSirebiT da xSirad kargavs

dros.

14. maswavlebeli xSirad iwyebs gakveTils imiT, rom or-or moswavles adarebinebs sa-

Sinao davalebis pasuxebs. is moswavleebi, romlebic ar eswrebodnen, an ar aqvT

motanili saSinao davaleba, usaqmod arian. Tu momuSave wyvilSi maT mesame wevrad

Casvams, savaraudod, zogierTi maTgani xels SeuSlis.

15. susti moswavleebis am jgufs maswavlebeli dRis bolos xvdeba. isini daRlilebi

Canan da maswavleblis mier dagegmil miTiTebebsa da saleqcio formatze ar reagireben.

16. gundis gakveTilis pirveli wuTebi, roca moswavleebi alageben da awyoben TavianT

instrumentebs, ikargeba. maswavleblis SeniSvnis pasuxad moswavleebi esaubrebian

erTmaneTs an erTobian instrumentebiT.

17. meeqvse klasSi xelovnebis maswavlebels xSirad awyvetineben is moswavleebi, rom-

85


86

lebsac sxva klasebisTvis masalebis wasaRebad gzavnian. garda amisa, mas yoveldRiurad,

xSirad sxvadasxva klasSi, xuTi gakveTili aqvs. yoveli gakveTilis win

is dros kargavs, roca masalebsa da gakveTilis gegmaze cdilobs. rogor SeiZleba

moswavleTa CarTulobis drois maqsimumamde gazrda?

18. am skolis maswavleblebi samidan ori dRis ganmavlobaSi yoveldRiuri 50-wuTiani

gakveTilebidan 80-wuTian gakveTilebze gadadian. maT aRelvebT, ras gaakeTeben

moswavleTa dasakaveblad 80 wuTis ganmavlobaSi da ras moimoqmedeben, Tu moswavle

2-3 dRe gaacdens.

19. saSualo skola moswavleTa sustebad, saSualoebad da Zlierebad dajgufebidan

yvela saganSi heterogeniulr dajgufebaze gadadis. maswavleblebs afiqrebT is,

Tu, ramdenad SeZleben yvela moswavlis moTxovnaTa dakmayofilebas.

20. aTletur gundebSi moTamaSe moswavleebi TamaSze misasvlelad xSirad acdenen

bolo gakveTils. maswavleblebi wuxan imis gamo, rom es moswavleebi SeiZleba

CamorCnen danarCen moswavleebs.


literatura:

Anderson, L. W. “Student Involvement in Learning and School Achievement.” California Journal of Educational

Research 26 (March 1975): 53-62.

Bloom, B. S. “Time and Learning.” American Psychologist 29 (September 1974): 682-688.

Caldwell, J. H., W. G. Huitt, and A. O. Graeber, “Time Spent in Learning.” The Elementary School Journal 82/5

(1982): 371-480.

Dishaw, M. “Descriptions of Allocated Time to Content Areas for the A-B Period.” Beginning Teacher Evalua-

tion Study Technical Note Series, Technical Note IV-2a. San Francisco: Far West Laboratory for Educational

Research and Development, 1977.

Engel, B. S. Informal Evaluation. Grand Forks, N.D.: University of North Dakota Press, 1977.

Evertson, C. “Differences in Instructional Activities in High and Low Achieving Junior High School Classes.”

Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, Mass.,

April 1980.

Evertson, C. “Differences in Instructional Activities in Higher- and Lower-Achieving Junior High English and

Math Classes.” Elementary School Journal 82/4 (1982): 329-350.

Fisher, C. W. et al. Teaching Behaviors, Academic Learning Time and Student Achievement: Final Report on

Phase IH-B, Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. San Francisco: Far West Regional Laboratory, 1978.

Hillerich, R. L. “That’s Teaching Spelling???” Educational Leadership (May 1982): 615-517.

Karweit, N., and R. E. Slavin, “Measurement and Modelings Choices in Studies of Time and Learning.” Educational

Research Journal 18/2 (Summer 1981): 157-172.

Leinhardt, G., N. Zigmond, and W. M. Corley. “Reading Instruction and Its Effects.” American Educational

Research Journal 18/3 (Fall 1981): 343-361.

Powell, M., and M. Dishaw, “A Realistic Picture of Reading Instructional Time.” Reading Research Quarterly

(1981).

Rim, E., and A. Coller. Ln Search of Nonlinear Process-Product Functions in Existing Schooling Effects Data: A

Reanalysis of the First-Grade Reading and Mathematics Data from the Stallings and Kaskowitz Follow

Through Study. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc., 1982.

Rosenshine, B. V. “How Time is Spent in Elementary Classrooms.” Journal of Classroom Interaction 17/1 (Winter

1981): 16-25.

Stallings, J. A. “Allocated Academic Learning Time Revisited, or Beyond Time on Task.” Educational Researcher

9/11 (December 1980).

Stallings, J. A., and D. H. Kaskowitz. “FollowThrough Classroom Observation j Evaluation, 1972-1973.” Menlo

Park, Calif.n: Stanford Research Institute, 1974.

dro

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6

rutina

romeli proceduruli rutinaa

mniSvnelovani, rogor miviRoT misgan

maqsimaluri sargebeli?

gasagebi komunikacia da standartebi

rogor SevusabamoT rutina miznebs


utina

ra iqneboda yoveldRiuri cxovreba iseTi rutinis gareSe, rogoricaa adgoma da

dRisaTvis momzadeba; saxlsa da samsaxurSi mniSvnelovani nivTebis povna da daxarisxeb;

garkveuli ganmeorebiTi saqmeebis keTeba? sityvaSi `rutina~ vgulisxmobT

nebismier ganmeorebiT movlenas an situacias, romlisTvisac, SesaZloa, arsebobdes Cveuli

procedura.

cxadia, rom rutina mniSvnelovania Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi. yvelas gvaqvs asobiT

rutinuli saqme, romelsac meqanikurad, gaucnobiereblad vasrulebT; es saqmeebi erTmaneTzea

`akinZuli~, avtomaturad sruldeba da ufro gaazrebuli da saintereso proeqtebisaTvis

gviTavisuflebs dros. igive iTqmis rutinis rolze klasis cxovrebis organizebaSi.

kargi rutina mniSvnelovania warmatebuli saklaso cxovrebisaTvis. roca rutina cudad aris

dagegmili, mas dezorganizacia, arasaxarbielo tempi da xSirad disciplinis problemebi mohyveba.

saklaso oTaxis rutina efeqtiani da gasagebi unda iyos. moswavleebma unda icodnen rutinis

arsi da misi Sesruleba. winamdebare TavSi am or cnebasa da im mosazrebas SevexebiT,

rom rutinas SeuZlia swavlebis xelSewyoba. rutina Tavad SeiZleba gaxdes saswavlo gegma

misi konkretuli miznebisa da masSi moqceuli codnis wyalobiT.

rutinis parametri klasis rutinis mraval saxeobas moicavs. zogierTi meurneobas ukavSirdeba

(mag., daswreba, lanCisa da rZis xarjebis daTvla, maragis SeZena da/an movla, fexsacmelebisa

da pijakebis movla, dasufTaveba, wasaxemseblis ganawileba). zogi rutina klasis

biznesis marTvas ukavSirdeba (mag., gancxadebis

gakeTeba, xmauris donis kontroli, oTaxidan

gasvla, rigis dacva da rigSi mdgomTa raodenobis

zRvrebi, gakveTilis pirvel 10 wuTSi Sesas-

rulebeli saqmianoba, skamebis, makratlebis, saweri kalmebisa da sxva sagnebis mowesrigeba).

zogi rutina ki SromiTs wes-Cveulebebsa da SromiTs procedurebs ukavSirdeba (mag., jdomis

wesi, sityvebis marTlweris swavla, laboratoriis danadgarebis, dafis gamoyenebis procedurebi,

wignze moxsenebisTvis formis SerCeva, maswavleblis mier cxrilisa da movlenaTa

kalendris Semowmeba, roca moswavleebi amzadeben zepir moxsenebas an semestrul naSroms).

yvela am rutinis ostaturad Sesruleba klasis organizebisa da marTvis mniSvnelovani sa-

Sualebaa.

gasagebi komunikacia da standartebi

rutinas SeuZlia swavlebis xelSewyoba masSi

moqceuli codnis wyalobiT.

rutina rom maqsimalurad sargebliani iyos saWiroa maswavlebelma gasagebad asxnas misi

arsi. rutinis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT dasmuli SekiTxvebi, pirvel rigSi, molodins exeba:

kargad ician Tu ara moswavleebma, ras moelian maTgan procedurebisa da rutinis TvalsazrisiT?

ician Tu ara, ra unda gaakeTon? rutinis gasagebad axsna moicavs Semdeg

91


Tavi 6

aspeqtebs:

92

¤ pirdapiri: moswavleTa yuradRebis mipyroba uSualod ru ti naze.

¤ specifikuri: axsnilia yvela mniSvnelovani detali.

¤ ganmeorebiTi: imaSi dasarwmuneblad, rom moswavleebma aiTvi ses.

¤ gadacemulia dadebiTi molodiniT: `Tqven amas SeZlebT~ miniSnebiT.

¤ modelirebuli.

¤ daJinebuli im TvalsazrisiT, rom mudmivad (gonierebis farglebSi) mivmarTavT rutinas,

sanam moswavleebi daostatdebian.

¤ Tanmimdevruli: gansakuTrebiT im TvalsazrisiT, rom maswavlebeli reagirebs, roca

rutinis mimarT molodini ar marTldeba.

molodinis parametris Sesaxeb gamoyenebuli msjeloba rutinis ZiriTadi standartebis

marTebulobisa da maTi individebisa Tu jgufebis Sesatyvisobis Sesamowmebladac

gamogvadgeba. amitom, molodinis standartebis msgavsad, rutinis standartebi SeiZleba qvemoT

moyvanili skalis mixedviT ganvixiloT (detaluri informaciisaTvis ix. Tavi `molodini~):

¤ ar arsebobs arc erTi.

¤ ramdenime Tanamimdevruli standarti gamoiyeneba.

¤ dabali: maswavlebeli imaze naklebs iTxovs moswavleebisagan, vidre maT SeuZliaT.

¤ Zalze maRali: maswavlebeli metismetad bevrs iTxovs moswavleebisagan.

¤ saSualo: standartebi Sesaferisia moswavleTa umravlesobisaTvis.

¤ STamagonebel-bundovani: maswavlebeli axdens moswavleTa motivirebas, magram maTi

qcevis standartebi bundovania.

¤ maRali, magram keTilgonivruli: standartebi Zalze maRalia, magram moswavleebs ZaluZT

maTi miRweva.

akademiuri samuSaos msgavsad, maswavleblisa da moswavlisTvis mniSvnelovania, rom rutinis

standartebi Seesabamebodes yoveli individisa da jgufis saWiroebebs. (ix. me-11 Tavi

standartebis morgebis sxvadasxva doneebis Sesaxeb msjelobisaTvis.)

am sakiTxebis amowurvis Semdeg, ukve mzad varT axal Temaze gadasasvlelad. kerZod, ra

aris TviT rutina? ratom aris is aseTi da rogor SeiZleba misgan maqsimaluri sargeblis

miReba?

rogor SevusabamoT rutina miznebs

saklaso oTaxis rutinis xasiaTi ganisazRvreba maswavleblis mier uaris TqmiT, molaparakebiT

an pirdapir. SeiZleba gamovyoT maswavleblis mier rutinis gamoyenebis Svidi done:

1. araviTari tradiciebi an procedurebi Sesabamisi movlenebisaTvis: maswavleblis myisieri

reaqciebi.

2. daugegmavad Sesrulebuli ramdenime tradicia.

3. stabiluri rutina yvelaze Sesaferisi movlenebisaTvis, Cveulebriv, wvrTnis safuZvelze.

4. stabiluri da maRalefeqtiani rutina yvela Sesaferisi movlenisaTvis.

5. cvalebadi rutina: maswavlebeli cvlis, cdis, iyenebs alternatiul formebs.

6. rutina morgebulia jgufze.


7. rutina Seesabameba individebis xasiaTs da dakavSirebulia maTs miznebTan.

rutina

es skala moicavs pasuxebis speqtrs kiTxvaze: ratom aris Cveni rutina swored aseTi? rutina

SeiZleba efeqtianad da qmediTad emsaxurebodes zogad mizans _ SesZinos moswavleebs

usafrTxoebis grZnoba garkveuli ganmeorebadi movlenebis winaswar gansazRvrisas. SeiZleba

gansazRvros ufro specifikuri miznebi jgufebis an mTeli klasisTvis, rogoricaa moswavleebis

mier wakiTxuli wignebis rutinulad Setana JurnalSi, raTa maT garkveuli pasuxismgebloba

CamouyalibdeT Canawerebis warmoebis formaze da monawileoba miiRon wakiTxuli

wignebis saerTo anbanuri saZieblis SeqmnaSi; jgufebisTvis oTaxis nawilis dasufTavebis

davaleba, jgufuri pasuxismgeblobis Camoyalibebis mizniT, Sromis ganawilebis mogvareba

da im individebTan urTierToba, romlebic uars amboben samuSaos sakuTari wilis Sesrulebaze.

Mmaswavlebelma SeZleba Seiqmnas an moargos rutina konkretuli individebis miznebs. magaliTad,

dawyebiT klasSi timma SeiZleba yoveli dRe ramdenime skamis CamoRebiT daiwyos da

Semdeg xeze an Tixaze muSaobas Seudges, rasac motoruli datvirTva eqneba. ufro maRal klas-

Si, roca moswavleebma rutinulad unda Seamowmon SeniSvnebis dafa dilis davalebebTan an

wina samuSaos SedegebTan dakavSirebiT, klaras SeiZleba individualurad `misalmeba~, SeniSvnebis

dafasTan `eskorti~, an am informaciis Semcveli sakuTari saqaRalde sWirdebodes.

meaTeklasel margarets SeiZleba yuradRebis koncentraciis mizniT yoveli damoukidebeli

mecadineobis Semdeg, Sedegebis Sesaxeb Canaweris warmoeba movTxovoT. marvins, organizebulobisa

da gakveTilze droulad misvlis Cvevis gamomuSavebis mizniT, SeiZleba gakveTilis

win jgufuri muSaobisaTvis avejis dalageba vTxovoT.

proceduruli rutinis es magaliTi sxvadasxva mizans isaxavs. zogierTi Rirebul mizans

_ efeqtianobas _ emsaxureba. zogi impulss ukavSirdeba; aq swored aseTi efeqtianoba igulisxmeba

_ movlenebis efeqtiani dineba dayovnebis gareSe. gTavazobT erTi aseTi rutinis

magaliTs:

dasrulebul samuSaos vdeb Taroze `Semosulebi~; is rveulebi, romlebsac Semowmeba

sWirdeba, pirvel gverdze rCeba gadaSlili. es moxsnis problemas `ra unda vuyo am rveulebs?~

zogi rutina gamiznulia kognituri swavlis efeqtianobis asamaRleblad. magaliTad, akademiur

swavlaze orientirebuli rutina:

sityvaTa banki da sityvaTa saqaRalde moicavs im sityvebs, romelTa marTlwerac

moswavleebs uZneldebaT. moswavle poulobs sityvis swor marTlweras, wers

mas patara furcelze da amagrebs sityvaTa bankis kedelze dakidebul ocdaeqvsjibian

(anbanis yoveli asosaTvis) nakrebSi. furclebi mogvianebiT sityvaTa

mudmiv saqaRaldeSi lagdeba, marTlweraSi Semdgomi davalebis Sesasruleblad.

rutinaTa mesame jgufi gviCvenebs, ra damatebiTi sargebeli SeiZleba mogvces rutinam

misi gonivruli da mizanmimarTuli gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi. aseTi rutina aaSkaravebs imas,

rasac bevri `SeniRbul saswavlo gegmas~ uwodebs:

arapirdapiri pirovnuli da socialuri

daswavla, romelsac moswavleebi ubralod

konkretul gakveTilze daswrebiT axorcie-

rutiniT SeiZleba damatebiTi sargebeli _

`SeniRbuli saswavlo gegma~ miviRoT.

leben. `pirovnuli swavla~ gulisxmobs sakuTari Tavis an zogierTi unaris Sesaxeb raRacis

gagebas, rac ufro xasiaTis Camoyalibebis da ara unar-Cvevis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT

SeiZleba aRvweroT. `socialuri swavla~ migvaniSnebs moswavleebis mier sxva adamianebis,

jgufebis, an xalxis (TanamSromloba, gaziareba) Sesaxeb raRacis gagebas. aseTi rutinis magaliTia:

93


Tavi 6

94

me pirvel moswavles viZaxeb wasakiTxad, is, Tavis mxriv, momdevno mkiTxvels iZaxebs.

am gziT erTveba moswavleTa ufro didi procentuli raodenoba da wamoi-

Wreba samarTlianobisa (biWebma mxolod biWebi ar unda gamoiZaxon) da kiTxvis

diferencialuri unarebis gaazrebis sakiTxebi.

Cveni azriT, maswavleblebs SeZlebisdagvarad gaazrebuli da gansazRvruli unda hqondeT

TavianTi `SeniRbuli~ saswavlo gegma, raSic maT swored es parametri daexmarebaT. survilis

SemTxvevaSi, maswavleblebi SeZleben, rom maTeuli rutina mravali miznis samsaxurSi

Caayenon.


u t i n a - S e j a m e b a

1. gadaxedeT rutinis komunikaciis Tqvens mier gamoyenebul aspeqtebs. SegiZliaT

Tu ara iseTi SemTxvevis gaxseneba, romelic gaamyarebs Tqvens naTqvams an qmedebas.

_ pirdapiri

_ specifikuri

_ ganmeorebiTi

_ dadebiTi molodiniT

_ modelirebuli

_ daJinebuli

_ Tanamimdevruli

2. SemoxazeT erTi Sesabamisi. standartebi, romlebsac rutina moicavs aris:

arc erTi

ramdenime Tanamimdevruli

dabali

metismetad maRali

saSualo

STamagonebel-bundovani

3. Sesatyvisoba: SemoxazeT Sesrulebis Sesatyvisi done.

araviTari rutina

ramdenime daugegmavi rutina

stabiluri rutina

maRali, magram misaRebi

stabiluri da maRalefeqtiani rutina

cvalebadi rutina, alternativebi

jgufis Sesatyvisi rutina

individebis Sesatyvisi rutina

r u t i n a - S e j a m e b a

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u t i n a - s a v a r j i S o

maswavleblis repertuarSi arsebuli miznobrivi rutinis mravalferovnebis

sailustraciod mocemulia magaliTebi. daaxarisxeT yoveli rutina im zogadi

miznis mixedviT, romelsac, Tqveni azriT, is emsaxureba: tempi; akademiuri;

pirovnuli da socialuri swavla. savarjiSo dagexmarebaT ganimtkicoT is

miznebi, romelic SesaZloa sxvadasxva rutinas edos safuZvlad.

dDaxarisxebis Semdeg, dafiqrdiT Tqvens mier gamoyenebul rutinaze. tempTan

dakavSirebul ra rutinas iyenebT? romelia dakavSirebuli kognitur swavlebasTan?

romeli uwyobs xels konkretul pirovnul an socialur swavlas? arsebobs

Tu ara rutinis ufro efeqtianad gamoyenebis sxva saSualeba?

qvemoT gTavazobT maswavleblis mier mowodebul ramdenime realur rutinas.

(zogierT maTganze komentari frCxilebSi gavakeTeT). daaxarisxeT isini Semdegi

kategoriebis mixedviT:

¤ tempi

¤ akademiuri

¤ pirovnuli an socialuri swavleba (SemoklebiT ps)

arCevanis gasaadvileblad hkiTxeT sakuTar Tavs rutinis arsisa da daniSnulebis

Sesaxeb. Tqveni azriT, am sami kategoriidan es mizani romels ufro

Seesabameba. SeiZleba zogierTi or kategoriasac Seesabamebodes. saWiroebis

SemTxvevaSi, gadaxedeT teqstSi gamoyenebul magaliTebs. pasuxebi mocemulia

am nawilis boloSi.

1. `damatebiTi qula damatebiT namuSevarze: Tu moswavle adre daamTavrebs

maTematikis an kiTxvis davalebas, maqvs damatebiTi `saxaliso~ davalebebi, romelic

Cvens mier naswavli koncefciis ganmtkicebas an ganvrcobas emsaxureba.

davalebebis nakrebs im moswavles vaZlev, romelmac pirvelma daasrula. Semdeg

sxva moswavleebs veubnebi, rom damatebiTi davalebebis miReba am pirveli

moswavlisgan SeuZliaT, rac garkveul damatebiT pasuxismgeblobas akisrebs

pirvel moswavles da maTavisuflebs sxva jgufisTvis damatebiTi davalebebis

micemisgan~.

2. `roca sadme mivdivarT, win mimaval moswavles vTxov karis daWeras, romelic

yvelas gaatarebs da rigis bolos dgeba. amiT gamovricxav pirvelobisTvis

`brZolas~, radgan vinc pirveli iyo, bolo aRmoCndeba. xSirad arc meoreobisTvis

`ibrZvian~, radgan, Cveulebriv, ramdenime karebSi gavdivarT xolme~.

3. `yoveli Tvis dasawyisSi moswavleebs axal fanqars vaZlevT. gamonaklisis

garda, maT axali Semdeg Tvemde aRar eZlevaT (unda iTxovon an saxlidan moitanon).

amiT Tavidan vicilebT fanqrebis daudevrad dayras~.

4. `moTxrobaTa saqaRaldeebi Seicavs moswavleTa namuSevrebis meoreul monaxazebs.

yvela moswavles aqvs saSualeba gadaikiTxos Zveli naweri, SeamCnios

winsvla da ubralod siamovneba miiRos sakuTari namuSevriT. aseve sasargebloa

es saqaRaldeebi konferenciebisTvis~.

5. `CemTan, rogorc specialistTan, mosul yovel moswavles aqvs saqaRalde,

romelSic inaxavs dasrulebul an dasamTavrebel namuSevrebs. es saqaRaldeebi

inaxeba rZis plastikur yuTSi TiToeuli jgufisaTvis muxis etiketis gamyofe-

r u t i n a - s a v a r j i S o

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biT. gakveTilis win moswavleebi iReben masalebs yuTidan. saqaRaldeebTan er-

Tad SeiZleba SevinaxoT sia, romelSic miTiTebulia wakiTxuli wignebi, gamoyenebuli

masalebi, gakveTilebis cxrili da sxva saWiro informacia~.

6. `yovel paraskevs diliT, vjdebi moswavlesTan, romelsac winaswar virCev [savaraudod,

yovel kvira sxvadasxvasTan]. Cven erTad vakeTebT [klasis] yovelkvireuli

gazeTis samuSao variantis monaxazs. me vTavazob statiis monaxazs,

xolo moswavle gamarTavs teqsts. Semdeg gadawers mas originalze. es moswavlisaTvis

weraSi dadebiT gamocdilebas uzrunvelyofs. aris patara teqnikuri

riski da ukukavSiri xels uwyobs weris sxva saxeebs~.

7. `es aseve uzrunvelyofs xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi periodul individualur

muSaobas yovel moswavlesTan. akademiuri/saxaliso aqtivoba ki iZleva

moswavlesa da maswavlebels Soris urTierTobis damyarebis saSualebas, rac

mniSvnelovania kargad swavlebisTvis. is saklaso oTaxSi mcire sazogadoebis

Camoyalibebis SesaZleblobasac gvaZlevs; statiebi SeiZleba Seexebodes uSualod

klass, mis wevrebs, maT mierve Seqmnil nivTebs, wina kviras gadamxdar ambebs.

Aamrigad, gazeTi klasis garkveul istorias qmnis da SeiZleba wlis ganmavlobaSi

iqmnebodes. Yyvela mouTmenlad elodeba mis gamosvlas _ is xom maT

Sesaxebaa!”

8. `kidev erTi xerxi, romelic moswavleebs maTematikaSi dafaze muSaobisas exmareba.

maTematikis dauxazav furclebze muSaobisas, muSaobis dawyebamde,

vuxsni qaRaldis dakecvas. ase iqmneba ujrebi amocanebisTvis, rac furclis

organizebaSi exmareba. es aris aseve gakveTili kvadratSi ayvanaSi~.

9. `zogierTi maswavlebeli amtkicebs, rom maTematikaSi muSaoba mxolod did

ujrebian qaRaldze SeiZleba, romelic moswavleebs svetebis organizebasa da

sworad ganlagebaSi exmareba. Semdeg isini amcireben ujrebis zomas da TandaTanobiT

amcireben ujrebiani qaRaldis gamoyenebas. isini moiTxoven, rom

moswavleebma swor xazze da organizebulad imuSaon.”

10. `dafaze grZelvadiani davalebebis gakvra Sesabamisi vadebiT, rac moswavleebisgan

Tavisufal dros am davalebebze muSaobas moiTxovs, maT davalebis Sesrulebisas

sakuTari drois organizebaze pasuxismgeblobas aswavlis. davalebaTa

nusxis xSirad gadamowmeba maT mocemul droSi `Catevas~ aswavlis~.

11. `es rutina miznad isaxavs, rom moswavleebmaEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEBMAEEEEEEBMAEEEEE iswavlon EEEETavianTi drois marTva

_ proeqtebis dagegmva Semadgenel nawilebad da davalebebis dayofa

drois periodebis mixedviT, raTa maT SeZlon micemul droSi Cateva. SesaZloa

bavSvebma Tavidan ver SeZlon drois marTva da amitom procedurebma unda uzrunvelyos

swavleba an Sesatyvisi strategiebi. strategiis pirveli nawili

aris vadiani davalebis micema, rac moswavles warmatebis miRwevis saSualebas

aZlevs da aseve aswavlis Rirseul damarcxebas. maswavlebelma SeiZleba dasvas

kiTxvebi: `rogor/ra iswavleT am gamocdilebiT? SeZlebT Tu ara da rogor moagvarebT

momavalSi msgavs problemas?~ individebisTvis am kiTxvebis dasasmelad

unda momzaddes pirobebi. zogierTi maswavlebeli drodadro amowmebs,

ra warmatebebs miaRwies moswavleebma grZelvadiani davalebis SesrulebaSi.

maT SeiZleba Semoinaxon garkveuli Tavisufali dro an gakveTilis dro, yovel

moswavlesTan Sesaxvedrad da winsvlaze sasaubrod. es mokle Semowmebebi,

rogorc iTqva, emsaxureba informaciis miRebas mimdinare muSaobis Sesaxeb da

zogierTi zarmaci moswavlis motivirebas muSaobis dasawyebad. amave dros es

SeiZleba iyos kerZo swavlebis, axsnis an direqtivebis xelaxali micemis Ses-


aZlebloba. drois marTvisa da organizebis swavlebisas Cndeba kiTxva: Tqveneuli

procedurebis ra aspeqti exmareba moswavleebs swavlaSi, garda imisa,

rom maT akisrebs pasuxismgeblobas ubralod grZelvadian davalebebis SesrulebisTvis?]

12. `kviraSi samjer klass aqvs Cumad kiTxvis dro. isini survilisamebr kiTxuloben

wignebs, statiebs da sxva masalebs. periodis bolos im dRes wakiTxuli masalis

saTauri da TariRi SeaqvT nusxaSi, romelic maT saqaRaldeSi inaxeba. me

bavSvebs vawarmoebineb am Canawers da vagroveb furclebs, daaxloebiT, TveSi

erTxel. es mexmareba maT arCevanze dakvirvebaSi. Tavad bavSvebs ki, vfiqrob,

wakiTxulis raodenobis gacnobierebaSi exmareba. zogierTisTvis es namdvili

stimulia!~

13. `nusxaSi `dRevandeli samuSaoebi~ CamoTvlilia yoveldRiuri samuSaoebi [didi

plakati, moswavleebis saxelebi da gvarebi, samuSaos saxeebi Tavfurcelze.

moswavleebs SeuZliaT naxon TavianTi saxelisa da gvaris gaswavriv maTTvis

gankuTvnili davalebebi]. es cxrili yoveldRiuri davalebebis individualizaciis

saSualebaa. moswavleebs yoveldRiurad Sesasrulebeli saqmianobisTvis

pasuxismgeblobas akisrebs. isini aRniSnaven davalebebs maTi dasrulebis

Semdeg, rac maT TviTkontrolis unars uviTarebs~.

14. `xSirad Zalze efeqtiania ramdenime moswavlisTvis klasSi individualuri

muSaoba, cxrilis Sedgena. moswavles es cxrili mudam Tan aqvs da aRniSnavs

imas, rac Sesruldeba. maswavlebelTan molaparakebis Semdeg moswavles aseve

Seaqvs is aqtivobebi, romelTa keTebac gansakuTrebiT uyvars. cxrili SeiZleba

moicavdes erTi dRidan erT kviramde periods.”

15. `roca moswavleebs gakveTilze gamovarCev xolme raime gansakuTrebulis gasakeTeblad,

magaliTad, ritmul instrumentze dasakravad, xSirad vcvli ar-

Cevanis rutinas. monawileTa gansazRvrisTvis: (1) rigidan nomrebis mixedviT

viZaxeb; (2) viwyeb klasis siis Tavidan an bolodan; (3) romlebmac ukve daukres,

vTxov miscen instrumenti `wynar~ moswavles, romelsac jer ar daukravs.”

16. `yovelkvireuli dasufTaveba. paraskevs, SuadRisas, moswavleebs saklaso

oTaxis garkveuli nawilis dasufTavebas an mowesrigebas vavaleb. monacvleobiT

vaZlev samuSaos, zogjer SeiZleba arc davavalo da am SemTxvevaSi isini

TavianT merxebs an rveulebs asworeben. Sedegad sufTa, dalagebul saklaso

oTaxs da TanamSromlobas viRebT~.

17. `mieciT moswavleebs axali sityvebis swavlis sami variantidan erT-erTis ar-

Cevani: baraTebi, sityvis dawera samjer Tavisi mniSvnelobiT an `gadasaxedi

furclis~ Seqmna Tavisi mniSvnelobiT sityvis saswavlad da warmosaTqmelad.

es exmareba moswavleebs, iswavlon damaxsovrebis alternatiuli gzebi da imedia,

aRmoaCenen maTTvis ufro efeqtians”.

18. `xSirad vamzadeb TvalsaCinoebebs drois organizebisTvis, roca moswavleebi

modian da emzadebian gakveTilisTvis. slaidi SeiZleba Seicavdes testebs unarebis

gasaxseneblad, miTiTebebs aqtivobisTvis, romelSic SeiZleba CarTuli

iyos specialuri furclis momzadeba (e.i. mindvrebi, danomrva, a.S.) momavali

samuSaosaTvis, sityvebis sia, romelic unda gadaiweron rveulebSi, an miTiTebebi

specifikuri jgufuri samuSaosTvis. slaidis zeda marjvena kuTxeSi vu-

TiTeb dros, roca zednadebi gamoirTveba. Mmoswavleebma ician, rom maTgan

moveli slaidze miTiTebuli samuSaos dasrulebas am droisTvis.

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19. aRmovaCine, rom es teqnika xels uwyobs gakveTilze droulad mosvlas, uzrunvelyofs

moswavleTa yuradRebis koncentracias, xolo me saSualebas maZlevs

mivxedo rutinul sakiTxebs ise, rom moswavleebi ar gaerTon saubarSi an sxva

saqmianobiT da daviwyo gakveTili~.

20. `Cems magidaze maqvs dekoratiuli Tunuqis kolofi warweriT `SeniSvnebi saxlidan~.

bavSvebma kolofSi unda Cadon saxlidan wamoRebuli SeniSvnebi. es sa-

Sualebas maZlevs, ar Sevwyvito saqmianoba yovel jerze, roca bavSvi SeniSvnis

furcliT modis, xolo bavSvebs saSualeba aqvT damoukideblad Cadon SeniSvna

yuTSi, Tu me dakavebuli var.”

21. `zogierTi maswavlebeli klasSic iyenebs msgavs saSualebas maSin, roca moswavleebisTvis

Znelia maswavleblis yuradRebis mipyroba an roca piradi Setyobineba

aqvT, romlis dawera ufro eadvilebaT, vidre Tqma. am SemTxvevaSic

maswavlebels unda axsovdes, rom periodulad Caixedos SeniSvnebis kolofSi.

aseTi praqtikis regularulad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, moswavleebs ar eqnebaT

dabrkoleba maswavlebelTan urTierTobisas.”

22. `xelovnebis oTxTvalas yovelTvis feradi fanqrebis, pastebisa da markerebis

naxevari raodenoba `moaqvs~. aqtivobis mizani ganawileba da ormxrivi pasuxismgeblobaa.~

23. `Cven sagangebod `viwvevT~ deficits, rom moswavleebs masTan gamklaveba vaswavloT.

aseTi deficiti maswavleblisganac moiTxovs kargi Suamavlobis unars.

aq upriania aqtiuri mosmena _ glaseriseuli midgoma `ris gakeTebas apireb

amasTan dakavSirebiT~ (ix. Tavi `disciplina~.

24. `roca erTi an ori moswavle samuSaos dasrulebis stadiaSia (es aris marTvadi,

proeqtze orientirebuli klasi), xdeba axali gakveTilis gacnoba [yvelasaTvis;

savaraudod maswavlebeli iTxovs yvelas yuradRebas da acnobs axal

proeqts]. axali masalebi magidazea ise, rom moswavleebs SeuZliaT axali proeqtis

dawyeba damoukideblad, roca Zvelis dasrulebis Semdeg. dasrulebuli

produqtebi ideba karadaSi. Semdeg im bavSvebs, romelTac daasrules,

dasrulebuli proeqtis momdevno logikur nabijs vuCveneb (gamdidreba).

vTavazob arCevans, daiwyon axali proeqti an erTi nabijiT win waiwion axlaxans

dasrulebul proeqtSi. aTidan cxra SemTxvevaSi isini sakmaod motivirebulebi

arian, rom gaagrZelon Zveli proeqti~.

25. `proeqtze an laboratoriul samuSaoze orientirebul kursebze procedura

klass aerTianebs, maSinac ki, roca moswavleebi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebuli

tempiT muSaoben da maswavlebels saSualeba aqvs damatebiTi masala SesTavazos

maT, visac sWirdeba da amcirebs gakveTilidan gakveTilze gardamavali periodisTvis

damaxasiaTebel areulobas.”

26. `samuSao furclebs klasSi ori konkretuli moswavle arigebs. amiT Tavidan

vicilebT darigebisTvis drois dakargvas~. [SesaZloa es ori adamiani wreSi

maswavleblis sapirispiro mxares ijdes erTmaneTis gverdiT da furclebis

gadacema erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT daiwyon.”

27. `davalebebi isea dagegmili, rom moswavleebs erTmaneTis daxmarebis saSualebac

aqvT da imavdroulad individualuri pasuxic moeTxovebaT. es xels uwyobs

moswavleebs, iswavlon erTmaneTisagan da kanoniers xdis axdens klasSi

Tanatolebis saubars, xdis ra mas samuSaosTan aris dakavSirebuli~.

28. `erToblivi swavlis sakiTxi, davalebaTa da samuSao garemos produqtiulad


struqturireba ganxilulia me-15 TavSi.”

29. `instrumentebi `musikamobilSi~ saamwyobo saxanZro brigadis stilSi rigdeba,

raTa yovel moswavles hqondes instrumenti. instrumentebis moZraobis dros

maswavlebels SeuZlia darCes klasis wina nawilSi da ar dakargos tempi~.

30. `es yovel moswavles garkveul rolsac aniWebs, Tumca, albaT, saWiroa varji-

Si, gansakuTrebiT umcrosklaselebTan, raTa bavSvma, romelsac dauvardeba

instrumenti, ar gamoiwvios `sacobi.”

31. `moswavleebs sworad moaqvT gakveTilze wignebi `wignebis cxrilis~ mixedviT.

mizani aris wignis daviwyebis gamo Tavis marTlebis Tavidan acileba”.

32. `wignebis es cxrili SeiZleba gaikras karze an sxva TvalsaCino adgilas, rom

moswavleebma dainaxon Semdegi gakveTilisTvis saWiro wignebi.”

33. `daCqarebis motivaciisa da imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom moswavleebma daasrulon

gameorebis, aqtivobebi weriTi proeqtebisTvis gancxadebebis an saklaso

dafa dayaviT (damcavi an feradi lentiT) CarCoebis iseT seriad, rom saCveneblad

gamoifinos moswavlis saboloo proeqti moswavlis saxelisa da gvaris

miTiTebiT. samuSaos daamTavrebisa da Semowmebis Semdeg moswavleebs ufleba

aqvT, gamofinon namuSevari maT pirad CarCoSi. es marTlac kargi ideaa! moswavleebs

Zalian surT CarCoebis Sevseba~.

34. `ori gogona an biWi monacvleobiT aris pasuxismgebeli diliT daswrebis aRricxvaze.

es aviTarebs pasuxismgeblobasa da TanamSromlobas, me ki diliT moswavleebTan

araoficialuri saubris saSualebas maZlevs da SemiZlia gavigo

moswavlis cxovrebaSi bolo periodSi momxdari mniSvnelovani faqti~.

35. `aq mniSvnelovania maswavleblis mizani: saswavlo dRis pirveli 5-10 wuTi ar

dauTmos menejerul sakiTxebs da SeZlos individualuri kontaqtis damyareba

moswavlesTan. am kontaqtis mizani SeiZleba iyos urTierTobis damyareba,

informaciis miReba an yuradRebis momTxovni moswavlis `winaswar~ dakmayofileba,

rom mogvianebiT aRar dasWirdes yuradRebis mipyroba da ar Seaferxos

klasis ritmi.”

36. `kviraSi an or kviraSi erTxel vatareb latareas da samuSaos vunawileb Cems moswavleebs.

arCevanis mTeli procesi dakavSirebulia ariTmetikasTan, SansTan,

arCevanTan, kiTxvasTan da a.S.”

37. `skolis an mSoblebisTvis gamarTuli musikaluri warmodgenisas sruldeba

Semdegi wesebi: (1) monawileebi midian erTi saaTiT adre da ikribebian erT

oTaxSi makiaJisa da kostiumis bolo StrixebisTvis; (2) warmodgenamde auditoriaSi

uSveben mxolod scenis menejers, ganaTebisa da scenis specialistebs;

(3) roca yvela mzadaa, rolSi Sesasvlelad mRerian simRerebs warmodgenidan,

iwyeben solo simRerebs, magram ar amTavreben; (4) warmodgenis dros yvela, vinc

araa scenaze im wuTas, rCeba oTaxSi da ara scenis ukan an derefanSi; (5) yvela

cdilobs iyos wynarad da ar ixmauros; (6) yvela mTavari rolis Semsrulebeli

pasuxismgebelia sakuTari mxardamWeris gamo; (7) yoveli moswavle pasuxismgebelia

sakuTar kostumze warmodgenis dawyebamde, misi damTavrebis Semdeg da

mis Semdeg.”

38. am kriteriumebis Sesruleba maqsimalurad kargi warmodgenis garantiaa~.

39. `nebismieri statia adgilobrivi gazeTebidan, romelmac SeiZleba daainteresos

moswavleebi an Seicavs maT saxelebsa da gvarebs, ikvreba gancxadebebis

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dafaze. me aseve vakrav lanCis yovelkvireul menius, bavSvebisTvis saintereso

sxvadasxva karikaturas, suraTs an leqss. bavSvebsac SeuZliaT moitanon samagrebi

gasakvrelad. bavSvebs eamayebaT TavianTi saxelebisa da gvarebis danaxva

dabeWdili saxiT. aqve SeiZleba gamovakraT maTi namuSevrebic~.

40. [bolo fraza _ `gamovakraT maTi namuSevrebic~ _ am proceduras kognitur

kategorias aniWebs. Tumca es yvelaferi SeiZleba saklaso oTaxSi sazogadoebis

Camoyalibebis TvalsazrisiTac ganvixiloT. dafa karTan kidia, mas xSirad

xedaven da is saubris Temaa maSin, roca moswavleebi dgebian rigSi an ubralod

Semodian oTaxSi. is erTgvari saubris stimulatoria. es wamoWris zogadad

gamofenis sakiTxs da gvibiZgebs, miviRoT misgan maqsimaluri sargebeli, garda

unar-Cvevebis ganmtkicebisa da mimzidvelobisa.”

41. `roca moswavleebi CarTuli arian sxvadasxva aqtivobaSi, vsargeblob momentiT,

swrafad gadavxedav oTaxs da viniSnav [furcelze] sad da visTanaa TiToeuli

bavSvi. amiT konkretul informacias viReb bavSvebis mier masalebisa da

megobrebis arCevis Sesaxeb. SemiZlia davinaxo, rogor formirdeba aqtivobis

modelebi. es aseve miRviZebs konstruqciuli winadadebebis alRos da zogad

aqtivobaSi da/an bavSvebTan gansxvavebuli koncefciis Setanis survils~.

42. `SeniSvnebis Casawerad da Canawerebis sawarmoeblad klasis doneebis mixedviT,

SeiZleba gamoviyenoT epizodebis rveulebi. am SemTxvevaSi maswavlebels ar

uwevs drois Semonaxva dRis bolos, raTa dajdes da Caiweros sxvadasxva epizodebTan

dakavSirebuli SeniSvnebi yovel moswavleze. mimdinare TariRi ewereba

sias rveulSi da rCeba gadaSlili karadis, Taros an magidis Tavze. maswavleblebi

weren sityvebs an frazebs moswavleebis saxelebisa da gvarebis gaswvriv.

SeniSvnebi SeiZleba exebodes aqtivobebs, saqciels, unarebis saWiroebebs

an TiTqmis nebismieri saxis qmedebas. Tu guSindeli dRis siis ukana mxare

gamoiyeneba dRevandeli dRis gegmebis Casawerad an dasablokad, rveulis funqcia

SeiZleba gaormagdes da gaxdes gegmebis wignic. SeniSvnebma moswavleTa

saxelebisa da gvarebis gaswvriv SeiZleba maswavlebels konkretul moswavlesTan

dagegmili saqmianoba Seaxsenos. isini TariRebis mixedviT moswavlis

warmatebis mimdinare da Semajamebel Canawersac Seicavs. es aris monacemTa

mdidari baza, romlis miRebac Znelia nebismieri sxva gziT da Zalian sasargebloa

Sexvedrebis dros.”

43. `Tu oTxi wyvilis an sxvagvar cekvaSi CarTulia sapirispiro sqesis partniori,

vuxsni, rom: (1) biWebs TiToeul kvadratSi pirveli, meore, mesame da meoTxe adgilis

Sevsebas vTxov; (2) Semdeg nomrebis mixedviT viZaxeb gogonebs da vTxov

konkretul kvadratSi dadgomas im biWTan, romelsac aqvs Sesabamisi cifri; (3)

yoveli cekvis Semdeg gogonebi gadadian sxva kvadratSi, magram inarCuneben

imave cifris pozicias; (4) aravis aqvs ufleba gaakeTos Seuracxmyofeli komentarebi

Tavisi an sxvisi partnioris Sesaxeb; (5) aravis vaZaleb cekvas; (6) moswavleebs,

romlebic ar monawileoben, varwmuneb, rom SeuZliaT Semdeg gamovidnen

da Tavad Seqmnan axali kvadrati an airCion partniori im wyvilidan, romelmac

ukve icekva. es procedurebi xels uwyobs erTmaneTisTvis angariSis gawevas,

gansakuTrebiT iseT situaciaSi, roca pirvelad cota uxerxulad grZnoben

Tavs sapirispiro sqesTan siaxlovis gamo~.


1: tempi da akademiuri

2: tempi

3: ps

4: akademiuri swavleba

5: tempi

6: ps da akademiuri swavleba

7: akademiuri swavleba

8: ps

9: akademiuri swavleba

10: ps

11: tempi

12: ps

13: akademiuri swavleba

14: tempi

15: tempi

16: ps

17: tempi

18: tempi

19: ps

20: tempi

21: tempi

22: akademiuri swavleba da ps

23: ps da tempi

24: akademiuri swavleba

25: tempi

26: akademiuri swavleba da ps

27: tempi

28: ps da tempi

k i T x v a r i s p a s u x e b i

103


Tavi 6

104

literatura:

Randolph, N., and W. Howe. Self-Enhancing Education. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford Press, 1966.

Taylor, J. Organizing the Open Classroom – A Teachers’ Guide to the Integrated Day. New York: Schocken

Books, 1972.

gansakuTrebuli SeniSvna

Cven vafasebT im maswavlebelTa wvlils, romelTac gamoiCines keTili neba da

gagviziares mosazreba zogierTi maTeuli rutinis Sesaxeb: nedain biSopi, stiv boberi,

pegi baulbai, jef levini, en lindsei, barbara lifStadti, beti miurei, devid

negrini, loren robinsi, seli springeri, jin Stameli, bil teiti, alan tikocki da

jo volSi.


7

disciplina

rogor mivudgeT Zalze jiut

moswavleebs?

mizezebi

molodinebi da Sedegebi

moswavleTaTvis kontrolisa da

pasuismgeblobis dakisreba

disciplinis eqvsi modeli

Sesabamisoba

reaqcia araswor saqcielze


I nawiliM

Sesavali da mimoxilva

disciplina

,,ra unda gavakeToT imisaTvis, rom moswavleebma imuSaon, dro ar flangon da xeli ar

SegviSalon?~ es disciplinis parametris yvelaze mniSvnelovani sakiTxia da bevr maswavlebeli

did energias xarjavs mis gadasaWrelad; zogi sulac Tavs anebebs swavlebas, roca aRmoaCens,

rom Tavs ver arTmevs disciplinis sakiTxebs. udavoa, rom kargi disciplina kargi

ganaTlebis wina pirobaa; mTeli Cveni codna unda gamoviyenoT, rom udisciplinobis gamo

maswavleblisa da moswavlis energiis fuW xarjvas bolo movuRoT. codnac gvaqvs da unaric

Segvwevs, rom es sakiTxi movagvaroT da im sakiTxze gadavideT, romelic ufro metad ainteresebs

maswavlebelTa umravlesobas: ,,rogor CamovayaliboT moswavleebSi TviTdisciplina da

pasuxismgebloba?~

am TavSi orive sakiTxs ganvixilavT, Tumca pirveliT daviwyebT. Tu moswavleebi uyuradRebod

arian da xels gviSlian, amis mizezi qvemoT CamoTvlilTagan erTi an ramdenime

SeiZleba iyos:

1. cudi zogadi menejmenti (yuradReba, tempi, sivrce, dro, rutina, pirovnuli ur-

TierTobis damyareba);

2. Seusabamo samuSao _ metismetad Zneli, metismetad advili an moswavleTa swavlis

stilisaTvis Seusabamo (miznebi, swavlis gamocdileba);

3. mosawyeni swavleba (swavlis gamocdileba);

4. damabneveli swavleba (sicxade);

5. bundovani molodinebi da Sedegebi (molodini);

6. moswavlis mier umweobis SegrZneba;

7. fizikuri mizezebi;

8. mosalodneli qcevis Sesrulebis arcodna;

9. RirebulebaTa konfliqti;

10. moswavleTa Tanamdevi mZime emociuri tvirTi (mag., sxva adamiani arwmunebs, rom ver

miaRwevs warmatebas).

sqema 7.1 warmogvidgens am mizezebsa da zogierT indikators. modiT, swrafad gadavxedoT

10 mizezs, xolo ramdenime ufro mniSvnelovani detalurad ganvixiloT.

107


Tavi 7

pirveli oTxi mizezi dakavSirebulia sxva iseT parametrebTan, romelTagan zogierTi ukve

ganvixileT. klasis menejmentis ZiriTadi parametrebis (yuradReba, tempi, sivrce, dro, rutina,

pirovnuli urTierTobis damyareba) ugulebelyofas Sedegad disciplinis problemebi

mohyveba. es is parametrebia, romelTac pirvel rigSi unda mivaqcioT yuradReba klasSi disciplinis

problemebis gaCenisas, radgan usaqmod darCenili bavSvebi yovelTvis pouloben

energiisa da SemoqmedebiTobis gamovlenis formebs da advili SesaZlebelia, es formebi miuRebeli

aRmoCndes. (xangrZlivi mowyenilobis dros celqoba, albaT, gonebrivi sijansaRisa

da fizikuri sicocxlisunarianobis niSania normalur bavSvebSi). amrigad, sivrcis, drois,

tempisa da pirovnuli urTierTobis Camoyalibebis kompetenturi marTva kargi saqcielis

wina pirobas qmnis. da piriqiT, maTi umarTaoba gonebagafantulobis, fragmentaciis, usaqmurobisa

da guliswyromis pirobaa.

am parametrebis kargad marTvis SemTxvevaSic ki, darwmunebuli unda viyoT, rom samu-

Sao bavSvebis Sesatyvisia (miznebi). metismetad Zneli an metismetad advili samuSao imedgacruebis

an mowyenilobis _ xelSemSleli qcevis wina pirobas safrTxes qmnis.

saklaso garemo SeiZleba calkeuli moswavlisaTvis Seusabamo iyos da misma mcire cvlilebam

SeiZleba Seamciros an aRmofxvras maTi problemebi. yvelaze aSkara cvladi klasSi

struqturis xarisxia (Colarruso 1972). kargad struqturirebuli garemo moswavleebs nakleb

arCevans utovebs imis Taobaze, ra aqtivoba Seasrulon, rodis, visTan da romel oTaxSi. cudad

struqturirebul garemoSi (romelic, yvelafris miuxedavad, SeiZleba kargad dagegmili

da organizebuli iyos) moswavleTa meti moZraoba da meti moqnilobaa im TvalsazrisiT,

vin ras akeTebs da rodis. farTo arCevanis gamo moswavleebi ufro metad ageben pasuxs pirad

ganrigze. amis msgavsad, moswavleebs smeniTi da mxedvelobiTi stimulaciis xarisxis kontrolic

SeuZliaT. ,,maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTnaSi~ tomas gordons (Thomas Gordon

1974) garemos modificirebis sxva gzebic aqvs warmodgenili (kategoriebSi `gamdidreba~, `ga-

Raribeba~, `SezRudva~, `gazrda~, `gadawyoba~, `gaadvileba~ da `sistematizacia~). moswavleTa

qcevis gaumjobesebis gzebis Ziebisas, unda gadavxedoT Cvens mier maTTvis Seqmnili garemos

Sesabamisobasac. saWiroa, davfiqrdeT, xom ar uwyobs (SeSlis nacvlad) es garemo xels

problemebs. garemos Secvlis mizani misi imgvarad mowyobaa, rom gaviTvaliswinoT bavSvebis

sisusteebi da xeli SevuSaloT usaqcielobas.

dabolos, zogierT klasSi gakveTilis erTi da imave formatis an aqtivobaTa struqturebis

(zedmeti swavleba, zedmeti davalebebi) yoveldRiuri gamoyenebac SeiZleba gaxdes

mowyenilobisa da arasasurveli qcevis mizezi. sirTuleebi kargi zogadi menejmentisa da

misaRebi sirTulis swavlebis SemTxvevaSic ki SeiZleba iyos.

108


fizikuri

mizezebi

moswavlis

mier umweobis

gancda

bundovani

molodinebi

da Sedegebi

damabneveli

swavleba

(sicxade)

mosawyeni

aqtivobebi

cudi tempi Seusabamo

samuSao (miznebi)

mizezi SesamCnevi

Sedegi

mZime emociuri

tvirTi

(mag., dabali

TviTSefaseba)

mosalodneli

saqcielis

Sesrulebis

arcodna

RirebulebaTa

konfliqti

droisa da

sivrcis cudi

menejmenti

cudad

Camoyalibebuli

pirovnuli

urTierToba

carieli

gamoxedva,

dumili,

uamravi

SekiTxva

drois

flangva

avtoritarizmi

fuWad

gatarebuli

dro,

dayovneba

araTanamimdevruloba

igiveoba

mudmivad xelis

SemSleli

moswavle

xSiri dasja

xelis SeSla,

celqoba,

adekvaturi

daxmarebis

ararseboba

gaugebroba,

konfliqtebi

maswavlebelsa da

moswavles Soris

eSmakuri

SekiTxvebi,

SeniSvnebi,

uyuradReboba,Secbuneba,yvirili

mowyenili

moswavlis

gancda

gulgatexili

mousvenari

dabneuli

damarcxebuli,

warumatebeli

gabrazebuli an

ganmartoebuli

usamarTlobis

gancda

ganawyeneba

daZabuloba

an sibraze

damunjebuli,

gulgatexili

an mowyenili

gonebagafantuli

disciplina

sqema 7.1: araswori qcevis mizezebi

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom pirveli oTxi mizezi dakavSirebulia wina TavebSi ganxilul sxva parametrebTan

109


Tavi 7

ufro seriozuli da ufro xSiri mizezia bundovani molodinebi da Sedegebi; maswavlebelsa

da moswavleebs Soris SeiZleba mkafiod ar iyos gansazRvruli urTierTgagebis rTuli

qseli. TiTqmis yvela maswavlebels, romelsac disciplinis problemebi aqvs (da ara ubralod

erTi jiuti moswavle hyavs) daxmareba sWirdeba. meore nawilSi detalurad ganvixilavT am

qselis Camoyalibebis ZiriTad gzebs.

skolebi, rogorc institutebi armias, cixesa da saavadmyofos hgavs, radgan iq moswavleebi

mudam umweod grZnoben Tavs. xSirad skola ewinaaRmdegeba ZiriTad adamianur moTxovnilebas,

akontrolos sakuTari bed-iRbali, radgan umniSvnelo (zogjer ki araviTar) adgils

utovebs iniciativas, gadawyvetilebis miRebasa da liderobas. pasiurebisaTvis am uflebis

warTmeva diskomforts ar iwvevs, Tumca bavSvebis umravlesobaSi ukan daxevis survils aCens.

Tu Zalauflebas `ostaturad~ gamoviyenebT, aseTi moswavleebis gakontrolebasac Sev-

ZlebT, magram imavdroulad skolasac SevaZulebT da swavlasac. es ki Tavisufali skolis

umaRlesi mizani ar gaxlavT; swavla xSirad rTuli saqmea, is sxvebis mier micemuli davalebebis

Sesrulebas moiTxovs, rac, bunebrivia,

yovelTvis saxaliso ar aris. maswavleb-

skolebi, rogorc institutebi armias, cixesa

els maRali akademiuri standartebis erTi

da saavadmyofos hgavs, radgan iq moswavleebi

iotis daTmobis gareSec SeuZlia klasis ise

mudam umweod grZnoben Tavs.

struqturireba, rom moswavleebma mimdinare

movlenebis garkveuli Tanamflobeloba

da Tanakontroli igrZnon. Tu moswavleebSi umweobis SegrZnebas yuradRebiT ganvixilavT,

vnaxavT, rom mis dasaZlevad gadadgmuli yoveli nabiji qcevis menejmentis sakiTxebsac

gvigvarebs, radgan bavSvebis energias swori gziT warvmarTavT. am Tavis III nawilSi warmogidgenT,

rogor SeuZlia maswavlebels amis gakeTeba.

zogjer, erTi SexedviT uyuradRebo moswavleebs ubralod smenis problemebi aqvT

xolme. isini miTiTebebs imitom ki ar asruleben, rom ocneboben, an maswavleblis gabrazeba

surT, aramed, ubralod SecdomiT igeben sakvanZo sityvebs. iseTi `uyuradRebo~ moswavleebic

viciT, romelTac smenis defeqtis diagnozi dawyebiT skolaSi swavlidan 2,5 wlis Semdeg

dausves da maTi qcevis modifikaciasa da sxva mniSvnelovan strategiebze didi dro da energia

daixarja. amrigad, ubralod darwmunebulebi unda viyoT, rom bavSvebis usaqcielobasa

da sijiutes fizikuri mizezebi ar udevs safuZvlad. es mizezebia: mxedveloba, organuli

hiperaqtivoba, farisebri jirkvlis problemebi da sxv.

bavSvebs skolaSi manerebTan erTad sxvagan naswavli kognituri unar-Cvevebic moaqvT.

sirbilis gareSe mwkrivSi CadgomasTan, miTiTebebis mosmenasTan, xazis gaswvriv faqizad

werasTan an nivTebis mowesrigebasa da alagebasTan dakavSirebiT Cveni molodinebi SeiZleba

ubralod imitom ar marTldeba, rom bavSvebma ar ician, rogor gaakeTon es yvelaferi! faqtia,

rom zogierTma skolamdelma konkretul situaciaSi ar icis, ratom unda iaros da ar

unda irbinos (sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, maT ar ician winaswar rogor gansazRvron Sedegebi,

akontrolon impulsebi an dagegmon fizikuri moZraobebi). isic faqtia, rom zogierTma mozardma

ubralod ar icis, rogor daaxarisxos nivTebi, raTa daaCqaros alageba, kidev ufro

naklebad icis am dros droisa da moZraobebis dagegmva. aseT SemTxvevebSi qcevis nabij-nabij

swavleba xelis SemSleli saqcielis aRmofxvris saSualebaa. fuWia moswavleTa motivirebis

mcdeloba, gaakeTon iseTi ram, risi instrumentebic ara aqvT. Cveni vfiqrobT, rom maswavlebels

SeiZleba ubralod gamorCes es detalebi. mas SeiZleba arasodes mouvides TavSi azrad,

rom TandaTan gamkacrebuli muqarisa da dasjis saTave, ubralod, ucodinarobaa. maswavleblebs

vurCevT, rom kargad Seiswavlon moswavleebi. xSirad maswavleblebi iseT unarebs

varaudoben, romlebic ar aris moswavleTa qcevis repertuarSi. am SemTxvevaSi saWiroa sasurveli

qcevis `Setana~ moswavleTa repertuarSi. amrigad, qcevis problemebis mqone klas-

Tan an individTan urTierTobisas, pirvel yovlisa, pasuxi unda gaeces kiTxvas: `ician Tu ara

110


maT, rogor gaakeTon is, ris gakeTebasac vTxovT?~

disciplina

rezistentuli saqcielis safuZveli SesaZloa maswavleblebsa da moswavleebs Soris kulturuli

gansxvavebebi iyos. es mizezi, iSviaTobis miuxedavad, realuria da unda gaviTvaliswinoT

im klasebSi, sadac moswavleTa saojaxo cxovrebas mZlavri eTnikuri fesvebi aqvs

gadgmuli sxva kulturaSi.

zemoxsenebul kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemis mcdelobis miuxedavad, yvelaze rTuli is gaxlavT,

rom SesaZloa ramdenime moswavle uars ambobdes swavlaze da, ama Tu im mizeziT,

skolaSi ar asrulebdes Tavis funqcias. isini SeiZleba iyvnen pasiurebi da arakontaqturebi,

iqceodnen uxeSad da araTanamimdevrulad. am Tavis bolo nawilSi swored am problemur umciresobas

ganvixilavT. rezistentul moswavleebTan urTierTobis sul mcire eqvsi ZiriTadi

strategia arsebobs, romlebic, sworad misadagebis SemTxvevaSi efeqtiania. Cveni mizania

CavwvdeT maT arss, gavigoT, rogor unda gamoviyenoT da mivusadagoT es strategiebi konkretul

bavSvs. Tqven mogecemaT saSualeba, gaifarTovoT rezistentul moswavleebTan urTier-

TobisaTvis saWiro codna; SegiZliaT aiTvisoT repertuari, romelsac gamoiyenebT rogorc

resurss. Tqven mogeTxovebaT, yuradRebiT SeiswavloT moswavleebi da gaxdeT praqtikosi

diagnostikosi, raTa sworad SearCioT reaqcia Tqveni repertuaridan. strategiebis moswavleebze

morgebis utyuari formulebi ar arsebobs, magram arc eqsperimentsa da mcdelobaze

brmad damokidebuli varT. mdidari informacia gvaqvs konkretul bavSvTan muSaobis Taviseburebebze,

magram es codna rom Tqvens moswavleebTan gamoiyenoT, bevri unda imuSaoT. Cven

eqvsive strategias ganvixilavT da vnaxavT, rogor SeiZleba maTi morgeba calkeul moswavleze.

es strategiebia: qcevis modifikacia, TviTanalizis wvrTna, pirovnuli gavlena, logikuri

Sedegebi, realobiT Terapia da maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTna. yovel strategias

hyavs Tavisi inteleqtualuri `mSobeli~, centraluri figura, romelmac Tavi mouyara da

vrclad dawera mis Sesaxeb arsebuli informacia (garda qcevis modifikaciisa, romelsac imdeni

mSobeli, deida, mamida, bicola, biZa da deidaSvil-mamidaSvili da biZaSvili hyavs, rom

erTis gamorCeva Znelia). yoveli strategia mkveTrad gansxvavebulia. TiToeul maTgans aqvs

maswavleblisTvis nabijebis konkretuli seria da xelis SemSleli moswavleebis saqcielze

reaqciis xerxi.

Cveni azriT, eqvsive strategia kargia sworad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi _ arc erTi ar aris

arsebiTad ukeTesi romelime sxvaze. metic, gvaqvs safuZveli virwmunoT, rom SegviZlia eqvsidan

Sesatyvisi arCevanis gakeTeba, gansakuTrebulad rezistentuli moswavleebisTvis misi

morgeba eqsperimentebis gareSe. IV nawilSi, pirvel yovlisa, eqvsive strategiis bunebas gavaanalizebT,

xolo Semdeg detalurad davamuSavebT TiToeulis komponentebs da Semdgomi

SeswavlisaTvis saWiro literaturul wyaroebs mogawvdiT. dabolos, logikurad davasabuTebT

konkretuli moswavlisaTvis strategiis arCevis principebs.

axla ufro Rrmad SeviswavliT araswori qcevis 10 mizezidan ramdenimes. am Tavis II

nawilSi ganxilulia, Tu rogor Camoyalibda molodinebisa da Sedegebis efeqtiani sistema.

III nawilSi ganxilulia, rogor unda ganvuviTaroT moswavleebs saklaso cxovrebaSi Tanakontrolisa

da Tanagavlenis gancda da Sedegad, bavSvebis skolaSi, rogorc sazogadoebaSi

monawileobis wvlilis gazrdiT, SevamciroT disciplinis problemebi. IV nawilSi aRwerilia

disciplinis eqvsi modeli ukiduresad rezistentuli moswavleebisaTvis da maTi sworad Se-

Tanawyobis konkretuli SemTxvevebi.

111


Tavi 7

112

II nawili

molodinebisa da Sedegebis sistema

wesebi da maTi Sesabamisi qcevis Sedegebi sakmarisad mkafio da konkretulia Tu ara CemTvis

da Cemi moswavleebisaTvis?

am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemis wina piroba is aris, rom moswavleebs naTeli da araorazrovani

warmodgena hqondeT imaze, Tu rogor saqciels moelian maTgan. am informaciis gadasacemad

uamravi gza arsebobs: pirdapir Tqma, cxrilis gakeTeba, moulodnelad problemis wamoWra

an klasis Sexvedris dros wesebze SeTanxmeba. xandaxan molodini sistemis saxiT oficialur

wesebad da saboloo formiT ar aris Camoyalibebuli, magram mas maswavleblis reaqciis

mixedviT Tanamimdevrulad ecnobian moswavleebi. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, moswavleTaTvis

molodinis arsi naTeli da konkretuli unda iyos, raTa Tavidan aviciloT gaugebroba (an

kamaTi). SesaZloa, gancxadeba `Cumi kiTxvis droa~ ar kmarodes da klass siCumis ganmarteba

dasWirdes. siCume sruli siCumea, Tu CurCuli an wynari saubari? SeuZliaT moswavleebs am

gansxvavebaTa danaxva da qcevis kontroli? Tu `siCume~ sinamdvileSi `wynars~ niSnavs, maSin,

albaT, mas `siCume~ ar unda vuwodoT da, piriqiT. ras niSnavs gakveTilze droulad misvla?

ara umetes ori wuTiT dagvianebas, zaris dros oTaxSi yofnas, ubralod adgilze yofnas Tu

adgilze gakveTilisTvis mzadyofnas? sad aris gavlebuli es sazRvrebi ufro naklebmniSvnelovania,

vidre maTi mkafiod Camoyalibeba. ar unda arsebobdes eWvi imasTan dakavSirebiT,

rodis dairRva wesi.

mendleri da kurvini (Mendler & Curwin 1983) aRweren wesebis dadgenaSi moswavleTa CarTvis

(e.w. `socialur kontraqtis~) mravalmxriv strategias, rac wesis raobasTan dakavSirebiT

nebismier eWvs ebrZvis. maswavleblis mier savaldebulod misaRebi wesebis Camoyalibebis Semdeg,

moswavleebi mcire jgufebad muSaoben qcevis am wesebis Sedegebis ganxilvaze. (magali-

Tad, `wesi: maswavlebelma unda gamoiZaxos moswavle saxeliT. wesis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi: a)

maswavlebels axseneben wess, b) maswavlebeli ixdis bodiSs~. `wesi: maswavlebelma individualurad

unda gaasworos moswavleTa namuSevrebi. wesis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi: maswavlebeli

moswavleebs waukiTxavs or Tavs im wignidan, romelsac amJamad kiTxulobs~). mendleri da

kurvini ganmartaven:

yvela wessa da mis Sedegs ganixilavs klasi, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos maTi raobis

swori gageba. rolebis Sesruleba xSirad sasargeblo strategiaa wesisa da Sedegis

zusti mniSvnelobis sailustraciod. magaliTad, zogierT moswavles surs, rom

maswavlebelma ar iyviros. maswavleblisTvis mniSvnelovania, isaubros ufro da

ufro xmamaRla, sanam miiRweva SeTanxmeba imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra aris yvirili

(Mendler and Curwin 1983, gv. 73).

Semdeg mimdinareobs gadawyvetilebis miRebis saguldagulo procesi, romlis drosac

maswavlebeli da moswavleebi wyveten, SeTavazebuli wesebidan da Sedegebidan romeli

Seva kontraqtSi. (detaluri informaciisaTvis ix. mendleri da kurvini, gv. 73-74) dabolos,

moswavleebi abareben gamocdas kontraqtis codnaSi. klasSi privilegiis mopoveba testirebaSi

100 quliT xdeba! socialuri kontraqtis es axleburi procedura ramdenime mizans emsaxureba:

pirveli, moswavleTa mier wesebis SemuSaveba sasargebloa maTi Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT;

meore, kontraqtis codnis Sesamowmebeli testi da misi Sedegebis kavSiri klasSi

privilegiis mopovebasTan, xazs usvams kontraqtisa da wesebis mniSvnelobas.

gadavcemT Tu ara dadebiT molodins?

saWiroa molodini gavimeoroT, Tanac xSirad. aRmoCnda rom, zogierTi maswavlebeli, gansakuTrebiT

saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi, xSirad umeorebs da axsenebs moswavleebs molodins,


disciplina

riTac Tavidan icilebs arasasurvel qcevas. magaliTad, `axla kabinetSi mivdivarT. Tqveni

azriT, ra gvelodeba iq? ra unda gavakeToT? ra unda gaviTvaliswinoT Cvens qcevaSi?~ an:

`kargiT, axla mzad varT sportul darbazSi wasasvlelad. raze vfiqrobT, roca darbazSi

varT? ratom?~

dadebiTi molodinis damokidebuleba maswavlebelma SeiZleba Yim sityvebiT gaamyaros,

romliTac moswavles mimarTavs. aseT pozitiur molodins ori aspeqti aqvs. pirvelSi SeniRbulia

kiTxva, `ratom unda gaakeToT es aucileblad~, romelsac maswavlebeli pirdapir ar

ambobs, magram gadascems JestebiTa da damokidebulebiT. dadebiTi molodinis meore aspeqti

ki aris gamxneveba, rwmena, `vici, rom amis gakeTeba SegiZliaT~, rac, xSirad, ufro specifikuri

saqcielis an kiTxvebis dadebiT debulebebTan (`ar dagaviwydeT xelis aweva~) asocirdeba

da ara pirdapir akrZalvasTan (`SewyviteT wamoZaxeba!~).

dadebiTi molodinis gadacemis kidev erTi gza aris Tavdajerebuloba Sesatyvisi qcevis

moTxovnisas. Tavdajerebulobis efeqtisaTvis li kanteri (Lee Canter) gvirCevs: yuradRebis

oTxi moZraobis Sejerebas, rogoric aris TvaliT kontaqti, xelis Jesti, moswavlis saxelis

warmoTqma da Sexeba:

maswavlebelma SeamCnia, rom stivi uxeSad hkravda xels mwkrivSi mis gverdiT mdgom

bavSvebs. is stivTan mivida, TvalebSi Caxeda, mxarze xeli daado da uTxra: `stiv, xe-

lebi gaaCere~ (da aCvena sasurveli mdgomareoba) (Canter 1977, gv. 75)*

Tu moswavleebi Tavis marTlebiT an sxva TavSesaqcevi moZraobebiT SegvekamaTebian, kanteri

gvirCevs `gafuWebuli patefonis~ teqnikas:

maswavlebeli: `siu, minda, rom xeli aswio da daicado, sanam gamogiZaxeben~. (survilis

debuleba)

siu: `ase arc erTi moswavle ar akeTebs~.

maswavlebeli: `amas mniSvneloba ar aqvs. minda, rom Sen xeli aswio~. (gafuWebuli patefoni)

siu: `Tqven me arasodes miZaxebT~.

maswavlebeli: `amas mniSvneloba ar aqvs. me minda, rom Sen xeli aswio~. (gafuWebuli patefoni)

siu: `kargiT, avwev~.

am dialogSi maswavlebeli ubralod imeorebda (gafuWebuli patefoni) imas, rasac bavSvisgan

moiTxovda da sius pasuxebis gamo gzidan ar gadauxvevia. maswavlebelma SeinarCuna

bavSvTan urTierTobis kontroli.

gafuWebuli patefonis gamoyenebis dros, pirvel yovlisa, saWiroa gansazRvroT, ra

gsurT moswavlisgan (`minda, sium aswios xeli~. es xdeba Tqveni survilisa da Tqveni urTierTobis

arsis gamoxatva. SegiZliaT Tqveni survilis debulebas win waumZRvaroT: `amas

mniSvneloba ar aqvs, magram me minda, rom Sen aswio xeli~, an `mesmis, magram minda, rom Sen aswio

xeli~.) mniSvneloba ara aqvs, ra manipulaciur pasuxs warmoadgens moswavle, Tu Tqven

survilis debulebiT upasuxebT _ `mniSvneloba ara aqvs, minda, rom Sen~, an `mesmis, magram

minda, rom Sen~ _ riTac Tqveni debuleba ufro efeqturi gaxdeba (Canter, gv. 79-80).*

es teqnika SeiZleba saocrad efeqtiani iyos, gansakuTrebiT swavlis verbaluri stilis

mqone moswavleebTan. Tumca, misi gamoyenebisas unda gaxsovdeT, ra SedegisTvis (SedegTa

jaWvisTvis) unda iyoT mzad, arasasurveli saqcielis gagrZelebis SemTxvevaSi. amis gareSe

Tavdajerebuloba usafuZvlo iqneba. metic, molodinis samjer gameorebis Semdeg, umjobesia,

maswavlebeli mzad iyos Sedegis gansaxorcieleblad.

* ibeWdeba nebarTviT. Canter, L. (with M. Canter). Assertive Discipline. Santa Monica, Calif.: Canter and Associates, 1977).

113


Tavi 7

114

Sedegebi ufro logikuria Tu damsjeli?

rudolf dreikurss (Rudolph Dreikurs) esmoda, rom dasja gaRizianebas, gabrazebas iwvevs,

maSin, roca logikuri Sedegebi moswavleebs socialuri wesrigis realobas aswavlis. nebismieri

dasja arasasurveli stimulia (mag., gawkepvla an asjer gadawera frazisa `qaRalds iatakze

ar davagdeb~), romelic gamiznulia am saqcielis gameorebis aRsakveTad. savaraudod,

moswavle konkretul saqciels aRar gaimeorebs, radgan `dapirebuli~ usiamovno ram SeiZleba

kvlavac daemarTos. meore mxriv, logikuri Sedegebi isea dakavSirebuli qcevasTan, rom

moswavle darRvevisaTvis samarTlianad damsaxurebul sasjels grZnobs. Tu is arRvevs wess,

romlis mixedviTac ar SeiZleba sxvisi saSinao davalebis gadawera, logikuri Sedegia, rom

mas davalebis xelaxla Sesruleba mouwevs meTvalyureobiT (da ara skolis Semdeg darCena,

rogorc sasjeli). Tu is anagvianebs iataks, logikuri Sedegia misi dasufTavebis moTxovna

Sesvenebis dros (da ara asjer gadawera frazisa `ar davanagvianeb~). Tu is vinmes awyeninebs

uxeSi SeniSvniT, logikuri Sedegi iqneba am vinmesTvis raime sasiamovnos gakeTebis moTxovna

(da ara skolis Semdeg darCena da skamze jdoma). (meti informacia logikur Sedegebze moce-

muli iqneba am Tavis im nawilSi, romelic eZRvneba dreikursis models.) 1

SedegTa diapazoni gvaqvs Tu erTi mkacri

pasuxi yvela usaqcielobaze?

Tu yovel wesTan erTi avtomaturi Sedegia mibmuli, SeiZleba kuTxeSi mimwyvdeuli aRmoCndeT,

radgan yvela wesisTvis mxolod erTi Sedegi mcdari midgomaa. mendleri da kurvini

gviamboben erT maswavlebelze, romelic Seusrulebeli samuSaosTvis Sedegad gakveTilebis

Semdeg darCenasa da mis dasrulebas iyenebs. erT dRes misi saukeTeso moswavle ambobs: `vwuxvar,

qalbatono martin, magram mamaCemi wuxel Zalian cudad iyo. bavSvis movla me momiwia da

dro ar mqonda saSinao davalebis Sesasruleblad~. maswavlebeli dilemis winaSea, civi da

mkacri iyos (`vwuxvar, magram Sen mainc unda darCe gakveTilebis Semdeg~), Tu Tavi daanebos

da bavSvebs aswavlos, rom Seusrulebeli samuSao SeiZleba `sapatio~ mizeziT gamarTldes. am

problemas Tavidan aicilebda, Tu maswavlebeli yoveli wesisaTvis Sesatyvis Sedegs airCevda

SedegTa diapazonidan. Seusrulebeli samuSaosTvis SedegTa diapazoni SeiZleba iyos:

Sexseneba;

gafrTxileba;

samuSaos Cabareba imave dRes gakveTilebis bolomde;

gakveTilebis Semdeg darCena mis dasasruleblad;

molaparakeba maswavlebels, moswavlesa da mSobels Soris gegmis Sesadgenad.

alternativaTa am diapazoniT, qalbatoni martini mSvidad SeZlebda Seexsenebina

suzanisTvis, rom saSinao davaleba droze unda Sesruldes, Semdeg ekiTxa mamamisis

mdgomareoba da a.S. am SemTxvevaSi is mimarTavda winaswar Camoyalibebuli

1 sainteresoa imis gadaxedva, rogor gamoiyeneba `gakveTilebis Semdeg datoveba~ logikuri Sedegebis Teoriis TvalsazrisiT.

zogjer gakveTilebis Semdeg datoveba SeiZleba marTlac iyos logikuri, roca moswavles ar Seusrulebia samuSao. magram

aseve SesaZlebelia gakveTilebis Semdeg datoveba iyos sasjeli da `ukuSedegiani~, roca, vTqvaT, merxze daweris an maswavlebelTan

Selaparakebis Sedegad gamoiyeneba.)


disciplina

Sedegebidan erT-erTs da arc suzanTan iqneboda mkacri. is moswavle ki, romelmac

erT TveSi eqvsjer daagviana, SeiZleba gakveTilebis Semdeg datovos da samuSao

daasrulebinos (Mendler and Curwin 1983, gv. 119).

saWiro araa samarTlianoba yovelTvis Tanabari iyos.

varT Tu ara Sedegebis gamocxadebisas mtkice, Tanamimdevruli,

swrafi, realuri da mivaniSnebT Tu ara moswavlis arCevanze?

molodinis acdenisas, maswavlebelma yovel jerze Tanamimdevrulad unda gamoxatos

reaqcia (es `reaqciis erTnairad gamoxatvas~ ki ar niSnavs, aramed `reaqciis gamoxatvas yovel

jerze~). es ar niSnavs dasjas. reaqcia SeiZleba iyos nebismieri ram dawyebuli SexsenebiT

da damTavrebuli SedegebiT; raRac unda moxdes; maswavlebelma raRac unda gaakeTos; sxva

SemTxvevaSi moswavleebi _ gansakuTrebiT rezistentulni _ arad Caagdeben molodins (an

daibnevian). zogadad, darRvevis ignorireba ar SeiZleba. (zogjer maswavlebelma SeiZleba

arad Caagdos konkretuli saqcieli, roca is umniSvneloa da yuradRebis gamaxvileba mas

ubralod gaaZlierebs, an Seafasos is `ekonomiurad~ da

mokled). misi zogadi misiaa, moswavleebs Seatyobinos,

maswavleblebi mtkiceni unda iyvnen.

rom molodini namdvilad misi molodinia da swored

amas gulisxmobs. isini iReben am Setyobinebas, roca

moswavleebi maqsimalurad scdian maT.

darwmundebian, maswavlebeli maTgan konkretul qcevas

moiTxovs _ mtkiced da Tanamimdevrulad akeTebs raRacas

amasTan dakavSirebiT. molodinebis komunikaciis dros `akeTebs raRacas amasTan dakav-

SirebiT~ xSirad yvelaze mniSvnelovan atributad moixsenieba (Rogers 1972; Canter 1977; Mendler

and Curwin 1983) da Cveulebriv, qcevisTvis Sedegis morgebas niSnavs. ubralo SeniSvna da sayveduri

im qmedebis gareSe, romelic scildeba sityvebs, rogorc wesi, gzavnis Setyobinebas,

rom molodini sustia.

maswavleblebi unda iyvnen mtkiceni molodinis gancxadebisas da Tanamimdevrulad imoqmedon.

calkeuli moswavleebi da zogjer mTeli klasi maqsimalurad scdian maswavleblebs

simtkicesTan mimarTebaSi. maswavlebelma xeli ar unda Caiqnios, Tundac arasasurveli

saqcieli specifikuri molodinis Tanamimdevruli gancxadebis miuxedavad gagrZeldes. zogierTi

Zalian rTuli moswavle mxolod imitom iqceva cudad, rom Seamowmos marTla zrunavs

Tu ara maswavlebeli masze. Tu reaqciebi araswor saqcielze gonivruli, Sesabamisi da samar-

Tliania, simtkice gamarjvebas izeimebs.

li kanteri (1977) gviambobs Zalze agresiul mesameklasel karlze, romelic gamudmebiT

ayenebs sityvier da fizikurad Seuracxyofas sxva bavSvebs. ramdenjerme man klaselebs fulic

gamosZala! bavSvis mSoblebTan, skolis direqtorTan da maswavleblebTan Sexvedraze

xeli moewera kontraqts, sadac naTqvami iyo, rom karli gairicxeba skolidan, Tu is bavSvebs

daemuqreba, Seaginebs, gamosZalavs fuls an fizikurad gauswordeba. mSoblebi Tanxmdebian

pirobebis Sesrulebaze.

meore dRes saklaso oTaxisaken mimavali karli sxva moswavles SeekamaTa da uxeSad

hkra xeli. maswavlebeli maSinve mivida karlTan da ubralod uTxra: `Sen xeli hkari

sols da amitom saxlSi wasvla airCie!~ maswavlebelma direqtors mimarTa, romelmac

karlis dedas daureka Svilis wasayvanad. karli saxlSi waiyvanes, sadac saskolo

dRis darCenili nawili Tavis oTaxSi gaatara da is samuSao daasrula, romelic

skolaSi unda gaekeTebina.

115


Tavi 7

116

meore dRes marTlweris davalebis Sesrulebisas, roca erT-erTma moswavlem karls

samuSaos gadaweraze uari uTxra, karli gabrazda. is Tanaklasels cemiT daemuqra.

maswavlebelma karli isev saxlSi gagzavna, sadac darCenili dRe Tavis oTaxSi

gaatara. momdevno ori dRe karli kargad iqceoda. mesame dRes Tavisufali arCevanis

dros maswavlebelma SeamCnia, rom is gabrazebuli aginebda da uyviroda gogonas,

romelmac saTamaSo asawyobi naxati ar aTxova, radgan TviTon TamaSobda. maswavlebelma

isev mSvidad acnoba karls misive usaqcielobis Sesaxeb da isic, rom cudi

saqcieliT man saxlSi wasvla airCia. karli pirvelad daRonda, daiwyo tirili imis

gamo, rom ar undoda saxlSi wasvla. maswavlebelma isev mSvidad uTxra, rom `Tavad

gaakeTa arCevani~ da saxlSi unda wasuliyo.

rogorc ityvian, mesame da samarTalio _ maswavleblis Seupovrobam, moswavle daarwmuna,

rom mis cud saqciels ar moiTmendnen. amgvarad, karlma airCia sakuTari Tavis

kontroli da sxva moswavleebTan kargad moqceva.

am TavSi es, albaT, yvelaze mniSvnelovania. Sedegebis gatareba, roca saqcieli grZeldeba,

mizandasaxulobasa da simtkices moiTxovs. am simtkicis gareSe moswavleebi ar daijereben,

rom maswavlebeli seriozulad ekideba sakuTar molodins. kanteris azriT, wlis dasawyisSi

SemuSavebuli gegmebis Sesrulebas (im varaudiT, rom gyavT moswavle, romelsac aseTi mkacri

gegma sWirdeba) yuradRebiT daakvirdeba mTeli klasi da darwmundeba, rom rasac ambobT, imas

akeTebT. saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi araTanamimdevruloba da SemuSavebuli gegmis ugulebelyofa

disciplinis problemebis xSiri mizezia.

bavSvebma SeiZleba ar idardon, Tu gakveTilebis Semdeg erTxel datovebT, xandaxan

skolaSi ar miuSvebT an iSviaTad kuTxeSi daayenebT. magram cotaa iseTi moswavle,

romelic ar inaRvlebs Tu ecodineba, rom, cudi saqcielis arCevis SemTxvevaSi,

gakveTilebis Semdeg darCena yoveldRe (Tundac mTeli kviris ganmavlobaSi) mouwevs;

romelic ar inaRvlebs, Tu ecodineba, rom cudad moqcevis SemTxvevaSi skolaSi

ar miuSveben, Tundac es skolaSi ardaSvebis sam dRes niSnavdes; romelic ar inaRvlebs,

Tu ecodineba, rom cudi saqcielis gamo kuTxeSi daayeneben yovel jerze, Tundac

dReSi xuTjer.

amrigad, Tu TqvenTvis es namdvilad mniSvnelovania, bavSvebisTvisac namdvilad

mniSvnelovani iqneba. Tu mzad xarT gamoiyenoT nebismieri saWiro da Sesaferisi sa-

Sualeba bavSvebze gavlenis mosaxdenad da araswori saqcielis aRmosafxvrelad, isini

igrZnoben Tqvens mizandasaxulobas da izruneben im Sedegebis Tavidan acilebi-

sTvis, romelTa winaSec mudam aRmoCndebian, Tu arasworad moqcevas airCeven (Canter

1977, gv. 109-110).

Cven SegviZlia mivaRwioT TiTqmis nebismier saqciels, romlis miRwevac namdvilad gvsurs,

Tu mizandasaxulebi viqnebiT, radgan Cven Zalaufleba gvaqvs.

niSnavs Tu ara es imas, rom Tu gamudmebiT vaxorcielebT Sedegebs, saqcieli ueWvelad

Seicvleba? pirveli, SesaZlebelia Sedegi Tanamimdevrulad da gamudmebiT ganvaxorcieloT

da aranairi Sedegi ar gvqondes. es maSin xdeba, roca Sedegs sakmarisi gavlena ar aqvs an rogorRac

jildod iqceva bavSvisTvis. igive SeiZleba moxdes, Tu saqcieli gamowveulia fizikuri

mizeziT, ucodinrobiT an RirebulebaTa konfliqtiT. meore, kanteriseul scenarSi

Sedegis ganxorcieleba bevradaa dakavSirebuli mis warmatebasTan. maswavlebelma moswavle

ar daadanaSaula, ar gaakritika an ar daamcira; is mSvidad (magram swrafad) mivida masTan,

miuTiTa saqcielze (`Sen xeli hkari sols~) da ganaxorciela Sedegi (`Sen airCie saxlSi wasvla~).

man aRniSna, rom saxlSi wasvla iyo bavSvis arCevani am SemTxvevaSi, vinaidan man winaswar

icoda, rom solisaTvis xelis kvras es Sedegi mohyveboda. amrigad, maswavleblis reaqcia

brazi ki ar aris, aramed faqtebze damyarebuli simSvide. aseTi reagireba ufro advilia,


disciplina

roca zustad ici, ris gakeTebas apireb. amis codna (da ara bavSvis mier umweobis SegrZneba,

romelic Tqvens kontrols scildeba) maswavlebels TavdajerebulobasTan erTad simSvides

aniWebs, rac, Tavis mxriv, saRi gansjis saSualebas aZlevs. ase rom, SedegebTan dakavSirebiT

simtkicec SeiZleba warumatebeli iyos, Tu Sedegi sworad ar xorcieldeba.

kanteris scenarSi aRwerili konkretuli teqnika SeiZleba Zalian efeqturi iyos _ moswavlis

sistematuri `CamoSoreba~ gansakuTrebiT xelis SemSleli da jiuti saqcielis

aRmosafxvrelad. seimur sarasoni (Seymour Sarason) aRwers `CamoSorebis~ kidev erT Zlier

teqnikas, romelic warmatebulia mSoblebisa da kontraqtebis gareSe. is emyareba meore

maswavlebelTan TanamSromlobas, romlis oTaxSic igzavneba bavSvi `CamoSorebis~ mizniT.

maspinZel maswavlebels aqvs specialuri adgili, sadac moswavle arasaxaliso samuSaos asrulebs.

detaluri informaciisaTvis ix. sarasoni (1971), gv. 136-139.

vamCnevT da vajildoebT Tu ara pasuxismgeblur saqciels

efeqtianad?

dadebiT Sedegebze msjelobis gareSe Sedegebis ganxilva sruli ar iqneboda _ rogori

reaqcia gvaqvs im moswavleebis mimarT, romlebic Cvens molodinebs amarTleben. iseTi situacia

unda Seiqmnas, rom karg saqciels jildo ar sWirdebodes; is mosalodneli, norma unda

iyos; mis SenarCunebas dajildoebis sistema ar unda sWirdebodes. Tumca, konkretul, disciplinis

problemebis mqone klasebSi dajildoebis martivma sistemam SeiZleba dadebiTi roli

Seasrulos (saubari mxolod dawyebiT klasebze rodia).

dajildoebis martivi sistemebi, rogoricaa kanteriseuli SuSis burTulebi qilaSi 2 da

mravali sxva, romlebic aRwerilia CLAIM-Si (ix. IV nawili), moswavleTa dadebiTi qcevis aRiarebis

mizniT Seiqmna. mendlerisa da kurvinis (1983) midgoma, ZiriTadad, socialur Seqebas

(moswavlis mimarT individualurad gamoxatul) amyareba, romlis mixedviT maswavlebeli

rogorc dadebiT, ise uaryofiT Sedegebs mSvidad da individualurad acnobs moswavles. ase

rom, roca is konkretuli moswavlisken raRacis saTqmelad ixreba, danarCenebma ar ician, ras

etyvis: `amxanagTan saubari ori gafrTxilebis miuxedavad gaagrZele, amitom gakveTilebis

Semdeg darCena da am saqcielis Tavidan asacileblad gegmis SemuSaveba mogviwevs~ Tu `samuSaoze

iyavi koncentrirebuli da ori soneti dawere. swored amas vuwodeb produqtiulobas!~

saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi sakmaris drosa da energias vxarjavT Tu

ara molodinis Camosayalibeblad?

Cveni nacnobi dawyebiTi klasebis erT-erTi maswavlebeli seqtembris pirveli ori kviris

ganmavlobaSi moswavleebs Sromis, xatvisa da sxva araZiriTad gakveTilebze ar uSvebs, raTa

maT kargad Seiswavlon maswavleblis molodinebi, CamouyalibdeT rutina da daiwyon klasis,

rogorc erTobis Seqmna. araZiriTad gakveTilebze uaris Tqma SeiZleba ar iyos saWiro,

molodinze yuradRebis gamaxvileba ki namdvilad saWiroa. es periodi (ori kvira) sasargebloa

moswavleTa swavlebisa da wvrTnis TvalsazrisiT. wvrTnisTvis saWiroa varjiSi; Tu

sportuli darbazidan klasamde gzaSi moswavleebi xmauroben da sxvebs xels uSlian, Segvi-

Zlia vTqvaT: `vxedav, derefanSi siarulis wesebis saswavlad meti varjiSi gvWirdeba~. da

marTlac gaviyvanoT moswavleebi `gasavarjiSeblad~. es qmedeba iqneba ara damsjeli, aramed

2 li kanteri (1977, gv. 140) emxroba SuSis burTulebis Cayras qilaSi jildos saxiT. burTulis Cavardnis xma gamoiyeneba,

rogorc yvelasTvis gasagoni imwamieri signali, rom isini sworad iqcevian. qilis gavsebis Semdeg klasi iRebs raime winaswar

gansazRvrul jildos, rogoricaa wveuleba an damatebiTi Sesveneba.)

117


Tavi 7

logikuri Sedegi. (mendleri da kurvini (1983) saubroben skolaze, sadac tardeba klasgareSe

gakveTili kafeteriaSi moqcevaze, varjiSisa da gamocdis CaTvliT im bavSvebisTvis, romlebic

lanCze cudad iqceodnen. gamocdis warmatebiT Casabareblad moswavleebma 100 procenti

unda moagrovon.)

118

gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisad maRali molodini miuxedavad bavSvebis

warsulisa?

maswavlebels moswavleebis gakontroleba Seusabamo molodinebis SemTxvevaSic ki Seu-

Zlia mxolod ZalauflebiTa da SiSiT. Tumca, kontrolis arseboba arafers gveubneba maswavleblis

molodinis Sesatyvisobaze. qcevis am standartebis gansjas bundovan, magram

mniSvnelovan sferomde mivyavarT. Tu moswavleebisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi Seusabamoa,

disciplinis problemebis axsnas didi dro dasWirdeba. Cven SegviZlia maswavleblis standartebisTvis

Semdegi aRmavali skala SevqmnaT:

¤ ar arsebobs cxadi molodini: garkveulwilad, laissez-faire (frang. Caurevloba. mTargmn.

Sen.) damokidebuleba.

¤ ramdenime Tanamimdevruli cxadi molodini.

¤ dabal molodinTa erTgvari nakrebi: anu moswavleTa SesaZleblobebis mimarT metismetad

advili, damTmobi, aramomTxovni, asakisa da Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT.

¤ molodinTa erTgvari nakrebi, romelic miuReblad maRalia an asaks (an sxva mxriv) ar

Seesabameba.

¤ erTgvari da saSualo molodinebi.

¤ erTgvari da maRali molodinebi: momTxovni, magram mainc gonivruli.

Cven SegviZlia vcadoT am skalaze sakuTari adgilis moZebna, Tumca standartebis erTi

mniSvnelovani aspeqti mainc gansaxilveli gvrCeba. Tu sakuTar molodinebze, rogorc standartebze

zogadi warmodgena gveqneba, SevZlebT mis miRmac gavixedoT da vikiTxoT, rogor

vaxdenT am standartebis diferencirebas jgufebisa da individebis mixedviT. ganisazRvra

maswavlebelTa saqmianobis oTxi calkeuli da logikuri done, imis mixedviT, rogor iyeneben

isini TavianT standartebs sxvadasxva moswavlis mimarT. es doneebi SegviZlia Semdegi debulebebiT

warmovadginoT:

1. yvelasaTvis erTnairi molodini maqvs.

2. sxvadasxva bavSvisTvis gansxvavebuli molodini maqvs, rac imas niSnavs, rom zogierTisgan

ufro metad moveli cud saqcielsa da nakleb TviTkontrols. es SeiZleba

niSnavdes (an ar niSnavdes), rom ufro tolerantuli var, mesmis an viReb maT am araswor

saqciels; magram mainc ar viTxov maTgan im standartebis Sesrulebas, romelTac

sxvebisgan viTxov da moveli.

3. sxvadasxva macdunebel an sxva maRali riskis situaciaSi qcevis TvalsazrisiT,

calkeuli bavSvis SesaZleblobebis mimarT gansxvavebuli molodini maqvs. vici maTi

sisusteebi da safrTxis Semcveli situaciebi. aseT situaciaTa gansazRvras winaswar

vcdilob.

4. maRali riskis Semcvel, rTul situaciaSi bavSvebis qcevis gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebi

kargad mesmis da maTTvis garkveul cvlilebebsa da daTmobebs viTvaliswineb,

Tumca Cemi Tavdapirveli molodini maTi saqcielis mimarT iseTive maRali

rCeba, rogorc sxva bavSvebis mimarT da amas Riad vucxadeb. me maTTan erTad vibrZvi

maRali standartebisTvis. maTi cudi saqcieli ar mikvirs da, raRac gagebiT, dro-


disciplina

dadro `moveli~ kidec mas; Tumca cud saqciels ar viReb da aqtiurad vmuSaob mis

Sesacvlelad.

sakuTari saqmianobis analizisa da klasSi saqcielis kontrolis mcdelobisas, sasargeblo

iqneba am oTxi debulebis gadaxedva. mesame da meoTxe mkveTrad gansxvavdeba pirveli

orisgan; isini maswavleblis gansxvavebul saqcielSi vlindeba da mkveTri gavlena aqvs zogad

disciplinaze.

gansxvaveba imaSia, maswavleblis azriT ras gaakeTebs moswavle (maT SeiZleba `cvalebadi

molodinebi~ hqondeT) da ra unda maswavlebels, rom moswavlem gaakeTos an miaRwios (maT

SeiZleba gansxvavebuli `standartebi~ hqondeT).

yovel wels sul mcire erT an or saukeTeso maswavlebelTan vmuSaobT, niWier da mzrunvel

adamianebTan, romelTa efeqtianoba mcirdeba molodinebis mimarT maTi araTanamimdevrulobis

gamo. isini ar arian darwmunebuli imaSi, ramdenad gonivrulia bavSvebis mimarT

maTi molodini ufro pasuxismgebluri da yuradRebiani saqcielisken gakveTilze. isini xedaven

ukontrolo, ojaxuri da sxva problemebis mqone moswavleTa upasuxismgeblo, `giJur~

saqciels da grZnoben, rom daTmobebze unda wavidnen. amgvarad, isini arasaTanadod afaseben

bavSvebis SesaZleblobebs da maTi saqcielis miznebs. vin Tqva, rom pirvelklaselebs ar

SeuZliaT wreSi wynarad jdoma da erTmaneTis mosmena 15 wuTian Sekrebaze? vin Tqva, rom

mecxreklaselebs ar SeuZliaT iswavlon TviTorganizebul samuSao jgufebSi muSaoba proeqtis

dasagegmad da gansaxorcieleblad?

magaliTebma dagvarwmuna, rom sakmarisi Zalisxmevis, simtkicis, mizandasaxulobisa da

rwmenis (rom es Tqveni moswavleebisaTvis swori saqcielia, romlis miRwevac maT SeuZliaT

da gsurT aswavloT is unar-Cvevebi, rac SeiZleba im konkretul doneze samuSaod dasWirdeT)

pirobebSi sasurveli saqcielis miRweva SesaZlebelia. (ra Tqma unda, Tqveni `survili~

SeiZleba aragonivruli iyos da asaks ar Seesabamebodes. am SemTxvevaSi imas miiRebT, rasac

imsaxurebT!) es mosazreba WeSmaritia zogierT rTul moswavlesTan mimarTebaSic _ miuxedavad

maTze daxarjuli gacilebiT meti energiisa, Cvens saqmianobas SeiZleba garkveuli koreqtireba

sWirdebodes, rasac mniSvnelovnad meti dro unda movaxmaroT. saWiroze naklebi

samsaxuri samsaxuri ar aris.

Tu naTeli warmodgena gaqvT imaze, ra gsurT da ras moeliT moswavleebisagan, Tu es

molodini maTTvisac naTelia, Tu molodini ar gamarTlebs Sesabamisi Sedegebi gaqvT `ratom~

kiTxvaze ganmartebebiT da SeZlebisdagvarad, bevri sikeTe da racionaluroba, Tqven

sasurvel Sedegs miaRwevT; es auxdeneli ocneba ar gaxlavT. magram, pirvel yovlisa, amis

gakeTeba unda gadawyvitoT.

III nawili

TviTdisciplinisa da pasuxismgeblobis Camoyalibeba

vuyalibebT Tu ara bavSvebs klasis cxovrebaSi kontrolis, gavlenis,

pasuxismgeblobisa da Zalauflebis namdvil da kanonier gancdas?

am Tavis SesavalSi vamtkicebdiT, rom maswavlebels SeuZlia klasis imgvarad struqturireba,

rom moswavleebma momxdarze garkveuli Tanaziaroba da kontroli igrZnon da amis

safuZvelze Semcirdes disciplinis problemebi. Tumca, unda gvaxsovdes, rom es ver Secvlis

mkafio molodinsa da Sedegebs. isini upirvelesia. Cven vicnobT damwyeb maswavlebels,

romelsac gonebaSi arasdros ar dauxarisxebia molodinebi da Sedegebi, magram swavlis indi-

119


Tavi 7

vidualizebuli sakontraqto sistemiT Tavi gaarTva swavlebas. moswavleebma mxari aubes da

is energia, romelic maswavlebelTan brZolaSi unda daxarjuliyo saswavlo miznebis Tanxvedras

moxmarda. Tumca is weli mainc rTuli iyo. molodini wlis dasawyisSive rom Camoyalibebuliyo,

misi sakontraqto sistema am konkretul klass swor gzaze daayenebda.

klasis cxovrebaSi moswavleTaTvis Tanamflobelobis grZnobis Camoyalibebis sami SesaniSnavi

midgoma aseTia: molaparakeba mendlerisa da kurvinis `socialur kontraqtze~, swavlis

principis gamoyeneba, romelsac `miznis dasaxva~ hqvia (ix. me-9 Tavi) da swavlebis xuTi

kooperaciuli modelidan erT-erTis gamoyeneba (ix. me-15 Tavi).

sicxadis parametris kursis Seswavlis dros inglisuris erT-erTma maswavlebelma gaacnobiera,

rom mis mier dasmuli SekiTxvebi TamaSs _ `mixvdi ras gulisxmobs maswavlebeli~

_ hgavda. meore dRes es aRmoCena Tavis moswavleebs gauziara da hkiTxa, Tanaxma iyvnen Tu

ara eTanamSromlaT da aseTi kiTxvebis Tavidan acilebis gegma SeemuSavebinaT. diskusiaze

gamoTqmuli mosazrebebis safuZvelze isini aseT proceduraze SeTanxmdnen: Tu moswavleebi

mixvdebian, rom aseTi SekiTxva dausves, SeuZliaT pirdapir miuTiTon maswavlebels da sTxovon

SekiTxvis xelaxla Camoyalibeba; Tu moswavle ver gascems pasuxs SekiTxvaze, SeuZlia

igive SekiTxva Tanaklasels dausvas; maswavlebeli klass dausvams Semajamebel SekiTxvebs

saSinao davalebis teqstTan dakavSirebiT da Tu romelime moswavle ver dascems pasuxs an

arasworad upasuxebs, imave SekiTxvas sxva moswavles usvams. Tu zedized sami moswavle ver

upasuxebs, maswavlebeli xvdeba, rom SekiTxva arasworad iyo dasmuli da xelaxla ayalibebs

mas. dabali moswrebis moswavleebisaTvis am aqtivobis saboloo Sedegi gakveTilze ufro

aqtiuri monawileoba da akademiuri warmatebebis zrda iyo. Tumca, Cveni azriT, am konkretul

klasSi maswavlebeli gacilebiT met muSaobas eweoda. upirveles yovlisa, maswavlebeli

samarTlianobasa da bunebriobas amJRavnebda (pirovnuli urTierTobis Camoyalibeba)

imis aRiarebiT, rom SeiZleboda is yofiliyo moswavleTaTvis Seqmnili problemis mizezi da

problemebis mogvarebas Riad cdilobda. meore, es teqnika moswavleebs azris gamoTqmis sa-

Sualebas aZlevda klasSi TamaSis wesebis gansazRvrisa da movlenebis gakontrolebis dros.

meore maswavlebeli, saSinao davalebis kargad Sesasruleblis mizniT moswavleTa motivaciis

amaRlebas cdilobda. mas praqtikaSi hqonda moswavleTaTvis saxlSi sakiTxavi masalis

mixedviT agebuli yoveldRiuri testebi mieca. erT dRes maswavlebelma gamoucxada, rom Tu

oTxjer zedized 100 qulas miiRebdnen, Tavisufal 100 qulas moipovebdnen, romlis `daxarjvasac~

nebismieri momavali testirebisas TavianTi survilisamebr SeZlebdnen. aRmoCnda,

rom moswavleTa (maT Soris warmatebulTa) Zalisxmeva saSinao davalebisa da testebis SesrulebisTvis

mniSvnelovnad gaizarda. Cveni azriT, am teqnikis siZliere is iyo, rom moswavleebs

garkveuli kontrolis, kerZod, mopovebuli qulebis gamoyenebis, uflebas aZlevda.

maTi neba iyo moipovebdnen Tu ara qulebs da mopovebis SemTxvevaSi rogor `daxarjavdnen~.

(warmatebuli moswavleebisaTvis ki es teqnika erTgvari sadazRvevo polisi iyo momavali

warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi.)

es teqnika sxva maswavleblebmac gadaiRes, magram ugulebelyves oTxjer zedized 100

qulis miRebis moTxovna; ubralod, oTxi 100 qulis miReba gvaZlevs 100 qulas bonusad. am

maswavlebelTa martivma eqsperimentma gvafiqrebina, rom klasis cxovrebaSi yovelTvis Sei-

Zleba movZebnoT moswavleTaTvis meti kanonieri kontrolis miniWebis gzebi.

120

sworad vayalibebT Tu ara saklaso sazogadoebas (erTmaneTis Sesaxeb

codna, erTmaneTis dafaseba da erTmaneTTan TanamSromloba)?

uiliam glaseris saklaso Sexvedrebi (Glasser 1969), jin stenfordis aqtivobaTa wre `efeqtiani

klasebis Camoyalibeba~ (Stanford 1977), urTierTobis Camoyalibebis aqtivobebi (Wilt &


disciplina

Watson 1978), kooperaciuli swavla (Dishon & O’Leary 1984) specifikuri (magram ara martivi)

strategiebia klasSi iseTi kavSirisa da harmoniis dasamyareblad, romelic Tavidan agvacilebs

disciplinis problemebs.

disciplinaze zrunvis gareSec, oTxive naSromi TavisTavad Rirebulia, magram roca urTierTobebi

klasis wevrebs Soris daZabulia an ganxeTqilebisken midis (an orive), am strategiebs

SeuZliaT daZabulobis Semcireba da erTmaneTTan brZolisaTvis gamiznuli energiis

produqtiulad gamoyeneba.

strategiebis aRweramde, mniSvnelovania imis aRniSvna, rom strategiis gacnoba (iseve,

rogorc `swavlebis modelis~ SemTxvevaSi) sakmarisi rodia misi warmatebiT ganxorcielebisaTvis.

es arc yuradRebis aqtebia da arc sicxadis, romelTa gagebac da mosinjvac advilia.

isini ufro rTuli modelebia da maTi warmatebisaTvis, mniSvnelovania maT miRma arsebuli

rwmenisa da suliskveTebis gacnobiereba. amrigad, adamianma unda (1) daxarjos dro strategiebis

swavlaze; (2) surdes maTze muSaobis gagrZeleba sawyisi mcdelobebis fonze; da (3)

albaT, rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania, ar imuSaos damoukideblad (martom). gWirdebaT kolega,

romelic TqvensaviT gamoscdis am strategiebs, raTa masTan gadaamowmoT, ukukavSiri gqondeT

da erTad gadaWraT problemebi. aseve fasdaudebeli iqneba mwvrTneli an strategiis

mcodne adgilobrivi kadri. orive erTad – kidev ufro ukeTesi.

bolo 15 wlis ganmavlobaSi saklaso Sexvedrebis praqtika sakuTar klasebTanac gamoviyeneT

da rogorc kadrebis marTvis specialistebi, sxvebsac vexmarebodiT, rom saklaso Sexvedrebi

saklaso cxovrebis damaxasiaTebeli niSani gamxdariyo. TiTqmis ar Segvxvedria sxva

ufro sasargeblo praqtika klasSi erTobis zogadi gancdis Camoyalibebis TvalsazrisiT da

iseT problemebTan sabrZolvelad, rogoricaa ciliswameba, bulingi da `kutokebi~.

wignSi `skola marcxis gareSe~ uiliam glaseri detalurad aRwers `saklaso Sexvedrebis~

Catarebas. is wers: `ar Semxvedria bavSvi, romelsac ar SeuZlia fiqri da garkveul doneze

skolis marTvaSi monawileobis miReba, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gavagebinebT, rom vafasebT mis

wvlils~ (gv 97). es Sexeduleba umTavresia maswavleblisTvis, romelsac surs, rom klasis

Sexvedrebi Sedegiani iyos, radgan gansjis gareSe moswavleTa wvlilis aRiareba, saklaso

Sexvedrebis gaZRolis ZiriTadi unaria. Sexvedrebis saSualebiT moswavleebi swavloben rogorc

monawileobas, aRiarebasa da dafasebas, ise raRac realuris nawilad yofnas. klasis

krebebs regularulad (sul mcire yovelkvireulad da umjobesia kviraSi ramdenjerme) atareben

wreSi mWidrod msxdomi moswavleebi da maswavlebeli. maswavlebeli gansjis gareSe

moswavleebTan erTad ganixilavs maTTvis mniSvnelovan da aqtualur sakiTxebs. SexvedraTa

sami saxeoba arsebobs: Tavisufali (droSi SeuzRudavi) Sexvedrebi, Sexvedrebi socialuri

problemebis gadaWris mizniT da saganmanaTleblo-diagnostikuri Sexvedrebi.

Tavisufal Sexvedraze gansaxilveli Tema maswavlebels an moswavles Semoaqvs. maswavleblis

erT-erTi rolia sakiTxis garSemo moswavleTaTvis saintereso sakiTxebze yuradRebis

gasamaxvilebeli SekiTxvebis Camoyalibeba. erT-erTi Sexvedris dros, roca moswavleebma

disneilendze saubris survili gamoTqves, maswavlebelma ikiTxa: `isurvebdiT disneilend-

Si wasvlas?~ TiTqmis yvela moswavlem dadebiTad upasuxa. `warmoidgineT, rom viRacam disneilendis

ori bileTi momca da miTxra, rom isini Cemi ori moswavlisTvis mimeca. vis unda

mivce bileTebi?~ Ria Temebis fokusirebul diskusiebad gadaqcevis garda, maswavleblebi

iyeneben aqtiuri mosmenisa da Sejamebis unar-Cvevebs.

Tavisufali Sexvedrebi moswavleebs Tanaziarobis gancdas uyalibebs da safuZvels uyris

saswavlo saqmianobaSi mniSvnelovan investiciebsa da ufro rTul sferos _ socialuri

problemebis gadaWras. glaseris wignis me-10, me-11 da me-12 Tavebi kargi saxelmZRvaneloa

am Sexvedrebis Sesaswavlad da Casatareblad, ase rom, aq sityvas aRar gavagrZelebT. Tumca,

gvsurs SemogTavazoT socialuri problemebis gadaWris mizniT Catarebuli erT-erTi

121


Tavi 7

Sekrebis detaluri aRwera, rom naTeli warmodgena SegiqmnaT, Tu rogor SeiZleba klasis

Sekrebis gamoyeneba xelis SemSleli qcevis mqone bavSvis `gadmosabireblad~.

122

meore Sexvedris Tema maiki iyo. fizikurad Warbwoniani biWi arc ise sufTad icvamda,

Tma Tvalebs ufaravda, xma ki Zalian maRali da arasasiamovno hqonda. mis yvela maisurs

nakbenis, dagrexvisa da daReWvis gamo naxvretebi hqonda. misi yureba namdvilad

ar iyo sasiamovno! maikma ganacxada, rom ar uyvarda klasi, radganac klaselebs ar

uyvardaT is. kiTxvaze, misi azriT, ratom ar uyvardaT, Tqva, amis mizezi Cemi simsuqneao.

bavSvebi kategoriulad ar daeTanxmnen da Tqves, rom simsuqne arafer Sua-

Si iyo. maiks mizezis gageba surda. mas SesaZlebloba misces, azri im bavSvebisTvis

ekiTxa, romlebic auxsnidnen, ra iyo masSi usiamovno. erTis azriT, amis mizezi misi

sasacilo qudebi iyo, pilotis Cafxutis msgavsi, romelic wina dRes exura. (sxvaTa

Soris, maiks es qudi aRar dauxuravs.) meoris azriT, is CafarTxunebul tanisamoss

icvamda. martinis azriT, maiki iseT raRacebs ambobda, rac adamianebs guls stkenda.

magaliTad, roca martini evropidan dabrunda da klaselebs saCuqrebad Camotanili

ramdenime Zvirfasi nivTi aCvena, maikma ganacxada, rom es nivTebi sulac ar aris parizidan

Camotanili da martinma adgilobriv maRaziaSi iyida. martins es naTqvami ewyina.

devidma Tqva, rom roca is klaselebs nivTebs unawilebda, maikma msgavsi Seuracxmyofeli

SeniSvnebi wamoroSa. (sxvaTa Soris, maiki am `senisagan~ jer kidev ar

gankurnebula.) jonma, romelic bevrad ufro introspeqtuli da gamWriaxi gaxda,

Tqva, rom amis mizezi maikis sasacilo saxe da adamianebTan saubrisas Werisken mimar-

Tuli zizRiani mzera iyo. swored aseTi saxe hqonda maiks jonis azris mosmenisas,

ris gamoc jonma daamata: `xedav, maik, axlac swored ase akeTeb da verc ki xvdebi~.

maiks hkiTxes, misi azriT, vinme Tu cdilobda kargad mohqceoda. maikma upasuxa, rom

ase mxolod alisa iqceoda, romelic mas moswonda. yvelam CaixiTxiTa. alisam Tqva,

rom mas ar enaRvleboda, Tu vinme dascinebda, mas moswonda maiki da ar rcxvenoda

masTan megobroba. mas moswonda maikTan yofna. jgufma isaubra sul mcire erTi megobris

yolis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb. sxvebma aRmoaCines, rom sinamdvileSi aravin

cdilobda maikisTvis xeli Seewyo, rom misi megobari gamxdariyo. momavali kviridan

yoveli maTgani Seecdeboda raime iseTi gaekeTebina, rom maikTan megobrobis survili

gamoexata. maT marTlac daiwyes am survilis gamomJRavneba, Tumca maleve

daiviwyes da isev TavianTi gulgriloba aCvenes. miuxedavad amisa, maikis mimarT uxamsobas

aRar iCendnen, rac ukve cvlileba iyo. alisa agrZelebda maikTan megobrobas,

xolo bavSvebma Sewyvites misi dacinva amasTan dakavSirebiT. harietma, romelic erTerTi

maTgani iyo, vinc alisas dascinoda, bodiSi mouxada klasis Sexvedraze. man

gaixsena, rom erTxel mas iseT bavSvTan megobrobis gamo dascines, romelsac sxva

megobrebi ar hyavda da mas gambedaoba dasWirda, rom megobroba gaegrZelebina. man

aRiara, rom miuxedavad maSindeli wyenisa, daiviwya da Tavadac cudad moeqca alisas.

Tqva, rom swuxda da namdvilad SeeZlo gageba, Tu ras grZnobda alisa. am semestrSi

maiki Zalian Seicvala. man swavlasa da garegnobaze zrunva daiwyo, ufro wynarad

saubrobs, metad akontrolebs sakuTar Tavs, ufro samarTlianad TamaSobs ezoSi,

sxvebs ukeT ewyoba da ufro meti megobari hyavs (Glasser 1968, gv. 152-153)*

am nawyvetis wakiTxvam maswavleblebi SeaSina. zogierTs is Wrilobis gaxsnis tolfasad

moeCvena, zogs ki iseTi procesis dasawyisad, romelic SeiZleba ukontrolo gaxdes. Cvens

msmenel or maswavlebels, romelTac rTuli klasebi hyavdaT, eqvsi Tve dasWirdaT gambedaobis

mosakrebad da sakuTar klasebSi msgavsi praqtikis dasanergad. samagierod, axla saklaso

krebebs TavianTi karieris erT-erT umniSvnelovanes miRwevad miiCneven. moxarulebi varT,

rom gambedaoba moikrifes da usafrTxo Temebis gaZRolis unar-Cvevebic daxvewes. isini

* ibeWdeba nebarTviT. Glasser, W. Schools Without Failure, New York: Harper and Row, 1968. © 1968 Harper Collins Publishers,

Inc. yvela ufleba daculia.)


disciplina

klasSi sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis jin stenfordiseul mraval strategiasac iyenebdnen

(rasac mokled aRvwerT). saqme is aris, rom aseTi sakiTxebi wamlavs, tkivils ayenebs da

asustebs im moswavleTa energiasac, romelTac ar exebaT; ostaturi xelmZRvanelobiT am

sakiTxebze Ria msjelobam SeiZleba arsebiTi cvlilebebi moaxdinos klasis klimatze. arc

maswavlebeli glaseris nawyvetidan da arc isini, visTanac Cven vmuSaobdiT, specialurad

ar momzadebulan ganxilvaTa teqnikaSi. isini Cveulebrivi maswavleblebi iyvnen, romelTac

gambedaoba da Tavdadeba gamoiCines da klasSi mtkice sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis mizniT

moswavleTa daxmareba scades. maT icodnen, rom akademiuri winsvlisaken ZalisxmevaSic

did dividendebs debdnen.

gvsurs ramdenime SeniSvna gagiziaroT glaseris naSromidan nawyvetTan dakavSirebiT:

1) iseTi fraza, rogoricaa `mas SesaZlebloba misces, azri im bavSvebisTvis ekiTxa,

romlebic...~ niRbavs lideri maswavleblis ZiriTad gadawyvetilebebs. sinamdvileSi, maswavlebelma

gadawyvita, rom maikisaTvis sasargeblo iqneboda konkretuli magaliTebis

mosmena imis Taobaze, Tu ratom iwvevda misi saqcieli sxvebSi antipaTias. metic, maswavlebelma

gadawyvita, rom maiki metad CaerTveboda (da misTvis ufro usafrTxo iqneboda),

Tu Tavad gamoiZaxebda bavSvebs. 2) fraza _ `maiks hkiTxes, misi azriT, vinme Tu cdilobda,

kargad mohqceoda~ _ maswavlebliseulia, roca man igrZno, rom diskusiis Semobrunebisa

da dadebiTze yuradRebis gamaxvilebisTvis Sesabamisi momenti dadga. 3) fraza `jgufma

isaubra sul mcire erTi megobris yolis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb~. maswavlebelma ramdenime

sakvanZo kiTxva dasva, raTa diskusia am gziT waeyvana. es TavisTavad ar momxdara. (pirveli

ori magaliTi, gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa efeqtian komunikaciaSi pasiuri xmis macduri

bunebis sailustraciod.)

aseTi sakvanZo momentebisa da SesaZleblobebis amocnobis unari socialuri problemis

gadaWris mizniT, klasis Sekrebebis Catarebis unar-CvevebSi Sedis. misi swavla pirvelive

dRes SeuZlebelia, Tumca misi daufleba maswavlebelTa umravlesobas ZaluZs. amrigad,

regularulad gamarTuli saklaso Sexvedrebi umniSvnelovanesia warmatebuli swavlisTvis

klimatis Seqmnis TvalsazrisiT.

saSualo skolaSi inglisuris swavlebisas jin stenfordi amave daskvnamde mivida da

SeimuSava aqtivobaTa seria erT weliwadSi klasis erTobis Camoyalibebis mizniT. naSromSi

`efeqtiani klasebis Camoyalibeba~ (1975) is aqtivobaTa organizacias asakobrivi principis

mixedviT axdens. erTmaneTis dafasebamde da Tanaziarobamde moswavleebs erTmaneTis Sesaxeb

garkveuli informacia unda hqondeT, ase rom, I etapi orientaciaa. II etapis aqtivobebi

uSualod jgufuri pasuxismgeblobis (sxvebis Secnobis swavlebiT), gulisxmierebis (rac

gulisxmobs kargi mosmenis unar-Cvevebs), kooperaciuli unar-Cvevebis, SeTanxmebiT gadawyvetilebis

miRebisa da socialuri problemis gadaWrisTvis saWiro unar-CvevaTa normebs

aviTarebs. III etapi konfliqtisTvis Tavis garTmevas exeba; IV etapi _ produqtiulobas;

xolo V etapi _ Sejamebas, rac gulisxmobs saswavlo wlis dasasruls, jgufis cxovrebis

dasasrulsa da amasTan dakavSirebiT adamianTa gancdebs. yovelive es integrirebulia saswavlo

programasTan da aqcenti keTdeba weraze.

kooperaciuli swavlis ramdenime konkretuli modeli SemuSavda, romlebic imgvarad

axdenen akademiuri amocanebis struqturirebas, rom moswavleebs urTierTkavSiris,

urTierTgagebisa da klasis erTobis gancda uyalibdebaT. (sxvaTa Soris, arsebobs myari

safuZveli vifiqroT, rom isini Tanabrad efeqturia akademiuri swavlisaTvisac. mravali

mkvlevari _ slavini, jonsoni da jonsoni da Sarami _ amtkicebs, rom isini ukeTesic kia.)

swavlis kooperaciuli modelis mixedviT moswavleebi, rogorc wesi, jgufebad muSaoben.

skolaSi mimdinare `jgufuri~ muSaobis umravles formaTagan gansxvavebiT aqtivoba isea

struqturirebuli, rom davalebis dasruleba an jildo (an orive) damokidebulia yvelas

monawileobaze. jgufebi arc zanti moswavleebis gamo isjebian da arc `saukeTesoTa~ gamo

jildovdebian. diSonsa da o’lears (Dishon & O’Leary 1984) SesaniSnavad aqvT Sejamebuli am

123


Tavi 7

teqnikebis ganxorcieleba. kooperaciuli modelebis damatebiTi nimuSebi aRwerilia TavSi

`swavlis gamocdileba~.

disciplinis parametris am nawilis mizania erTmaneTs daukavSiros kargi disciplina,

ufro konkretulad ki, xelSemSleli da rezistentuli qcevis ararseboba da klasSi erTobis

gancdis Camoyalibeba. Cveni azriT, erTobis Seqmna TavisTavad Rirebulia; magram ver

uarvyofT misi, rogorc disciplinis problemebis Tavidan acilebis instrumentis rolsac.

imavdroulad, is araCveulebrivi resursia iseTi garemos Sesaqmnelad, romelic xels

uwyobs akademiuri swavlis maRal donesac.

axla ki droa, davubrundeT yvelaze rezistentul moswavleebs, jgufs, romelic bolosTvis

SemovinaxeT, jgufs, romelic agrZelebs winaaRmdegobis gawevasa da xelis SeSlas cxadi

molodinebisa da Sedegebis gacnobisa da Cveni Tavdauzogavi mcdelobis miuxedavad, SevqmnaT

Tanaziaroba da CamovayaliboT saklaso erToba. eseni yvelaze rTuli bavSvebi arian,

romelTac yovel diliT mZime emociuri tvirTi moaqvT da TavianT saWiroebebs standartuli

sazomebis sawinaaRmdego xelis SemSleli

qceviT gamoxataven. sabednierod, isini bevrni

saklaso erTobis Camoyalibeba mZlavri preven­

ar arian. Tavdapirvelad, am kategoriaSi moxveciuli

Zalaa disciplinis problemebis winaaRdril

moswavleTa umravlesobas molodinebsa

mdeg.

da SedegebTan dakavSirebiT maswavleblisagan

ubralod meti sicxade, darwmuneba da simtkice

sWirdeba. Tu axla aseT moswavleze fiqrobT, garwmunebT, rom Tqven namdvilad gadalaxeT

standartuli sazomebis sazRvari. dRes Cveulebrivi movlenaa klasSi, sul mcire, erTi aseTi

moswavle; swored es erTi axerxebs mTeli klasis yuradRebis gafantvas da gvanatrebinebs

saswavlo wlis dasrulebas. Semdegi nawilSi ganxilulia aseT moswavleebTan urTierTobis

eqvsi modeli.

124

IV nawili

disciplinis eqvsi modeli

am nawilSi mocemulia disciplinis eqvsi modelis funqcionireba da eqvsi strategiis

mokle aRwera.

qcevis modifikacia Zalze mowesrigebuli midgomaa, romelic efuZneba varauds, rom

konkretuli adamianis garemosa da jildos analiziTa da kontroliT SeiZleba araproduqtiuli

qcevis aRmofxvra da produqtiuliT Canacvleba. qcevis modifikacia sistematurad:

(1) `CamoarTmevs~ jildoebs araproduqtiuli saqcielisaTvis; (2) gansazRvravs substitutsa

da ufro produqtiul qcevas; (3) am axal qcevebs moswavlesTan erTad detalurad aanalizebs;

da (4) iwyebs maT dajildoebas ganrigis mixedviT, romelic dasawyisSi Tanamimdevruli

da xSiria, TandaTanobiT ki cvalebadi da ufro dabali sixSiris.

TviTanalizis swavleba moswavleebs sakuTari signalebis wakiTxvas aswavlis im mizniT,

rom gaacnobieron sakuTari brazi, SiSi, imedgacrueba an sxva nebismieri emocia, romelsac

Sedegad afeTqeba an sxva araproduqtiuli qceva mohyveba. moswavleebs SeuZliaT iswavlon

sakuTari Tavis marTvis strategiaTa nakrebi, romelTa amuSaveba rTul situaciebSi sxvisi

daxmarebiT, xolo Semdeg damoukidebladac SeeZlebaT. dasawyisSi maswavlebeli aqtiuri,

verbaluri mxardamWeris rols asrulebs, romelic sistemaSi moswavlis avtonomiis mopovebis

kvalobaze TandaTan mcirdeba.

pirovnuli gavlena maswavleblisa da moswavlis myar urTierTobebs efuZneba. maswavlebeli

konkretuli specifikuri saSualebebiT Zalisxmevas ar iSurebs am urTierTobis Camo


disciplina

sayalibeblad. is Tavis moswavleebs uambobs, Tu rogor cxovrobs da ra warmatebebs aRwevs

skolis gareT, raTa maTi pativiscema moipovos, rogorc erTgvarad saintereso da mniSvnelovanma

pirovnebam, saklaso oTaxs miRma arsebuli samyaros wevrma. maswavlebeli am urTierTobas

bankSi arsebuli fulis msgavsad iyenebs da sakmao simkacres iCens xelis SemSleli

moswavleebis mimarT. is ise gamoxatavs wyenasa da nerviulobas, rom kontrols ar kargavs da

swrafad da gadaWriT iyenebs xelis SemSleli saqcielis Sedegebs.

logikuri Sedegebi (xelSemSleli qcevis) maswavleblis afeqtis dabal donesa da SemoqmedebiT

azrovnebas emyareba, raTa moswavleebma ara mxolod sasjeli, aramed TavinT qcevas-

Tan logikurad dakavSirebuli Sedegebic gaacnobieron. maswavlebeli aanalizebs moswavlis

motivacias, romelsac misive dasaxmareblad _ TviTSecnobisTvis iyenebs. moswavleebi socialuri

wesrigis realobas Sesabamisi logikuri SedegebiT swavloben da ara moralis Sesaxeb

leqciebiT. demokratiul azrovnebaze mZlavri orientaciis gziT klasi Tavdauzogavad

cdilobs Caswvdes socialuri SeTanxmebis arss.

realobiT Terapiis saSualebiT moswavleebi sakuTar qcevas acnobiereben da aRiareben.

maswavlebeli ar gansjis, Tumca mudam CarTulia da moswavleebs afasebinebs, ra gaakeTes

sakuTari ZiriTadi saWiroebebisTvis. moswavleebi alternativebsa da sakuTari moqmedebis

kursze valdebulebis aRebas swavloben. acnobiereben sakuTar qcevasa da am qcevis sxvebTan

urTierTobaze gavlenas. es strategia maswavleblis CarTulobas, Tanamimdevrul daxmarebasa

da simtkices efuZneba. es aris pasuxismgeblobisa da sakuTari Rirsebis SegrZnebis ganviTarebis

strategia im adamianis daxmarebiT, romelsac konkretuli moswavlisadmi rwmena

ar daukargavs.

maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTnaSi maswavleblebi da moswavleebi arkveven, sinamdvileSi

vis aqvs problema, iyeneben Sesabamis unar-Cvevebs da ormxrivi problemis SemTxvevaSi

problemis udanakargod gadaWrisTvis Tanamimdevrul moqmedebaTa gzas iyeneben. es gulisxmobs

rogorc maswavleblis, ise moswavlis interesebis gaTvaliswinebas. moswavlis realuri

moTxovnebis, zogjer ki realuri problemis gasarkvevad saWiroa `aqtiuri mosmenisa~ da `me-

Setyobinebis~ gagzavnis kargi unar-Cveva, raTa moswavleebs sakuTari moTxovnebi gavagebinoT.

aseve aucilebelia urTierTobis unar-Cvevebi, ris safuZvelzec problemis gadaWris

procesis kvalobaze ormxrivi pativiscema izrdeba.

am strategiaTa ganxorcieleba arc ise rTulia, magram TiToeuls kargad Seswavla da

varjiSi sWirdeba, radgan maswavleblis mier gadadgmuli nabijebis mixedviT isini mkveTrad

gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan. es qmedebebi da unar-Cvevebi, albaT, mkiTxvelTa umravlesobis

repertuarSi arsebobs da odesRac gamogiyenebiaT kidec. dro maTi Tanamimdevrobisa da gamoyenebis

Seswavlas sWirdeba; da gverwmuneT, Citi brdRvnad Rirs.

aravin ifiqros, rom am Tavis darCenili nawilis ubralod wakiTxviT adamiani konkretuli

strategiis ganxorcielebas SeZlebs. am gafrTxilebis mizania, Tavidan aviciloT strategiis

ucodinarobiT gamowveuli marcxi da aravis vaTqmevinoT: `oh, es CemTvis ar gamodgeba!~

strategia nebismieri adamianisTvis Sedegiania, Tu viciT misi gamoyeneba da Sesatyvis

dros viyenebT. rogor da rodis unda gamoviyenoT strategia, ai, amis codna gvWirdeba. Sesabamisobis

ara mxolod am Tavis, aramed TviT swavlebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani da rTuli

sakiTxia. am eqvsi strategiis Sesabamisobaze arsebuli informaciis ganxilvamde, saWirod

vTvliT, TiToeulis ufro detalur ganxilvas, raTa mkiTxvels Sesabamisobis Sesaxeb ufro

meti konteqsti SevTavazoT. amrigad, yovel strategiaze eqvs qveTavs SemogTavazebT, Semdeg

ki saboloo da umniSvnelovanes V nawilze _ Sesabamisobaze gadavalT im moswavleTa mokle

daxasiaTebiT, romelTaTvisac Sesaferisia mocemuli strategia.

Semdegi eqvsi qveTavis mizania zemoxsenebuli eqvsi strategiis ufro naTeli da sruli

125


Tavi 7

aRwera da maTi gansxvavebisa da moqmedebis TaviseburebaTa Cveneba. misi wakiTxvis Semdeg

dainteresebul mkiTxvels SeuZlia gadaxedos volfgangisa da glikmanis SesaniSnav naSroms

`disciplinis problemebis gadaWra~ (Wolfgang & Glickman 1980), sadac mTliani Tavebi eZRvneba

eqvsidan oTx models, strategiis moqmedebis scenarebis ganxilviT. garda amisa, mkiTxvels

SeuZlia gaecnos Tavis bolos mocemuli literaturisac, raTa ufro zedmiwevniT daiwyos

unar-Cvevebis Camoyalibeba. (SesaZloa zogierTma mkiTxvelma jer me-5 nawilis wakiTxva moisurvos

da Semdeg daubrundes eqvsi calkeuli strategiis Sesaxeb qveTavs.)

modiT, eqvsi strategiis ganxilva yvelaze struqturirebulis, qcevis modifikaciiT,

daviwyoT. mas maswavleblebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT kargad konstruirebuli `SefuTviT~,

e.w. `klasisa da aRzrdis menejmentiT _ kdam~-iT warmogidgenT. am da sxva strategiaTa

analizisTvis gamoviyenebT struqturas, romelic joisisa da veilis (Joyce & Weil 1972) mier

swavlebis modelis analizisas gamoyenebuli kategoriebis modificirebasa da ganvrcobas

axdens. es kategoriebia: (1) gansazRvrebebi; (2) varaudebi; (3) Rirebulebebi; (4) miznebi; (5)

mizezebi; (6) principebi (an nabijebi); (7) maswavleblis reaqciis principebi; (8) mxardaWeris

sistema; (9) socialuri sistema; (10) efeqtebi; (11) Sedegebi.

126

qcevis modifikacia kdam-is gamoyenebiT

disciplina, rogorc qcevis gamomuSaveba

qcevis modifikaciis principebs mravali adamiani iyenebs klasis menejmentSi. azrovnebis

am skolis nimuSad Cven kdam-i avirCieT, ukvdavi wigni CEMREL-isagan, romelic specialurad

maswavleblebisTvis daiwera am principebis praqtikuli gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. yvela vinc

klasSi qcevis modifikacias emxroba, SeiZleba kdam-is zogierT Rirebulebas, varaudsa da

mizans ar iziarebdes. amas dasawyisSive vityviT, am skolis mxardamWerebisTvis gaugebrobis

Tavidan acilebis mizniT. Semdeg gavaanalizebT konkretul gamoyenebiT sistemaSi qcevis

modifikaciis principebis erT konkretul interpretacias. kdam-i qcevis modifikaciis Sesaxeb

dawerili mravali naSromisgan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom is ufro srulyofili `modelia~,

an rogorc maswavleblebisgan gvsmenia, `is ufro praqtikulia~, anu `is kargi Teoriaa~.

gansazRvrebebi

Semdegi gansazRvrebebi aRebulia kdam-Si arsebuli terminebis mixedviT da SesaZloa ar

emTxveodes qcevis modifikaciis Sesaxeb sxva literaturaSi (ix. gansakuTrebiT modelireba)

imave terminTa gansazRvrebebs.

1. ganmtkiceba: nebismieri ram, rac mocemuli qcevis sixSires zrdis.

2. sasjeli: nebismieri ram, rac mocemuli qcevis sixSires amcirebs.

3. reJimi: ganmtkicebis kavSiri gamoxatul qcevasTan droSi. uwyveti ganmtkiceba aris

yovel jerze sasurveli qcevis ganmtkiceba. wyvetili ganmtkiceba aris daugegmavad

sasurveli saqcielis ganmtkiceba.

4. Caqroba: qcevis aRmofxvra, rogorc wesi, ganmtkicebis aRmofxvris gziT, xandaxan

sasjelTan SewyvilebiT (uaryofiTi ganmtkiceba, usiamovno Sedegebi).

5. pasuxis safasuri: jarimebi, Cveulebisamebr Jetonebis (simboluri jildoebis) an

sxva saxis jildoebis CamorTmeviT gamoixateba.

6. baza: mocemuli qcevis sixSiris Sesaxeb Canaweri droSi SerCeviTi ganmtkicebis da/an

Caqrobis procedurebis dawyebamde.


disciplina

7. Semobruneba: qcevis aRdgena mis sabaziso doneze, an masTan axlos, roca wydeba Ser-

CeviTi ganmtkicebis reJimi.

8. Camoyalibeba: qcevis TandaTanobiTi cvlileba, romelic miiRweva sasurvel qcevas-

Tan Tanamimdevruli miaxloebis ganmtkicebiT.

9. miniSneba: saWiro qaragmebi an miniSnebebi, raTa subieqtma SeZlos sasurveli reaqcia

Sesabamisi stimulis pirobebSi.

10. samizne qceva: sasurveli qceva, romelic qcevis modifikaciis principebis gamoyenebiT

miiRweva.

11. pirobiToba: moswavlis reaqcia an qceva, romelic saWiroa ganmtkicebis Seqmnis an

mopovebisTvis; samuSao, romelsac anazRaureben.

12. waSla: erTi ganmamtkiceblis TandaTanobiTi aRmofxvra da misi Canacvleba sxva ganmamtkicebliT,

rogorc saqcielis SemanarCunebliT.

13. modelireba: sxvaTa qcevis imitacia, romelic qmnis ganmtkicebas am sxvebisaTvis.

mravali termini qcevis modifikaciidan aq ubralod imitom ar aris gansazRvruli, rom

isini kdam-is leqsikonSi ar Sedis (mag: operantuli ganpirobeba, stimulis ganzogadeba, moyirWeba).

varaudebi

1. yvela qceva naswavlia.

2. maswavlebels ar SeuZlia saklaso oTaxs miRma moswavlis problemebis gamklaveba

(mag.: saxlis garemoSi).

3. Tu uweso saqcieli arsebobs da grZeldeba, maswavlebelia pasuxismgebeli.

Rirebulebebi

qmediToba da efeqtianoba

miznebi

1. ukanono qcevis sixSire Semcirdeba da mas Caenacvleba kanonieri qceva.

2. miiRweva yoveli moswavlisTvis SesaZlebeli maqsimaluri akademiuri progresi.

principebi

jildoebis sistematuri analizi da ganmtkicebis Teoriis sistematuri gamoyeneba moswavleTa

qcevaSi, uzrunvelyofs swavlaSi maqsimaluri progresisTvis aucilebel garemos.

yvela qcevas, miuRebelsac ki, Tavisi sazRauri aqvs. Tu maswavlebels SeuZlia sazRauris

gansazRvra, arasasurveli qceva aRmoifxvreba. Tu maswavlebeli jildos akontrolebs da

sasurveli (kanonieri) saqcielisaTvis imetebs, swored kanonieri saqcieli gamyardeba.

araswori saqcielis Semcireba gzas uxsnis efeqtian swavlas. saswavlo amocanebSi ganmtkicebis

amave principebis gamoyenebiT SevZlebT calkeul moswavleTa efeqtian motivacias.

nabijebi

1. miuTiTeT samizne qcevaze – qcevaze, romelic gsurT, rom ganxorcieldes.

2. aRniSneT gadaxra samizne qcevidan.

3. sistematurad gaakeTeT sabazo normidan gadaxrebis Sefaseba drois garkveul periodebSi

(xSirad kvirebSi).

4. gaaanalizeT, ra aris ganmtkiceba gadaxrisaTvis, ra jildos iRebs bavSvi.

127


Tavi 7

128

5. gansazRvreT potenciuri ganmamtkiceblebi, romelTa micemac maswavlebels Seu-

Zlia samizne qcevisTvis.

6. SearCieT ganmamtkicebeli, romelic savaraudod, bavSvs moewoneba.

7. SeqmeniT bavSvisTvis ganmtkicebis progresia da Tanamimdevroba: ganmtkicebis

miseuli reJimi, miuxedavad imisa, gamoyenebuli iqneba Tu ara qcevis Camoyalibeba,

qcevis cvlilebis specifikuri zrda, romelic Camoyalibebis gamoyenebis SemTxveva-

Si ganmtkicdeba.

8. acnobeT moswavles samizne qceva.

9. SeimuSaveT meTodi qcevis sixSiris aRsaniSnad da Casawerad.

10. gamoiyeneT ganmtkiceba.

11. CaiwereT qcevebi.

maswavleblis reaqciis principebi

1. ganmtkiceba myisieri unda iyos.

2. uwyveti ganmtkicebis reJimiT dawyebuli ganmtkiceba unda gaxdes wyvetili, raTa

samizne saqcieli Caqrobis mimarT mtkiced rezistentuli gaxdes.

3. arasasurveli qcevis aRmosafxvrelad gamoiyeneT ignorireba, jarimebi, ganmtkicebaze

periodulad uaris Tqma da ubralo usiamovno sasjeli.

4. Tqveni programis warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi, xelaxla SeafaseT Tqveni ganmamtkiceblebi,

raTa darwmundeT maTs qmediTobaSi da kidev erTxel gaaanalizeT, ra

jildos iRebda (iRebs) moswavle arasasurveli (normidan gadaxrili) qcevisTvis.

SesaZlebelia ZaRlis Tavi iq iyos damarxuli.

5. daukavSireT socialuri ganmamtkiceblebi sxva kategoriis ganmamtkiceblebs (sakvebi,

aqtivoba, materialuri).

6. SeecadeT SeasustoT socialuri ganmamtkiceblebi.

kdam-i emxroba Sexedulebas, rom saswavlo aqtivobebis (mag., kiTxvis) Sesrulebis Sedegad

kmayofileba ver gaizrdeba, sanam es aqtivoba bavSvis reaqciaTa repertuaris nawili ar gaxdeba.

sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Tu moswavlem kiTxva ar icis, arc is ecodineba, rom kiTxva

SeiZleba saxaliso iyos. amrigad, qcevis modifikacia, SeiZleba erTgvar gardamaval teqnikad

ganvixiloT, romlis saSualebiTac bavSvis garkveul donemde miyvanis Semdeg, arsebul ganmamtkiceblebs

ekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba.

socialuri qcevis sferos msgavsad moswavlem SeiZleba ar icodes rogor miiqcios yuradReba

socialurad misaRebi gzebiT. qcevis modifikacias SeuZlia misi miyvana saqmianobis im

donemde, sadac is pirvelad naxavs, rom interaqciis sxva formebic uzrunvelyofs sasurvel

yuradRebas. Tu misaRebi socialuri qceva ubralod ar aris naswavl qceviT repertuarSi,

moswavle verc ki mixvdeba, rom is SeiZleba ganmamtkicebeli iyos.

ase rom kdam-Si Cadebuli strategiuli mizania, TandaTan mospos materialuri, sakvebi da

aqtivobiTi ganmamtkiceblebi da gaaZlieros socialuri da Tandayolili ganmamtkiceblebi.

mxardaWeris sistema

1. arCeul kategoriebSi unda arsebobdes Sesatyvisi ganmamtkiceblebi (e.i. aqtivobis,

materialur, sakveb an socialur kategoriebSi).

2. ganmamtkiceblis `moqmedebisTanave~ xelmisawvdomi unda iyos dro da personali dakvirvebis

Casatareblad, monacemebis Casawerad da bazebis Sesaqmnelad.


socialuri sistema

disciplina

1. maswavlebeli aris ganmamtkiceblis ganmsazRvravi, avtori, `mmarTveli~ da `Camqrobi~.

2. Zalaufleba: is erTmniSvnelovnad maswavleblis xelSia.

3. normebi: dgindeba maswavleblis mier, ecnobeba moswavleebs; mtkicdeba normebisadmi

Sesatyvisoba.

efeqtebi

1. qcevis medifikaciis kdam-iseuli interpretaciis pirdapiri efeqti unda iyos

moswavleebis mier im samizne qcevis miRweva, romelsac maswavlebeli SearCevs.

mcirdeba klasis masStabiT qcevis normidan gadaxra; maqsimaluri xdeba swavlis

dro. swavla efeqturad da nayofierad mimdinareobs.

2. pasiuri moswavlisaTvis, romelic SemuSavebul ganmamtkicebelze SemuSavebuli

gziT reagirebas aris miCveuli, unda gakeTdes SefarviTi efeqtebi. gare orientacia,

rogor wesi, ,,jildos’’ mentalitets aviTarebs, Tumca, ,,kdam-i’’ cdilobs am

tendenciis CaxSobas socialuri da Tandayolili ganmamtkiceblis CaqrobiT.

sxvebma qcevis sistematuri menejmentis garemoSi cxovrebis SemoqmedebiTobasa da iniciativaze

gavlenis sakiTxi wamoWres.

TviTanalizi

disciplina, rogorc TviTkontroli

TviTanalizis models ramdenime forma aqvs, romlebic am nawilSi iqneba warmodgenili.

eqimebi, maswavleblebi da mSoblebi am strategiebs warmatebiT iyeneben yvela asakis bavSvebTan

da kontrolis problemebis mqone mozrdilTa problemebis mosagvareblad. Sinagani

metyvelebis gziT TviTstimulirebuli relaqsaciis wvrTnisa da TviTkontrolis mniSvnelobis

gagebiT SeiZleba bolos da bolos gavacnobieroT, rom sakuTar TavTan mosaubre

adamianebi sulac ar arian giJebi!

varaudebi

1. moswavleebma SeiZleba ver gaacnobieron sakuTari qcevis tipi, simwvave an sixSire.

2. moswavleebma SeiZleba ver gaacnobieron, an arasworad gaacnobieron sakuTari

grZnobebi, Sinagani mdgomareoba.

Rirebulebebi

es modeli afasebs moswavleTa fsiqikur janmrTelobas. mniSvnelovania, rom moswavleebi

swavloben TavianT grZnobebsa da qmedebebs maTTan gamklavebis mizniT; amgvarad isini TviTcodnis

simptomebis _ impulsurobis, afeTqebis, ganmartoebisa da sxva eqscentruli qcevis

_ winaswar gansazRvrasa da gakontrolebas swavloben.

miznebi

am modelis mizania moswavleebs aswavlos sakuTari signalebis wakiTxva da Tavis garTmevis

strategiebis CarTva maSin, roca signalebi mianiSneben, rom isini sadacaa `afeTqdebian~

an gamoiyeneben maTTvis damaxasiaTebel sxva romelime disfunqciur models.

129


Tavi 7

130

principebi

Sinagani me-sgan izolirebul moswavleebs daxmareba sWirdebaT imis gacnobierebaSi, Tu

ras warmoadgens sinamdvileSi maTi qmedebebi. impulsurma mozardma SeiZleba verc gaiazros,

rom fexze wamoxta, magididan wigni gadmoagdo, karisken gaqcevisas or bavSvs daejaxa

da molbertis gadaadgilebisas naxats daabija. gaucnobiereblad man mxolod is icis, rom

`wasvlis droa~. ufrosklaselma SeiZleba ver gaacnobieros, rom ufro da ufro ucruvdeba

imedi, roca ar iwveven instruqciul jgufSi, rom TiTebs nerviulad aTamaSebs da muStebs

ZarRvebis dabervamde kumSavs. orive moswavles sWirdeba am situaciaTa cnoba da sakuTari

fiqrebisa da grZnobebis Sinagani miniSnebebis wakiTxva. moqmedebis dawyebamde maT unda

icodnen, rom es feTqebadi situaciebia da rom maT Tavs raRac xdeba. es modeli pirdapir

mianiSnebs moswavleebs, romelia maTTvis gamomwvevi situaciebi, xolo Semdeg situaciis

ganviTarebis kvaldakval aswavlis sakuTari reaqciebis gacnobierebas. am reaqciebis, rogorc

problemis miniSnebebis wakiTxvis Seswavlis Semdeg maT unda icodnen, rogor moiqcnen.

TviTanalizis strategiebi maT mraval teqnikas sTavazobs, romlebic SeuZliaT iswavlon,

ivarjiSon da Semdeg gamoiyenon stresis dros dasamSvideblad, TviTkontrolisa da skolaSi

efeqtiani funqcionirebis gasagrZeleblad. es strategiebia: (1) qcevis ubralod daTvla an

mis mixedviT grafikis ageba; (2) relaqsacia; (3) TviTwvrTna Sinagani metyvelebiT (kognituri

qcevis modifikacia).

nabijebi

ubralod daTvla

ana-maria klasSi yovelTvis yviris da sxvebs awyvetinebs. es misi impulsurobaa da maswavlebeli

gadawyvets gamoiyenos ubralo daTvla, raTa xazi gausvas am qcevas da miapyros

ana-marias yuradReba. erT dRes gakveTilebis Semdeg maswavlebeli ambobs: `ana-maria, ici,

rom xels ar iwev da Zalian bevrs yviri? es xelsac miSlis da usamarTlobaa im moswavleebis

mimarT, visac saubari surs~. `vwuxvar! gavCerdebi, gpirdebiT!~ (aseTi dialogi adrec gamar-

Tula). `namdvilad Tanaxma xar amaze vimuSaoT? minda, dagexmaro. rogor fiqrob, ramdenjer

wamoiyvireb xolme?~ `ar vici – SeiZleba, xuTjer?~ (wamoyvirebis raodenoba 25-mdea.)

`kargi, xval vnaxoT. majaze webovan Tasmas gavikeTeb da yovel wamoyvirebas masze aRvniSnav,

SeniSvnis an gakveTilis Sewyvetis gareSe, magram Sen dainaxav da mixvdebi ras niSnavs. kargi?~

`kargiT!~.

es teqnika SeiZleba Zalze efeqtiani iyos Cveulebrivi an impulsuri gamaRizianebeli

qcevis Semcirebis TvalsazrisiT, roca yuradRebis miqcevisa da impulsurobis garda ufro

seriozuli aspeqtebi ar aris `CaTreuli~. imis danaxva, rom maswavlebeli lentze niSans

akeTebs, moswavles mizans – wamoZaxilis Semcirebas _ axsenebs. `ui~, ambobs ana-maria, roca

kidev erTi niSnis dasmas xedavs. sakmaod male is wamoZaxebamde niSnis winaswar ganWvretas

swavlobs da wamoZaxilis Sekavebas iwyebs. Semdeg maswavlebelsa da ana-marias SeuZliaT

Seajamon wamoZaxilebi da meore dRes miznad am jamis Semcireba daisaxon. erTi kvira SeiZleba

savsebiT sakmarisi iyos TviTSekavebis swavlisTvis, rac ana-marias wamoZaxebis gasakontroleblad

sWirdeba.

am teqnikiTa da specifikuri Tvlisa da saqcielis Sesaxeb Canawerebis warmoebis sxva

formebiT moswavleebi ukeT igeben sakuTar qmedebas da maswavleblisa da moswavlis miznad

aqceven arasasurveli qcevis Semcirebas. daTvla moswavleebisTvis aris informacia maTi

winsvlis Sesaxeb; is unda iyos swrafi, sruli da xSiri (Van Houton). teqnikis warmatebisTvis

moswavleebi mis mosinjvaze Tanaxma unda iyvnen. xandaxan mawavlebeli qcevis daTvliT


disciplina

moswavleebs monacemTa winaSe ayenebs. araswori qcevis `raodenobis~ gamo gakvirvebis Soki

SeiZleba maTi motivirebis safuZveli gaxdes. maswavlebels SeuZlia am teqnikis gamoyeneba

rogorc mTeli klasis masStabiT, ise individualurad. mizania klasis mier wamoZaxilebisa

da sxva araswori qcevis saerTo raodenobis Semcireba.

relaqsacia

bruno-goldenma (Bruno-Golden 1976) da koepenma (Koeppen 1974) maswavleblebisTvis (da ara

marto maTTvis) Seqmnes savarjiSoTa nakrebi moswavleTa kunTebis mzardi relaqsaciisTvis.

masSi Sedis moswavleTa mier komfortuli mdgomareobis miReba da sistematuri TanamimdevrobiT

kunTebis sxvadasxva jgufis monacvleobiT daWimva da moduneba. es nebismieri maswavleblisTvis

kargi teqnikaa. vis ar unatria raRac momentSi raime mowyobiloba hiperaqtiuri

klasis dasawynareblad?

Tumca, zogierTi moswavlisTvis dasvenebis codna SeiZleba stresis daZlevis strategia

iyos. maswavlebels SeuZlia individualurad an mcire jgufebs aswavlos es teqnika da

TandaTanobiT Seamciros wvrTna, roca moswavle TviTinstruqtaJs SeZlebs maswavleblis

minimaluri xelmZRvanelobiT. SeiZleba im donis miRwevac, roca maswavlebeli mxolod mianiSnebs

dawyebas da moswavle damoukideblad Seasrulebs varjiSs: `robi, Senc da mec vamCnevT,

rom am dReebSi Tavs Zlivs akontroleb, xom marTalia? ici, iseTi raRac minda gaswavlo, rac

dagexmareba. Tanaxma xar?~

wvrTnasTan erTad maswavlebelma da moswavlem rTuli situaciebi unda ganixilon, scadon

im garemos da pirobebis winaswar gansazRvra da ganWvreta, romlebic moswavlis afeTqebis

mizezi SeiZleba gaxdes. maT aseve sWirdebaT moswavlis Sinagan gancdebsa da im aSkara simptomebze

saubari, romelTa SemCnevac orives SeuZlia, roca moswavlis daZabuloba izrdeba.

maswavlebels im moswavleebTan erTad, romlebic ar icnoben sakuTar `me~-s da Zalze uWirT

Sinagan grZnobebze saubari, SeiZleba ukeT gamouvides mizanze, movlenis SesamCnev Tvisebebze

yuradRebis gamaxvileba: `es Cveulebrivi ambavia mcire jgufebSi. Tqven muStebs kravT da

TiTebi giTeTrdebaT~. saboloo mizania, rom kontrolis dakargvamde moswavleebma sakuTari

signalebis wakiTxva da Tavis garTmevis meqnizmis amuSaveba SeZlon. am gzaze maT SeiZleba

maswavleblis daxmareba dasWirdeT miniSnebaTa amosacnobad. SeiZleba moswavleebma koduri

sityva Seqmnan an maswavlebeli Caerios da mianiSnos volfgangiseuli (Wolfgang 1977) erT-erTi

saSualebiT imisda mixedviT, ramdenad Semawuxebeli xdeba qceva da rogor akontrolebs moswavle

sakuTar Tavs:

¤ siaxlove – yureba;

¤ `vxedav, rogor TandaTan kargav kontrols~.

¤ `kontroli gekargeba. dagexmarebi~.

¤ fizikuri Careva – moswavlis qmedebis sityviT gamoxatva – moswavlis Sekaveba: `saSualebas

ar mogcem, rame itkino an sxvebs atkino~. (umcrosklaselebisTvis).

naklebad problemuri bavSvebisTvis SeiZleba Tavis garTmevis mizniT relaqsaciaze ufro

martivi strategiebi CavrToT. moswavleebs SeuZliaT gaiseirnon derefanSi dasamSvideblad

an oTaxis gancalkevebul kuTxeSi dasxdnen. orive strategiaSi maswavlebeli da moswavleebi

Tanamzraxvelebi arian. mxolod maT unda icodnen miniSnebaTa sistema da Tavis garTmevis

strategiebi. moswavleebisaTvis maswavlebeli is adamiania, romelic TavSekavebulobis swavlaSi

exmareba. maswavlebeli cdilobs minimumamde Seamciros Tavisi aqtiuri roli, romelic

saWiroa moswavlis qmediTobis SesanarCuneblad. saWiro mxardaWeras sTavazobs, magram cdilobs

moswavleTa masze damokidebulebis Semcirebas.

131


Tavi 7

aseTma strategiebma, SesaZloa, didi daxmareba gauwios feTqebad mozardebs, romlebic

ar icnoben sakuTar grZnobebs, Tumca SeiZleba damatebiTi Terapiac dasWirdeT.

132

TviTinstruqtaJi Sinagani metyvelebis saSualebiT

(kognituri qcevis modifikacia)

TviTinstruqtaJis dros moswavleebs aswavlian Sinagani metyvelebis gamoyenebas rTul

situaciebSi sakuTar TavTan saubris mizniT, rTulSi, radgan isini ibrZvian impulsebis Sesakaveblad,

kontrolis SesanarCuneblad da alternatiuli strategiebis gamosayeneblad.

moswavlisTvis Sinagani dialogis Secvlis swavlebas `warmmarTveli gavlena eqneba imaze: (a)

ras aqcevs yuradRebas individi garemoSi; (b) rogor afasebs sxvadasxva mastimulirebel movlenas;

(g) ras miawers sakuTar saqciels; da (d) miseul molodinze, ramdenad SeuZlia stresul

movlenasTan gamklaveba~ (Meichenbaum 1977, gv. 206).

erTi aseTi midgoma xmamaRla fiqris teqnikaa. maixenbaumi aRwers beSisa da kempis (Bash

& Camp) mier Catarebul programas, romelSic Tormeti agresiuli meoreklaseli biWi iyo

CarTuli mcire jgufebSi:

programa daiwyo TamaSiT ,,mimbaZveli’’, romelic bavSvs sakuTari TavisTvis Semdegi

oTxi ZiriTadi kiTxvis dasmas aswavlida: ra aris Cemi problema? rogoria Cemi geg-

ma? viyeneb Tu ara mas? rogor viyeneb? Semdeg Semoitanes palkesisa (Palkes) da sxvaTa

msgavsi miniSnebaTa baraTebi, raTa bavSvisTvis miecaT TviTverbalizaciis signali.

kursis ganmavlobaSi kogniturad momTxovni davalebebi Surisa da spivakiseuli

(Shure & Spivak) stilis interpersonaluri davalebebiT icvleboda. kempisa da sxvaTa

kvlevis pirveli Sedegebi sakmaod imedis momcemi iyo. Sedegebi klasis masStabiT ganzogadda.

`ifiqre xmamaRla~ programis Sedegebi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens

kempis aRmoCeniT, rom agresiuli da normaluri biWebis verbaluri instrumentebi

sxvadasxva davalebis Sesrulebis dros msgavsi iyo, magram agresiuli biWebi ver iyenebdnen

fiqrisa da problemis gadaWris gzebis dagegmvis SesaZleblobebs. beSi da

kempi weren:

,,maSinac ki, roca TamaSis wesebi pirveli stimulirebuli reaqciis dablokvas

iTxovs, agresiul bavSvebs ufro uWirT Sekaveba (mag.: `saimoni ambobs~ TamaSis dros).

maTi bunebrivi midrekileba swrafi reaqciaa, magram Tu specialurad uTiTeben, rom

reaqciamde sajarod moaxdinon verbalizeba, maT, SeiZleba, normalurebze ufro

swrafad Seikavon~.

TviTinstruqtaJis programam `ifiqre xmamaRla~ warmatebiT aswavla aseTi TviTver-

balizaciis unar-Cvevebi (Meichenbaum 1977, gv. 42)*

TviTinstruqtaJis am strategiaTa swavlebisas, saWiroa moswavleebTan individualuri an

mcire jgufebSi muSaoba. swavleba iwyeba moswavlisaTvis rTuli situaciis ganxilviT, magaliTad,

saklaso oTaxidan oTaxSi gadasvliT, sadac amocanaa mwkrivad dgoma da sasadiloSi

wasasvlelad momzadeba. am Tavis dasawyisSi aRvwereT moswavle, romelic fexze xteboda,

wigns magididan agdebda, daejaxa or bavSvs karisaken gaqcevis dros da molbertis gadaadgilebisas

naxats daabija. Sinagani dialogi, romelic gvsurs, rom moswavlem sakuTar TavTan

gamarTos, savaraudod aseTi SeiZleba iyos:

*ibeWdeba nebarTviT. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive Behavior Modification. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.)


problemis gansazRvra `vnaxoT, ra aris Cemi amocana! mwkrivTan

yuradRebis fokusireba

imaze, Tu ra unda gavakeTo

misvla ise, rom aravis davejaxo~.

,,ra unda gavakeTo iq misasvlelad? daviwyo

nela siaruli – viyuro, sad mivdivar~.

`sworia! metismetad swrafad ara~.

TviTSefaseba, monitoringi `yuradReba miaqcie molbertis fexs~. ,,xom

ar waiqca? kargad momyveba~.

TviTganmtkiceba `vaSa! gamomivida!~

disciplina

rogor unda vaswavloT moswavles amis gakeTeba? TandaTanobiT. Tavdapirvelad maswavlebeli

Tavad asrulebs moZraobebs, ayurebinebs moswavles da xmamaRla axdens zemoT moyvanili

dialogis verbalizacias. Semdeg moswavles moZraobebis gameorebas sTxovs da Tan kvlav

dialogis xmamaRla verbalizacias axdens. Tanamimdevroba Semdegi eqvsi fazis mixedviT mimdinareobs:

maswavlebeli

1. xmamaRali TviTinstruqtaJi,

asrulebs moZraobebs

uyurebs

moswavle

2. xmamaRali TviTinstruqtaJi asrulebs moZraobebs

3. CurCulebs instruqciebs xmamaRali TviTinstruqtaJi, asrulebs

moZraobebs

4. mxolod tuCebs amoZravebs CurCulebs TviTinstruqtaJs,

asrulebs moZraobebs

5. uyurebs mxolod tuCebs amoZravebs, asrulebs

moZraobebs

6. uyurebs Sinagani saubari TviTinstruqtaJisTvis;

asrulebs moZraobebs

am strategiis sxvadasxva saxeliT (mag: `stresze acra~) cnobili saxesxvaobebi, ufrosklaselebTan

da mozrdilebTanac gamoiyeneba, Tumca principebi igive rCeba. moswavleebs aswavlian

maTTvis stresuli situaciis amocnobas, raTa maT erT-erTi strategiiT (relaqsaciiT,

TviTinstruqtirebiT) Tavis garTmeva SeZlon. maT stresis maTeuli signalebis

amocnobasac aswavlian, raTa moumzadeblobis SemTxvevaSi, SeZlon ufskrulis piras yofnis

gansazRvra da spontanurad gamoiyenon erT-erTi strategia.

socialuri sistema

am modelSi maswavlebeli damxmarea. saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebis ufleba Tavis

garTmevis strategiebis gamoyenebis Taobaze moswavlis xelSia, miuxedavad imisa, rom maswavlebeli

ndobiT aRWurvili Tanamzraxvelia da misi saqmea moswavlisaTvis kontrolis dakargvis

miniSnebis gagzavna.

133


Tavi 7

134

maswavleblis reaqciis principebi

roca moswavle kargavs kontrols, maswavlebeli saWiro (da ara zedmeti) doziT Caereva;

saboloo mizania, moswavleTa TviTkontrolis unaris Camoyalibeba. aq lozungia sifxizle,

miniSneba da minimaluri reaqcia usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad.

mxardaWeris sistema

sagakveTilo drois garda maswavleblebs sWirdebaT dro da moswavleebTan urTierTobis

kerZo garemos Seqmnis SesaZlebloba. saWiroa, maswavlebelma winaswar gansazRvros zogierTi

rTuli situacia da masze moswavlesTan erTad imuSaos.

efeqtebi

am modelis warmatebuli ganxorcieleba amcirebs afeTqebebsa da xelis SemSlel konfliqtebs

impulsuri da umarTavi moswavleebisTvis. aseve uyalibebs maT Tavdajerebulobasa

da miRwevis SegrZnebas. Sedegad ki, maTTvis sxva moswavleebTan ufro nayofieri urTierTobis

kari iReba, romlebic maT, albaT, ar CaTvlian `giJebad~, ar gabrazdebian da ar

umtroben.

monaTesave models `problemis interpersonaluri kognituri gadawyveta~ ewodeba. es

modeli mozardebs aswavlis azrovnebas _ `alternativa-Sedegebi~. is, ZiriTadad, gamiznulia

umcrosklaselebisTvis da maT problemis gadaWris iseT strategiebs aswavlis, romlebiTac

Cxubis, kinklaobis da konfliqtebis Zalismieri mogvarebis Canacvleba SeuZliaT. Surisa da

spivakis (1978) naSromidan es nawyveti amis dadasturebaa. maswavlebeli avalebs bavSvebs maTi

moqmedebebisa da am moqmedebaTa Sedegebis ganxilvas, Semdeg ki maTi moTxovnebis Sesatyvis

alternatiul moqmedebebs asrulebinebs.

maswavlebeli: doroTi, am amocanebze Sen muSaobdi?

bavSvi: braienic muSaobda.

maswavlebeli: Sen da braieni erTad muSaobdiT? (maswavlebeli agrovebs situaciis

faqtebs).

bavSvi: diax.

maswavlebeli: braienis mimarT samarTliani iqneba, rom Tavad akrifos, xolo Sens

mimarT, rom ar akrifo?

bavSvi ara.

maswavlebeli: Sens mimarT samarTliani iqneba, rom Sen akrifo da ara braienma?

bavSvi: ara.

maswavlebeli: ra iqneba samarTliani? (maswavlebeli cdilobs problema orive

bavSvis TvalsazrisiT daanaxos.)

bavSvi: braieni ar mexmareba.

maswavlebeli: SegiZlia raime moifiqro, rom braieni mogexmaros amocanebis akrefaSi?

(cdilobs bavSvs problemis gadaWris gza moafiqrebinos).


avSvi: SemeZlo meTxova misTvis.

disciplina

maswavlebeli: es erT-erTi azria. ra SeiZleba am SemTxvevaSi moxdes? (maswavlebe-

(maswavlebeli

mizez-Sedegobriv azrovnebas marTavs).

bavSvi: is ar damexmareboda.

maswavlebeli: es SeiZleba moxdes. kidev ra SeiZleba gaakeTo misi uaris SemTxvevaSi?

bavSvi: davartyam.

maswavlebeli: SeiZleba daartya. maSin ra SeiZleba moxdes?

bavSvi: viCxubebT.

maswavlebeli: SeiZleba iCxuboT. SegiZlia mesame, gansxvavebuli idea moifiqro?

bavSvi: Tqven uTxariT mas.

maswavlebeli: me SemiZlia vuTxra, magram ras izam maSin, roca me aq ar viqnebi?

(maswavlebeli isev cdilobs bavSvi problemis gadaWris gzaze

daafiqros.)

bavSvi: SemiZlia vuTxra, rom masTan aRar viTamaSeb.

maswavlebeli: es kargi azria?

bavSvi: diax.

maswavlebeli: ratom?

bavSvi: imitom, rom damexmareba.

maswavlebeli: SeiZleba. naxe, ra SeiZleba gaakeTo, rom dagexmaros. (Suri da spivaki

1978, gv. 146-147)*

zemoT motanil dialogs avtorebi ase ajameben:

1. daadgineT bavSviseuli Sexeduleba problemaze ise, rom ar daadanaSauloT magaliTad:

`ra moxda?~ `ra gaakeTa an giTxra?~ `ratom moiqca ase?~ `rogor ginda rom

moiqces?~ `saidan ici, rom amas ar gaakeTebs?~

2. saqmianad daadgineT misi moqmedebis mizezi. `ratom uwode regveni?~ `ratom moginda

pirvels dagertya?~

3. ecadeT, bavSvi daafiqroT imaze, Tu ras grZnobda (grZnobs) da, misi azriT, sxvebi

ras grZnobdnen (an SeiZleba grZnoben). magaliTad, SegiZliaT hkiTxoT: `ras fiqrob,

ra igrZno man, roca ase moeqeci?~ `Sen ra igrZeni, roca man es gaakeTa?~

4. dasviT kiTxva, rogor SeiZleba adamianma daadginos, ras fiqrobs an ras grZnobs sxva

bavSvi. `rogor gaarkvev, moswons Tu ara mas Seni azri?~ `rogor mixvdebi is bednieria

Tu ara?~

5. sTxoveT bavSvs, gamoxatos sakuTari mosazreba problemis gadaWris gzasTan dakav-

SirebiT. `ras gaakeTeb imisaTvis, rom man amis gakeTebis (raRaca gqondes, masTan iTamaSo,

aRar dagartyas) ufleba mogces?~

* ibeWdeba nebarTviT. Shure, Myrna, and George Spivack. Problem-Solving Techniques in Childrearing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,

1978. (c) 1978 Jossey-Bass, Inc. Publishers. yvela ufleba daculia.)

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6. sTxoveT bavSvs ifiqros imaze, ra SeiZleba moxdes Semdeg. `Tu Sen ase moiqcevi, ra

SeiZleba gaakeTos an Tqvas Senma dam?~ `Tu Sen isev Seawuxeb, ra SeiZleba moxdes?~

7. ecadeT, moswavlem Seafasos sakuTari idea Sedegebis TvalsazrisiT. `dartyma kargi

azria Tu ara?~ `vaWroba kargi azria Tu ara?~

8. waaxaliseT moswavle, dafiqrdes problemis mogvarebis gansxvavebul gzaze. `Segi-

Zlia moifiqro gansxvavebuli gza, rom man dagiTmos, roca Seni jeri iqneba (ufleba

mogces maTTan iTamaSo)?~ `Tu axla TamaSi ar ginda, SegiZlia moifiqro, risi gakeTeba

gagaxalisebda?~ (Shure & Spivack 1978, gv. 157, 229-230)

bavSvebis pasuxebi gviCvenebs, rom isini sakuTari da ara ufrosis mier SeTavazebuli an

moTxovnili ideis mixedviT ufro imoqmedeben. miuxedavad imisa, rom bavSvebs xandaxan marTlac

sWirdebaT ufrosis rCeva, gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom roca bavSvi problemis gadaWris

sasurvel gzas ipovnis, is misi azrovnebisa da moqmedebebis bunebrivi kavSiris safuZvelze

spontanuri motivaciiT moqmedebaze gadadis. Tu misi idea warumatebelia, is fiqrs agrZelebs

da impulsur da imedgacruebul moqmedebamde SeiZleba mogvarebis sxva gzac mosinjos.

is problemis gadaWrisaken mimarTul azrovnebas swavlobs.

pirovnuli gavlena

pirovnuli pativiscemis gziT damyarebuli disciplina

pirovnuli gavlenis modelSi, maswavlebeli mWidro urTierTobas amyarebs moswavleebTan

da mas gonivruli saqcielisaTvis moswavleTa motivaciis mizniT iyenebs. is cdilobs

gazardos sakuTari pirovnuli mniSvneloba moswavleebisTvis da maT pativiscemas, dafasebasa

da siaxloves qcevis Sesacvlelad iyenebs. maswavlebeli siyvarulsa da Tavdadebas am-

JRavnebs; moswavleebi grZnoben, rom maTi urTierToba sayvarel maswavlebelTan ormxrivia.

SesaZloa, mravali mkiTxvelisTvis es nacnobi WeSmaritebaa, magram am modelis yuradRebiT

wakiTxva mraval siaxles gagacnobT.

varaudebi

moswavleebi ufro motivirebuli arian, rom kargad moiqcnen da imuSaon, Tu maT maswavlebeli

uyvarT da afaseben.

Rirebulebebi

am modelSi mniSvnelovania moswavlis warmodgena sakuTar Tavze da klasSi wesrigi. maT-

Tvis mniSvnelovan mozrdilTan urTierToba moswavleebs Tavdajerebulobas uviTarebs.

modelSi asaxulia valdebuleba klasSi wesrigisa da xelis SeSlis dros mtkice nabijebis

gadadgmisTvis.

miznebi

modelis upirvelesi mizania maswavlebelsa da rezistentul moswavleebs Soris urTierTobis

damyareba, raTa am ukanasknelebze gaizardos maswavleblis piradi gavlena. meore

mizania qcevisadmi mkafio molodinis Camoyalibeba da araswori saqcielisTvis swrafi da

Tanamimdevruli Sedegebi.

principebi

maswavleblisa da moswavlis urTierToba sabanko angariSs hgavs: misi wyalobiT moswav-


disciplina

le Tavs ufro komfortulad, usafrTxod da daculad grZnobs. mas investirebis da zrdis,

usafrTxo bazidan muSaobis, keTilganwyobis gamoxatvisa da siaxlis mosinjvis saSualeba

aqvs. saWiroebis dros ki es urTierToba dasayrdenia rogorc maswavleblisTvis, ise moswavlisTvis.

kargi urTierToba mosawon da pativsacem maswavlebelTan moswavleTa motivirebas

axdens da isini ufro bejiT muSaobasa da ukeT moqcevas cdiloben. aseTi maswavleblis

sayveduric mravlis mTqmelia! am modelSi maswavleblebi wyenis gamoxatvisas ar kargaven

kontrols da ar yvirian, Tumca gabrazebas, imedgacruebas, gulgatexilobas amJRavneben. es

ki moswavlisTvis mniSvnelovania, Tu maswavlebeli misTvis avtoritetia. moswavleebi Tavs

arideben upasuxismgeblo saqciels, roca maswavlebelTan urTierToba maTTvis mniSvnelovania.

maswavlebeli am urTierTobas borotad ar iyenebs _ ar imuqreba an dasjis dros siaxloveze

uars ar ambobs. sayvedurisa Tu sxva usiamovno SemTxvevebis (klasidan gaZeveba) Sem-

deg maswavlebeli cdilobs, uaxloesi xelsayreli

SemTxveva gamoiyenos, sxva konteqstSi aRadginos

moswavlesTan urTierToba. miuxedavad imisa, rom

maswavlebeli siyvarulis dakargvis muqaras ar iyenebs

rogorc xelkets, es urTierToba moswavlis

xelis SemSleli saqcielis jansaRi Semakaveblis funqcias asrulebs. survili, gonivruli

moqceviT vasiamovnoT CvenTvis mniSvnelovan adamianebs, marTlac jansaRia. es ar gaxlavT

moraluri msjelobis yvelaze progresuli forma, Tumca martosuli da dabneuli moswavlisTvis

SeiZleba gansazRvruli win gadadgmuli nabiji iyos.

am urTierTobis wyalobiT moswavleebs SeuZliaT Tavdajerebulobis mopoveba, ufro

muyaiTi mcdeloba da meti warmatebis miRweva. maswavlebelTan stabiluri urTierTobis

`sangridan~ maT SeuZliaT keTilganwyobis gamomJRavneba da kontrolirebul garemoSi (mag.,

kooperaciul proeqtebSi) sxva moswavleebTan urTierTobis damyareba, riTac afarToeben

warmatebuli urTierTobis wres da Tavs ufro Rirebulad grZnoben. roca isini sxvebTan

urTierTobaSi warmatebas aRweven, Sesatyvisi qceviT am urTierTobis SenarCunebis SesaZlebloba

da survili izrdeba.

nabijebi

1. pozitiuri, megobruli, individualuri interaqciis momentebis ZiebiTa da xelsayreli

SemTxvevis gamoyenebiT daamyareT megobruli urTierToba calkeul moswavleebTan,

romlis mizani siaxlove da Ria komunikaciaa.

a) gakveTilebamde ramdenime wuTiT;

b) ramdenime wuTiT gakveTilebis Semdeg;

g) xandaxan moswavlesTan erTad sadilobiT;

d) skolis Semodgomi proeqtebiT.

maswavleblisa da moswavlis urTierToba

sabanko angariSs hgavs.

2. gamoiyeneT ,,aqtiuri mosmena’’ da pirovnuli urTierTobis Camoyalibebis parametrSi

detalurad axsnili sxva qceva.

3. gauziareT moswavleebs saintereso informacia Tqvens Sesaxeb: mogzauroba, gamocdileba,

gansakuTrebiT, nebismieri miRweva an codna (rogoricaa instrumentze dakvra

an raime xeloba), rac maT Tqvenze ara gazviadebul, aramed realur warmodgenas

Seuqmnis. rogorc wesi, moyolis nacvlad ukeTesia TviT am unarebis Cveneba.

4. ecadeT, moswavleebs usafrTxo da struqturirebuli urTierTobebi hqondeT. magaliTad,

aswavleT umcrosklasels raime TamaSi da Semdeg waaxaliseT, rom saswavlo

dRis pirveli aTi wuTis ganmavlobaSi (rogorc wesi, yvelaze rTuli periodi)

es TamaSi or sxva moswavles aswavlos. ufrosklaselebs daarigebineT masalebi an

sTxoveT jgufur proeqtSi gankuTvnili funqciis Sesruleba.

5. rezistentul moswavleebs individualuri interaqciis dros, zustad auxseniT

Tqveni molodini (ix. molodinis parametri). Sexedulebisamebr, SeqmeniT qcevis kon-

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traqtebi da SedegTa grafiki, rom daexmaroT maTs saWiroebebze fokusirebasa da

winsvlis Sesaxeb informaciis uzrunvelyofaSi.

6. roca moswavle xels giSliT, swarafad moaxdineT reagireba SedegebiT (romelSic

xSirad CarTuli iqneba gaZeveba an sxva saxis izolireba).

7. moswavles yovelTvis mogvianebiT, mSvidad, magram garkveuli emociiT elaparakeT.

gaaanalizebineT, ra Secdoma dauSva da risi gakeTebaa saWiro.

8. eZebeT pozitiuri saubrisTvis uaxloesi xelsayreli SemTxveva rezistentul moswavlesTan

usiamovno epizodis Semdeg. magaliTad, gamogadgebaT fraza _ `ra mSvenieri

namuSevaria, jim~ – gansakuTrebiT, Tu Zalian mkacri iyaviT mis mimarT. mizania

komunikaciis aRdgena da imis damtkiceba, rom Tqveni urTierToba jer kidev cocxalia.

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom ar moxdes gadaWarbeba _ moswavle ar mixvdes, rom

jildo (mag.: skolis Semdgomi proeqti) yvelaze seriozul xelis SeSlas mohyveba.

TavSekavebulad gaagrZeleT urTierTobis aRdgena, zustad im zomiT, rac Tavidan

gasaxsnelad da gasamxneveblad aris saWiro.

9. gqondeT xSiri da uSualo kontaqti mSoblebTan, raTa SeZlebisdagvarad uzrunvelyoT

maTi CarTuloba.

maswavleblis reaqciis principebi

1. aqtiuri mosmena urTierTobis Camoyalibebis dros.

2. dauTmeT, raTa ipovoT an SeqmnaT xelsayreli SemTxvevebi urTierTobis Camosayalibeblad.

3. gamoamJRavneT nerviuloba disciplinis damyarebis dros.

4. iyaviT ufro mSvidi da ufro analitikuri moswavleebTan ganxilvebis dros.

5. TavSekavebulad aRadgineT urTierToba yvelaze rTuli epizodebis Semdeg.

mxardaWeris sistema

am modelis mixedviT urTierTobis Camosayalibeblad maswavlebels moswavleebTan sakmaod

axlo da xSiri kontaqti sWirdeba. maswavlebeli unda iyos Tanamimdevruli SedegebTan

da Semdgom urTierTobasTan mimarTebaSi. modularuli reJimiT limitirebis SemTxvevaSi

skolam unda gaiTvaliswinos klasis ufro Caketili garemo, an sul mcire maswavlebelTa

ufro iSviaTi cvla am moswavlisTvis. maswavlebels winaswar unda hqondes gansazRvruli

SedegTa nakrebi moswavlisTvis (da albaT Sedegebic, Tu pirovnuli gavlenis es strategia

Sewyvilebulia qcevis kontraqtTan). amisaTvis SeiZleba saWiro iyos sxva maswavleblebTan

da skolis administratorTan TanamSromloba da SeTanxmeba (Semdeg nawilSi ixileT seimur

sarasonis Sedegebis forma). imis Tqma gvsurs, rom sruli mzadyofna gqondeT. icodeT, ris

gakeTebas apirebT, roca moswavlis saqcieli dasaSveb zRvars scildeba da metismetad xelis

SemSleli xdeba swavlebis gasagrZeleblad. rogorc wesi, es gaZevebis garkveuli formaa

damSvidebis oTaxSi an sxva adgilas, magram unda icodeT, sad.

socialuri sistema

maswavlebeli avtoritetia, romelic qcevis normebs awesebs. zogadad, moswavleebi Sei-

Zleba CarTuli iyvnen wesebis SeqmnaSi. magram maSinac ki, roca demokratia klasis cxovrebis

nawili da qcevis normebis gansazRvris saSualebaa, pirovnuli gavlenis mizani ar aris, iyos

demokratiuli modeli. Tu moswavles es modeli sWirdeba, demokratia mis `avadmyofobas~

ver gankurnavs.

efeqtebi

pirdapiri: devianturi qceva mcirdeba.


disciplina

aRmzrdelobiTi: 1. maswavlebeli uzrunvelyofs zrunvisa da pa su xi smgeblobis

rolis models, romelTanac moswavle iwyebs mijaWvas.

2. moswavle iwyebs sxva moswavleebTan dadebiTi urTierTobis

Camoyalibebas.

am modelze saubris dasrulebamde gvsurs masze misadagebuli erTi ufro specifikuri

strategiis CarTva: seimur sarasonisa da misi kolegebis mier SemuSavebuli izolirebis

(CaurTvelobis) uCveulo, kargad mofiqrebuli da maRalefeqtiani forma xelis SemSleli

moswavleebisTvis. is Setanilia wignSi, romelic Sors dgas disciplinisagan: `skolis kultura

da cvlilebaTa sirTule~ (Sarason 1971). es aris xelis SeSlaze pasuxis gacemis forma,

romlis gamoyenebis Sesaferisi SemTxveva SeiZleba Zalze advilad ipovoT da romelic logikuri

Sedegebis models Seesabameba.

sarasonis strategia guldasmiT SemuSavebuli nabijebis Tanamimdevrobaa mtruli

daumorCileblobis dramatuli aRkveTis Tavidan asacileblad. misi arsia ori maswavleblis

dawyvileba da daumorCilebeli moswavlis gadayvana erTi maswavleblis oTaxidan meorisaSi.

izolirebis warmateba damokidebulia personalis momzadebaze, maT dawyvilebaze da skolis

direqtoris mxardaWeraze.

izolirebuli moswavle maspinZeli maswavleblis oTaxSi saaTnaxevari rCeba, jdeba sul

bolo magidasTan da akldeba maspinZeli klasis aqtivobebSi nebismieri formiT monawileobasa

da moswavleebTan interaqcias. Tu moswavle (dasaSvebia meore klasamde bavSvebisTvis)

uars ambobs oTaxidan gasvlaze, maswavleblebis wyvils is gareT gahyavs. ufrosklaselebs,

romlebic uars amboben klasidan gasvlaze, eubnebian, rom mSoblebs daurekaven, Tu ar wavlen.

sarasoni wers, rom arasodes Seswrebia, rom bavSvi SewinaaRmdegeboda am zemoqmedebas

an izolirebul bavSvs maspinZeli klasisTvis mcire problema mainc Seeqmnas.

sarasoni strategiis efeqtianobas Tavxeduri saqcielis myisieri aRmofxvrisa da im saz-

Rvrebis xazgasmis unars miawers, romlis farglebs moswavle ar unda gascdes.

procedura erTdroulad unda SevitanoT klasSi, ara rogorc dasjis, aramed moswavle-

TaTvis imis damaxsovrebis saSualeba, rom daicvan wesebi, romlebic maT saSualebas aZlevs

siamovneba miiRon swavliT. `bavSvebs ramdenjerme unda avuxsnaT, rom imis gamo ki ar vaZevebT,

rom arasasurvelia an ar gviyvars, aramed imitom, rom saklaso oTaxis im wesebze dafiqrebis

dro da saSualeba mivceT, romelic daarRvia~ (Sarason 1971, gv. 137).

maswavlebelma xelSemSlel moswavles erTi individualuri gafrTxileba unda misces,

romelic arasasurvel (da mis Camnacvlebel) qcevas gausvams xazs, Tu izolirebis Tavidan

acileba surs. amave dros, man unda scados auxsnas, riT gamoixateba klasisTvis xelis

SeSla. moswavlis izolirebis SemTxvevaSi, maswavlebeli bavSvis TandaswrebiT mTels klass

ganumartavs am nabijis aucileblobas.

saklaso oTaxSi dabrunebis Semdeg, maswavlebelma klasTan erTad unda mimoixilos situacia,

Sesabamisi wesebis SemoRebis mizezebi, izolirebuli bavSvis alternatiuli qceva da Tu

SesaZlebelia, mokled ganixilos, rogor SeuZlia klass momavalSi misi daxmareba.

gakveTilebis Semdeg maswavlebeli mokled unda gaesaubros izolirebul bavSvs da auxsnas,

rogor daexmareba izolireba klasis wesebis damaxsovrebaSi. sarasoni xazs usvams am

gasaubrebis mniSvnelobas da aRniSnavs, rom TviTon `izolirebis Sesaxeb bavSvi iRebs gadawyvetilebas

da ara maswavlebeli~ (Sarason 1971, gv. 138).

sarasonma es strategia meoTxeklaselebTan gamoiyena. Cveni azriT misi warmatebiT gamoyeneba

maRal klasebSic SeiZleba.

gTavazobT am strategiis ZiriTadi punqtebis Sejamebas:

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1. gacnoba

a) gaacaniT mTel klass izolirebis arsi Tavisi mizezebiTa da SedegebiT.

b) gaxsovdeT im wesebis Sesruleba, romlebic moswavleebs swavliT siamovnebis mi-

Rebis saSualebas aZlevs.

2. ganxorcieleba

a) mieciT erTi individualuri gafrTxileba qcevis dakonkretebiT.

b) sajarod axseniT bavSvis izolirebis mizezi.

g) bavSvi nebayoflobiT an, Tu aucilebelia, ZaliT gaaZeveT, an daurekeT mSobels.

d) izolirebuli gyavdeT saaTnaxevris ganmavlobaSi.

e) bavSvi ar monawileobs maspinZeli klasis aqtivobebSi.

v) situacia klasTan ganixileT. yuradReba miaqcieT Semdeg sakiTxebs:

_ izolirebuli bavSvis SesaZlo alternatiul qcevas.

_ wesis mizezebs.

_ wesebis SesrulebaSi daxmarebis gzebs.

3. gakveTilebis Semdeg gasaubreba

a) motivi aris daxmareba da ara Sercxvena.

b) maswavlebels imedi aqvs, rom gafrTxileba momavlisTvisac sakmarisi iqneba.

g) maswavlebeli xsnis, rom swored moswavle wyvets Tavisi qceviT izolirebas.

d) gamoxateT siyvaruli da pativiscema.

rudolf dreikursis logikuri Sedegebi

disciplina, rogorc socialuri kontraqti

rudolf dreikursi cdilobs aRmofxvras mSoblebisa da maswavleblebis mier Zalauflebis

avtoritaruli gamoyeneba, romelsac demokratiul saukuneSi axalgazrdebisa da

mozrdilebis urTierTobisTvis miuReblad miiCnevs. is adleris fsiqologiisa da axali

teqnikis kombinirebas axdens araswor saqcielze reaqciisaTvis da mas `logikur Sedegebs~

uwodebs. logikuri SedegebiT reagireba disciplinas Camoacilebs bavSvisa da mozrdilis

ZalauflebisaTvis brZoliT gamowveul RvarZlianobas, ris Sedegadac ormxrivi pativiscema

gaizrdeba.

gansazRvrebebi

1. bunebrivi Sedegi: bavSvis qcevis aversiuli Sedegi, romelic TavisTavad, bunebrivad,

adamianis Zalisxmevis gareSe Cndeba (mag.: skamze qanaobis Sedegad bolos da bolos

bavSvi ecema).

2. logikuri Sedegi: bavSvis qceviT Seqmnili aversiuli Sedegi, romelic logikurad

ukavSirdeba am qcevas.

varaudebi

1. Tanasworoba erTaderTi bazisia, romelic disciplinis problemebis gadaWras Segva-

Zlebinebs.

2. mikuTvnebuloba adamianis fundamenturi saWiroebaa da Tavi rom Rirebulad igrZnos,

jgufSi da jgufTan erTad funqcionirebisTvis iswrafvis.

3. yvela saqcieli miznobrivia. damoukidebeli xelmZRvanelobis mizania bavSvis qcevis

motivireba.


miznebi

gamoiyeneT es Rirebulebebi bavSvebTan urTierTobisas, raTa:

disciplina

1. bolo moeRos `aSkara oms~, romelsac dreikursi kanondamrRvevebsa da sazogadoebas,

ajanyebul axalgazrdebs, mSoblebsa da maswavleblebs Soris xedavs.

2. gamoyenebul iqnes adleris pirveli socialuri kanoni – Tanasworobis kanoni,

socialuri cxovrebis logika, romelic `yvela adamianis Tanasworad aRiarebas

moiTxovs~ (Dreikurs & Grey 1968, gv. 8).

3. uzrunvelyofili iyos is gzebi, romliTac moswavle Tavisufal garemoSi Sesatyvis

funqcionirebas SeZlebs (`Sesatyvisi~ am SemTxvevaSi `pasuxismgeblurs~ niSnavs da

ara `nebadarTuls~).

4. aRmoifxvras disciplinis avtokratiuli meTodebi.

5. aRmoifxvras saSualo amerikeli bavSvis autaneli saqcieli, romelic `eCxubeba Tavis

da-Zmebs, uars ambobs nivTebis alagebaze, saSinao davalebis Sesrulebaze da saojaxo

saqmeebSi daxmarebaze~ (Dreikurs & Grey 1968, gv. 10).

6. xeli Seewyos bavSvebsa da mozrdilebs Soris urTierTpativiscemaze agebul urTierTobebs.

principebi

mizans SeiZleba mivaRwioT, Tu moswavleTa saqcielis mizezebs CavwvdebiT da uars vityviT

urTierTobis avtokratiul meTodebze. Cveni reaqcia maT qcevaze TvalnaTliv unda

aCvenebdes socialuri wesrigis realobas maTive qmedebebze pasuxismgeblobis (da logikuri

Sedegebis) dakisrebis saSualebiT. roca maswavlebeli/mSobeli araswor saqcielze reaqcias

socialuri realobis am sistemis mixedviT amJRavnebs, moswavleebi aRar brazdebian,

ar janydebian arc iTrgunebian, radgan mozrdilTa reaqcia pirovnuli avtoritetidan aRar

momdinareobs.

metic, roca calkeuli moswavlisTvis umarTebulo saqcielis mizezebi naTelia, Segvi-

Zlia misi (moswavlis) moTxovnebis Sesatyvis moqmedebaTa pozitiur biliks gavyveT. amrigad,

demokratiul Teoriasa da moqmedebis pozitiur programebze agebuli axleburi reaqcia

araswor saqcielze, romelic regularulad araswori qcevis mqone bavSvis moTxovnebs Seesabameba,

dreikursis Sexedulebis ori mxarea.

klasSi adgilis povnisTvis saWiro qcevis

Sesaxeb koncefciebs moswavleebi swavlis

gziT aviTareben. maTi azriT, aseTi koncefciebi

SeiZleba iyos TanamSromloba an yuradRebis

centrSi yofna. nebismieri araswori

saqcielis miRma SeiZleba imwuTieri miznebi

aRmovaCinoT. yvela araswori qceva imis Sede-

yvela araswori qceva imis Sedegia, rom

daTrgunuli moswavles mcdari varaudi aqvs

sakuTari adgilis povnisa da statusis mopovebis

Taobaze.

gia, rom daTrgunul moswavles mcdari varaudi aqvs sakuTari adgilis povnisa da statusis

mopovebis Taobaze. (ix. glaseris Sexeduleba deviantur qcevaze, rogorc cud arCevanze).

logikuri Sedegebi moswavleze STabeWdilebas axdens realobis moTxovnebiT da ara

ufrosis ZalauflebiT. erTmaneTTan, rogorc TanasworebTan, urTierTobis princips Sedegad

ormxriv pativiscemaze agebuli urTierToba mohyveba. moswavleebi Cveni Tanasworebi

xdebian ara ZalauflebiT an sxeulis sididiT, aramed gadawyvetilebis damoukideblad

miRebis uflebiTa da SesaZleblobiT. maSin, roca dasja pirovnuli avtoritetis Zalauflebis

maCvenebelia, logikuri Sedegebi, rogorc socialuri wesrigis realobis asaxva, obieqtur

(upirovno) doneze moqmedebs. dasjis qveteqstia: `Sen cudi xar~, logikuri Sedegebis

ki _ `Seni saqcieli am Sedegs moitans~. ar xdeba `Seni~, rogorc pirovnebis, gankiTxva.

141


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142

sintaqsi

1. detalurad daakvirdiT moswavlis saqciels.

2. frTxilad gamoxateT sakuTari reaqcia moswavlis qcevaze.

Tu Tqveni reaqcia aris:

gaRizianeba

daSineba

gulistkena

umweoba

moswavlis mizani SeiZleba iyos:

yuradRebis mipyroba

Zalaufleba

SurisZieba

araadekvaturobis gamovlineba

3. uzrunvelyaviT moswavle `makoreqtirebeli ukukavSiriT~. moswavles aCerebT, SeniSvnas

aZlevT da akvirdebiT mis reaqcias. Tu is Cerdeba, qcevis mizani SeiZleba

ubralod yuradRebis mipyrobis mcdeloba iyos. Tu araswori qceva izrdeba, misi mizani

SeiZleba SurisZieba iyos.

4. konfliqtidan garkveuli periodis (damSvidebis) Semdeg, am oTxi kiTxvidan erTis an

ramdenimes TanamimdevrobiT dasmiT moswavlis winaSe oTxi mizani dasaxeT.

`iqneb Cemi yuradRebis mipyroba gsurs?~ (yuradRebis mipyroba).

a) `iqneb ginda maCveno, rom SegiZlia gaakeTo is, risi gakeTebac ginda da veravin

SegaCerebs?~ (Zalaufleba).

b) ,,iqneb ginda, rom me da klaselebs guli gvatkino, rom bari-barSi viyoT?~ (SurisZieba).

g) `iqneb martooba gsurs?~ (araadekvaturoba).

5. yuradReba miaqcieT amocnobis refleqss, anu am oTxi SekiTxvidan romels eTanxmeba

moswavle verbalurad an sxeulis eniT.

6. moswavlis miznis mixedviT gamoiyeneT Sesabamisi makoreqtirebeli procedurebi 7.2

sqemis Sesabamisad.

gaaanalizeT mizezi

gaaaqtiureT amocnobis refleqsi makoreqtirebeli ukukavSiri

`Semobruneba~ logikuri Sedegi demokratiuli jgufis

zewola

arCevani sakuTari recepti araviTari arCevani

pozitiuri negatiuri myisieri siurprizi

sqema 7.2: logikuri Sedegis tipebi

moyirWeba

dreikursi ar aRwers logikuri Sedegis qvekategoriebs, magram isini miRebulia miseuli magaliTebis ganxilvis

Sedegad.

logikuri Sedegis gamoyenebisas SearCieT Sesabamisi tipi. 7.2 sqemaze naCvenebia logikuri

Sedegis ramdenime tipi, romelTaganac unda gakeTdes arCevani.

logikuri Sedegis arCevanis tipis mixedviT moswavles SeuZlia Tavi aaridos logikur

Sedegs, Tu sakuTari qcevis Secvlas airCevs. pozitiuri arCevani Tomas gordonis `prob-


disciplina

lemis qonas~ hgavs (ix. Semdegi qveTavi `maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTna~). Tu moswavles

gaWianurebuli Cacmisa da sauzmis gamo skolaSi agviandeba, Tqven mas ubralod sakuTari

problemis mogvarebis saSualebas aZlevT. Tqven SegiZliaT moswavles miseul arCevanze

miuTiToT, magram mieciT Sedegis marTvaze pozitiuri kontrolis saSualeba. mozrdili am

SemTxvevaSi umoqmedoa.

negatiur arCevanSi maswavlebeli/mSobeli aRniSnavs, arasaTanado qcevis SemTxvevaSi

ra logikuri Sedegi daugrovdeba moswavles. davalebuli samuSaos Seusruleblobas is mohyveba,

rom mis dasamTavreblad darCena mouwevs. davalebis mogvianebiT Sesrulebis valdebuleba

misi droulad Seusruleblobis logikuri Sedegia. ai, rogor xdeba es: skolis Semdeg

darCena dasjad ar miiCneva, es ubralod im adamianebs exeba, vinc ar asrulebs Tavis samuSaos.

maswavlebelic rCeba Tavisi samuSaos dasasruleblad. es `socialuri realobaa~. aseTi

logikuri Sedegi aq uaryofiT arCevanad miiCneva, radgan moswavlis winaSea arCevani: `Tu

X-s gaakeTeb maSin Y moxdeba~. Y ki bavSvisTvis aversiuli Sedegia.

logikuri Sedegis forma sakuTari recepti moswavlisTvis misive qcevis `dabrunebas~

niSnavs. awyvetinebT mas, vinc gawyvetinebT; gausaZlisad uwesrigo garemos uqmniT daudevar

moswavles. faqtobrivad, cdilobT moswavles sarkeSi daanaxvoT sakuTari qceva. am teqnikis

gamoyenebisas aucilebelia zomieri iumori da racionaluri sazRvrebi da ara SurisZieba.

araviTari arCevanis logikuri Sedegebis dros araswor saqciels maSinve mohyveba

Sedegi. dreikursis TqmiT, es qcevasa da Sedegs Soris im logikuri kavSiriT gansxvavdeba,

romelic maswavlebelma moswavlis gonebaSi mainc unda daamyaros. (TiTqos, dreikursisTvis

gansxvaveba sasjelsa da araviTari arCevanis logikur Sedegebs Soris sinamdvileSi arc

ise didia, magram es erTgvari fandia _ davarwmunoT moswavle logikuri kavSiris arsebobaSi,

miuxedavad imisa, sinamdvileSi arsebobs Tu ara igi da, amgvarad, ufrosi realurad arc

axorcielebs dasjas.) araviTari arCevanis logikuri Sedegebi SeiZleba iyos ubralod

myisieri (mag., ori moCxubari bavSvis gayvana beisbolis TamaSidan dasasveneblad) an siurprizi,

romelic Seicavs siaxlisa da originalurobis garkveul elements (mag., maswavlebels

hyavs qvebis msrolelebi saTamaSo moedanze, romlebic erT adgilze agroveben napovn qvebs.

Semdeg ki am qvebs moednis gareT miwaze ayrevinebs, saTamaSo moednis usafrTxoebis mizniT).

zogjer maswavleblis reaqciis mizani moswavlis Sercxvenaa. magaliTad, erT dilas meSvideklasels,

romelic gamudmebiT gamaRizianeblad akakunebs fanqars, fanqris nacvlad maswavlebeli

pastels aZlevs da eubneba: `raki fanqris sworad gamoyeneba ar SegiZlia, amiT wera

mogiwevs~.

moyirWeba dreikursisaTvis igivea, rac qcevis modifikacia CvenTvis. SeasrulebineT

moswavles araswori qceva manam, sanam ar mobezrdeba. nerwyviT damrgvalebuli qaRaldis

burTulebis msrolels mTeli dila asrolineT isini yuTSi; moxetiale mTeli dRe atareT

oTaxSi.

dreikursis bolo naSromSi vkiTxulobT, rom logikuri Sedegebi yvelaze sasargebloa

pirveli miznis _ yuradRebis mipyrobis _ dros. Zalauflebis an SurisZiebis SemTxvevaSi,

logikurma Sedegebma SeiZleba ukuSedegi moitanos da amitom ar unda gamoviyenoT. bunebrivi

Sedegebis gamoyeneba nebismier dros upriania, garda meoTxe miznis – araadekvaturobis SegrZnebis

dros.

maswavleblis reaqciis principebi

1. gadaamowmeT Sedegis logikuri kavSiri araswor qcevasTan.

2. waradgineT Sedegi uemociod, rogorc sacialuri wesrigis realobis gamoxatuleba,

da ara rogorc pirovnuli Zalaufleba.

3. nu gansjiT qcevas an moswavles.

143


Tavi 7

144

4. iyaviT keTili da megobruli; arasodes imoqmedoT gabrazebulma.

5. iyaviT mtkice. araviTari arCevanis logikur SedegSi marTlac ar aris araviTari

arCevani. moswavlem `es~ airCia da `es~ unda ganxorcieldes. ar gadaifiqroT; ar

danebdeT; ar gadauxvioT Tqvens mier gamocxadebul proceduras.

6. imoqmedeT; ar ilaparakoT. zedmeti saubari (muqara, gafrTxileba, axsna-ganmarteba,

darwmuneba) kargi disciplinis marcxia.

7. inerviuleT awmyoze da ara warsulze. araswor saqcielze maswavlebliseul TvalsazrisSi

ar unda iyos `codvis~ elementi an warsulSi Cadenili danaSaulisTvis SurisZebis

raime elementi.

8. arasodes CaebaT moswavlesTan ZalauflebisTvis brZolaSi. Tqven yovelTvis

damarcxdebiT. nebis araviTari Sejibri. (`ar gavakeTeb~. `gaakeTeb, jimi preston, da

axlave!~) ubralod uari TqviT aseT konfliqtSi CarTvaze. gverdi auareT mas.

pozitiuri programa:

brZolaze uaris Tqmisas gaigeT konfliqtis mizezi. roca Tqveni diagnoziT mizezi `Zalauflebis

Cvenebisa da damtkicebis moTxovnilebaa~, eZebeT xelsayreli SemTxvevebi, rom

bavSvma miRweuliT iamayos. ecadeT Zalauflebis gamoxatvis es moTxovnileba dadebiTad

warmarToT. Tu mizezi yuradRebis moTxovnilebaa, eZebeT xelsayreli SemTxvevebi bavSvis

miRwevaTa Sesaqebad da ugulebelyaviT yuradRebis miqcevis mizniT ganxorcielebuli devianturi

qceva. Tu araswori qcevis mizezi savaraudo unarSezRudulobaa, gaamxneveT bavSvi;

daexmareT warmatebis miRwevaSi; daakisreT pasuxismgebloba, frTxilad SerCeuli, magram sajarod

SesamCnevi. Tu mizezi SurisZiebaa, maSin grZeli gzisTvis gamZleobas mouxmeT. agrZnobineT

moswavles, rom giyvarT. dreikursi saubrobs jgufur ganxilvaze da am konteqstSi

miRebaze.

popularul da arapopularul, gaxsnil da

imoqmedeT; ar ilaparakoT. zedmeti saubari

Caketil moswavleebze monacemebis Sesagrove-

kargi disciplinis marcxia.

blad gamoiyeneT sociogramebi, gveubneba is.

gamoiyeneT es monacemebi klasSi adgilebis ganawilebisa

da dajgufebebis dros, raTa izolirebulebma socializaciis axali unar-Cvevebi

SeiZinon, xolo vinc erTmaneTs eTavseba, erTad dasvaT.

kviraSi erTxel regularulad CaatareT problemebis saklaso ganxilva. waaxaliseT moswavleebi,

iswavlon mosmena, erTmaneTis gageba da daxmareba.

pozitiur programas aqvs oTxi ZiriTadi sayrdeni, romelTagan TiToeuli dreikursis

mier aRwerili araswori qcevis oTxi mizezidan erT-erTs Seesabameba. magram araswor

saqcielze pirdapiri reaqciisgan gansxvavebiT pozitiuri programa maswavleblis reaqciis

zogadi principebisgan Sedgeba, romlebic tradiciuli wesiT unda gamoviyenoT da ara

specifikuri qmedebebis dros. araswori saqcielis mizezebis Sesaxeb saubrisas dreikursi

kidev erT gzas aRniSnavs _ oTxi mizezis miCnevas moswavlis miznebad. am SemTxvevaSi pozitiuri

programa araswori qcevis gverdis avliT eZebs moswavlis miznebTan Sesatyvisobis gzebs.

waxaliseba am pozitiur programaSi oTxi mizezidan sam SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba. dreikursis

mTeli wigni am sakiTxs eZRvneba.

mxardaWeris sistema

amtkiceben, rom dreikursis modeli yvelaze warmatebulia dawyebiTi klasebis bavSvebTan.

mogvianebiT mozardobis asakTan erTad am oTx ZiriTad mizezs ufro rTuli da Sorsmimavali

motivebi emateba.


disciplina

logikuri Sedegis ganxorcielebisTvis maswavlebelma unda gamoiCinos simtkice da zogierT

SemTxvevaSi, axleburi da originaluri azrovnebis unari (logikuri Sedegis siurprizis

tipi). logikuri Sedegis tipebis _ araviTari arCevani, myisieri _ gasatareblad,

maswavlebels is Tavdajerebuloba da swrafi reaqcia sWirdeba, romelic wlebis da gamocdilebis

safuZvelze dagrovil reaqciaTa farTo repertuars moaqvs. winaaRmdeg SemTxveva-

Si, axalbeda maswavlebelma unda SeZlos swrafi fiqri, im situaciaSi reaqciis principebis

gamoyeneba da araswori saqcielisaTvis logikuri Sedegis SemuSaveba.

maswavlebelma unda `gamorTos~ Tavisi ego, SeinarCunos miukerZoebloba, rac mas bavSvebTan

ZalauflebisTvis konfliqtis (kidev erTi sirTule, gansakuTrebiT axalbeda maswavleblisTvis,

romelic Zalauneburad, garkveul doneze, did dros uTmobs sakuTari SesaZleblobebis

gamomJRavnebas) Tavidan acilebis saSualebas aZlevs. maswavleblis mier

egosadmi es miukerZoebloba moswavles uflebas miscems, sakuTari problema arCevanis

pozitiur kategoriaSi marTos. metic, cudi yofaqcevis moswavlis darwmuneba, rom is gviyvars,

arasayvareli bavSvis siyvaruls niSnavs, rac yvelaze Tavdajerebul, Tbil da Tanaziar

maswavlebels SeuZlia.

dreikursis meTodi araswori qcevis daZlevisas, moswavleebTan mtkice, mSvid, usayveduro

saubars, araswor saqcielze jgufis Sexedulebis gamoxatvasa da struqturirebis teqnikas

moiTxovs.

SeiZleba movifiqroT konkretuli SedegebisaTvis saWiro sivrce da dro. (iqneba Tu ara

vinme gakveTilebis Semdeg, rom meTvalyureoba gauwios samuSaos dasrulebas? qaRaldis

burTulebis yuTSi srola metismetad xelSemSleli da xmauriani xom ar iqneba sxva moswavleebisTvis?)

socialuri sistema

maswavleblis, rogorc avtokratis roli, am modelis samizanea. CamosviT maswavlebli

Zalauflebis kvarcxlbekidan, ambobs dreikursi; ar daikavoT wesebis Semqmnelisa da gamtareblis

pozicia. da mainc, maswavlebeli mis sistemaSi wesebis gamtarebelia; ubralod, wesebi

ganixileba ara rogorc maswavleblidan, aramed saganTa bunebidan, socialuri realobidan

gamomdinare. swored maswavlebeli igonebs araswori saqcielisaTvis logikur Sedegs

da swored is uzrunvelyofs logikuri Sedegis gamoyenebas. Tu Sedegi damoukidebelia, is

`bunebrivi~ Sedegia. logikuri Sedegebis gansaxorcieleblad saWiroa adamianis Careva.

wesebis Seqmna ufro demokratiulia. moswavleebi CarTuli arian konstituciur proces-

Si.

magram, roca yvelaferi naTqvami da gakeTebulia, logikuri Sedegebis sistemaSi maswavlebels

aqvs Zalaufleba da Riad iyenebs mas. Zalauflebis aseTi gamoyeneba SeniRbuli da

Sesustebulia; sxva SemTxvevaSi warmoqmnili aRSfoTeba Semcirebulia imiT, rom maswavlebeli

Tavs aridebs ZalauflebisTvis aSkara brZolas, miukerZoebeli damokidebulebiT niRbavs

Sedegs da logikiT ukavSirebs mas (Sedegs umarTebulo qcevas). saqme is rodia, rom Zalaufleba

SecdomaSi Seyvanis mizniT gamoiyeneba, mcdaria TviT fiqri, rom sistema gvaridebs

Zalauflebis gamoyenebas. logikuri Sedegebi maswavleblebsa da bavSvebs Zalauflebisadmi

damokidebulebis Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels. is cdilobs, rom Zalaufleba socialur realobas

daukavSiros da ara pirovnul konfrontacias; magram is ar amcirebs an ar aRmofxvris

mis gamoyenebas.

dreikursis bolo naSromSi (perl kaselTan TanaavtorobiT, `disciplina ucremlebod~,

1974) damatebiTi SeniSvnaa logikuri Sedegebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT, rac zemoxsenebul

daskvnebs srulyofs. am wignSi logikuri Sedegebis gamoyeneba daSvebulia mxolod

pirveli miznis – yuradRebis mipyrobisTvis, maSin roca wina naSromebSi aseTi SezRudva ar

145


Tavi 7

iyo. maswavlebeli ar iyenebs logikur Sedegebs, roca moswavlis mizania Zalaufleba, SurisZieba

an araadekvaturobis gamoxatva. vfiqrobT, rom es dreikursis adrindeli Sexedulebebis

cvlilebaa. erTi SexedviT, es axali pozicia dreikursis models Zalauflebaze naklebad,

xolo waxalisebasa da sociometriuli monacemebis gamoyenebaze metad damokidebuls

xdis. am axal wignSi aris Tavi, romelic skolis situaciaSi konkurenciis arasaxarbielo

Sedegebs exeba, rac dreikursisaTvis axali Temaa. aseve calke Tavi eZRvneba demokratiuli

saklaso diskusiebis Catarebas, rac avtorisTvis Zveli Temaa. uiliam glaseris ramdenime

citata gvafiqrebinebs, rom am aqcentis safuZveli SeiZleba veZeboT glaseris wignSi `skola

marcxis gareSe~ (1968), sadac konkurenciis Temaze iseTive argumentebia, romelsac dreikursi

iyenebs da sadac klasis Sekreba ufro detaluradaa ganxiluli.

146

efeqtebi

pirdapiri: mcirdeba devianturi qceva.

aRmzrdelobiTi: maswavleblebsa da moswavleebs erTmaneTTan ZalauflebisTvis

brZolis barieris gare Se urTierToba SeuZliaT. viTardeba ur TierTpativiscema

da savaraudoa, rom demokratiuli gamocdileba

klasis cxovrebis nawili, ufro ganuyofeli nawili gaxdes. moswavleebs

ufro realisturi Sexeduleba uyalibdebaT samyaroze

da ukeT igeben TanamSromlobis socialur Rirebulebas.

axla, modiT, gadavxedoT saklaso oTaxis disciplinis models, sadac Tavidan aris acilebuli

maswavleblis mier sanqciebis gatareba. daviwyebT adamianiT, romelmac, rogorc Cans,

dreikursze misi cxovrebis bolos moaxdina gavlena. es gaxlavT uiliam glaseri.

uiliam glaseris `realobiT Terapia~

da `skola marcxis gareSe~

disciplina, rogorc CarTuloba

uiliam glasers `realobiT Terapiis~ principebi nabijebis (sintaqsis) seriebSi gadaaqvs,

rom maswavleblebma araswor saqcielze reaqciisTvis gamoiyenon. am nabijebis gamoyenebiT

maT SeuZliaT moswavleebs sakuTar qcevaze da mis Secvlaze pasuxismgebloba akisrebinon,

im SemTxvevaSi Tu es qceva maTive Rirsebas laxavs an pativs ar scems sxvebis uflebebs. amis

Sedegia urTierTpativiscemis, mzrunvelobisa da problemis kooperaciuli gadaWrisaTvis

xelsayreli skolis klimati.

gansazRvrebebi

glaseri Tavis ZiriTad gansazRvrebebs `realobiT TerapiaSi~ (1965) ayalibebs. zogierTi

gansxvavebulad aris warmodgenili wignSi `skola marcxis gareSe~ (1968), magram mniSvnelobebi

igive rCeba. rT `realobiT Terapiis~ abreviaturaa, xolo smg wignisa `skola marcxis

gareSe~.

1. pativiscema: sakuTari Tavis pativiscema, sakuTari Rirsebis gr Z noba. (smg)

2. sakuTari Tavis Rirseba: sakuTari Tavisa da sxvebis mimarT Ri rsebis grZnoba; ganc-

da, rom adamiani aris Rirebuli pirovneba. (rT da smg)

3. naTesaoba: sxva adamianebTan kavSiri an mzrunveli CarTuloba. (rT)

4. CarTuloba: urTierToba pirovnebasTan an pirovnebebTan, viszec zrunavT da vinc

Tqvenze zrunaven. (rT da smg)


5. siyvaruli: CarTuloba. (smg)

disciplina

6. pasuxismgebloba: sakuTari moTxovnilebebis ise dakmayofilebis unari, rom sxvebs

ar wavarTvaT maTi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis unari. pasuxismgeblobis mqone

adamiani akeTebs imas, rac aniWebs sakuTari Rirsebis gancdas da gancdas, rom Rirebulia

sxvebisTvis. (rT)

7. realisturi: moqmedebas SeiZleba ewodos realisturi mxolod maSin, roca misi

Soreuli da myisieri Sedegebi gaTvaliswinebuli, awon-dawonili da Sedarebulia.

(rT)

8. identoba: mdgomareoba, romelic aris Sedegi da miiRweva, roca adamiani grZnobs

siyvarulsa da sakuTar Tavi Rirsebas. smg-Si glaseri sakuTari Tavis Rirsebas miawers

skolaSi sakuTar codnasa da SesaZleblobebSi Tavdajerebulobas. siyvaruli

skolis konteqstSi niSnavs socialur pasuxismgeblobas, urTierTzrunvas, urTierTdaxmarebas.

siyvaruli miCneulia, rogorc martosulobisa da warumateblobis

gancdis opoziti da aRmomfxvreli. (smg)

9. warmateba: Camoyalibebuli identoba; mdgomareoba, roca dakmayofilebulia adamianis

dakavSirebulobisa da pativiscemis (an CarTulobisa da sakuTari Tavis Rirsebis)

ZiriTadi moTxovnilebebi. (smg)

10. marcxi: mdgomareoba, roca daukmayofilebelia adamianis ZiriTadi moTxovnilebebi.

glaseris modelis gasagebad arsebiTia davimaxsovroT sityvebis _ CarTuloba, pasuxismgebloba,

realisturi, warmateba da marcxi – miseuli gansazRvrebebis sruli

da gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba.

varaudebi

1. yvela adamianis ZiriTadi adamianuri moTxovnilebebia:

a) dakavSirebuloba (CarTuloba)

b) pativiscema (sakuTari Tavis Rirseba)

2. yvela adamiani pasuxismgebelia sakuTar qmedebebze.

3. yvela adamians aqvs gonivrulad moqmedebis unari, miuxedavad codnisa, warsuli gamocdilebisa

an amJamindeli garemosi.

4. qcevis Secvla gamoiwvevs damokidebulebis Secvlas.

5. skolis pirveli xuTi weli gadamWrelia pasuxismgeblobis ganviTarebisa da

warmatebis miRwevis unaris ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT.

Rirebulebebi

1. erTmaneTze zrunva, siyvaruli.

2. sakuTari problemebis gadaWris mcdelobis gambedaoba.

3. swavlaSi azrovneba gazepirebis winaaRmdeg.

4. relevanturoba im sakiTxebisa, romelTa winaSec dganan bavSvebi cxovrebaSi da romlebic

Setanilia saswavlo programis SinaarsSi.

miznebi

1. individebis mier piradi warmatebis miRweva (rac gansazRvrulia rogorc ori ZiriTadi

moTxovnilebis _ CarTulobisa da sakuTari Tavis Rirsebis _ dakmayofileba).

2. socialuri klimatis miRweva, romelic gamoxatavs urTierTpativiscemas, zrunvasa

da problemis racionalur, patiosan, kooperaciul gadawyvetas.

3. skolebSi siyvarulis gamoxatvis struqturireba; misTvis formis Seqmna da misi

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148

gamoxatvis institucionalizacia. misi qceva miznis aRiarebul nawilad da saskolo

cxovrebis aqtivobaSi Setana.

principebi

warmateba, rogorc zemoT ganvsazRvreT, modis realisturobis (rogorc ukve ganvsaz-

RvreT), pasuxismgeblobisa (rogorc ukve ganisazRvra) da samarTlianobis (rac niSnavs aRiarebuli

moraluri standartebis mixedviT moqmedebas) gancdiT.

es SeiZleba ase CamovayaliboT: CarTulobisa da sakuTari Tavis Rirsebis grZnobis

ZiriTadi moTxovnilebebi SeiZleba dakmayofildes sakuTari qmedebebis grZelvadiani Sedegebis

gaTvaliswinebiT, sxvaTa moTxovnilebebis Tanmxvedri moqmedebiT, da zneobrivi standartebis

mixedviT moqmedebiT.

am saxis warmatebis misaRwevad, aTvlis wertilad CarTuloba gvWirdeba; cxovrebaSi

`vinme mniSvnelovani~ gvWirdeba, viszec vizrunebT da vinc siyvaruls dagvibrunebs. aseT

pirobebSi SegviZlia uari vTqvaT siamovnebis principze agebul moqmedebaze, anu myisier

kmayofilebaze. Tumca, mxolod CarTuloba sakmarisi rodia. kidev raRac gvWirdeba saku-

Tari Tavis Rirsebis grZnobis gasaZliereblad. sakuTari mniSvnelobis gancda mxolod maSin

gveufleba, roca qcevis damakmayofilebel standarts vinarCunebT.

damakmayofilebeli qcevis SesanarCuneblad TviTSefaseba unda ganviviTaroT; Cveni qceva

unda ganvixiloT da ganvsajoT, pasuxismgebluria Tu ara (Seesabameba Tu ara Cvens orive

moTxovnilebas) da arTmevs Tu ara sxvebs maTi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis SesaZleblobas.

devianturi qceva ararealisturi da upasuxismgebloa. is gviCvenebs, rom bavSvma araswori

arCevani gaakeTa sakuTari moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis gzis Taobaze. mas ar SeuZlia

ukeTesi arCevanis gakeTeba, Tu CarTuli ar iqneba maTTan, visac es SeuZlia.

disciplina, anu is, rasac is adamianebi gvaZleven, visac vuyvarvarT, ararealistur da

upasuxismgeblo saqcielze migviTiTebs da gvexmareba gavxdeT realistebi da pasuxismgeblianebi.

nabijebi

1. `daumegobrdiT~, eubneba glaseri maswavlebels. `gaxdiT CarTulni~, eubneba Terapevts.

`daamyareT urTierToba siyvarulis ormxrivi rwmeniTa da gamoxatviT~, eubneba

is orives

2. cudad moqcevisas moswavles hkiTxeT: `ras akeTeb?~ es aris qcevis realobis danaxva,

identificireba da verbalizacia. zogierTi moswavlisaTvis es realuri nabijia,

roca qcevas ver acnobierebs da verc damoukideblad svams kiTxvas am qcevis Sesaxeb.

3. hkiTxeT: `es gexmareba?~ SeafaseT. gansajeT saqcieli. am kiTxvaSi SeniRbulia azri,

rom saqcieli ar exmareba bavSvs ori ZiriTadi moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebaSi. magram

maswavlebeli aSkarad ar saubrobs am ori moTxovnilebis Sesaxeb. is ubralod

kiTxviT cdilobs saqcielis Sefasebas: `es gexmareba?~

meore da mesame kiTxvebiT SeiZleba ar mivmarToT moswavleebs, Tu CarTuloba ar arsebobs

da maT ar ician, rom araviTari sasjeli ar iqneba.

4. ar dasajoT.

5. SeadgineT gegma. maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavles, Seadginos gegma qcevis Tavidan

asacileblad, an qcevis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi masTan gasamklaveblad. kargia,

TuUmaswavlebeli SesTavazebs rCevas (ix. Tomas gordonis sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba).


gegma moswavlisaTvis realuri unda iyos, rom misi Sesruleba SeZlos.

disciplina

6. daadebineT moswavles piroba, rom gegmas ganaxorcielebs. piroba SeiZleba iyos zepiri

an werilobiTi.

7. araviTari Tavis marTleba da kiTxvaze `rodis daasruleb?~ pasuxis lodini. miuRebelia

Tavis gamarTleba pirobis Seusruleblobis gamo. miuxedavad dasjis ararsebobisa,

maswavlebeli asrulebinebs moswavles danapirebs, xolo Tu moswavle ar

asrulebs pirobas, sTxovs gadaafasos gegma, Seqmnas axali an ganaaxlos dapireba.

SeiZleba saWiro iyos procesis ramdenjerme gameoreba. CarTuli maswavlebeli

Tanaxmaa, mravaljer gaimeoros. yovelTvis aris molodini da rwmena, rom moswavle

bolos da bolos gaamarTlebs. maswavlebeli mudam moelis. Tumca, is arasodes patiobs,

ar Tmobs da cdilobs moswavleebs dapireba Seasrulebinos.

8. klasis Sexvedrebi araswor qcevasTan dakavSirebiT maswavleblis reaqciaTa sistemis

regularuli nawilia (aseve aucilebeli CarTulobis damyarebis formati).

klasis Sexvedrebis detaluri ganxilva SegiZliaT ixiloT momdeno qveTavSi _ maswavleblis

reaqciis principebi.

maswavleblis reaqciis principebi

1. miuTiTeT situaciis, qcevis realobaze.

2. arasodes SeurigdeT upasuxismgeblobas.

3. yuradReba gaamaxvileT awmyoze da ara warsulze.

4. ar gamoiyenoT sasjeli, sarkazmi, dacinva. sarkazmi da dacinva bolos uRebs siyvaruls,

siaxloves, urTierTobas, CarTulobas.

5. ar aaridoT Tavi pirvel pirSi saubars. nacvlad frazebisa `Cven unda~, an `Sen unda~,

TqviT `me minda, rom Sen~.

6. ar unda moxdes garemoTi manipulireba, raTa moswavle ar daitanjos Tavisi qcevis

gonivruli SedegebiT.

7. klasis problemebi klasis Sekrebebze moagvareT.

arsebobs klasis Sekrebebis sami saxe: socialuri problemebis gadaWris mizniT, Tavisufali

(droSi SeuzRudavi), da saganmanaTleblo-diagnostikuri. socialuri problemis gadaWris

mizniT Sekreba gamoiyeneba jgufis an individis problemis gadasaWrelad. es iseTi

Sekrebaa, romelic araswor qcevaze reaqciis sintaqss Seesatyviseba. Tavisufali Sexvedrebi

bavSvebis cxovrebis saintereso da aqtualur sakiTxebs ganixilavs. garda imisa, rom am

Sexvedrebze yuradReba maxvildeba moswavleebisTvis aqtualur sakiTxebze, is xels uwyobs

maswavlebelsa da moswavles da TviT moswavleebs Soris CarTulobis damyarebasac. saganmanaTleblo-diagnostikuri

Sexvedrebi gamoiyeneba imis dasadgenad, ramdenad kargad esmiT

moswavleebs saswavlo programis aspeqtebi momavali nabijebis dasagegmad.

maswavlebeli garkveuli principebis Sesabamisad marTavs socialuri problemis

gadaWrisTvis gamiznuli Sexvedras:

a) diskusiis sagani problemis gadawyvetaa da ara damnaSavis Zieba an dasja.

b) maswavlebeli miukerZoebelia Tavis komentarebSi, Tumca, igives moswavleebisgan

ar unda velodeT (TanatolebTan ukukavSiris gamocdileba bavSvis upa suxi s m geblo

qcevis erT-erTi `gonivruli Sedegia~.)

g) g. CaatareT Sekrebebi viwro wreSi.

d) d. Sekrebebi xanmokle unda iyos.

e) e. metismetad bevrs nu ilaparakebT mxolod erT problemur moswavleze (sami

diskusia klasis CxubisTavze metismetia).

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v) v. klasis SekrebaTa umravlesoba ori kategoriis mixedviT (Ria dasasruliT da

saganmanaTleblo-diagnostikuri) CaatareT.

z) z. klasis Sekrebebi standartuli saswavlo programis SeZlebisdagvarad ukeT

swavlebisaTvis gamoiyeneT.

mxardaWeris sistema

1. heterogenuli, sakuTar klasze agebuli gakveTilebi. klasma, rogorc socialurma

erTeulma, dRis umetesi nawili erTad unda gaataros, raTa ganviTardes erTmaneT-

Tan da maswavleblebTan CarTulobis SegrZneba.

2. araviTari `ABCDF~ tipis Sefaseba. (araviTari `warumateblis~ iarliyi).

3. saswavlo programa orientirebuli unda iyos `azrovnebaze~, raTa...

4. saswavlo programa moswavleTa cxovrebiseuli sakiTxebis relevanturi unda iyos.

5. warmateba kiTxvaSi. glaseri am miRwevas imdenad Tvlis skolasTan dakavSirebuli

socialuri molodinis nawilad da, faqtobrivad, imdenad saWirod miiCnevs skolaSi

warmatebis SegrZnebebis miRwevisTvis, rom mas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces

saswavlo programis Seqmnisas. amisaTvis is klasis dayofasac ki gvTavazobs

kiTxvis gakveTilze.

6. albaT, umniSvnelovanesia, maswavlebeli iyos is adamiani, romelsac endomeba TviT-

Sewirva da TviTinvestireba Tavis moswavleebTan `CarTulobis~ misaRwevad.

socialuri sistema

1. aradamsjeli.

2. moswavleebi monawileoben wesebis SeqmnaSi.

3. rwmena da mcdeloba. maswavleblis mudmivi survili, rom Tavidan daiwyos im moswavlesTan

erTad, romelmac ver Seasrula piroba, gamoxatavs rwmenasa da ndobas

moswavlisadmi, rom is warmatebas miaRwevs. (aseve gamoxatavs maswavleblis CarTulobis

siRrmes.)

4. maswavleblis roli aris pasuxismgeblobis modeli.

5. maswavlebels aqvs keTilganwyobili despotis rolic, ara damsjelis, aramed wesebis

gamtareblisa da damcvelis da bavSvebisTvis dadebuli pirobis Sesrulebis meTvalyurisa.

6. gonivruli wesebi. moswavleebis monawileoba konstituciur procesSi mimarTulia

wesebis gonivrulobaze. Tumca glaseri acnobierebs da iwonebs im faqts, rom

ufrosebi asruleben im principebis ZiriTadi wyaros rols, saidanac modis wesebi.

es aris praqtikuli realoba. glaseris debuleba, rom wesebi `unda iyos gonivruli~,

maswavleblebisa da administratorebis misamarTiT aris naTqvami, radgan maT unda

hqondeT mTavari saTqmeli. (glaseri samerhileli ar aris. [samerhili (Summerhill) er-er- Toblivi swavlebis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili pedocentristuli skola qveyanaSi,

romelic sufolkis sagrafoSi mdebareobs. mTargmn. Sen.]

7. moswavleebi pasuxs ageben sakuTar qcevaze da yovelTvis Tavisufali arian qcevis

arCevanSi. maTi pasuxismgebloba vrceldeba ara mxolod TviT maTze, an maswavlebelze,

aramed, yvela sxva moswavlezec.

efeqtebi

pirdapiri: Riad xdeba muSaoba socialur problemebze, orientacia keTdeba

mogvarebaze da ara dadanaSaulebaze.


disciplina

saswavlo programaSi xazi esmeba relevanturobas (Sesabamisobas).

aRmzrdelobiTi: maswavlebelsa da moswavleebs da TviT moswavleebs Soris siTbo da

siyvaruli izrdeba.

viTardeba erTmaneTis moTxovnilebebisa da uflebebis mimarT pativiscema.

moswavleTa moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisa da pa su xi sm geblobis

ganviTarebasTan erTad viTardeba empaTia.

Semdegi modeli, Tomas gordonis `maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTna~ (mew) misive wignis

`mSobelTa efeqtianobis wvrTnis~ principebzea agebuli da gamoiyeneba skolebisaTvis

rogorc kvalifikaciis asamaRlebeli kursi mTeli qveynis masStabiT.

Tomas gordonis `maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTna~

disciplina, rogorc komunikacia

mew modelSi gordoni komunikaciis unar-Cvevebis swavlebiT cdilobs im konfliqtebisa

da gaugebrobebis aRmofxvras, romlebic auareseben maswavleblisa da moswavleebis urTierTobebs.

mew-is komunikaciis unar-Cvevebi moswavleebsa da maswavleblebs Zalauflebis

alternativas sTavazoben moTxovnilebaTa konfliqtis gadaWrisas. maswavlebels aRar

sWirdeba moswavlis moTxovnilebaTa xarjze gamarjveba (I meTodi) an, piriqiT, moswavles

– maswavleblis xarjze (II meTodi). III meTodi _ `yaimiT~ (no-lose), romelic mew­Si iswavleba,

moswavleebsa da maswavleblebs moTxovnilebaTa Tanxvedris saSualebas aZlevs.

gansazRvrebebi

1. aqtiuri mosmena: mosaubris SeniSvnaSi emociuri Sinaarsis (daSifruli Setyobinebis)

daWera da mosaubrisadmi emociuri gamoxmaureba.

2. `me~-Setyobineba: sxvisi qcevis miukerZoebeli aRwera, am qcevis xelSesaxebi gavlenis

danaxva da qceviT gamowveuli emociebis gadmocema. nebismieri TanamimdevrobiT

dalagebuli am sami elementisagan Sedgeba `me~-Setyobineba.

3. qmedebis Secvla: `me~-Setyobinebis gagzavnis Semdeg aqtiur mosmenaze gadasvla.

varaudebi

4. roca adamians viRebT, mas cvlilebisa da zrdis saSualebas vaZlevT. Tu adamiani

grZnobs, rom is `kargia~ rogorc pirovneba, miRebulia iseTad, rogoric aris, is

mgrZnobiare xdeba sakuTari qcevis cvlilebis mimarT. garda cvlilebis xelSewyobisa

miReba misTvis sine qua non-ia. rodesac adamiani grZnobs miuReblobas cvlilebis

agentisagan, is winaaRmdegobas uwevs cvlilebas. aq aSkaraa, rom gordoni maslousa

da rojerss eyrdnoba.

5. gordonis sistemas mxedvelobaSi fsiqikurad SedarebiT jansaRi bavSvebi hyavs; is

emociurad agznebuli bavSvebisaTvis ar aris Seqmnili.

6. maswavlebelica da moswavlec afasebs maT Soris arsebul urTierTobas. sistema

mxolod maSin gamoiyeneba, roca maswavlebels `sjera urTierTobis~, afasebs da

nerviulobs masze. (gasakviri araa, rom gordoni da glaseri amJamad erTad atareben

treiningebs.) adamiani ar iqneba motivirebuli, gaiaros aqtiuri mosmenisa da sxva

nabijebi sintaqsSi, Tu mas ar anaRvlebs meore mxare.

7. moswavleebs SeuZliaT ikisron pasuxismgebloba da gadaWran sakuTari problemebi.

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Rirebulebebi

gordoni komunikaciaSi gulwrfelobasa da pirdapirobas afasebs. pirdapirobas sakuTari

da sxvebis moTxovnilebebis aRiarebasa da pativiscemaSi; miukerZoebel komunikacias, rogorc

adamianis miRebis gamoxatvas; mniSvnelovani urTierTobebis pativiscemas, roca adamianebi

erTmaneTze zrunvisas, erTmaneTis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebas cdiloben. da

bolos, is afasebs qcevas, romelic xels uwyobs sxvebis pirovnul zrdas. es Rirebulebebi

pirdapiraa gadatanili gordoniseul miznebSi.

miznebi

1. moswavlesa da maswavlebels Soris iseTi urTierToba CamoayalibeT, romlis Sedegad

swavleba ufro efeqtiani gaxdeba.

2. akisrebineT moswavleebs pasuxismgebloba TavianTi saqcielisTvis.

3. gazardeT uproblemoDare (ix. qvemoT principebi) da amgvarad gazardeT dro swavleba-swavlisTvis.

principebi

maswavleblisaTvis moswavlis nebismieri saqcieli an misaRebia an miuRebeli. qvemoT

mocemuli `marTkuTxedi~ gviCvenebs qcevis am samyaros. yvelaferi gadamkveTi xazis zemoT

misaRebia, xolo xazis qvemoT _ miuRebeli. xazis mdebareoba (da Sesabamisad areTa zoma)

icvleba pirovnebasTan erTad da pirovnebis SigniT drois, ganwyobis, pirobebis da garemos

mixedviT. klaselTan gadaCurCuleba maswavleblisaTvis SeiZleba erT dRes misaRebi iyos,

xolo meore dRes miuRebeli, rac damokidebulia mis cxovrebaSi sxvadasxva faqtorebze (mag.:

skolis direqtorma es-esaa usayvedura).

misaRebi

miuRebeli

moswavlis qcevis samyaros danaxvis kidev erTi gzaa `problemis mesakuTris~ gansazRvra.

moswavlis qceva an maswavlebels uqmnis problemas, an moswavles (xandaxan orives), an aravis

(mag., maTematikur amocanebze muSaoba, an fanqris gaTla misaRebi formiT). am uproblemo

ares swavleba-swavlis are ewodeba.


moswavles aqvs

problem

swavleba-

swavlis are

maswavlebels

aqvs problema

disciplina

araswori qcevis (qceva problemis areSi) mizezia moswavlisa da maswavleblis Seusabamo

moTxovnilebebi. am moTxovnilebaTa gansazRvrisa da dakmayofilebis nacvlad maswavleblebi

xSirad Zalauflebas iyeneben, rasac Sedegad moswavleebTan urTierTobis gauareseba

mohyveba; cudi urTierToba komunikacias amwvavebs da iqmneba Caketili wre. komunikaciis

unar-Cvevebis gamoyeneba maswavleblisa da moswavlis moTxovnilebebis identificirebisa da

dakmayofilebisaTvis Zalauflebis gamouyeneblad araswori saqcielis Semcirebis gordoniseuli

strategiaa.

Nnabijebi

1. gansazRvreT, arsebobs Tu ara problema.

2. gansazRvreT, visia problema. amis Tqma ufro advilia, vidre gakeTeba. maswavlebels

mxolod maSin aqvs problema, Tu mas xelSesaxebi gavlena aqvs masze. Cven (mozrdilebs,

mSoblebs, maswavleblebs) xSirad iseTi problema `gvaqvs~ da masze pasuxismgeblobasac

vkisrulobT, romelic realurad Cveni ar aris. magaliTad, marji diliT

zozinobs da sauzmis dawyebas agvianebs. dedas, romelic mudam nerviulobs, rom

droze miiyvanos skolaSi, arafris Tavi aRar aqvs im droisTvis, roca marji skolis

avtobusSi adis. visia es problema? dedam is Tavisad aqcia. magram sinamdvileSi vis

aqvs problema? marjis. deda yovelTvis marjis nacvlad agvarebs problemas. Tu marjis

saSualebas miscems, Tavisi problema Tavadve hqondes, maSin gogonas Sedegebis

mogvareba mouwevs (fexiT wasvla skolaSi, dagvianeba, dacda, sanam mama wava samsaxurSi

da gaiyolebs da isev dagvianeba). Tu virCevT, rom vikisroT pasuxismgebloba im

problemaze, romelic sinamdvileSi Cveni araa, aman SeiZleba garkveuli xelSesaxebi

Sedegebi mogvitanos (mag., deda aSkarad nervebmoSlilia). magram Tu problemas mis

namdvil mflobels davutovebT, Sedegebsac mxolod mflobeli iwvnevs.

3. Tu meore klasis maswavlebeli yovel saRamos saRebavis Ria qilebs saxuravebs

afarebs da moswavleTa upasuxismgeblobis gamo burtyunebs, visi problemaa saRebavis

qilebi? Tu maswavlebeli saSualebas miscems bavSvebs, sakuTar Tavs Tavad

mixedon, saRebavis qilebi TavRia datovon da meore dRes qilaSi Camxmari saRebaviT

`daxaton~, visi iqneba problema?

Tu bavSvebi produqtiulad, magram xmauriT muSaoben im saklaso oTaxSi, romelic

direqtoris kabinetis gverdiT mdebareobs da maswavlebels eSinia, rom skolis di-

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reqtors mcdari warmodgena Seeqmneba masze da cud Sefasebas miscems, visi problemaa

es?

aqtiuri mosmena. aqtiuri mosmena, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Sinaarsis emociuri

mosmenaa daSifruli Setyobinebis gasagebad da am emociis dabruneba mosaubrisaTvis.

(magaliTad, gogonas mier mamisaTvis dasmuli kiTxvis _ `mama, yvelaze metad

ras afaseb gogonaSi?~ _ namdvili Sinaarsi aqtiuri mosmeniT mamam ase unda

`gadaTargmnos~ `ainteresebs, ra unda gaakeTos, rom biWebs moewonos.~) aqtiuri

mosmena problemis saTavemde misvlas cdilobs, romelic SeiZleba emociaTa ramdenime

wyebis qveS imalebodes da Tavdapirvelad misi mxolod zeda nawili Candes.

aqtiuri mosmenisas mosaubris SeniSvnebidan faqtebs, mniSvnelobasa da emociur

Sinaarss vigebT. Cven miCveuli varT faqtebisa da mniSvnelobis mosmenas, magram ar

varT miCveuli maT miRma mniSvnelovani emociuri Sinaarsis wvdomas. Tu Cven sqemaze

problemis areSi varT, swored es daSifruli emocia SeiZleba iyos problemis

mizezi, romelic daukmayofilebel moTxovnilebas asaxavs. Tu moswavliseul problemas

vagvarebT, `aqtiuri mosmeniT~ SeiZleba mas sakuTari problemis mogvarebisaken

gzis gakvlevaSi davexmaroT.

3a. maswavlebels ekuTvnis problema. gamoiyeneba `me~-Setyobinebebi. magaliTad:

vTqvaT, moswavleTa xmauri maswavleblisTvis Zalze Zneli asatania da ar Seesatyviseba

swavlisTvis xelsayreli xmauris miseul warmodgenas, Tumca moswavleebs

xmauri xels ar uSlis. maswavlebeli gzavnis zemoT aRwerili elementebis matarebel

`me~-Setyobinebas (miukerZoebeli, qcevis aRmweri, masze gavlenisa da aRZruli

emociebis aRmweri). `xmauri am oTaxSi Tavs matkiebs!~ (aRwera_efeqti.) `simSvide da

siwynare menatreba.~ (gancda.)

4. qmedebis Secvla. `me~-Setyobinebam SeiZleba Tavadve moagvaros problema. Tu moswavleebi

pativs scemen maswavlebels da kargi urTierToba aqvT masTan, SeiZleba

sakuTari qcevis Secvlis motivaciac hqondeT. magram Tu maT daukmayofilebeli

moTxovnileba aqvT, maSin Cvens winaSe moTxovnilebaTa konfliqti Cndeba. am SemTxvevaSi,

moswavleTa moTxovnilebebis gansazRvris mizniT, maswavlebeli `me~-Setyobinebis

gagzavnis Semdeg aqtiur mosmenaze unda gadaerTos. garkveuli drois Semdeg,

man SeiZleba Tavidan Camoayalibos `me~-Setyobineba. Tu problema aqvs rogorc

maswavlebels, ise moswavleebs, SeiZleba saWiro iyos III meTodis gamoyeneba.

5. III meTodi. I meTodi maswavleblis Zalauflebaa: maswavlebeli imarjvebs, moswavleebi

marcxdebian. II meTodi bavSvebis Zalauflebaa: moswavleebi imarjveben, maswavlebeli

marcxdeba. III meTodi yaimiT mogvarebaa, romelic Semdegi nabijebisgan Sedgeba:

a) gansazRvreT problema moTxovnilebebis TvalsazrisiT.

b) moswavleebi da maswavlebeli erTad fiqroben problemis gadaWris gzebze.

g) isini erTad afaseben gadaWris gzebs.

d) isini erTad irCeven erT misaReb gadawyvetilebas.

e) isini gansazRvraven, rogor da rodis ganaxorcielon miRebuli gadawyvetileba.

v) isini mogvianebiT niSnaven Sexvedris TariRs gadaWris gzis xelaxla Sesafaseblad.

III meTodi mxolod maSin gamoiyeneba, Tu is winaswar aris axsnili moswavleebisTvis.

6. garemos modificireba. aq maswavlebeli iCens garemos gamdidrebis, gaRaribebis,

SezRudvis, gadidebis, xelaxla mowyobis, gamartivebis, sistematizebis an dagegmvis

iniciativas, magram ara moswavleTa xarjze (ise, rom isini ar iyvnen damarcxebuli).


socialuri sistema

disciplina

moswavleebica da maswavlebelic moTxovnilebebis mqone individebi arian, romelTac pativi

unda vceT da davakmayofiloT. visic unda iyos problema, iCens iniciativas, rom `me~-

Setyobineba gagzavnos im pirovnebasTan an pirovnebebTan, romelTa qcevas xelSesaxebi gavlena

aqvs. Tu moswavleebi sakmarisad daxelovnebuli ar arian `me~-Setyobinebis gagzavnaSi,

maswavlebeli gulisyuriT cdilobs maTi moTxovnilebebis gagebas da amisTvis aqtiur mosmenas

iyenebs. moTxovnilebaTa konfliqti III meTodis modificirebuli molaparakebis teqnikiT

gvardeba an maswavlebeli iCens garemos ise modificirebis iniciativas, rom qceva sqemaze

asaxul uproblemo areSi gadavides. gadawyvetilebebze molaparakeba mxolod moTxovnilebaTa

konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi mimdinareobs. uproblemo areSi moqmedebisas, maswavlebels

araferi uSlis xels iniciativis gamoCenasa da swavlebis sxva modelebze agebuli instruqciuli

gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi.

maswavleblis reaqciis principebi

uproblemo areSi maswavlebels sasurveli reaqciis gamoxatva SeuZlia. misaRebia TviT

binZuri Tormetic 3 ki! magram problema gvaqvs, sintaqsi konkretul nabijebs gvTavazobs,

dawyebuli problemisa da misi mflobelis gansazRvridan. yovel nabijs safuZvlad udevs

ormxrivi pativiscema da sxvisi moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis survili.

maswavleblis reaqciis principebia TanagrZnoba, gancalkevebuloba, xelSewyoba, saku-

Tari Tavis pativiscema da molaparakeba.

¤ TanagrZnoba gamoixateba aqtiuri mosmeniT.

¤ gancalkevebuloba niSnavs sxvebisTvis sakuTari problemis `mixedvis~ saSualebis

micemas. Cveni Tavi ar unda gavaigivoT sxvebis problemasTan, arc sxvis magivrad vikisroT

pasuxismgebloba _ adamianebs sakuTar problemaze pasuxismgeblobis saSualeba

unda mivceT.

¤ xelSewyoba niSnavs, rom gancalkevebulobiT adamiani sxvebs problemis gadaWris saku-

Tari gzis povnaSi exmareba; xels uwyobs maT winsvlas.

¤ sakuTari Tavis pativiscema aq niSnavs sakuTari Tavis dacvas, sakuTari moTxovnilebebis

aRiarebas da ara damalvas, maT gacxadebas, maTi dakmayofilebis Riad mcdelobas

da imavdroulad sxvebis daxmarebasac.

¤ molaparakeba safuZvlad udevs III meTodiT problemis gadaWras. mas moTxovnilebaTa

konfliqtis dros viyenebT.

mxardaWeris sistema

1. aqtiuri mosmena msmenelisgan moiTxovs:

a) moswavlis SesaZleblobebis rwmenas, rom is gadaWris sakuTar problemas.

b) sxvisi emociebis gulwrfel miRebas.

g) emociaTa warmavlobis gagebas. (frazis _ `mZulxar!~ _ mTqmels SeiZleba marTla

sZuls im wuTas, magram, albaT, xuTi wuTis Semdeg ukve aRar.)

d) moswavlis daxmarebis namdvil survils.

e) gancalkevebulobas _ unars, fsiqologiurad gamoacalkevo sakuTari Tavi sxvisi

problemisgan, gaigivebisgan da sxvis nacvlad pasuxismgeblobis kisrebisgan, magram

imavdroulad daexmaro.

3 KrCevis micema, brZaneba, TanagrZnoba, damuqreba, moralis wakiTxva, leqciis wakiTxva, gankiTxva, dacinva, gaanalizeba, dakiTxva,

CixSi mimwyvdeva da Seqeba.)

155


Tavi 7

156

v) imis gagebas, rom moswavleebi iSviaTad gviziareben realur problemas, romelic

SeiZleba emociaTa wyebis qveS imalebodes.

z) sxvebis privatulobis pativiscemas, romelTac SeiZleba ar undodeT TqvenTvis

garkveuli emociebis gamxela, an roca undaT, mxolod TqvenTvis undaT.

T) dros _ sakmaris dros procesis gasavlelad (romelic ver geqnebaT derefanSi 30

bavSviT garSemortymuls an sasadilosken mimavals.)

2. me~-Setyobineba gamgzavnisagan moiTxovs:

a) gulwrfelobas emociebis gamoxatvisas.

b) risks: bolos da bolos, grZnobas sxvas umxelT.

3. `me~-Setyobinebidan aqtiur mosmenaze dabrunebas egos warmatebuli kontroli

sWirdeba. `me~-SetyobinebiT gamoxatuli sakuTari moTxovnilebiT, Tqven uceb sxva

pirovnebis moTxovnilebaze gadarTva da misi aqtiurad mosmena giwevT. (Cveni azriT,

es gordonis sistemaSi yvelaze mniSvnelovani da arasaTanadod Sefasebuli aspeqtia.)

4. III meTodi moiTxovs, rom:

a) moswavleebs esmodeT misi arsi.

b) moswavleebs sjerodeT, rom Zalisxmevas ar daiSurebT da Zalauflebas ar

gamoiyenebT.

g) gqondeT dro yvela safexuris gasavlelad.

rogorc xedavT, mxardaWeris sistemis elementebi maswavleblis damokidebulebasa

da rwmenas ukavSirdeba da ara fizikur mxardaWeras. maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTnis

warmatebisTvis is garkveuli tipis pirovneba unda iyos, garkveuli gagebiTa da rwmeniT da

hqondes mocemul situaciaSi sistemis ganxorcielebis dro. amgvarad, mTlianad ,,winaTgrZnobis’’

kategoriis nawilad SegviZlia mxardaWeris am elementebis klasificireba.

efqtebi

pirdapiri: sistemis pirdapiri efeqtebi, gordonis mixedviT, aris is, rom ,,maswavleblebs

uyvarT bavSvebi da bavSvebs uyvarT maswavleblebi’’ –

anu, ukeTesi urTierTobebi, rac, Tavis mxriv, komunikaciis gaumjobesebuli

unar-Cvevebis Sedegia. amgvarad, `marTkuTxedSi~ (ix.

principebi) uproblemo are farTovdeba da meti dro rCeba swavleba-swavlisTvis.

swavleba ufro efeqtiani xdeba.

sainteresoa, rom am humanisturi midgomis Sedegi dakavSirebulia

ufro efeqtian swavlebasTan, magram gordons `efeqtianobis~ gansakuTrebuli

gageba aqvs.

aRmzrdelobiTi: Tu gavixsenebT, rom is iSveliebs maslousa da rojerss da

yuradRebiT wavikiTxavT mis komentarebs aqtiuri mosmenisa da

sxva meTodebis upiratesobaze, aSkara gaxdeba, rom gordonisa-

Tvis `efeqtianoba~ pirovnuli zrdis xelSewyobas niSnavs; swored

es xdis adamians `efeqtians~. mew-is komunikaciis axali unar-

Cvevebi maswavleblisa da moswavlis urTierTobas aumjobesebs,

rac naTlad vlindeba swavlis garemos saxecvlilebaSi, romelic

aRsavsea siTboTi, pasuxismgeblobiT, urTierTpativiscemiTa da

mimReblobiT. swavlis axali garemo xels uwyobs pirovnul zrdas

da imavdroulad – akademiur swavlas.


disciplina

sxva aRmzrdelobiTi efeqtebia moswavleTa mier aqtiuri mosmenis, `me~-

Setyobinebisa da III meTodis teqnikis modelireba.

mew­is komunikaciis unar­Cvevebi

maswavleblisa da moswavlis gaumjobesebuli urTierTobebi

mimRebi garemo

pirovnuli zrda da akademiuri winsvla

V nawili

Sesabamisoba

dreikursis erT-erTi debuleba yovelTvis mniSvnelovnad gveCveneboda: `yvela qceva

miznobrivia~. Tu misi oTxi `mizani~ (yuradReba, Zalaufleba, umweoba, SurisZieba) mTlianad

ar moicavs araswori qcevis miRma arsebul motivebs, erTi ram arsebiTia – adamianebi yovlTvis

garkveuli mizniT moqmedeben. maT SeiZleba gacnobierebuli ar hqondeT mizani, magram

is yovelTvis arsebobs. SegviZlia vaRiaroT, rom moswavlis araswori saqcielis yvela zemoxsenebuli

paternis miRma aris moTxovnilebebi, gancdili fsiqologiuri moTxovnilebebi,

romelTa dakmayofilebasac moswavle konkretuli qceviT cdilobs. amis aRiarebiT sentimentaluri,

metismetad `gamgebi~ an damTmobi rodi gavxdebiT; ubralod, `mivxvdebiT, sinamdvileSi

ris miRebas cdilobs moswavle konkretuli qceviT da gavigebT, rogori reaqcia unda

gvqondes~. moswavle SeiZleba cdilobdes daukmayofilebeli moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebas,

kerZod:

usafrTxoeba `sakmarisi ndoba maqvs. sul mcire minimaluri

usafrTxoeba. vici ra moxdeba Semdeg~.

sakuTari Tavis kontroli `me SemiZlia sakuTari Tavis kontroli. ar meSinia, rom

guls vzatken sakuTar Tavs an sxvebs~.

siyvaruli `viRac CemTvis mniSvnelovani Cemze zrunavs~.

CarTuloba ,,me miRebuli var am jgufSi~.

kontroli, rogorc Zalaufleba sakuTar bed-iRbals garkveulwilad vakontroleb~.

sakuTari Tavis pativiscema `me Rirseuli pirovneba var~.

aRiareba `adamianebi afaseben imas, rac gavakeTe, vinc var~.

TviTaqtualizacia `me vaxden sakuTari potencialis realizebas~.

gaxsovdeT, rom araswor qcevaTa umravlesobis kvals SeiZleba da ukmayofilebel fsiqologiur

moTxovnilebamde ar mivyavdeT. Se iZleba bavSvebi wamoZaxiliT, baraTebis gadawodebiT

157


Tavi 7

an sxva araswori qc eviT, ubralod scdidnen maswavlebels. isini cdiloben gaigon, ra m dens

apatieben (mouTmenen). Tumca, axla TiTo-orola metismetad re zistentul moswavleze vsaubrobT,

romlebic gamudmebiT arasworad iqc evian miuxedavad molodinisa da menejmentis sxva

parametrebis saS ualebiT swori mopyrobisa.

zemoT CamoTvlili fsiqologiuri moTxovnilebebi, yvelaze fundamenturidan dawyebuli,

TanamimdevrobiT aris dalagebuli. Cven vaviTarebT hipoTezas (ix. striqonebis gaswvriv

Canawerebi), rom moswavlis qcevis mamoZravebel fsiqologiur moTxovnilebebsa da reaqciis

yvelaze swor strategiebs Soris kavSiri arsebobs:

fsiqologiuri moTxovnilebebi,

romlebic SeiZleba amoZravebs rezi-

stentul moswavleebs

TviTaqtualizacia

aRiareba

158

reaqciis strategiebi

maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTna

sakuTari Tavis pativiscema realobiT Terapia

kontroli logikuri Sedegebi

CarTuloba pirovnuli zegavlena

siyvaruli TviTSecnobis wvrTna

usafrTxoeba/ndoba qcevis modifikacia

es eqvsi strategia aRmavali wesiT aris dalagebuli _ yvelaze dablidan yvelaze maRlisaken,

dawyebuli im strategiiT, romelic moswavlisgan nakleb simwifesa da kompetencias

moiTxovs da damTavrebuli imiT, romelic yvelaze mets moiTxovs. mimdevrobis qveda nawilSi

`myofi~ daukmayofilebeli moTxovnilebebis mqone moswavleebi emociurad naklebmomwifebulni

Canan da am rigis qveda nawilSi arsebuli strategiebi (qcevis modifikacia, TviTSecnobis

wvrTna) sWirdebaT. maT, visac iseTi moTxovnilebebi amoZravebT, rogoricaa, magaliTad, kontroli,

ufro momwifebuli strategiebi (logikuri Sedegebi, realobiT Terapia) miesadagebaT.

drois xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi konkretul moswavlesTan mimdevrobis qveda

nawilidan zeda nawilSi asvla unda vcadoT _ unda daviwyoT moswavlis mimdinare moTxovnilebebis

Sesatyvisi strategiebiT da davexmaroT pirovnul zrdasa da ufro rTul strategiebze

gadasvlaSi. am gziT moswavleebi gazrdili TviTdisciplinisken migvyavs maSinac ki, Tu maT-

Tvis TviT am disciplinis `gakeTeba~ (qcevis modifikacia) gviwevs. maTi fsiqikuri sijansa-

Risa da emociuri momwifebulobis zrda ubralod paralelurad ki ar mimdinareobs, aramed

xeli ewyoba, rom Cveni unariT droTa ganmavlobaSi movaxdinoT strategiebis koreqtireba.

geTanxmebiT, rom seriozuli moTxovnaa maswavleblisaTvis, daiswavlos da praqtikaSi sworad

gamoiyenos disciplinis eqvsi sxvadasxva strategia. kolejSi amas ar aswavlian. Tumca qcevis

gasagebad am sqemis gamoyenebasa da reaqciebis morgebas eqspertoba ar sWirdeba. faqtia,

rom klasSi moswavleebi gvyavs da saidanRac unda daviwyoT. sxvadasxva strategiis gacnobasa

da mosinjvas dro da varjiSi sWirdeba da ukeT mimdinareobs, sul mcire, ori maswavleblis

erTdrouli muSaobisas. magram maTi swavla savsebiT SesaZlebelia da did samsaxurs gauwevs

im moswavleebs, visac cxovrebaSi skolisa da maswavleblis garda sxva stabiluri dasayrdeni

ar egulebaT. magram, modiT, ukan davbrundeT. rogor miviReT fsiqologiur moTxovnilebaTa

zemoxsenebuli CamonaTvali?


fiziologiuri

daculoba

da usafrTxoeba

sazogadoebis

wevroba

pativiscema,

aRiareba

disciplina

TviTaqtualizacia

bevrma avtorma, rogoricaa maslou (Maslow 1962), Tavis naSromSi Seitana garkveulwilad

universaluri, yvela adamianisTvis saerTo fsiqologiur moTxovnilebaTa cneba. zogierTi

avtori maT ierarqiulad alagebs:

`ierarqiulad~ maslousaTvis niSnavs, rom dabali moTxovnilebebis (mag.: fiziologiuri)

dakmayofileba yvelaze arsebiTia. magaliTad, Tu gSia, sazogadoebis aRiarebaze didad ar

dardob. fiziologiuri da usafrTxoebis moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis Semdeg sazogadoebis

wevrobis moTxovnileba iwevs wina planze. adamiani am moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebas

cdilobs, rac safuZvlad edeba mis mraval qcevas. Tumca, imave adamians pativiscemisa da aRiarebis

moTxovnilebebi SeiZleba ar amoZravebdes; yovel SemTxvevaSi, sazogadoebis wevrobis

moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebamde, is ar iqneboda qcevis miRma arsebuli dominanturi Zala.

maslou da sxvebi ar miiCneven am moTxovnilebebs evoluciur nabijebad, romlebsac erTxel

gadalaxvis Semdeg xelaxla damuSaveba aRar sWirdeba. arsebuli garemoebebis Sesabamisad,

adamiani kibeze adis da Cadis: samsaxuris dakargvisas kibeze ori-sami safexuriT qvemoT

CamovdivarT da moqmedebas daculobisa da usafrTxoebis moTxovnilebidan gamomdinare viwyebT.

igive ram SeiZleba moxdes moswavlis mSoblebis gayris SemTxvevaSic.

7.3 sqemaze warmodgenilia avtorTa mier aRwerili ZiriTadi fsiqologiuri mo Tx ovnilebebi.

miuxedavad imisa, rom yoveli avtori moTxovnilebaTa aRniSvnisaTvis gansxvavebul

terminebs iyenebs da moTxovnilebaTa sxvadasxva raodenobas gamoyofs, arsebiTi damTxvevaa,

rom isini yvelgan rva ZiriTad moTxovnilebamde daiyvaneba.

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom CamonaTvalSi Setanilia eriqsonis rva fsiqologiuri stadiac,

an fsiqologiuri krizisi. eriqsoni evolucionistia, is ar ganixilavs am krizisebs rogorc

stadiebs, romlebic unda gadailaxos skalaze momdevno safexurebis gasavlelad. rogorc

wesi, erTxel gadalaxuli krizisebi ar meordeba, Tumca, adamiani (da bavSvi) SeiZleba gadaulaxavi

krizisis gamo skalis dabal doneze Seferxdes, rac xels SeuSlis maT winsvlas jansaRi

emociuri ganviTarebis Semdgomi stadiebisken. aq marTebulia eriqsonis nebismieri kavSiri

erTi stadiis warmatebul marTvasa da fsiqologiur moTxovnilebas Soris. rogorc Cans,

paralelebi arsebobs, rasac eriqsoni xedavs – magaliTad, krizisis dros `iniciativa an danaSaulis

grZnoba~ – da rasac Sutci kontrolis ZiriTadi moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebad

miiCnevs.

es avtorebi ramdenime mkafio Setyobinebas gvigzavnian: (1) adamianebs garkveuli saerTo

fsiqologiuri moTxovnilebebi aqvT; (2) moTxovnilebebi dakavSirebulia standartulad

(SeiZleba ierarqiulad); (3) moTxovnilebebi amoZravebs qcevas. roca ZiriTadi moTxovnileba

ar kmayofildeba, is im dakvirvebadi qcevis motivirebas axdens da misi axsnis saSualebas

gvaZlevs.

159


Tavi 7

160

maslou dreikursi Sutci glaseri eriqsoni Sejameba

TviTaqtualizacia

erTianoba an

sasowarkveTileba;

aRiareba

generatiuloba an

unayofoba;

siaxlove an izolacia;

identoba an identobis

miuRwevloba

TviTaqtualizacia

TviTSefaseba

kontroli pativiscema gulmodgineba da

arasrulfasovneba

iniciativa an danaSaulis

grZnoba

(umweoba)/

kompetenturoba

pativiscema,

aRiareba

kontroli

Zalaufleba

CarTuloba

CarTuloba

dakavSirebuloba

siyvaruli

yuradReba

siyvaruli

sazogadoebis

wevroba

avtonomia da sircxvili TviTkontroli

ndoba da undobloba daculoba/

usafrTxoeba/ndoba

daculoba/

usafrTxoeba/ndoba

sqema 7.3: ZiriTadi fsiqologiuri moTxovnilebebi


disciplina

rogor SegviZlia gamoviyenoT es mosazrebebi, rom rezistentul moswavleebs SevusabamoT

eqvsi strategia? ra kavSiria maswavleblis mier arCeul strategiasa da moswavlis qcevis

mamoZravebel moTxovnilebas Soris?

am kiTxvebze sapasuxod ramdenime instruqcias gTavazobT, magram Semdegi gafrTxileba

aucilebelia. Cven ar varT fsiqologebi da ar vcdilobT maswavleblebi vaqcioT fsiqologebad.

gvsurs, maT moswavlis fsiqologiuri moTxovnilebis gansazRvra da `mkurnalobis~

dawyeba vaswavloT. sakiTxi Zalze bundovania. TviT fsiqikuri janmrTelobis specialistebi

diagnozs metismetad naCqarevad svamen. danamdvilebiT ver gvecodineba, ra xdeba sxva adamianis

TavSi da ra aris misi qcevis mizezi; magram SegviZlia gvjerodes, rom arsebobs mizani, maSinac

ki, Tu is CvenTvis (da maTTvis) bundovania. ar arsebobs Sesatyvisi reaqciis strategiis

arCevis sxva gza garda imisa, rom vcadoT logikurad SevusabamoT moswavlis savaraudo moTxovnileba

Sesatyvis strategias. ar dasvaT diagnozi; mosinjeT, magram ecadeT gamoiyenoT

qceva moTxovnilebis Sesaxeb miniSnebebisTvis da daukavSiroT is strategiebs. es ukeTesi

iqneba, vidre yvela moswavlesTan erTi da igive strategiis gamoyeneba (TiTqos disciplinis

meTodi iyos), vidre strategiebis SemTxveviTi, ekleqtikuri cvla.

eqvsi tipobrivi daxasiaTeba

qcevis modifikacia strategiebidan yvelaze kontrolirebadia; erTi ram, rac danamdvilebiT

viciT mis Sesaxeb is aris, rom namdvilad qmediTia. misi kargad warmarTvis SemTxveva-

Si moswavles, ufrosklaselsac ki, nebismier saqmianobas SeasrulebinebT. ratom SeiZleba

maswavlebels aseTi xarisxis kontroli surdes? erTi mizezi SeiZleba iyos sasowarkveTa:

klasi (an moswavle) iseTi xelis SemSlelia, rom sxva gza ar aris! iqneb moswavleebs ubralod

ar aqvT qcevis repertuarSi sworad funqcionirebisTvis saWiro qceva: ar ician rogor aiRon

da Seinaxon nivTebi, rogor gaakeTon davalebebi TanamimdevrobiT; rogor daasrulon davaleba

droulad; rogor moagvaron kamaTi muStebis gareSe. qcevis modifikacia moswavleebs

qcevis mosinjvisa (rasac damoukideblad arasodes gaakeTebdnen) da moqmedebis sxva gzebis

aRmoCenis saSualebas aZlevs. daucvelobisa da mRelvarebis ukiduresi Sinagani mdgomareobis

mqone moswavleebs SegviZlia qcevis modifikaciis programis struqturis gamoyenebiT

davexmaroT yoveldRiuri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebaSi. arsebiTad, Cven mxars vuWerT

maT sisustisa da dabneulobis momentebSi. am pirobebSi qcevis modifikacia kontrolis nacvlad

mxardamWerisa da damcvelis funqcias asrulebs. is aCerebs negatiur qcevas, romelic

zians ayenebs moswavlis urTierTobas sxvebTan da umyarebs sakuTar sicudeze warmodgenas.

is moswavlisTvis maSveli rgolia, sanam sakuTari Tavis kontrols SeZlebs da Cveni mizanic

xom es gaxlavT _ TviTkontroli, TviTdisciplina.

Cven yovelTvis vcdilobT, rom moswavleebs moTxovnilebaTa CamonaTvalis zeda safexurisken,

ufro srulyofili strategiebisaken `gadaadgilebaSi~ mivexmaroT, radgan adamiani,

romelic realobiT Terapiis midgomas pasuxobs, emociurad ufro momwifebulia, vidre is,

romelsac gamudmebiT sWirdeba qcevis modifikacia. nebismier konkretul saswavlo wels,

SeiZleba aRmoaCinoT, rom jimisTan muSaobas piradi gavleniT iwyebT, magram wlis bolosTvis

realobiT Terapiaze gadadixarT. strategiebs Soris mravali kavSiri da gadasvla SesaZlebelia,

magram maswavlebeli yovelTvis cdilobs moswavlesTan erTad CamonaTvalis zeda

safexurze asvlas. ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi sajaro skolaSi Cven mowmeni viyaviT, rogor

SeZles gamocdilma maswavleblebma, rom moswavle pirvel da meore klasSi qcevis modifikaciidan

mexuTe klasisaTvis mew-mde ganviTarebuliyo. moswavlis aseT seriozul pirovnul

zrdas maswavleblis kontrolis garda sxva faqtorebmac unda Seuwyos xeli, magram gvjera,

161


Tavi 7

rom Tanamoazre maswavlebelTa gundis gareSe, romlebic erTad gegmavdnen moswavlis daxmarebas,

araferi moxdeboda.

TviTSecnobis strategiebi Sesaferisia myife emociuri mdgomareobis moswavleebisTvisac.

am moswavleebma SeiZleba icodnen gansxvaveba produqtiul da araproduqtiul qcevas

Soris, magram ar SeeZloT sakuTari Tavis kontroli. maTi temperamenti xSirad kontrols ar

eqvemdebareba; maT ar sjeraT sakuTari Tavis da uWirT damegobreba. isini SeiZleba ganmartovdnen,

bevri dro gaataron xatvaSi, kiTxvaSi an romelime obieqtur aqtivobaSi. Tu mecnierebis

an xelovnebisaken midrekileba aqvT, SeiZleba Seqmnan zRapruli proeqtebi da faqtobrivad,

mxolod am proeqtebiT daamyaron zedapiruli urTierToba sxvebTan. maT sZulT

sakuTar grZnobebze saubari, faqtobrivad, arc SeuZliaT, eSiniaT da daZalebis SemTxvevaSi

SeiZleba uari Tqvan. maT mier sakuTar Tavze saubari ukavSirdeba movlenebsa, nivTebs, da

ara adamianebs an SegrZnebebs. mcire asakis bavSvebisTvis am mdgomareobaSi zedgamoWrilia

volfgangisa (Wolfgang 1977) da ledermanis (Lederman 1969) strategiebi, mozardebisTvis ki

maixenbaumis (Meichenbaum) TviTinstruqciuli strategiebi ufro Sesatyvisia, Tumca, maTi

zogierTi forma dawyebiT klaselebsac gamoadgebaT (mag.: `kus teqnika~).

moswavleebi, romlebic ergebian pirovnuli gavlenis models, CvenSi xSirad siyvarulisa

da siZulvilis grZnobebs warmoSoben. maT aqvT mosawoni, momxiblavi, sayvareli Tvisebebic

ki. erT wuTSi giCndebaT survili, gulSi CaikraT isini, meore wuTSi ki _ kedels mianarcxoT.

individualuri urTierTobis dros isini araCveulebrivebi arian; jgufSi ki SeuZliaT CxubisTavebi,

wamqezeblebi, poziorebi iyvnen. gasakviria, magram isini xSirad wynarebi arian

did jgufebSi, sadac aris meti TviTmmarTveloba, magram gamousworeblebi patara jgufebSi,

sadac socialuri daZabuloba TviTdamkvidrebis gamo Zalze didia. diliT klasSi Semosvlisas,

maT SeiZleba iaron oTaxSi, Seamowmon moswavleTa saqmianoba, gadavidnen nivTidan niv-

Tze da ver ipovon adgili. maT namdvilad aqvT im siyvarulisa da CarTulobis moTxovnileba,

romelic akliaT cxovrebaSi. dilaobiT, aseTi `seirnobis~ dros, isini sakuTar adgils eZeben,

surT gaigon, sad SeuZliaT CarTva da kargad arc ki ician, rogor daamyaron urTier-

Toba. reputaciisa da sxva moswavleebTan urTierTobebis gamo, uWirT arastruqturirebul

situaciebSi adgilis povna. maT enatrebaT megobrebi, sxva moswavleebTan da maswavlebelTan

siaxlove, magram maTi qceva antagonizms iwvevs. pirovnuli gavlenis modelis struqtura,

moTxovnebi, siTbo da urTierTobis Camoyalibeba maT cxovrebis rTuli periodis gadalaxvaSi

exmareba.

ufro mcire asakis bavSvebTan maswavlebelma SeiZleba qcevis modifikacia gamoiyenos maT

mier sakuTari yvelaze xelis SemSleli qcevis ukeT Sesacnobad da gasakontroleblad.

xandaxan iseT moswavleebs vxvdebiT, romlebic `aras~ amboben, gvewinaaRmdegebian da Riad

gviwveven TavianTi qceviT. es moswavleebi SeiZleba logikuri Sedegebis modelis kandidatebi

iyvnen. isini uars amboben samuSaos Sesrulebaze an mas mxolod survilis SemTxvevaSi asruleben.

isini eZeben Zalauflebis konfliqtebs ufrosebTan, faqtobrivad, iwveven maT. ra

Tqma unda, iseTi moswavleebic gvxvdebian, romlebic xSirad, Tumca ara ganzrax, erTvebian

kamaTSi TanatolebTan da maswavleblebTan; im moswavleebis mier ufrosebis gamowvevisa

da maTTan kamaTis dawyeba, romlebzec vsaubrobT, rogorc wesi, `Cemeburad keTebas~ ukav-

Sirdeba. aseTi moswavleebi SeiZleba sxvebTan TamaSis dros xSirad tiranebi, CxubisTavebi

iyvnen, daundoblad hkran xeli sxva moswavleebs da maswavlebelsac. maT qcevas kontrolis

fsiqologiuri moTxovnileba amoZravebs. rogorc dreikursi ityoda, maTi azriT, samyaroSi

adgilis damkvidrebis erTaderTi gza Zalauflebis Cveneba, sxvebis gakontrolebaa. swored

ase unda moiqcnen, rom pativsacemi da Rirseuli adamianebi gaxdnen sxvis TvalSi. es mcdari

rwmena, maTi qceva unda Seicvalos, unda Seicvalos nebismieri gziT, garda droebiTisa.

162


disciplina

dreikursis meTodi Tavs aridebs Zalauflebis konfliqtebs da cdilobs socialuri wesrigis

realoba logikuri Sedegebis gamoyenebiT aswavlos. es Sedegebi aris ara maswavleblis

mier Tavsmoxveuli Zalaufleba, aramed samyaros realoba. ase rom, moswavleebi ver gabrazdebian

maswavlebelze, ver daubrundebian TavianT Zvel araproduqtiul `Zalauflebis TamaSs~.

isini qcevis ganxilvas maTTvis Sedegebis TvalsazrisiT iwyeben _ gana imitom, rom

ufrosebi `ar maZleven uflebas~, aramed qceva araTavsebadia socialur wesrigTan. maT warmodgena

uyalibdebaT socialuri kontraqtis Sesaxeb. maT iseT mdgomareobaSi vayenebT, rom

dainaxon, raoden saWiroa sakuTari qceva sazogadoebis, klasis funqcionirebisTvis. TviT

jgufi ki klasis Sekrebebze am mesijis gasaZliereblad gamoiyeneba, rasac glaseris realobiT

Terapiamde da klasis Sekrebis modelamde mivyavarT, sadac kidev ufro mniSvnelovania

da daxvewili jgufis rolis gamoyeneba.

realobiT Terapiis kandidatebi upasuxismgeblo moswavleebi arian, romelTac yovelTvis

aviwydebaT wignebi, agviandebaT, ar asruleben samuSaos, acdenen daniSnul Sexvedrebsa

da ar asruleben valdebulebebs, adanaSauleben sxvebs da ver acnobiereben, an ar aRiareben

konfliqtSi TavianT rols. es moswavleebi SeiZleba Zalze xelis SemSlelad iqceodnen _

gadmoyaron sxvebis wignebi, daartyan derefanSi moswavleebs, gadaayiraon skamebi. Tumca,

yuradRebis maZieblis msgavsad, maT es qmedebebi winaswar dagegmili an ganzraxuli ara aqvT.

rogorc Cans, isini ubralod aseT mdgomareobaSi vardebian. isini emociur mawanwalebs hgvanan,

romlebic advilad ebmebian cud saqmeebsa da kampaniaSi. kiTxvaze, ratom daejaxnen moswavles,

savaraudod, `ar vici~-s pasuxoben da mxrebs iCeCaven. sasjelisa da SeniSvnis Semdeg,

isini ar kamaToben, ar Tmoben da ar icvlebian.

realobiT TerapiaSi moswavleebs agebineben maTi saqcielis Sedegebs sxva adamianebTan maTi

urTierTobis TvalsazrisiT. es ufro pirovnuli Tvlasazrisia, vidre dreikursis modeli,

sadac swavlebis mizania: `es qceva araqmediTia samyaroSi~. glaseris swavlebis arsia: `is araqmediTia

CemTvis, ra gavakeTo amasTan dakavSirebiT?~ es kiTxva simwifis skalis zeda nawilis

eqvs models Seesatyviseba, radganac saqcielis danaxvis, Sefasebisa da Secvlis pasuxismgebloba

akisria moswavles, Tumca, maswavleblis CarTva aucilebelia, raTa xeli Seuwyos moswavleTa

yovel safexurze gadasvlas. glasers, romelic didad ar amaxvilebs yuradRebas

araswori saqcielis mizezebze, uyvars `aq da axla~ mogvareba. misi azriT, Seusabamo qcevis

mqone mraval adamians, SeuZlia gadawyvitos, rom ar moiqces Seusabamod. maT aqvT saamiso

Sinagani kontroli, maT SeuZliaT gaiaron realobiT Terapiis safexurebi da gadawyviton,

rom Rirs amis gakeTeba, oRond maT gverdSi unda hyavdeT iseTi CarTuli adamiani, romelic

maTTan erTad gaivlis am gzas da xels ar Caiqnevs maTze. amrigad, glaseri SeiZleba ixrebodes

realobiT Terapiis misadagebisaken im moswavleebisaTvis, romlebic skalis sakmaod dabal

dones Seesatyvisebian.

klasis Sekrebebi `CarTulobis~ gancdas uRrmavebs maswavlebelsa da moswavleebs. es Sexvedrebi

moswavleebs im adgiliT uzrunvelyofs, sadac erTmaneTTan gulaxdilad saubars SeZleben.

rezistentuli moswavleebi igeben sxvebis azrs maT Sesaxeb, sxvebs ki problemis gadamWrel

garemoSi am azris gaziarebis saSualeba eZlevaT.

maswavleblis efeqtianobis wvrTnis (mew) kargi kandidati is aRSfoTebuli moswavlea,

romelic skolaSi gatarebul dros patimrobis vadasaviT ixdis, xan meamboxea, xan brZeni, magram,

rogorc wesi, qmediTi. mis mier Sesrulebuli samuSao SeiZleba iyos damakmayofilebeli

an cudi. es moswavleebi, albaT, grZnoben, rom maswavlebeli maT TiTqmis arasodes usmens, maswavlebeli

ki, albaT, Tvlis, rom moswavleebs ar esmiT da pativs ar scemen zogadad skolas. maswavlebelsa

da moswavles Soris cudi komunikaciaa da orive xvdeba, rom maTi moTxovnilebebi

ar Tanxvdeba. miuxedavad iSviaTi Ria konfliqtisa, orive ukmayofiloa klasSi urTierTobiT.

163


Tavi 7

rogorc wesi, aseT moswavles mzardi mtruli ganwyoba aqvs da mzad aris es ganwyoba

yvela maswavleblis mimarT gamoamJRavnos, Tu isini sxvagvarad ar daamtkiceben sakuTar

SesaZleblobebs. sxva moswavleebTan urTierTobebi xSirad damakmayofilebelia. moswavle

ufrosebTan iwyebs im mosazrebis ganzogadebas, rom `maTi (ufrosebis) mTeli saqmianoba

brZanebebis gacemaa, imis Tqma, ra gavakeTo. isini arasodes ismenen~. amitom moswavle wyvets

Setyobinebebis gagzavnas sakuTari ukmayofilebis Sesaxeb.

mew-i SeiZleba problemis mqone moswavlisTvis iyos gamiznuli, roca gamocdili maswavlebeli

aqtiuri mosmeniT mas problemis gadaWris sakuTari gzis povnaSi exmareba.

mew-i sxva modelis msgavsad konkretul fsiqologiur moTxovnilebebs rodi pasuxobs.

is yvelaze maRali donis modelia, radgan moswavlisagan Tanaziarobas an, sul mcire, maswavleblis

`me~-Setyobinebis gagebas da imis survils moiTxovs, rom problema `yaimiT~ an

(`gamarjvebuli-gamarjvebuli~) molaparakebiT mogvardes. TviT III meTodiT problemis mogvareba

moiTxovs orive mxaris mier mosmenisa da SetyobinebaTa gagzavnis unar-Cvevebs, rac

gansakuTrebiT problemur moswavleebs uWirT. gordoni Tvlis, rom mew-i ar aris Seqmnili

problemuri moswavleebisTvis. Tumca, gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom aqtiuri mosmena da `me~-

Setyobinebebi TavisTavad arsebiTi unar-Cvevebia maSinac ki, roca mew-is mTlian models ar

viyenebT. aqtiuri mosmena Zalian sasargebloa, TiTqmis aucilebeli, TviTanalizis modelSi,

xolo `me~-Setyobinebebi mSvenivrad avsebs pirovnuli gavlenis models. aqtiuri mosmena ki,

ra Tqma unda, ZiriTadi unar-Cvevaa moswavlis aRSfoTebis ganmuxtvisaTvis.

amrigad, am eqvsi strategiidan TiToeuli moswavlis konkretul tips Seesatyviseba. Cven

eqvsives tipobrivi daxasiaTeba SemogTavazeT, rogorc zogadi instruqcia maTi morgebisTvis

da SevexeT fsiqologiur moTxovnilebebs. strategiis arCevisas maswavlebelma TviT

moswavlis qceviT unda daiwyos. unda Caiweros ra qceva, rodis, visTan erTad, ramdenjer da

sad moxda. Tumca, mxolod qcevisa da garemoebebis aRricxva ar kmara. mniSvnelovania, rogor

ganxorcielda qceva (rogor aRwers damkvirvebeli), radgan es motivis gagebis saSualebas

gvaZlevs: Carlim gavlisas SemTxveviT gadmoyara wignebi Tu ara (realobiT Terapiis kandidati)?

merxebs Soris gavlisas, Tavxeduri mzeriT gamiznulad gadmoyara wignebi Tu ara (logikuri

Sedegebis kandidati)? am saqcieliT mTeli dilis dagubebuli sibraze xom ar gamoxata

(mew-is kandidati)? iqneb impulsurad daejaxa Tavisi magidisken gaqceuli (TviTanalizis

kandidati)? kidev ra qceviT davaxasiaTebdiT Carlis? Carlis daxasiaTebisas SeiZleba davadginoT

misi amJamindeli `me~ da ufro naTlad davinaxoT savaraudo strategia, romelic

mas warmatebiT funqcionirebasa da emociur zrdaSi daexmareba.

sainteresoa, rogor icvleba maswavleblis roli sxvadasxva modelSi (ix. sqema 7.4). mew-Si

maswavlebeli moswavlis Tanasworad miiCneva: orives TavianTi moTxovnilebebi da uflebebi

aqvT da orive monawileobs problemis yaimiT mogvarebis gzebis ZiebaSi, romelSic orives

Sexeduleba iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli. realobiT TerapiaSi maswavlebeli Terapevtis funqcias

asrulebs; miuxedavad imisa, rom CarTulia da exmareba moswavles, isini Tanasworni aRar

arian: maswavlebeli damxmarea, romelsac regularulad da pirdapir Camohyavs moswavle

dedamiwaze da mas faqtebis winaSe ayenebs. logikur SedegebSi kidev ufro meti gaucxoebaa,

maswavlebeli sazogadoebas warmoadgens. maswavlebeli, romelic pirovnul gavlenas iyenebs,

moswavleebisTvis avtoriteti xdeba. TviTanalizis wvrTnaSi maswavlebeli mwvrTnelad da

sistemebis Semqmnelad gvevlineba. misi roli didad ar gansxvavdeba qcevis modifikaciaSi

rolisagan, sadac is sistemaTa Semqmnelis garda manqanis operatoricaa.

164

CamonaTvalis qveda nawilSi moswavlis roli mcirdeba, xolo maswavleblis xelmZRvan-


disciplina

eloba, pasuxismgebloba, kontroli da statusi izrdeba. CamonaTvalis zeda nawilSi ki maswavleblis

mniSvneloba mcirdeba, xolo moswavlisa _ izrdeba, rogorc srulad funqcionirebadi,

socialurad gaTviTcnobierebuli pirovnebisa, romelsac cxovrebasTan warmatebiT

gamklaveba SeuZlia. sxvadasxva modelSi maswavleblisa da moswavlis rolebis gagebiT, Cven

modelTa urTierTkavSiris Sesaxeb codnis gaRrmaveba da ganviTarebaSi maTi mniSvnelobis

xazgasma SegviZlia. es Tvalsazrisi ubralod gveubneba: xeli mohkideT moswavleebs iq, sadac

arian da daexmareT maT pirovnul zrdaSi.

qcevis maxasiaTeblebi

aRSfoTeba

upasuxismgebloba

daumorCilebloba da yuradRebis

Zieba

martooba da yuradRebis

Zieba

impulsuroba

ucodinroba an kontrolis

nakleboba

modeli

mew-i

realobiT Terapia

logikuri Sedegebi

pirovnuli

gavlena

TviTanalizi

qcevis modifikacia

maswavleblis roli

Tanaswori adamiani

Terapevti

sazogadoebis warmomadgeneli

mniSvnelovani sxva

mwvrTneli da Tanamzraxveli

sistemis operatori

sqema 7.4: maswavleblis rolis cvlileba sxvadasxva modelSi.

CamonaTvalis zeda nawilSi moswavlis roli izrdeba, xolo maswavleblis xelmZRvaneloba, statusi da

kontroli mcirdeba.

isrebi 7.4 sqemaze zogierT saerTo tendencias aRniSnavs, romlis SemCneva SesaZlebelia,

roca moswavle sul ufro da ufro rTul strategiebs pasuxobs. qcevis modifikacias Seu-

Zleba moswavles im kontrolis mopovebaSi daexmaros (sakmarisad daamSvidos), rom TviTanalizis

wvrTnaze gadavides, an im maswavleblis Sesatyvisi gaxdes, romelic pirovnul gavlenas

iyenebs. pirovnuli gavlena da logikuri Sedegebi SeiZleba erTgvari tramplini iyos

realobiT Terapiisa da saklaso SekrebebisaTvis. aucilebeli an swori ar gaxlavT eqvsive

strategiis gavla nebismier erT moswavlesTan. konkretuli moswavlisTvis pirovnuli gavlenis

Semdeg yvelaze bunebrivi nabiji SeiZleba realobiT Terapia iyos. konkretul dros

moswavles SeiZleba ar sWirdebodes maswavlebeli moqmedi, rogorc misi cnobieri me da

pirdapir sakuTari qcevis Sefasebaze gadasvla SeZlos.

165


Tavi 7

166

axali qcevis Canacvleba da swavleba

Sedegebi

qcevis alternativebze

Sedegebze, impulsis

qcevis modifikacia

samizne qcevis gansazRvra

bavSvisaTvis Tqma/miznis dasaxva

SemoqmedebiTi da relevanturi

logikuri Sedegebi

araviTari `brZola~

socialuri wesrigis realoba da

maswavlebelTa dawyvileba

sazRvrebi

kontrolze fiqris

swavleba

ganmamtkiceblis Semcireba.

daTvla

miaxloebis ganmtkiceba

progresis aRniSvna bavSvTan

gafrTxilebebi

gaTavisufleba

klasis darwmuneba

ara dasja

(dreikursi)

(sarasoni)

(Suri da spivaki)

(bakholti da sxvebi)

TviTanalizi

(qcevis kognituri modifikacia)

pasuxismgeblobis aReba

(realobiT Terapia)

problemis gadaWra

(mew-i)

pirovnuli gavlena

dakvirveba

`vxedav, Tavs veRar

akontroleb~.

`Tavs veRar akontroleb. me

bavSvebisTvis TavianTi

Setyobinebebis aSkarad

danaxvis,

sxvaTa Setyobinebebis

yuradRebiT mosmenisa da

dagexmarebi~.

Careva/sakuTari qmedebis

ras akeTeb?

es gexmareba?

(ras apireb amasTan

dakavSirebiT?)

CarTuloba

iumori, araviTari Tavis

gamarTleba, simtkice;

sakuTari Tavis rogorc

Rirseulis da sxvebTan

dakavSirebulis danaxva

problemis gadaWris gzebze

molaparakebis swavleba.

aRwera

Sekaveba

bavSvebisTvis sakuTari

signalebis wakiTxvis,

maTi qmedebebisa da grZnobebis

aqtiuri mosmena

`me~-Setyobinebebi

qmedebis gadarTva

III meTodi

gacnobierebis swavleba

pirovnul urTierTobis

Camoyalibeba

mniSvnelovani sxvis naTeli

molodini

pirdapiri

konkretuli

ganmeorebiTi

pozitiuri molodini `amis

gakeTeba SegiZlia~

daJineba

Tanamimdevruli reaqciebi

yuradRebis gamaxvileba

maswavleblis Zlieri gavlena

(maixenbaumi)

(volfgangi)

(glaseri)

(gordoni)

(haimesi)

(voleni da voleni)

sqema 7.5: rezistentuli moswavlis qcevaze reaqciaTa eqvsi jgufi


VI nawili

reaqcia akrZalul qcevaze

disciplina

qcevaze reaqciisTvis saWiroa am qcevis danaxva (an gagoneba, an `misi grZnoba~) an nebismieri

sxva gziT misi aRqma. kaunini (Kaunin) gvTavazobs termins `yvelganmyofoba~ (withitness)

gansakuTrebiT daxelovnebuli maswavleblebis misamarTiT: isini TiTqos imasac xedaven,

rac maT zurgs ukan xdeba (TiTqos Tvalebi kefazec aqvT) da ara marto ician, rodis iqcevian

moswavleebi arasworad, aramed garkveul nabijebsac dgamen imisTvis, rom moswavleebma

Seityon, rom maT ician. `qalbaton dulisTan araferi gagiva!~

qcevis aRqmis Semdeg Cndeba kiTxva: rogori reaqcia aqvs maswavlebels? Cven reaqciaTa

oTx dones gamovyofT:

¤ araviTari yvelganmyofoba (araviTari reaqcia).

¤ reaqciis erTi saerTo modeli.

¤ reaqciis erTze meti saerTo modeli (variaciuloba); sxvadasxva modeli (strategia)

sxvadasxva dros.

¤ calkeuli moswavlis TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT SerCeuli (Sesatyvisi) reaqciis

modelebi.

calkeul moswavleTaTvis Sesatyvis mravalferovan modelebs Soris ganirCeva situaciisa

da jgufisTvis Sesatyvisi modelebic.

Cven vicnobT maswavlebels, romelic klasSi disciplinis erT ZiriTad models iyenebs:

pirdapiri Sewyveta da logikuri Sedegebi. Tumca, saTamaSo moedanze bavSvebis Cxubisas

(roca pirdapir safrTxes ar uqmnian mas an misi klasis molodins), is sxva models iyenebs. es

glaseris modelia. sxva viTarebaSi, roca ar xdeba cxadi molodinis aSkara dapirispireba, is

im meTodebs gamoiyenebs, romlebic mis Zalauflebas ar emyareba (mag.: kafeteriaSi bavSvebis

kamaTis dros da sxv.).

amrigad, Tu Cveni yuradRebis centri mxolod saklaso oTaxia, maSin es maswavlebeli mxolod

erT meTods iyenebs. mTeli skolis garemos TvalsazrisiT is mravalferovan modelebs

iyenebs. Tu yuradRebas mxolod saTamaSo moedanze gavamaxvilebT, SeiZleba davinaxoT Zalauflebis

`moZraoba~ garkveul akrZalul saqcielze reaqciisas (mag.: zozini karebSi gasasvlelad

mwkrivSi Cadgomis dros), xolo CxubSi Carevisas glaseris modeli. ase rom, Cvens

winaSea `akrZaluli qcevis~ qveklasebad dayofa: (a) qceva, romelic SeiZleba avxsnaT, rogorc

maswavleblis Semowmeba _ bavSvebi cdiloben gaigon, `gauvaT~ Tu ara; da (b) qceva, romelic

maswavlebelis Semowmebaze ar aris mimarTuli (Cxubi, araswori qceva sasadiloSi, sxva maswavleblis

klasSi).

sakmaod variaciulia maswavlebeli, Tu nebismier garemoSi moqmedebis mxolod erTi gza

aqvs, magram gansxvavebulad moqmedebs konkretul garemoSi, magram ar hgavs im maswavleblis

moqmedebas, romelic orive garemoSi axdens mravalferovnebis demonstrirebas. amrigad,

`akrZalul qcevaze reaqcia~ ase SegviZlia SevajamoT:

¤ araviTari yvelganmyofoba.

¤ yvelganmyofoba da pasuxis erTi modeli.

¤ sul mcire erTi modeli mainc or sxvadasxva garemoSi an ► erTze meti modeli yovel

garemoSi.

¤ bavSvebis Sesatyvisi modelebi.

pozitiuri programa

167


Tavi 7

msjelobisas gamovtoveT disciplinis pozitiuri mxaris nebismieri detaluri ganxilva,

iseTi cnebebi, rogoricaa TviTdisciplina, rac `yovelives mizania~; moswavleTa Soris er-

Tobisa da pativiscemis Camoyalibeba gaazrebuli aqtivobebiT; moswavleTaTvis, rogorc

jgufis wevrebisaTvis, kooperaciuli da efeqtiani muSaobis swavleba; erTmaneTis mosmenis

swavleba; saintereso da relevanturi saswavlo programis Sedgena; saklaso cxovrebis gademokratiuleba,

raTa moswavleebs hqondeT mniSvnelovani wvlili da saTqmeli wesrigisa da

zrdilobis sakiTxebSi erTmaneTTan da maswavlebelTan urTierTobisas. am sakiTxebs ufro

detalurad me-13 TavSi ganvixilavT.

Tavis bolos naxavT zogierTi Cveni moswavlis daxasiaTebas. gvsurs, waikiTxoT da gansajoT,

Tqveni azriT, disciplinis eqvsi modelidan romeli iqneboda Sesatyvisi. rogor daasabuTebT

Tqvens arCevans? (es savarjiSo gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa, roca kolegebTan erTad

sruldeba.)

168


d i s c i p l i n i s p r o b l e m e b i s g a g e b a :

2 1 k i T x v a

1. samuSao metismetad Znelia Tu metismetad advili?

2. karg pirovnul urTierTobas vamyareb Tu ara moswavleebTan?

3. gakveTilebze karg temps vinarCuneb Tu ara?

4. kargad vmarTav Tu ara drosa da sivrces?

5. yuradRebis Sesatyvis nabijebs mivmarTav Tu ara da rogori tempiT?

6. abnevs Tu ara Cemi instruqcia zogierT moswavles?

7. vcvli Tu ara instruqciis formatsa da masalebs, rom moswavleebs ar mobez-

rdeT?

8. wesebi da Sedegebi naTeli da konkretulia Tu ara CemTvis da Cemi moswavlee-

bisTvis?

9. Cems mier molodinis Setyobineba aris Tu ara:

¤ pirdapiri

¤ konkretuli

¤ ganmeorebiTi

¤ pozitiuri molodinis maCvenebeli (rogorc `Sen SegiZlia~, aseve `Sen gaakeTeb~)

10. Sedegebi logikuri ufroa Tu damsjeli?

11. SedegTa mTeli speqtri maqvs Tu erTi reaqcia yoveli usaqcielobisTvis?

12. aris Tu ara Sedegebi:

¤ Tanamimdevruli da mtkice

¤ swrafi

¤ uemocio

¤ moswavlis arCevanis maCvenebeli

13. sakmaris drosa da Zalisxmevas vaxmar Tu ara saswavlo wlis dasawyisSi yovelive

zemoxsenebuls?

14. sakmarisad maRali molodini maqvs Tu ara qcevis mimarT, miuxedavad moswavlis mo

nacemebisa?

15. uarvyof Tu ara Tavis gamarTlebas?

16. vuyalibeb Tu ara moswavleebs klasis cxovrebaSi kontrolis, gavlenis, pasu xi -

smgebl obis, Zalauflebis realur da legitimur gancdas?

17. gonivrul qcevas efeqtianad vaRiareb da vajildoeb Tu ara?

18. cxadad vayalibeb Tu ara klasSi erTobas (erTmaneTis Sesaxeb codna, erTmaneTis

dafaseba, erTmaneTTan TanamSromloba?)

19. aqvs Tu ara qcevas fizikuri mizezebi (smenis/mxedvelobis dakargva, organuli

hi pe raqtiuroba)?

20. qcevis miRma dgas Tu ara maswavlebelsa da moswavleebs Soris (an moswavleebs

Soris) RirebulebaTa an kulturaTa konfliqti?

d i s c i p l i n a - S e j a m e b a

169


Tavi 7

170

21. ician Tu ara moswavleebma, rogor gaakeTon is, rasac maTgan moveli?

dagegmva metismetad rezistentuli moswavleebisaTvis

1. sakmarisi obieqturi monacemebi Sevagrove Tu ara moswavlis qcevis Sesaxeb?

2. gavacani Tu ara is klass damatebiTi informaciisa da SekiTxvebis misaRebad?

3. kargad ganvsazRvreT Tu ara `fsiqologiuri moTxovnileba~?

4. SevarCieT Tu ara reaqciis Sesatyvisi modeli?

5. SevimuSaveT Tu ara koordinirebuli gegma am moswavlis yvela maswavleblisTvis?

6. CavrTeT Tu ara gegmaSi moswavlis ojaxi?

7. uzrunvelvyaviT Tu ara gegmis perioduli gadaxedva da modifikacia?


s a v a r j i S o

yoveli moswavlis daxasiaTebisTvis disciplinis eqvsi modelidan romeli iqne-

boda Sesatyvisi? dawereT modeli daxasiaTebis gverdiT mindorze.

jimi

jimi TiTqos sicocxlis zRvarzea. is araprognozirebadia. xan kraviviT iqceva

da lamazi Taflisferi TvalebiT giyurebs. Caxuteba uyvars, siTbosa da siyvaruls

pasuxobs. samuSaos garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi asrulebs, zogjer sakmao gatacebiTac.

ufro xSirad cotas (an arafers) akeTebs da oTaxSi dadis.

sxva bavSvebs nivTebs stacebs, xels hkravs da yviris, CxubisTavia. klasis Sekrebebze

an instruqciul jgufebSi SeiZleba gamyivani xmiT iyviros; erTad simReris

dros is pirveli gadadis yvirilze da uazro kivilze. pasiuri uZraobis, gabrazebis,

warumateblobisa da daumorCilebeli sigiJis (nivTebis srola, arev-dareva) iSviaTi

periodebi Rrma Sinagan mowyenilobaze metyvelebs.

jimi eqvsi wlisaa da mxolod deda hyavs, romelic naSuadRevs, saxlSi dabrunebisas,

yovelTvis rodia Sin. jimim winaswar ar icis, daxvdeba Tu ara deda saxlSi. jimis

gasaRebi aqvs da Tavis xuTi wlis dasTan erTad saxlSi fexiT midis. mosiyvarule,

magram arastabiluri da problemuri deda hyavs.

did Tu mcire jgufebSi, klasis Sekrebaze Tu instruqciis dros, jimi xSirad

sakuTar Tavs veRar akontrolebs – yviris, kivis, axlo mdgom bavSvebs xels hkravs

an Cqmets. xSirad icinis da es Tavmowonebis erTgvar formas hgavs. is swrafad reagirebs

maswavleblis SeniSvnaze. SeniSvnis dros misi gamometyveleba araswori

saqcielis aRiarebas gamoxatavs, magram Semdeg isev Tavidan iwyebs. mas xSirad ayeneben

oTaxis kuTxeSi an derefanSi.

bevr samuSaos ar asrulebs, xanmokle yuradReba aqvs, magram gonieria. pasuxobs

siTbosa da Caxutebas, eZebs ufrosis kalTas. bevrs darbis oTaxSi, itacebs nivTebs,

Cxubobs, ejaxeba. derefanSi gayvanisas SeiZleba sakmaod xangrZlivad gulamoskvniT

da gulwrfelad iqviTinos. mtkivneuli mowyenilobisa da tirilis periodebi misTvis

ucxo ar aris. xSirad aSkara mizezis gareSe atirdeba xolme.

arasdros viciT, rogor Semova oTaxSi. magram, pirveli ramdenime wuTi, rogorc

wesi, mTeli dRis ganwyobas gansazRvravs. xSiria aseTi scena: jimi dgas karebTan, ar

Semodis, daJinebiT iyureba aqeT-iqiT, amowmebs ra xdeba, icavs Tavis sivrces, mis

ukan karSi mdgom bavSvs, romelic Semosvlas lamobs muStiTa da gabrazebiT pasuxobs.

mcire drois ganmavlobaSi irindeba, mowyenili da uZravia; sxva dros ki SeiZleba

ambis Txrobasa an aqtivobaSi CaerTos. sxva bavSvebTan TanamSromloba SeuZlia,

magram xSirad Cxubze gadadis, Tu saqme gayofas, realur an warmosaxviT kritikul

SeniSvnebs ukavSirdeba. advilad kargavs kontrols.

Tu sasadiloSi wasvlis win dalagebasa da mwkrivSi Cadgomas mosTxovT, nivTebs

maTi kuTvnili adgilisken gadayris (an ubralod arad CagagdebT) da karisken gaiqceva,

rasac Sedegad dajaxeba da Cxubi mosdevs. sirbili misTvis erTaderTi reaqciaa

maswavleblis mier erTi adgilidan meoreze gadaadgilebis moTxovnisas.

zogjer arc gainZreva, TiTqos arc ki esmis da mTlianad CarTulia kuburebis

d i s c i p l i n a - s a v a r j i S o

171


awyobasa Tu Tixaze muSaobaSi. sruli CarTulobis es periodebi gacilebiT naklebia,

vidre masalebis gafuWebis periodebi: Tixis magidasTan patara burTulebis gakeTeba

da axlo-maxlo bavSvebisTvis srola an didi kubi buldozerad warmodgena da sxva

bavSvis mier agebuli saxlis dangreva.

rogorc Cans, mas mxolod fizikuri SezRudva da Caxuteba awynarebs, rac zogjer 5-10

wuTs grZeldeba.

172

keni

keni mecxreklaselia, Tumca, ufro pataras hgavs. mas mudam problemebi axvevia Tavs,

klasSi iSviaTadaa. wina kviras megobarTan xumrobiT Widaobisas, skolis direqtoris

kabinetis fanjris qveS gazafxulis yvavilebis kvali gaafuWa.

calke, maswavleblebi mas `velur virs~ eZaxian. is, TiTqos, mocemuli wuTiT cxovrobs

da fesvebi arc saxlSi aqvs da arc skolaSi. sxvebs misi CarTva nebismieri saxis

mavneblobaSi SeuZliaT (da xSirad asec xdeba xolme) _ qurdobaSi, vandalizmSi (axali

sportuli darbazis kedlebze saRebaviT uxamsobebis dawera); Tavad iSviaTad mouva

TavSi msgavsi mavnebloba.

rogorc Cans, keni Sinagani marTvis sistemiT ar moqmedebs _ `umarTavi raketaa~; ar

aqvs aranairi mizani, araferi, risTvisac ibrZvis, araferi, risi miRebac skolidan surs.

Tavze xelaRebuli xumara mSiSara kacad iqceva da aSkarad ukan ixevs Tu daiWeren da

namoqmedaris winaSe daayeneben. direqtoris moadgilis SeniSvnaze bevrs ar laparakobs,

mxrebs iCeCavs, Zalian daTrgunulad da martosulad gamoiyureba. is iRebs sasjels,

Tumca amas araviTari Sedegi ar moaqvs. is gpirdebaT, magram arafrad agdebs dapirebas.

fredi

fredi TiTqos sakuTar sxeuls ver akontrolebs, tlanqi da uxeSia, kidurebi usulosaviT

aqvs Camokiduli. TiTqos, nebismier wuTs SeiZleba daejaxos raimes da verc

mixvdes.

11 wlis kvalobaze maRalia da maRali xma aqvs.

sasadiloSi, rogorc wesi, bolo Sedis. qanaobiT dadis, aqeT-iqiT yurebisas Tavs

TiTqmis 360 gradusiT atrialebs. laparakobs Zalian xmamaRla, veluriviT. Tavis magidasTan

miWyletilma SeiZleba uxeSad mimarTos gverdze mjdoms: `ei, Se dorbliano, gamatare!~

ramdenime wuTis Semdeg SeiZleba giJiviT gaicinos, moitacos saWmeli an isrolos

da metismetad energiuli, ukontrolo qceva gamoavlinos. sasadilo iseve, rogorc sxva

xalxmravali adgilebi, masze zestimulirebas axdens.

miuxedavad zemoTqmulisa, fredi hiperaqtiuri ar aris. faqtobrivad, klasSi is

yvelaze xSirad aris Tavidan bolomde samuSaoSi CarTuli _ es misi sakuTari samuSaoa

da ara maswavleblis mier davalebuli. mas uyvars fantastikuri manqanebis xatva, nebismieri

mecnieruli informaciis kiTxva da nebismier xelsayrel momentSi saklaso aqtivobaSi

monawileobas wyvets da mTlianad gadaerTveba xolme.

jgufuri instruqciisa da mcire jgufSi muSaobisas yviris, aTasgvar xriks mimarTavs

yuradRebis centrSi yofnisTvis da xSirad suleliviT iqceva. Tu gancalkevdeba, malulad

xatavs an swavlobs imas, rac ainteresebs.

is SeiZleba Zalian gabrazdes sxva moswavleebze da tkivilic ki miayenos muStis


dartymiT an xelis kvriT. is kargavs moTminebas, feTqebadia da ver akontrolebs saku-

Tar Tavs.

mas ar surs Tavis grZnobebze saubari, sakuTar TavTan CaRrmaveba. is nivTebze saubrobs.

man bevri icis zogierTi mecnieruli da teqnikuri Temis Sesaxeb da uyvars ufrosebisTvis

am codnis gamJRavneba. pataraobisas is dinozavrebis erT-erTi fanatikosi da

ganswavluli eqsperti iyo. zogadad misi goneba kargad iTvisebs faqtebsa da zogad

informacias, magram koncentraciis nakleboba, rogorc Cans, xels uSlis im kavSirebis

damyarebasa da koncefciebis ganviTarebaSi, rasac aseTi ganviTarebuli metyvelebis

mqone biWisagan SeiZleba movelodeT.

unar-Cvevebze agebuli iseTi samuSaos Sesrulebisas, rogoricaa imis gansazRvra,

iqneba Tu ara sityva leqsikonis mocemul gverdze an qveSmiweriT gayofisTvis algoriTmis

swavla, mas moTmineba Ralatobs da SeiZleba furclebi daxios, Tu pasuxs pirvelive

mcdelobisas ver iRebs. kiTxvebs ar svams da ganmeorebiT axsnis dasrulebamde SeSinebuli

cdilobs ukve naswavlis gamoyenebas. masalis gagebis SemTxvevaSi fredis SeuZlia

codnis kompetenturad ganzogadeba axal situaciebze. Tumca, samuSaos Sesrulebisas

Cqarobs da uSvebs bevr Secdomas.

arc erTi namdvili megobari ar hyavs, magram erTveba sxva bavSvebTan iseT aqtivobeb-

Si, rogoricaa gareT cixe-simagris aSeneba. organizebul TamaSebSi TiTqmis ar erTveba.

TamaSma mas TviTgamoxatvis saSualeba unda misces – iTamaSos sakuTari roli, yuradReba

mimarTos, vTqvaT, cixe-simagreze. am dros misi saubari cixe-simagres an mxatvrul fantazias

Seexeba, rasac bavSvebi cixe-simagris aSenebisas aviTareben xolme: `ei, Sexede am

magar sasrialos [romelic man es-esaa gaakeTa]. isini am kedelze gadmofrenas SeZleben~.

saubrisas is iSviaTad uyurebs sxva bavSvs.

173


Tavi 7

174

literatura:

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and Instructional Management Program. New York: Walker Publishing Co., 1975.

Canter, L. (withM. Canter). Assertive Discipline. Santa Monica, Calif.: Canter and Associates, 1977.

Colarusso, C. Diagnostic Educational Grouping: Strategies for Teaching. Bucks County (Pennsylvania) Public

Schools, 1972.

Dishon, D., and P. W. O'Leary. A Guidebook for Cooperative Learning. Holmes Beach, Fla.: Learning Publica-

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Dreikurs, R., and P. Cassel. Discipline Without Tears. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1974.

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Erikson, E. H. Childhood and Society. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1963.

Ginott, Dr. H. Between Parent and Child. New York: Macmillan, 1965.

Glasser, W. Reality Therapy. New York: Harper and Row, 1965.

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Gordon, T. Parent Effectiveness Training. New York: Peter Wyden, 1970.

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Hersey, P., and H. Blanchard. The Family Game. Reading, Mass.: Addision-Wesley, 1978.

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doqtor barbara bruno-goldenis mier Tavmoyrili damatebiTi literatura

relaqsaciis swavlebis Sesaxeb

Bernstein, D., and T. Borkovec. Progressive Relaxation Training: A Manual for the Helping Professions. Cham-

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Bruno-Golden, Barbara. "Progressive Relaxation Training for Children: A Guide for Parents and Children."

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Koeppen, A. "Relaxation Training for Children." Elementary School Guidance and Counseling (October 1974):

14-20.

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Commercially prepared cassettes for home training programs in adult relaxation skill development are available

through Bio Monitoring Applications, Inc., Suite 1506, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY. 10016.

175


8

sicxade

rogor unda avxsnaT cxadad?

kognituri empaTia

`didi suraTi~


sicxade

sicxade cvladi sididea, romelsac vrceli kvleva sWirdeba. is mravaljer Seitanes

sakvlev sakiTxebSi, maT Soris, rozenSainis `did cxraSic~ ki, korelaciur kvlevebSi

standartizebuli testirebisas moswavleTa winsvlasTan dakavSirebuli cxra cvladi

(Rosenshine & Furst 1973). sirTule is iyo, rom ar vicodiT `sicxadis~ mniSvneloba (ix.

Hiller da sxvebi 1969, Belgard da sxvebi 1971, da Martin 1979 sicxadis gansazRvrebis mcdelobisTvis).

maswavleblebiseuli hipoTezebi sicxadis Sesaxeb sakmaris informacias ver gvawvdis.

ratom xdeba, rom zog adamians sxvebze ukeT gamosdis axsna? ras akeTeben isini axsnisas

meti sicxadis misaRwevad?

ganvixiloT epizodi: 2 2 X2 3 =? magaliTi klasSi bevrma SecdomiT amoxsna. `mravalma Tqvenganma

2-ebi gadaamravla da 2 2 X2 3 =4 5 miiRo, rac arasworia. pasuxi 2 5 -ia.~, ambobs maswavlebeli.

is Slis `4 5 ~-s da mis adgilze `2 5 ~-s wers. `2 ar icvleba~, amatebs is da Semdeg magaliTze gadadis.

maswavlebelma magaliTi amowura, magram ar axsna. es epizodi ufro imiT aris mniSvnelovani,

rac maswavlebels gamorCa, vidre imiT, rac gaakeTa. maswavlebels ar Seumowmebia,

gaiges Tu ara moswavleebma aseTi magaliTebis amoxsnis wesi (N a XN b =N a+b ). mas ar Seumowmebia,

gaiges Tu ara moswavleebma wesis muSaobis principi. mas ar auxsnia magaliTis amoxsnis

procesi: man ubralod mcdar da swor pasuxebze miuTiTa. mniSvnelovania, rom mas ar ucdia

moswavleTa CarTva, raTa darwmunebuliyo, vin gaigo da vin _ vera. magaliTad, mas ar Seumowmebia,

SeeZlo Tu ara romelime moswavles msgavsi magaliTis amoxsna. am epizodSi sicxade

Zalze mwiria maswavleblisa Tu misi moswavleebisTvis.

qceva, romelsac sicxadis parametrSi SevexebiT, safuZvlad udevs cxadi instruqciis

miwodebis process. situaciebi, romelTac SevexebiT, moicavs axali masalis warmodgenas,

koncefciebis axsnas, mimarTulebebis micemas an axsnas, arsebuli codnis gaaqtiurebas, Zveli

masalis Tavidan axsnas, moswavleTa dabneulobis mizezebis garkvevas, swavlis procesSi

kavSirebis damyarebas. winamdebare TavSi am procesebTan dakavSirebul repertuars gadavxedavT.

1. kognituri empaTia

SesaZloa am parametris da zogadad kargi swavlebisTvis mniSvnelovania is, rac wlis

saukeTeso maswavlebelma meri klarkma Tqva 1981 wlis interviuSi: `unda icodeT, ra aris

Tqveni moswavleebis TavebSi, saklaso oTaxSi motanili informaciis, grZnobebisa da miznebis

CaTvliT~. 1 es migvaniSnebs, rom sicxadeSi CarTulia garkveuli kognituri empaTia (iseve

1 Parsons, C. `Grading Teachers for Quality~. The Christian Science Monitor (October 28, 1981): B6.

179


Tavi 8

rogorc emociuri empaTia). 2 es maswavlebels saSualebas aZlevs icodes, rodis ver igeben

moswavleebi da Semdeg yuradReba gaamaxvilos masalis im nawilze, romelic ar esmiT.

ori sxvadasxva unar-Cvevaa imis gansazRvra, rodis ver igeben moswavleebi da ra ar esmiT.

`vergagebis~ drois gansazRvra gulisxmobs, rom maswavlebels swavlebis dros aqvs Semowmebis

saSualebebi, xolo imis gansazRvra, ra ar esmiT moswavleebs, gulisxmobs, rom maswavlebeli

axdes konkretuli `vergagebuli~ punqtis (punqtebis) identificirebas da xelaxla

xsnis. raki sicxadis TvalsazrisiT orive unar-Cveva mniSvnelovania, saWiroa cal-calke ganvixiloT,

rogor asruleben maswavleblebi TiToeuls.

180

gagebis Semowmeba

Cven viyenebT sityvas `Semowmeba~, raTa aRvweroT, rodis cdilobs maswavlebeli imis

gansazRvras, dabneulebi arian Tu ara moswavleebi. Semowmebisas maswavlebeli reagirebs

klasze, cdilobs gaigos moswavleebisgan sasurveli informacia dabneulobis arsebobasTan

dakavSirebiT. rogor avlens maswavlebeli dabneulobas? Cven SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT maTi

saqmianobis (qmedebis) oTxi done, romelTac ase davasaTaurebdiT:

1. agrZelebs

2. kiTxulobs sxeulis enas

3. svams Sesamowmebel SekiTxvebs

4. gansazRvravs dones

moqmedebis es oTxi done urTierTs ar gamoricxavs; maswavlebelma SeiZleba ramdenime

maTgani sxvadasxva dros erTsa da imave gakveTilze gamoiyenos.

pirvel doneze maswavlebelma, SeiZleba, ubralod, upasuxod datovos moswavleTa dabneuloba.

is ubralod iviwyebs moswavleTa dabneulobas da agrZelebs axsnas; an ver afasebs

dabneulobis `masStabs~ da ver aZlevs davalebis Sesasruleblad saWiro miTiTebebs. Seumowmebloba

da gagrZeleba SeiZleba zogjer gamarTlebuli iyos naswavli masalis swrafi

mimoxilvisas, Tu manamde maswavlebelma amomwuravad Seamowma da axla misi mizania mxolod

mniSvnelovani terminebis an koncefciebis xazgasma. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSic ki, raki Semowmebas

cota dro sWirdeba, gonivruli iqneboda misi gamoyeneba.

meore doneze maswavlebelma gageba SeiZleba moswavleTa dabneulobis mimaniSnebeli

sxeulis enis wakiTxviT (mag., poziT, saxis gamometyvelebiT) Seamowmos. aseTi miniSnebebis

SemCnevisas, is aCerebs swavlebas. Tumca, vergagebis garegnul niSnebze dayrdnoba arc ise

saimedoa. moswavleebma vergagebis miuxedavad SeiZleba sulac ar gamoamJRavnon es miniSnebebi.

magaliTad, swavlebis procesSi moswavleTa azrovnebis kvlevisas, pitersoni da svingi

(Peterson & Swing 1982) aRweren, rogor Seiyvanes SecdomaSi moswavleebma damkvirveblebi,

romelTa azriT, isini yuradRebiT usmendnen gakveTils:

melisas pasuxebi stimulirebuli gaxsenebis interviuze mis uyuradRebobas avlenda

[Tumca, damkvirveblebma misi saqcielis mixedviT gansajes, rom is yuradRebiT

iyo] da Canda, rom drois umetes nawils pasuxis da savaraudo warumateblobis

gamo nerviulobaSi atarebda. magaliTad, kiTxvaze, ras fiqrobda pirveli

videokasetis naxvis Semdeg, melisam upasuxa: `...vinaidan is-is iyo nerviulobas

viwyebdi, vfiqrobdi, rom SeiZleboda ar mcodnoda, rogor gamekeTebina raRacee-

2 moswavleTa grZnobebisa da miznebis codna aseve Zalze mniSvnelovania da mas kvlav ganvixilavT saklaso oTaxis klimatTan da

pirovnuli urTierTobis CamoyalibebasTan dakavSirebul TavebSi.


i~. meore nawilis naxvis Semdeg man Tqva: `vfiqrobdi, rom kriss ufro uadvildeboda,

radgan ufrosklaseli iyo~. mesame nawilis naxvis Semdeg melisam upasuxa:

`iciT, ZiriTadad imaze vfiqrobdi, razec Cven manamde visaubreT _ Tavs visulelebdi~.

bolos, meoTxe nawilis naxvis Semdeg man Tqva: `iciT, es SeiZleba uadgiloa,

magram yaisnaRiT naqsovebis Sesaxeb Sexvedraze vfiqrobdi, radgan mindoda

moqsova momeswro~ (gv. 485).*

sicxade

mesame doneze maswavlebelma moswavleTa zogadi gageba SeiZleba ufro pirdapir, perioduli

SekiTxvebiT Seamowmos. mas ainteresebs igeben Tu ara moswavleebi instruqcias. es

SeiZleba exebodes Sinaarsis, procedurebis an miTiTebebis zogad gagebas. aq upriani iqneba,

moswavleTa mier gagebis Sesamowmeblad, gaxsenebisa da wvdomis kiTxvaTa gamoyenebis ganxilva.

gaxsenebis mizniT dasmuli kiTxvebi moiTxovs warmodgenili masalidan uSualod faqtebze

dafuZnebul pasuxebs. magaliTad, kiTxvaze _ `rogoria samkuTxedis farTobis gamosaTvleli

formula?~ _ sapasuxod moswavleebs sWirdebaT uSualod formulis gaxseneba:

fuZisa da simaRlis namravlis naxevari. meore mxriv, wvdomis Semowmebaze mimarTul kiTxvebs

pasuxi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gaeces, Tu moswavleebs namdvilad esmiT gakveTilis

koncefciebi an operaciebi. magaliTad, `ras raze gaamravlebdiT am samkuTxedis farTobis

gamosaTvlelad [samkuTxedisa, romelzec miTiTebulia gverdebis zomebi]?~ pasuxi moiTxovs

rogorc formulis gaxsenebas, ise imis codnas, rogor unda gamoyenon formula konkretuli

samkuTxedisTvis.

wvdomis SekiTxvebs moswavleebi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi gascemen pasuxebs, Tu Sesamowmebeli

Sinaarsi esmiT. gTavazobT kidev erT magaliTs: `ratom ver iqneba am gverdze mocemuli

sityva `xarbad?~ _ kiTxulobs maswavlebeli im gverdis Sesaxeb, sadac indeqsi (leqsikonis

gverdis zeda nawilSi mindorze miTiTebuli sityva, romelic migvaniSnebs, ra sityviT

mTavrdeba mocemuli gverdi. mTargm. Sen.) aris sityvebi `nadiroba~ da `borcvi~. moswavleebi

am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemas mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeZleben, Tu maT esmiT, rogor zRudavs

indeqsi sityvaTa diapazons leqsikonis konkretul gverdze.

aq ar Semogvaqvs blumis taqsonomia da arc maswavleblis mier dasmuli sxvadasxva donis

kiTxvebiT stimulirebuli azrovnebis doneebs ganvixilavT. (Tumca, es TavisTavad mniSvnelovani

Temaa da me-15 TavSi SevexebiT.) Semowmebisas, zogjer, vfiqrobT, rom moswavleTa

wvdomas vamowmebT, Tumca, sinamdvileSi, mxolod imas vamowmebT, axsovT Tu ara sakvanZo sityvebi.

amis magaliTs am Tavis bolos warmogidgenT.

gagebis Semowmebis meoTxe done medelin hanTeris mier `donis gansazRvrisTvis~ monaTlul

kiTxvebs moicavs. donis gansazRvra damaxasiaTebelia swavlebisTvis, Tu maswavlebeli:

¤ xSirad amowmebs, igeben Tu ara moswavleebi

¤ akvirdeba erTdroulad bevrs

¤ amowmebs erTsa da imave Temisa da koncefciis codnas

¤ amowmebs swavlebis procesSi.

hanTeri da misi kolegebi moswavleebs signalebis _ cerebi maRla, cerebi dabla, cerebi

erT mxares _ gamoyenebas aswavlian, raTa maswavlebels periodulad Seatyobinon, ramdenad

kargad igeben. gagebis donis gansazRvris uamravi sxva formac arsebobs, magaliTad, maswavleblebi

moswavleebs sTxoven, `Tavi daiqnion~ an erTdroulad upasuxon dasmul kiTxvas.

orive gziT SeiZleba zogadi warmodgena Segveqmnas imaze, ramdeni moswavle upasuxebs da ram-

* gadmobeWdilia nebarTviT. Peterson, P., and S. Swing. `Beyond Time on Task: Students’ Reports of Their Thought Processes During

Classroom Instruction. `Elementary School Journal 82, no. 5 (1982): 481-491. © 1982 University of Chicago Press. yvela ufleba daculia.

181


Tavi 8

denad gaazrebuli iqneba maTi pasuxi.

es signalebi moiTxovs moswavliseul TviTSefasebas gageba-vergagebis Taobaze, Tumca

isini SesaZloa realobas ar asaxavdes. donis Semowmebis ufro ganviTarebuli forma yoveli

moswavlisgan uSualod SinaarsTan dakavSirebul pasuxs moiTxovs. magaliTad, trigonomertiis

gakveTilze maswavlebeli ambobs: `pasuxisTvis aswieT baraTi cifriT 1, 2, 3, an 4, rom

miCvenoT romel kvadrantSi damTavrdeba kuTxe~. inglisuris gakveTilze moswavleebs aqvT

baraTebi, romlebzec weria `w~ (winadadeba), `f~ (winadadebis fragmenti) da `g~ (gagrZeleba)

da moswavleebs sTxovs Sebamisi baraTis Cvenebas savarjiSos Sesrulebisas.

donis Semowmebis zemoT motanil formebSi gamoyenebulia moswavleTa mier signalebis

gagzavna xelebiT, baraTebiT an sxva meqanizmebiT, Tumca donis Semowmeba signalebis gareSec

SeiZleba. zogierTi maswavlebeli gakveTilze moswavleebs erTkiTxvian testebs aZlevs,

weris dros magidebs Soris dadis, raTa maTi muSaoba dainaxos. amgvarad daxarjuli ramdenime

wuTi zust informacias gvaZlevs moswavleebis mier masalis gagebis Taobaze. 8.1 sqema

gviCvenebs kavSirs donis Semowmebis signalian da usignalo formebs Soris.

done kargad aris gansazRvruli, Tu maswavlebeli mudmivad iRebs informacias yovel moswavleze

an maT umravlesobaze. gagebis Sesaxeb am informacias axasiaTebs sixSire da sifar-

Tove. maswavlebels SeuZlia am informaciis miReba moswavleTa umravlesobisTvis kiTxvebis

dasmiT.

TviTSefaseba

• cerebi maRla

• xelebi Tavze Tu...

• gadabrunebuli niSani

• wiTeli, yviTeli, mwvane

sasignalo baraTebi

182

signalebi

donis Semowmeba

Sinaarsis pirdapiri

Semowmeba

• TiTebi aCveneben maTematikuri

moqmedebis niSans

• punqtuaciis swori niSnebi haerSi

• TiTebiT haerSi xataven f [farTobi],

p [perimetri], an o [orive], gaaCnia ra

sityvas moiTxovs amocana

signalebis gareSe

• erTkiTxviani testi

• erTdrouli pasuxi

• mravali SekiTxva

• pasuxebis grafis

verbaluri Sevseba

• mokle weriTi davaleba

• grifelis dafebi

qema 8.1: donis gansazRvra

donis gansazRvra moicavs oTxive atributs.

donis gansazRvra niSnavs SekiTxvebis dasmas da pasuxebis mosmenas (1) xSirad (2) mravali

moswavlisgan (3) erTsa da imave Temaze an koncefciaze (4) swavlebis ganmavlobaSi.

donis gansazRvris kiTxvebi gaxsenebisa da wvdomis kiTxvebTan Semdegnairad aris dakav-

Sirebuli: SegviZlia donis gansazRvra _ moswavleTa xSiri da farTo Semowmeba _ gaxsenebis

an wvdomis, an orive doneze. gaxsenebisa da wvdomis kiTxvebis dasma, erTmniSvnelovnad donis

Semowmebas ar niSnavs. isini urTierTgadamfaravia, Tumca, SesaZlebelia, urTierTmomcveli

nakrebi ar iyos (sqema 8.2).

rogor SeiZleba davsvaT gaxsenebisa da wvdomis dasadgeni kiTxva da ganvsazRvroT done?


sicxade

maswavlebelma SeiZleba wvdomis dasadgeni SekiTxvebi dausvas calkeul moswavles, swori

pasuxis SemTxvevaSi sxva moswavles mimarTos kiTxviT, ise, rom ar daadginos, danarCenebma

gaiges Tu ara (xSiri modeli zepiri gamokiTxvis gakveTilebze).

wvdoma

gaxseneba

donis

gansazRvra

sqema 8.2: donis gansazRvra/gaxseneba/wvdoma

es aqtivobebi urTierTgadamfaravi, Tumca SesaZlebelia urTierTmomcveli

nakrebi ar iyos.

SeiZleba vikiTxoT: `donis gansazRvra yoveli gakveTilis mudmivi Tavisebureba unda iyos

Tu ara?~ araa aucilebeli. es SeiZleba uadgilo iyos diskusiis dros, sadac yalibdeba kamaTis

mimarTuleba an konceptualur cvlilebaTa gakveTilze, roca moswavleebi maTTvis

`mSobliuri~ mosazrebebisgan gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs ecnobian, dakvirvebis safuZvelze

axal Teoriebs qmnian da amowmeben. Tumca am SemTxvevaSic ganmsazRvreli iqneba, surs Tu ara

maswavlebels moswavleTa donis Semowmeba. am dros miRebuli informacia maswavleblisTvis

sasargeblo iqneba, radgan ecodineba, vin gaigo da vin vera da misi gakveTili mgzavrebs sadgurSi

ar datovebs.

dabneulobisa da mcdari koncefciebis gansazRvra

karikaturaze gamosaxulia patara biWi, romelic Tavdayira dgas abazanis sasworze. misi

megobari skalas amowmebs da eubneba: `Seni Tavi Seni fexebiviT 43 girvanqas iwonis~.

am karikaturis msgavsad, swavlebis dros moswavleebi mraval mcdar koncefcias pouloben,

romlebic myaria da xels uSlis swavlebas, Tu ar gvecodineba maTi arseboba da ar

vecdebiT maT uaryofas. dabneulobisa da mcdari koncefciebis gansazRvris sami formidan

erT-erTi niSnavs mcdari koncefciis amocnobas, win wamowevas da `gasworebas~. sxvagvarad,

mcdari koncefciebi daamaxinjeben moswavleebis mier masalis gagebas (Eaton, Anderson, &

Smith 1984).

ganaTlebis muSakTa mier Catarebul kvlevaTa seriam (mag.: Eaton da sxvebi 1984; Eylon &

Linn 1988) samyaros Sesaxeb moswavleTa mravali mcdari koncefcia gamoavlina: magaliTad,

`haeri aris carieli sivrce~, `Cemi Tvalebi uSualo aRqmiT xedavs~ (areklili gamosaxulebis

miRebis nacvlad). Tu swavlebis procesSi maswavlebeli ar ecdeba am mcdari koncefciebis

183


Tavi 8

gamovlenas, win wamowevasa da swori koncefciebiT Secvlas, moswavleebi maT mier naswavl informacias

Seusatyviseben. amis Sedegad maT gonebaSi Seqmnili `rukebi~, SesaZloa, logikurad

myari Candes, magram isini mcdaria da serio-

moswavleTa goneba ar aris `carieli dafa~. maT zul dabrkolebas uqmnis swavlas. es SeiZleba,

gonebaSi arsebul informacias didi gavlena

erTi SexedviT, Zalze mkafio swavlebis drosac

moxdes moswavleTa mcdari koncefciebis

aqvs swavlebaze.

gauTvaliswineblobis gamo. miuxedavad imisa,

rom kvleva sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa

koncefciebis kuTxiT Catarda, safuZveli gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom imave problemasTan gvaqvs

saqme sxva disciplinebSic. Cven, rogorc maswavleblebma, ubralod, unda vicodeT, rom moswavleTa

goneba ar aris `carieli dafa~. maT gonebaSi arsebul informacias didi gavlena

aqvs swavlebaze. Tavis am nawilSi _ `moswavleTa arsebuli codnis gaaqtiureba~ _ ramdenime

meqanizms gavecnobiT, romelTa gamoyeneba maswavlebels moswavleTa mcdari koncefciebis

gansazRvrisTvis SeuZlia.

184

moswavleTa gavrcelebuli mcdari

koncefciebis winawar ganWvreta

_ `yvela mdinare CrdiloeTidan samxreTisken

miedineba~ _

gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT, Tqven Se g iZliaT

dro ar dazogoT, Riad daupirispirdeT mc dar

koncefcias da xazi gausvaT swor Sexedulebas.

amisTvis SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT ganmartebiTi

meqanizmebis farTo speqtri.

winaswar ganWvreta, rom masala Zneli

saswavli iqneba

da uxvi ganmartebiTi meqanizmebisa da xSiri

Semowmebis gamoyeneba.

xvedriTi wonis koncefciis demonstraciis

Semdeg Svriis ori WiqiT, romelTagan erTi

damtvreulia, maswavlebeli xazavs dafaze

da ambobs: `marcxena xeli aswieT, Tu pirveli

diagrama ufro zustia da marjvena _ Tu

meore diagramaa ufro zustia. Tina, axseni

Seni arCevani. kargi, yvelam rveulebSi orisami

winadadebiT gansazRvreT xvedriTi wona

da moiyvaneT raRacis simkvrivis magaliTi

sxva raRacasTan SedarebiT~.

im momentis SemCneva, roca moswavleebma SeiZleba ver gaigon

an SeiZleba sxvagvarad gaigon nanaxi an mosmenili.

`moicade, Tod. yuradRebiT, xedavT ra moxda? man gonebaSi

erTdroulad ori nabiji gadadga. pirvelad man...~

sqema 8.3: dabneulobis ganWvretis sami forma

dabneulobis gansaWvretad maswavlebels nabijebis am repertuaris gamoyeneba SeuZlia.

dabneulobis ganWvretis meore formaSi (ix. sqema 8.3), dabneulobisa da araswori aRqmis

savaraudo adgilebis ganWvretisTvis, maswavlebeli iyenebs moswavleebisa da masalis

Sinaarsis Sesaxeb codnas, radgan masala rTulia da mosalodnelia misi araswori aRqma. aq


sicxade

mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ara moswavleTa gonebaSi arsebuli mcdari koncefciebi, aramed masalis

sirTule, risTvisac maswavlebeli Zal-Rones ar iSurebs da cdilobs, maqsimalurad naTeli

gaxados masala da Tavidan aicilos bundovaneba an araswori aRqma. magaliTad, fizikaSi Tavisufali

vardnis axsnis dros maswavlebeli iTvaliswinebs, rom moswavleTaTvis es termini

SeiZleba asocirdebodes saganTan, romelic dedamiwaze mizidulobis Zalis gamo ecema; Tumca,

`Tavisufali vardna~ centraluri sxeulis garSemo orbitaze sxeulis Tavisufal moZraobas

niSnavs, magaliTad, mTvaris moZraoba dedamiwis garSemo. termini mianiSnebs `garSemo

vardnaze~ _ kosmosSi sxeulTa wriul moZraobas orbitaze. maswavlebels SeuZlia ganWvritos,

savaraudod rodis SeiZleba gauWirdeT moswavleebs gageba da Sesabamisi dro daxarjos

masalis axsnaze.

zogjer maswavlebeli axsnis procesSi sazRvravs mosalodnel gaugebrobas da preverenciul

nabijs dgams. moswavle dafasTan sworad xsnis algebrul gantolebas, magram terminebiT

ise swrafad manipulirebs, rom SeiZleba sxva moswavleebma `fexi ver auwyon~. dabneulobis

Tavidan asacileblad, maswavlebeli awyvetinebs moswavles da klass mimarTavs: `naxeT,

aq ras akeTebs: is erTdroulad or nabijs dgams _ amravlebs da kvadratul fesvs iRebs.

kargi, ganagrZe, Tod~. maswavlebelma moqmedeba sxvebis sasargeblod Seanela da Todis gonebaSi

gadadgmuli ori nabiji gaacalkeva, radgan ganWvrita, rom SeiZleba sxvebs ver gaegoT.

dabneulobis ganWvreta xSirad erT-erTi yvelaze uxilavi da rTulia, radgan moswavleebi,

faqtobrivad, verc ki aswreben dabnevas: maswavleblebi erTi nabijiT uswreben da Tavidan

icileben gaugebrobis safrTxes. swored amave mizeziT, es nabiji axsnis maRali donis

sicxades uzrunvelyofs.

rogor SeiZleba Seamowmos maswavlebelma, gaiges Tu ara moswavleebma masala? maT Seu-

ZliaT moswavleTa gonebaSi `SeRweva~. moswavleTa gonebaSi `SeRwevis~ es unari mTeli am

parametris safuZvelia. sicxadis parametris TvalsazrisiT daxelovnebulma maswavlebelma

icis, ra `xdeba~ moswavleTa TavebSi da amis garkvevis saSualebaTa farTo repertuari aqvs.

maT moswavleTa azrovnebis wvdomis erTgvari kognituri empaTia _ moswavleTa adgilze

sakuTari Tavis warmodgenis unari _ axasiaTebT da is mTlianad marTavs maT saqmianobas.

dabneulobasTan gamklaveba

moswavleTa dabneulobis SemCnevisas maswavleblis valia, dabneulobis mizezebis garkveva

da Sesabamisad, xelaxali axsna, rasac `dabneulobasTan gamklavebas~ vuwodebT.

roca moswavleebi gvatyobineben (an maswavlebeli aRmoaCens), rom raRac gaugebaria, maswavlebeli

cdilobs xelaxla axsnas an naTeli mohfinos informaciis konkretul nawils. am

SemTxvevaSi swavlebis xuT sxvadasxva dones gamoyofen:

1. araviTari reaqcia;

2. xelaxla xsnis;

3. adgens dabneulobis moments konkretuli kiTxvebiT;

4. daJinebiT adgens, gaiges Tu ara moswavleebma da ubrundeba axsnils;

5. moswavles axsnevinebs maTeul gagebas.

pirvel doneze maswavlebeli ar reagirebs dabneulobaze. meore doneze is, ubralod, xelaxla

axsnas iwyebs. es axsna SeiZleba pirvel axsnaze ufro neli da/an ufro detaluri iyos.

Semdeg doneze maswavlebeli moswavleebs konkretul kiTxvebs usvams, raTa zustad daadginos

maTTvis gaugebari adgilebi. Semdeg racionalurad tovebs moswavleTaTvis gasageb monakveTebs

da gaugebris xelaxal axsnaze gadadis.

185


Tavi 8

momdevno doneze maswavlebeli ubrundeba im moswavles, romelsac daxmareba sWirdeba.

is SeZlebisdagvarad garkveul dros uTmobs masTan saubars da, rac yvelaze mniSvnelovania,

mogvianebiT kvlav ubrundeba mas, raTa Seamowmos Sedegiani iyo Tu ara misi muSaoba. aseTi

dabrunebisas, maswavlebelma SeiZleba mimoxilviTi kiTxvebiT an naswavlis sxva konteqstSi

gamoyenebis saSualebiT Seamowmos gageba. zogjer gakveTilze maswavlebels ara aqvs gagebis

Semowmebisa da xelaxali axsnis dro _ es swavlebis realobaa. am SemTxvevaSi maswavlebelma

TavisTvis unda aRniSnos an Caiweros, konkretulad romeli moswavlisTvisaa bundovani axali

koncefcia. Semdeg SeiZleba SeuTanxmdes maT gakveTilebis Semdeg xanmokle Sexvedraze

bundovani momentebis gasarkvevad, gadadgas nebismieri sxva nabiji am mimarTulebiT da Seqmnas

masalis gagebisTvis aucilebeli pirobebi.

bolo doneze maswavlebeli moswavleebs maTeuli azrovnebis (ara mxolod fiqrTa Tanamimdevrobisa)

aRweras sTxovs: amowmebs, rogor fiqrobs moswavle koncefciisa Tu operaciis

Sesaxeb. is cdilobs moswavlis gonebaSi urTierTkavSirTa struqturis, sakiTxis konceptualizaciis

gzis gagebas. is svams Semdeg kiTxvebs: `rogor miiRe es pasuxi? rogor udgebi

am saxis amocanas? SegiZlia miTxra ra gaakeTe an ra ifiqre amasTan dakavSirebiT? pirvelad

ra nabiji gadadgi? ratom? Seni azriT, ras unda niSnavdes es? Seni azriT, ras niSnavs `qalaqis

TviTmmarTveloba?~ zogjer SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT, rom erTi SexedviT `mcdari~ pasuxebi

sinamdvileSi sulac ar aris mcdari, Tu moswavleTa varaudebsa da logikas gavigebT. moswavlis

gonebaSi urTierTkavSirTa struqturis gamoyeneba maswavlebels koncefciis xelaxla

axsnis an SekiTxvaTa seriis dasmis saSualebas aZlevs, rac moswavles koncefciis TviTaRmo-

Cenas gauadvilebs.

moswavleTa azrovnebis wvdomis mniSvnelo-

zogjer `mcdari~ pasuxebi sinamdvileSi sulac basTan dakavSirebiT sami avtoris naSromebi

ar aris mcdari, Tu moswavleTa varaudebsa da unda aRiniSnos. 1970-ian wlebSi bil halma (Bill

logikas gavigebT.

Hull) Caatara seminarebis seria _ `bavSvTa azrovneba~,

sadac maswavleblebi regularulad

ikribebodnen moswavleTa mier monacemTa gadamuSavebis procesis gansaxilvelad. diskusiebi

maswavleblebs stimuls aZlevda (da amJamadac aZlevT, radgan Sexvedrebi kvlav grZeldeba),

efiqraT bavSvebis azrovnebaze, ecadaT, gaegoT movlenebis xedvisa da problemaTa gadaWris

maTeuli gzebi. hiu mehanma (Hugh Mehan 1974) gaaanaliza maswavleblisa da bavSvebis msjeloba

da aCvena, rom bavSvebis `Secdomebi~, faqtobrivad, ufrosebis saubris maTeuli interpretaciiT

iyo gamowveuli. eleonor dakvorTma (Eleanor Duckworth 1981) maswavleblebTan

erTad kvlevaTa seria Caatara mozardTa azrovnebis Seswavlis mizniT, romelSic amosavali

wertili iyo maswavleblebis mier sakuTari azrovnebisa da swavlis procesebis Seswavla.

186

Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom

`bavSvis gageba~ maswavlebelTa devizi, mizani, Semdgomi muSaobis safuZveli gaxda.

es iyo sirTule, romlis winaSec isini sakuTar Tavs ayenebdnen yovel jerze,

roca bavSvi gaakeTebda an ityoda iseT rames, rasac myisierad ver xvdebodnen.

sxva sityvebiT, maswavleblebi cdilobdnen, epovaT is gza, romelic bavSvis

naTqvamisa da moqmedebis axsnis saSualebas miscemda – isini cdilobdnen `bavSvis

gagebas~ (Duckworth 1987, gv. 86-87)

dakvorTis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mosazreba is gaxlavT, rom misi azriT, piaJes arsebiTi

wvlili ganviTarebis miseuli etapebi rodia; is umniSvnelo gavlenas axdens swavlebaze, saSualebas

gvaZlevs ganvsazRvroT bavSvis ganviTarebis adgili piaJeseul ierarqiaSi, Tu vaRiarebT

konkretuli masalis gamoyenebis mniSvnelobas (gansakuTrebiT, roca vacnobierebT

swavlebis mniSvnelobas zrdasrulebisTvisac ki). mniSvnelovania da swavlebas arsebiTad

uwyobs xels piaJes klinikuri intervius teqnikis gageba, `romelSic zrdasrulis mizania,


sicxade

SeZlebisdagvarad meti gaigos konkretul sakiTxze moswavlis Sexedulebis Sesaxeb~ (Duckworth

1981, gv. 14). garda amisa:

bavSvTan saubris kvalobaze, miseuli aRqmis wvdomis mizniT, `am procesSi~ TviT

bavSviseuli aRqma izrdeba. Tanamosaubris mier bavSvis azrovnebis gagebis

mizniT dasmuli kiTxvebi TviT bavSvsac met fiqrs avaldebulebs. ras gulisxmob?

rogor gaakeTe es? namdvilad ver vxvdebi; SegiZlia, sxvagvarad amixsna? SegiZlia,

magaliTi momiyvano? rogor gamoiangariSe? Tanamosaubres es kiTxvebi

meore adamianis gagebis saSualebas aZlevs. yovel jerze is mosaubris fiqrebSi

erTveba da win adgmevinebs nabijs (Duckworth 1987, gv. 96-97)*

(damatebiTi informaciisTvis imis Taobaze, rogor SeiZleba gavaRrmaoT moswavleTa gageba

imiT, rom davafiqroT sakuTar azrovnebaze, ixileT am Tavis Semajamebeli nawili.)

axsnis meqanizmebi

Semowmeba da dabneulobis mogvareba arsebiTia sicxadisTvis, Tumca arsebobs masTan dakavSirebuli

sxva saSualebebic, magaliTad, maswavleblis axsnis meqanizmTa repertuari, romelic

mas axsnis dros exmareba. es meqanizmebi moicavs: analogiebs, mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis

xazgasmas, azrobriv xatebs, fizikur modelebs, media/teqnologiebs, cxrilebisa an dafis

gamoyenebas, ufro srul an ufro zust axsnas, xmamaRla fiqris modelirebas, ubralo miniSnebebis

gamoyenebas, Tanamimdevruli minimaluri miniSnebebisa da grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobis

gamoyenebas. am terminTa umravlesobis mniSvneloba naTelia, mxolod ramdenimes

sWirdeba axsna.

azrobrivi xati

axsnis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani da yvelaze ugulebelyofili meqanizmi azrobrivi

xatebia. azrobrivi xatebi sakuTar TavSi suraTebis Seqmnas niSnavs; maswavleblis xelmZRvanelobiT,

moswavleebs warmatebiT SeuZliaT am suraTebis gamoyeneba:

¤ fizikuri mdgomareobis, movlenebis an procesebis gasagebad;

¤ koncefciebis analogiebisTvis;

¤ ganwyobis, scenis an konteqstis Sesaqmnelad;

¤ informaciis an urTierTobaTa formis ukeT dasamaxsovreblad.

azrobrivi xatebi didi xania gamoiyeneba sportSi fizikuri varjiSis dasaxvewad (Whisler

& Marzano 1988). mkiTxvels SeiZleba axsovs dvaiT sTouni 1980 wlis olimpiur asparezobaSi

gadaxtomis dros: TvaldaxuWuli qviSiT savse yuTSi mdgomi, neli rweviT is sakuTar Tavs

xedavda _ gzaze garboda da Zelze xteboda; an artur eSi 1975 wels uimbldonSi finaluri

matCis dros, rogor ijda TvaldaxuWuli kortis Secvlisas da sakuTar Tavs xedavda – Tavis

Cawodebas mihyveboda badesTan axlos da ixreboda sapasuxo dartymisTvis. am da bevr sxva

magaliTSi sportsmenebi gonebaSi gadian repeticias, raTa moaxdinon gonebis fokusireba,

koncentrireba, gavarjiSeba da fizikuri winsvla. skolaSi azrobrivi xatebis gamoyeneba saswavlo

masalaze yuradRebis fokusirebis, mniSvnelobis cxadad axsnis da tvinis mxedvelobiTi

da marjvena arxebis gaaqtiurebisa da, saboloo angariSiT, warmatebuli swavlisTvis

SeiZleba.

* gadmobeWdilia nebarTviT. Duckworth, E. `The Having of Wonderful Ideas` and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning. New York:

Teachers College Press, 1987, gv. 83-97.)

187


Tavi 8

Teslis parkis moZraobis warmodgeniT, romelic deda mcenares gasaRiveblad Sordeba,

SegviZlia mexsierebaSi davxatoT da kargad davimaxsovroT Teslis migraciis safexurebi da

meqanizmebi. atomSi warmosaxviTi mogzaurobiT SegviZlia birTvisa da eleqtronis orbitebis

TvisebaTa ilustrireba da axali koncefciebis mtkiced damaxsovreba, iseve rogorc

warmosaxviT mogzaurobas SeuZlia nacnob saTamaSo moedanze `perimetris~ koncefciis ganmtkiceba.

plimoTSi Sesvlamde `meiflauerSi~ arsebuli pirobebis warmosadgenad warmosaxvis

gamoyeneba moswavleebisTvis ufro cocxalsa da realurs gaxdis koloniaTa daarsebis

Seswavlas. warmosaxvis gamoyeneba imisTvis, rom dawyebiTi klasebis moswavleebs davanaxvoT

sakuTari Tavi Sesvenebis Semdeg saklaso oTaxisa da TavianTi magidebisaken wynarad mimavali,

arsebiTad gaaumjobesebs klasidan klasSi maTi gadasvlis dros qcevas. marTul warmosaxvas

mravalmxrivi gamoyeneba aqvs saswavlo programis yvela sferoSi.

qvemoT mocemuli miTiTebebi sasargebloa im maswavleblebisTvis, romlebic moswavleebTan

warmosaxviT savarjiSoebs gegmaven:

188

1. winaswar moamzadeT moTxroba. warmosaxvis aRZvrisTvis masSi sakmarisi aRwera da

detali CarTeT, Tavi aarideT Seusabamo detalebs, romlebic yuradRebas gadaatanineben

mTavari xatidan da dagegmeT pauzebi.

2. moamzadeT moswavleebi. komfortulad dasviT isini adgilebze. acnobeT, sad waiyvans

maT warmosaxva – magaliTad, `Cven misisipze tiviT mogzaurobas vapirebT~.

3. daazusteT mizani. ra mizans emsaxureba warmosaxva? gauziareT moswavleebs (mag.: `es

dagexmarebaT gaigoT, hak fini ratom...~).

4. saubrisas gaakeTeT strategiuli pauzebi. mieciT dro xatebis Camosayalibeblad.

5. gadaamuSaveT informacia moswavleebTan erTad. ra dainaxes an gaiges? ra gaiges warmosaxvis

saSualebiT?

bevr maswavlebels moswons warmosaxvis Tanxleba musikiT, magaliTad, kitaros an vivaldis

kompoziciebiT.

maswavlebelma unda icodes, rom nebismier klasSi SeiZleba iyos erTi-ori moswavle, romlebsac

susti vizualuri mexsiereba aqvT da ar SeuZliaT advilad warmosaxva. amis gamo warmosaxvis

gamoyenebas Tavi ar unda avaridoT; am moswavleebs, SesaZlebelia, varjiSiT ganvuviTaroT

warmosaxva. warmosaxvis simwiris gamo arc moswavlem da arc maswavlebelma Tavi ar

unda daidanaSaulos. amave dros isic unda gvaxsovdes, rom konkretuli masalis swavlebisas

mxolod warmosaxvas ar unda daveyrdnoT.

warmosaxvis warmatebuli programebis aRwera (Pressley 1976; Escondid School District 1979)

xSirad moicavs moswavleTa mier warmosaxuli suraTebis Sesaxeb saubarsa da gaziarebas: `ras

xedav?~ `miTxari Sens mier warmodgenili suraTis Sesaxeb~, `kidev ras xedav?~ mkvlevarebma

(damatebiTi informaciisaTvis ix. McNeill 1984) daadastures moswavleTa winsvla wvdomis,

damaxsovrebisa da amgvarad naswavli masalidan daskvnis gamotanis unaris TvalsazrisiT.

xmamaRla fiqris modelireba

es teqnika zedgamoWrilia im maswavleblisTvis, romelsac rolebis TamaSi moswons. rodesac

maswavlebeli moswavleTa xmamaRla azrovnebis modelirebas axdens, is maT azrovnebas

nabij-nabij mihyveba, Tavs maT adgilze warmoidgens, maT rols TamaSobs. ibneva, Secdomebs

uSvebs, Tavadve asworebs Secdomebs da gzadagza sakuTar Tavs amowmebs. xmamaRla azrovnebis

modelirebis gamoyeneba upriania nebismieri mravalnabijiani operaciis Sesrulebisas, romelic

problemis gadawyvetas moicavs. xmamaRla azrovnebiT, maswavlebels saSualeba aqvs,

mianiSnos moswavleebs savaraudo sirTuleebi, raTa Tavi gaarTvan rTul monakveTebs da Se-

Zlon swori nabijebis modelireba. xmamaRla (nawilobriv) azrovnebis modelirebis nimuSi


amocanisTvis _ 7,301 gayofili 45-ze _ ase warmogvidgeba:

`modi, vnaxoT! unda gavigo ramdeni 45-ia 7,301-Si. 45 moTavsdeba 7-Si?... ara, 73-

Si, ramdenjer? 2-jer. ara, 2-jer 45 aris 90; 1-jer eteva. 1-jer 45 aris 45. 73-s

minus 45... 7-dan visexoT 1, 13-5=8. 6-s gamovakloT 4 aris 2... 26. axla Camovitan ...

nuls. 45 ramdenjer moTavsdeba 260-Si. ramdeni iqneba?~

sicxade

xmamaRla azrovnebis modelirebas maswavlebeli axorcielebs klasis winaSe. es sakuTar

TavTan dialogia. bet deivi (Beth Davey 1983) gviCvenebs, rogor SeiZleba am teqnikis gamoyeneba

moswavleTaTvis wvdomis mravalferovani

strategiebis saswavleblad. magaliTad, teqstSi

ucnobi sityva gxvdebaT: `ho, ras niSnavs

es sityva?... modi, winadadebas wavikiTxav...

mainc gaugebaria. iqneb kidev wavikiTxo, rom

gavigo... ara, mainc gaugebaria. modi, iqneb misi

romelime nawiliT mivxvde?~ amgvarad, maswav-

lebels SeuZlia instruqciaTa nakrebis gamoyeneba _ waikiTxeT xelaxla; gaagrZeleT kiTxva

da miubrundiT, rom SeamowmoT, konteqsti iZleva Tu ara miniSnebas; moZebneT sityvis nacnobi

nawilebi – fuZeebi, prefiqsebi da sufiqsebi. modelirebis daskvniT nawilSi mniSvnelovania

moswavleTa gamokiTxva imis Taobaze, rac naxes an moismines; garantia imisa, rom moswavleebi

gaigeben an SeamCneven mainc strategiasa da mis gamoyenebas mxolod imitom, rom sakuTari

TvaliT naxes, ar arsebobs.

xmamaRla fiqris modelireba axsnis erT-erTi yvelaze SeumCneveli da mZlavri instrumentia.

is gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa nebismieri saxis problemis gadaWris an safexurebrivi

proceduris swavlebisTvis. misi ZiriTadi atributebia:

¤ Sinagani dialogis gareganad gadaqceva;

¤ sakuTari TavisTvis kiTxvebis dasma;

¤ alternativebis awon-dawonva da kriteriumebis gamoyeneba asarCevad;

¤ mcdari dasawyisi da TviTSesworeba;

¤ Seupovroba;

¤ Sejameba

miniSnebebi da Tanamimdevruli minimaluri miniSnebebi

mcire jgufebSi an individualuri swavlebisas, xSirad vnaxavT, rogor ostaturad iyenebs

maswavlebeli uxmo, TiTiT miniSnebas, rogorc sityvis atributze an problemis nawilze

moswavlis yuradRebis mipyrobis martiv miniSnebas. aq mniSvnelovania minimaluri miniSneba

– swored imdeni, ramdenic sakmarisia saWiro momentze yuradRebis misaqcevad da ara imdenis,

rom Secdomis gaanalizebis SesaZlebloba wavarTvaT. magaliTad, Tu moswavle `cot~-s (bavSvis

sawoli) kiTxulobs rogorc `cat~-s (kata), maswavleblis uxmod miTiTeba `o~-ze `cot~-Si minimaluri

miniSnebaa. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi maswavleblis yoveli momdevno miniSnebebi sul

ufro da ufro minimaluria da ase grZeldeba, sanam moswavle mixvdeba. Semdegi nabiji iqneboda

sityvis bgerebad warmoTqma da `o~-s xazgasma sityva `c – o – t~-Si – magram ara misi Tqma.

grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba

garantia imisa, rom moswavleebi gaigeben an

SeamCneven mainc strategiasa da mis gamoyenebas

mxolod imitom, rom sakuTari TvaliT naxes,

ar arsebobs.

grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba aris `furcelze ise dalagebuli sityvebi, rom maT warmoadginon

sityvaTa Soris kavSirebis individiseuli gageba~ (Clark 1990). es diagramebia,

magram konkretuli saxis diagramebi, romlebic suraTebis nacvlad sityvebs Seicaven,

diagramis forma ki konkretuli saxis organizaciul struqturas an azrovnebis models

189


Tavi 8

190

warmoadgens, romelic SeiZleba ganzogaddes: mizezi da Sedegi, nawili da mTeli, Sedareba

da kontrasti, aRwera, problema da gadaWra.

klarkis gansazRvrebas Tu ganvavrcobT, grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba aris diagrama

sityvebiT, romlis formas gansazRvravs sityvaTa urTierTkavSiri. es forma warmoadgens

konkretuli saxis azrovnebas da SesaZlebelia misi ganzogadeba, raTa gamoyenebul iqnas am

saxis azrovnebiT organizebuli sxva SinaarsisTvis.

grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba mZlavri instrumentia ara mxolod ideebisa da maTi kav-

Sirebis asaxsnelad, aramed moswavleTa mier naswavlis SejamebisTvisac. is moswavleebs exmareba

imaSi, rom

¤ dainaxon koncefciebisa da elementebis urTierTkavSiri;

¤ moaxerxon informaciis logikur struqturad organizeba;

¤ yuradReba gaamaxvilon mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze;

¤ gamoiyenon vizualuri swavlis upiratesoba da gaaaqtiuron tvinis marjvena naxevarsfero.

roca moswavleebma ician grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobis gamoyeneba informaciis Casawerad

an Sesajameblad, isini aqtiuri mkiTxvelebi da msmenelebi xdebian.

uamrav termins SevxvdebiT specifikur grafikul aqtivobasTan dakavSirebiT: gonebrivi

ruka, moTxrobis ruka, semantikuri ruka, qseli, cnebis ruka, azrovnebis ruka, jgufi. zogierTi

maTgani (gonebrivi ruka, jgufi, semantikuri ruka) mozRvavebul ideaTa Casawerad

gamoiyeneba da moswavleebs kvlevis dawyebamde sakuTari mosazrebebis organizebasa da Caweras

uadvilebs. sxvebi (moTxrobis ruka) gamoiyeneba literaturis kiTxvisas, rom moswavleebma

vizualuri formiT Caweron siuJetis xazi da gmiris pirovnuli ganviTareba. sxvebi ki

(cnebis ruka, termini, romelic xSirad gamoiyeneba mecnierebasa da sazogadoebriv kvleveb-

Si) gamoiyeneba vizualuri formiT cnebebsa da faqtebs Soris urTierTkavSirebis Casawerad

da TviT cnebis mTavari da meorexarisxovani atributebis gamosaxatad (Bulgren 1991).

agraruli

ekonomika kapitalizmi

aSS

1776

monoba demokratia

aSS

1996

sqema 8.4: wriuli grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba

sqema adaptirebulia devid haierlis `ormagi buStis~ dizainidan.

samrewvelo

da

momsaxurebis

ekonomika

sayovelTao

saarCevno

ufleba


sicxade

cnebis ruka (Archer 1990) da azrovnebis ruka (Hyerle 1990) grafikuli aqtivobebis formebia,

sadac masalis warmodgenisTvis damaxasiaTebeli azrovnebis forma (mag.: Sedareba da

kontrasti) miuTiTebs diagramis konkretuli formis gamoyenebaze, magaliTad, matrica an

haierlis `ormagi buSti~. magaliTad, Tu teqstSi Sedarebulia amerikis cxovreba 1776 wels

da dRes, `1776~ erT wreSi CavsvamT, xolo `dRes~ _ meoreSi (ix. sqema 8.4). am or wres Soris

wreebi da maT Soris kavSirebi Seicavs orive periodisTvis saerTo elementebs, magaliTad,

kapitalizmi da mmarTvelobis demokratiuli forma. marcxniv, mxolod `1776~-Tan dakavSirebul

wreebSi, im periodisTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebia, romlebic dRes ar gvxvdeba _

ekonomikis agraruli baza da monobis miReba. marjvniv wresTan `dRes~ dakavSirebul wreebSi

dRevandeli sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli elementebia _ samrewvelo da momsaxurebis

ekonomika da sayovelTao saarCevno ufleba. masalis organizebis avtoriseuli forma gvkarnaxobs

grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobis romeli forma iqneba upriani mis warmosadgenad.

maswavlebels SeuZlia grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobebis gamoyeneba saklaso diskusiis

Casawerad da gasacnobi informaciis organizebisTvis. is moswavleebs cnebis gaazrebasa da

informaciis aTvisebaSi exmareba. Cveni mizania grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobis formaTa

swavleba TviT moswavleebisTvis, raTa, sabolood, maT SeZlon misi damoukideblad gamoyeneba.

am miznis miRwevis pirobebSi, maswavlebelma SeiZleba aseTi davaleba misces Tavis moswavleebs:

`CaiwereT SeniSvnebi sakiTxav masalasTan dakavSirebiT da SearCieT grafikuli

winmswrebi aqtivobis, Tqveni azriT, yvelaze Sesatyvisi forma~. amiT moswavleebs vTxovT

ara marto aqtiur mkiTxvelebad yofnas, aramed informaciis organizebisTvis gamoyenebuli

azrovnebis formis analizsac (ix. sqema 8.5).

aRwera aRnawili/mTeliwera

klasifikacia

Tema/qveTema

sqema 8.5: grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobis oTxi sasargeblo forma

cnebis gasagebad da informaciis asaTviseblad, moswavleebs Sesabamisi aqtivobis arCeva SeuZliaT.

kiTxvis sferoSi kvlevis tradiciam (magaliTisaTvis ix.: McGee & Richgels 1986; Heimlich &

Pittelman 1986; Armbruster, Anderson & Ostertag 1989) gviCvena, rom grafikuli aqtivobebi xels

uwyoben gagebas, Tu maT kargi swavlebis damatebad viyenebT. moswavleebi igeben, rom mTeli

teqsti dawerilia azrovnebis konkretuli struqturis mixedviT, romelsac aqvs Sesabamisi

191


Tavi 8

grafikuli forma da is SeiZleba gamoviyenoT mis warmosadgenad.

grafikul winmswrebi aqtivobebis daxmarebiT, maswavlebels SeuZlia moswavleebi damoukideblobisaken

waiyvanos, aswavlos aqtiuri azrovneba da kiTxva. es SeiZleba moxdes ma-

Sin, Tu xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi winmswrebi aqtivobebs qvemoT mocemuli TanamimdevrobiT

da TandaTanobiT SemovitanT:

192

1 faza: maswavlebeli akeTebs prezentacias an uZRveba diskusias da diskusiis

mimdinareobas iwers grafikul aqtivobaSi.

2 faza: maswavlebeli irCevs diskusiis mimdinareobis formas da akeTebs

ZiriTad da qveCanawerebs. maswavlebeli gansazRvravs winmswrebi

aqtivobis gamoyenebul formas da asaxelebs mis mier warmodgenil

azrovnebis saxes.

3 faza: maswavlebeli irCevs formas, akeTebs ZiriTad Canawerebs, danar-

Cens ki moswavleebs avsebinebs.

4 faza: maswavlebeli irCevs grafikuli aqtivobis formas, xolo moswavleebi

akeTeben yvela Canawers.

5 faza: moswavleebi irCeven formas da akeTeben Canawerebs.

grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivobebi Zalian popularulia im maswavleblebSi, romlebic

dainteresebuli arian azrovnebis unar-Cvevebis swavlebiT, radgan azrovnebis formis

gansazRvra da dasaxeleba Sesaswavli masalis organizaciis miRma avtomaturad xdeba, roca

adamiani mzad aris am instrumentis gamosayeneblad. dawyebiTi klasebis moswavleebic ki

ufro naTlad igeben masalas, Tu is grafikuli aqtivobebis saSualebiT aris warmodgenili.

axsnis instrumentebis am nawilis bolos erTi gafrTxileba gvsurs. axsnis instrumentebi,

TavisTavad, mZlavri meqanizmia, magram isini unda movargoT Sinaarss, situacias da moswavleebs.

am SemTxvevaSi, gaumarTlebelia `rac meti, miT ukeTesi~.

axsnis sakuTari (an sxvaze dakvirvebisaTvis) instrumentebis gamoyenebis gasaanalizeblad,

maswavlebels SeuZlia, ubralod, daTvalos, romel da ramden instruments iyenebs

informaciis axsnisa da dazustebisTvis. Tumca, yoveli calkeuli gakveTilis lozungi aris

Sesaferisoba da ara raodenoba. ver vityviT, rom am meqanizmebidan erTi meores sjobs; magram

SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom masalis prezentaciis mravalferovneba mWidrod ukavSirdeba

gakveTilis efeqtianobas. gakveTilze ramdenime meqanizmis gamoyeneba udavod uzrunvelyofs

mravalferovnebas. saRi azri gvkarnaxobs, rom am instrumentTa repertuaris gamoyenebiT

SesaZlebelia moswavleTa yuradRebis SenarCuneba da swavlis maTeul stilSi CarTva.

metyveleba

kidev erTi sfero, romelsac gasagebi komunikacia moicavs, aris maswavleblis metyveleba.

is unda Seesabamebodes diqciis, warmoTqmis, gadmocemis, gramatikis, sintaqsis da Sesabamisi

sityvebis SerCevis (leqsikoni) minimalur kriteriumebs, raTa moswavleebs esmodeT maswavleblis

naTqvami. smitma da lendma (Smith & Land 1981) gaaanalizes efeqtian da araefeqtian

maswavlebelTa metyvelebis modelebi. maTi iseve, rogorc sxvaTa kvlevebi, adastureben im

uaryofiT gavlenas moswavleTa miRwevebze, rac maswavleblis mier metyvelebaSi `bundovani

terminebisa~ da `labirinTebis~ gamoyenebas mosdevs. qvemoT mocemulia ramdenime magaliTi,

romlebzec isini weren.

bundovani terminebi (kursivi):


maTematikis am gakveTilma SeiZleba saSualeba mogceT, cota ufro meti gaigoT

imis Sesaxeb, rasac Cven, Cveulebisamebr, ricxviT modelebs vuwodebT. SesaZlebelia,

albaT, gakveTilis mTavar ideaze gadasvlamde, gadaxedoT ramdenime naswavl

cnebas. faqtobrivad, pirveli cneba, romelsac Tqven unda gadaxedoT, aris

dadebiTi mTeli ricxvebi. rogorc iciT, dadebiTi mTeli ricxvi aris nebismieri

ricxvi, romelic metia nulze.

labirinTebi (kursivi):

maTematikis es gakveTili saS... gagagebinebT ricxvs, uh, ricxviT modelebs. sanam

Cven gadavalT gakveTilis mTavar ideaze, Tqven unda gadaxedoT oTx cneb... oTx

winapirobiT cnebas. pirveli idea, anu, uh, cneba, romelsac Tqven unda gadaxedoT,

aris dadebiTi mTeli ricxvebi. dadebiTi ricxvi... mTeli ricxvi aris nebismieri

mTeli ricxvi, uh, ricxvi, romelic metia nulze.

kategoria magaliTebi

terminTa bundovanebiskategoriebi

1. bundovani miTiTeba pirobebi, sxva, rogorRac, sadRac, romeliRac adgilas, ram

2. miaxloeba Sesaxeb, TiTqmis, daaxloebiT, sakmaod, miaxloebiT, raRac,

umravlesoba, ZiriTadad, TiTqmis, sakmaod [bevri], raRac, -viT

3. `SecdomaSi Seyvana~ da

gasworeba

sicxade

faqtobrivad, da ase Semdeg, mainc, rogorc nebismiers SeuZlia

dainaxos, rogorc iciT, ZiriTadad, aSkarad, mokled, ZiriTadad,

faqtobrivad, sxva sityvebiT, naTlad, ra Tqma unda, ase vTqvaT,

mokled rom vTqvaT, simarTle rom vTqvaT, Tqven iciT, Tqven xedavT

4. Secdomis aRiareba ukacravad, vwuxvar, me vfiqrob, ara var darwmunebuli

5. ganusazRvreli

kvalifikacia

nakrebi, wyvili, ramdenime, mcire, mravali, bevri, sxvadasxva

6. mravalferovneba aspeqti (aspeqtebi), saxeoba (saxeobebi), tipi (tipebi)

7. uaryofili

gamaZliereblebi

yvela ara, bevri ara, Zalian ara

8. SesaZlebloba SesaZlebloba aris, SeiZleba, SesaZloa, Cans

9. albaToba xSirad, zogadad, sazogadod, Cveulebriv, albaT, xandaxan,

Cveulebisamebr

sqema 8.6: terminTa bundovanebis kategoriebi*

smitisa da lendisagan (1981) aRebuli es kategoriebi eyrdnoba hilersa da sxvebs (1968).

labirinTebi aris araswori metyveleba an Seferxeba, zedmeti, uwesrigo sityvebi. bundovani

terminebi mravalgvar formas iRebs (ix. sqema 8.6). hileri da sxvebi (1968) amtkiceben,

rom `bundovanebasTan gvaqvs saqme, roca mosaubre gvawvdis iseT informacias, romelic ar

axsovs, an sinamdvileSi arasodes icoda~ (Smith & Land 1981). msgavsi ram maSinac SeiZleba mox-

* gadmobeWdilia nebarTviT. `Low-Inference Verbal Behavuiors Related to Teacher Clarity` by L. R. Smith and M. L. Land, published by

the Journal of Classroom Interaction, 1981, 17/1, 37-42.)

193


Tavi 8

des, roca maswavlebels ar surs pasuxi agos informaciis sisworeze da piradi usafrTxoebis

mizniT abundovnebs saTqmels, an metismetad mondomebulia, rom moswavleTa ideebis gamziareblad

da damxmared Candes da ara informaciis mimwodeblad. yovelive amis Sedegi ki

meryevi maswavlebelia, romelic uamrav bundovan termins iyenebs.

misaRebi metyvelebis miRma arsebobs is, rac arc ise aSkaraa. SegviZlia ganvasxvaoT maswavleblebi,

romlebic sxvadasxvagvarad saubroben sxvadasxva moswavlesTan da, SesaZloa,

saubris maneras konkretuli SemTxvevis mixedviTac cvlian. mokled, maT mravalferovani metyveleba

aqvT. gansxvaveba SeimCneva gamoyenebul leqsikonSi, aqcentSi, slengis gamoyeneba-

Si, metyvelebis intonaciaSi, siswrafesa da ritmSi, oficialurobaSi an araoficialurobaSi

(Joos 1967). Cven gvainteresebs, SeuZlia Tu ara maswavlebels moswavleebTan maT enaze saubari

cxadi axsnisa da ganmartebisaTvis Sesatyvisi enobrivi formebiT, konkretuli interaqciis

Sesatyvisi efeqtiani formiT.

im maswavleblis qcevis gaanalizebisas, romelic metyvelebis stils konkretul drosa da

moswavles usadagebs, damkvirvebels `mravalferovnebasTan~ erTad metyvelebis garkveuli

miukerZoeblobac SeuZlia SeamCnios. amas garda, metyvelebis konkretuli manera mocemul

momentSi SerCeulia, morgebulia jgufis an individis raime Taviseburebas.

194

araorazrovneba

araorazrovneba niSnavs mkafio komunikacias da ar unda gamogvrCes:

¤ miniSnebaTa gansazRvra;

¤ SekiTxvaTa fokusi;

¤ aucilebeli nabijebi mimarTulebis micemisas;

¤ miniSnebebis mniSvneloba;

¤ aqtivobaTa miznebi.

am xuTi kriteriumis mixedviT SegviZlia SevafasoT moqmedebis araorazrovneba. isic

gavixsenoT, rom maswavlebeli yovelTvis rodi aswavlis axsniT. man SeiZleba aswavlos induqciurad,

sokrateseuli meTodiT an mravali sxva gziT. magram roca saqme uSualod axsniT

qcevas exeba, gansakuTrebiT, Tu moswavlem ver gaigo, aucileblad unda gavixsenoT araorazrovneba.

miniSnebebis gansazRvra

efeqtiani miniSneba exmareba moswavleebs masalis swavlisTvis saWiro kavSirebis damyarebasa

da azrovnebis saWiro formebis gamoyenebaSi. isini ar toveben logikur sicarieleebs.

orazrovani maswavlebeli varaudobs (samwuxarod, xSirad mcdarad), rom moswavleebi SeZleben

misi miniSnebebis wakiTxvas an ganzraxvis gamocnobas. aseTi maswavlebeli xSirad damna-

Savea TamaSis _ `gamoicani, ras vfiqrob~ an `gamoicani, ratom vakeTebT amas~ _ gamo, romelic

swavlebisas araviTar mizans ar emsaxureba da, piriqiT, aSinebs da abnevs moswavleebs.

zusti miniSnebebis saSualebiT maswavlebeli patara xidebs debs moswavleebisTvis, rom maT

dainaxon kavSiri miniSnebebsa da maTi gamoyenebis gzebs Soris. ai, zusti miniSnebis magaliTi:

`Sezneqilis~ gansazRvrebamde, batonma orma ikiTxa: `sad sZinavT daTvebs?~ is

fiqrobda, rom moswavleebi Seqmnidnen gamoqvabulis xats, rac maT daexmareboda

gansazRvrebis damaxsovrebaSi. orive moswavlem SeamCnia es ucnauri SekiTxva

da mixvda, rom mas sityvis ganmartebis instrumentis roli unda eTamaSa. Tumca,

verc erTi ver mixvda, rom es instrumenti xati iyo (Winne & Marx 1982, gv. 510).


sicxade

am SemTxvevaSi batoni oris idea urigo ar iyo; ubralod misi miniSneba imdenad orazrovani

iyo, rom moswavleebma ver SeZles misi gamoyeneba. mas surda, gamoqvabulis gamosaxuleba

moswavleebisTvis vizualuri mnemonika (xerxTa erToblioba, romlis mizania gaaadvilos

didi moculobis informaciis, faqtebis damaxsovreba, ZiriTadad, asociaciis kanonebs

emyareba. mTargmn. Sen.) yofiliyo: roca gamoqvabulis win vdgavarT, misi sivrce Sezneqili

Cans. swored aseve Cans Sezneqili zedapiric.

SekiTxvaTa fokusi

xandaxan SekiTxvaTa fokusi orazrovania da maswavlebeli moswavleebs `gamoicani ras

vfiqrob~-s `TamaSis~ sxva variants sTavazobs. zemoT moyvanil magaliTSi b-ni oris SekiTxvaze

_ `sad cxovroben daTvebi?~ _ ramdenime kargi pasuxi arsebobs, magram swori pasuxebis

simravlidan maswavlebels mxolod erTis mosmena surs. ai, kidev erTi magaliTi: laTinuri

enis maswavlebeli moswavles savarjiSos SekiTxvas akiTxebs. `ra saxis SekiTxvaa es?~ ekiTxeba

maswavlebeli. moswavle ar pasuxobs. arc sxva moswavleebi iCenen iniciativas da Cans, arc maT

ician. sinamdvileSi maswavlebels Semdegi ram ainteresebs: `guSindeli savarjiSos mixedviT

SekiTxvebis eqvsi formidan _ `quid~, `cur~, `quis~, `quem~, `ubi~, an `quo~ – es romeli formaa?~

is varaudobs (Tumca mcdarad), rom moswavle xvdeba SekiTxvas. maswavlebeli ver aanalizebs,

rom fraza _ `ra tipis~ _ moswavlisTvis miniSnebis rols ar asrulebs, raTa man guSindeli

savarjiSodan kiTxvebis eqvsi forma gaixsenos da erT-erTi airCios. moswavlisaTvis SesaZlo

pasuxTa samyaro eqvsiT ki ar SemoisazRvreba, ukideganoa da amitomac ibneva.

epizodi grZeldeba: maswavlebeli miuTiTebs moswavles, miubrundes guSindel savarjiSos

da waikiTxos pirveli punqti. moswavle asrulebs. `kargi, waikiTxe Semdegi punqti~, daRlili

xmiT ambobs maswavlebeli. moswavle asrulebs. es meore punqti damabneveli SekiTxvebis magaliTia.

moswavle amTavrebs mis wakiTxvas. pauza. `aba?~ Tvalebi ufarTovdeba maswavlebels.

`oh~, ambobs moswavle da maswavleblis kiTxvaze pasuxs gansazRvravs, rogorc `quid~ SekiTxvas.

am dabneulobas Tavidan aicilebda maswavlebeli orazrovani rom ar yofiliyo im gonebrivi

operaciis mimarT, romelsac moswavlisagan iTxovda: `jimi, fraziT _ `ra saxis~ _

vgulisxmob kiTxvebis im eqvs formas, romlebic guSin ganvixileT. Seamowme pasuxi im informaciis

mixedviT, romelic axlaxans waikiTxe. yvelam gadaamowmeT, naxeT, eTanxmebiT Tu ara~

(moswavleTa aqtiuri monawileobisTvis gadadgmuli nabiji.)

zemoT moyvanili epizodi kargi magaliTia TamaSisa `gamoicani, ras vfiqrob~. amis sapirispirod,

araorazrovani maswavlebeli moswavleebs pirdapir aCvenebs, rogor daexmareba maT

swavlis miznis miRwevaSi is, rasac amJamad an momavalSi gaakeTeben.

swavlebis dros araorazrovnebis ZiebiT, Cven naTel nabijebs veZebT, romlebic moswavleebs

saSualebas miscems, mixvdnen, ratom ismeba SekiTxvebi da rogor ukavSirdeba mimar-

Tulebebi an magaliTebi saswavlo amocanebs. `is mudam iseT kiTxvebs gvisvams, romlebzec ver

vpasuxobT~ – ase afaseben moswavleebi orazrovan maswavlebels. isini ver pasuxoben SekiTxvebs,

radgan maswavlebeli ver sazRvravs `ankesis gadagdebis~ adgils. ganvixiloT es epizodi:

`rogoria kargi naweri?~ kiTxulobs qalbatoni jounsi da varaudobs, rom dafaze ixilavs

atributebis im specifikur sias, romelic gonebaSi aqvs. magram es `miamituri~ SekiTxvaa,

radgan moswavleebi gascemen yvela savaraudo pasuxs, romelic ar moergeba gakveTilis gegmas.

albaT, kargi iqneboda, maswavlebels Seegrovebina es pasuxebi, ganexila da Semdeg Seedarebina

im siisTvis, romelic gonebaSi aqvs. `ara, es is araa, rasac veli~, ambobs is pasuxad

da sakuTari siis Sedgenisas (es aris misi gakveTilis mizani) ugulebelyofs bevri moswavlis

karg pasuxs. misi kiTxva `Tqveni azriT, rogoria kargi naweri?~ ki ar gaxlavT, aramed – `Cemi

azriT, rogoria kargi naweri?~ anu `waikiTxeT, ras vfiqrob~.

195


Tavi 8

araorazrovnebasTan dakavSirebiT kidev erTi martivi maxea SekiTxvebis dasma seriebad.

gudi da brofi (Good & Brophy 1978) grosieris citirebisas, aRweren maswavlebels, romelic

1812 wlis omis ganxilvis dros erT grZel kiTxvas svams: `ratom wavediT omSi? rogor

igrZnobdiT Tavs vaWari rom yofiliyaviT?

araorazrovneba xidebis serias agebs miznebsa

da individualur aqtivobebs da TviT aqtivobebs

Soris.

196

ra ziani moutana Cvens vaWrobas napoleonis

omma?~ maswavlebeli cdilobs, ganmartos

pirveli SekiTxva da moswavleTa azrovneba

omis ekonomikur mizezze mimarTos. am mcdelobisas

is, faqtobrivad, abnevs maT.

SekiTxvaTa seria cdunebaa, radgan vsvamT kiTxvas da pasuxad srul siCumes viRebT. gvinda,

rom mivaniSnoT da meore SekiTxvas vamatebT, romlis mizania moswavleebi Cveneuli fokusisken

waiyvanos. amis nacvlad ki moswavleTa fiqris jaWvs jer vubiZgebT da Semdeg srul

gaugebrobaSi mivatovebT xolme.

aucilebeli nabijebi mimarTulebebis micemisas

maswavlebelma SeiZleba miuTiTos moswavleebs, rom daiwyon davalebis Sesruleba, magram

gamorCes mimarTulebis micemisTvis aucilebeli nabijebi. es im SemTxvevaSi xdeba, roca arasworad

vvaraudobT, rom moswavleebs esmiT konkretuli davalebis Sesasruleblad aucilebeli

wesebi. `daiyaviT 4-5 kacian jgufebad da am novelisTvis imdeni dasasruli moifiqreT,

ramdenic SegiZliaT~, mimarTa maswavlebelma moswavleebs da ugulebelyo mieTiTebina, r om

yovel jgufs aerCia Camweri, amitomac yvelam erTad daiwyo azris gamoTqma.

ai, kidev erTi magaliTi: `gaasworeT es winadadebebi da gadadiT Semdeg davalebaze~. zogierTma

moswavlem `gaasworeT~ gaigo rogorc xazi gadausviT da gadaawereT araswor sityvebs

swori sityvebi (rac maswavlebels mxedvelobaSi hqonda). sxvebma xelaxla gadaweres mTliani

winadadebebi SesworebebiT, rasac oTxjer meti dro dasWirda. amis gamo maT ar darCaT dro

meore davalebis Sesasruleblad.

amrigad, moswavleebs, ubralod, srulad unda vuTxraT, ras vgulisxmobT miTiTebebSi da

ar vivaraudoT, rom nabijebi TavisTavad iqneba naTeli.

miniSnebebis mniSvneloba

xandaxan maswavleblebi cnobil adamianebs, mosazrebebs, movlenebs, an naSromebs iSvelieben

im mizniT, rom kidev ufro cxadi gaxadon swavleba; samagierod moswavleebma SeiZleba

arc ki icodnen maswavleblis mier moxseniebuli wyaroebi da ukeT gagebis nacvlad daibnen.

faqtobrivad, swavlebis efeqtianoba SeiZleba Semcirdes kidec, radgan moswavleebi fiqroben

naxseneb adamianze, movlenaze, mosazrebaze, maT mniSvnelobaze da mxedvelobidan rCebaT

is mTavari, risTvisac maswavlebelma isini moiSvelia.

`jeims miCeneris `havais~ wakiTxvisas, SeiZleba Tavi sizifesaviT igrZnoT, rac aSkara

xdeba 25-e TavSi~. es winadadeba arafers ar niSnavs moswavlisTvis, Tu man ar icis, rom sizife

iyo boroti berZeni mefe, romelsac wyevlis mixedviT, mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi,

uzarmazari qva hadesis mTaze unda aetana, iqidan dagorebuli qva isev unda aetana da a.S.

Sesabamisad, `Tavi sizifesaviT igrZnoT~ niSnavs konkretuli saqmis dasrulebasTan dakav-

SirebiT uimedobis gancdas.

araorazrovneba am SemTxvevaSi saidumloTi moculi miniSnebis gaubraloebas ki ar niSnavs,

aramed gvaZlevs gasaRebs, rom SeZlebisdagvarad efeqtianad avuxsnaT moswavleebs.


aqtivobaTa miznebi

sicxade

gasakviria, magram moswavleebs xSirad warmodgenac ki ara aqvT im aqtivobaTa miznebze,

romelTa Sesrulebasac sTxoven da verc aqtivobasa da instruqcias Soris amyareben kav-

Sirs (Tasker 1981). araorazrovnebis es forma ubralod moiTxovs, avuxsnaT moswavleebs, ratom

viTxovT maTgan konkretul aqtivobas. ufro konkretulad ki niSnavs, avuxsnaT, rogor

daexmareba aqtivoba maT swavlaSi an davalebis SesrulebaSi. `am eqsperimentis mizania imis

Cveneba, ramdenad Znelia erTdroulad monacemTa Segrovebac da informaciis Cawerac. swavlis

gareSe amas ver gaakeTebT. ase rom, yvela mecnieris msgavsad, vapirebT sakiTxavi masalis

`eqstrapolirebas~ (konkretuli sferosTvis (periodisTvis) damaxasiaTebeli garkveuli

cnebebis (movlenebis) gavrcoba sxva sferoze. mTargmn. Sen.). gaxsovT es termini am TavSi

ganxiluli grafikebidan?~

pirveli

aqtivoba

mizani

meore

aqtivoba

sqema 8.7: ara orazrovneba miznis miRwevisas

yovelma aqtivobam urTierTkavSiris xidi unda gados aqtivobis zogad mizanTan.

mesame

aqtivoba

kidev erTi magaliTi: `winadadebaTa gaerTianebis Sesaxeb am savarjiSos imitom vasrulebT,

rom imave teqnikis gamoyenebiT Tqvens mier Seqmnili saTavgadasavlo moTxrobebi

ufro saintereso gaxadoT~.

8.7 sqemaze asaxuli araorazrovnebis nabijebi xidebis serias agebs miznebsa da indicidualur

aqtivobebs da TviT aqtivobebs Soris.

zogjer es nabiji moswavleebs uCvenebs, rogor esadageba mimdinare aqtivoba im gamocdilebaTa

modelebs, romlebic hqondaT an momavalSi eqnebaT. `am informaciis ganTavsebas

biblioTekis kompiuterul cnobarSi imitom gTxovT, rom ganiviTaroT siswrafe da sizuste.

momaval TveSi kvleviT moxsenebebze muSaobisas xSirad mogiwevT am monacemTa bazis gamoyeneba

da umeteswilad me gverdiT ar geyolebiT, rom dagexmaroT. Tqven unda SegeZloT misi

damoukideblad gamoyeneba sasurveli wignebis sapovnelad~.

aseTi ganmartebebis gareSe bevri moswavle davalebebs meqanikurad asrulebs, minimaluri

yuradRebiTa da ZalisxmeviT; imitom asruleben, rom `samuSaoa~ da valdebulebi arian Seasrulon

samuSao. magram samuSaos Sesrulebas Sedegad gageba ar mohyveba. mkiTxvelebma, rom-

197


Tavi 8

lebsac umuSaviaT swavlis stilze da SeuswavliaT bernis makkartis (Bernice McCarthy 1981) da

entoni gregorkis (Anthony Gregorc 1979) saintereso naSromi, ician, rom `pirveli kvadrantis~

(kvadranti – wris meoTxedi. mTargmn. Sen.) moswavleebs gansakuTrebiT sWirdebaT am kavSirebis

gageba. 3

Cven maswavleblis is nabijebi ganvixileT, romelTa saSualebiTac moswavleebi xedaven,

rogor aris dakavSirebuli mimdinare aqtivobebi an davalebebi maT miznebTan. es marTlac

aris araorazrovnebis, sicxadis erT-erTi forma. Tumca, Tavdapirvelad moswavleebma

miznebi unda icodnen; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, aqtivobas ver daakavSireben. sanam ganvixilavdeT

ramdenad kargad da xSirad vacnobT moswavleebs aqtivobaTa miznebs, unda vikiTxoT,

vacnobT Tu ara TviT swavlis miznebs. am sakiTxs daeTmoba Semdegi nawili _ `didi suraTi~.

198

II. `didi suraTi~

sicxadis qcevaTa bolo jgufi Tavs iyris Cvens mier `did suraTad~ monaTluli misiis

garSemo; is Sedgeba im qcevebisgan, romelic moswavleebs mimdinare informaciis an operaciaTa

mniSvnelobis ufro did struqturasTan dakavSirebaSi exmareba. maswavleblis es qceva

SeiZleba ganvixiloT martivi – yofna/aryofna, diax/ara – gziT. ai, es qcevebi:

¤ moswavleTaTvis marSrutis micema, Sesasrulebel aqtivobaTa CamonaTvali;

¤ moswavleebs vacnobT, ra ecodinebaT an ris gakeTebas SeZleben dagegmili instruqciis

Semdeg (mizani);

¤ moswavleTa mimdinare codnis gaaqtiureba axali cnebis an saswavlo programis sakiTxis

Sesaxeb;

¤ kavSirebis damyareba, romelic uCvenebs Zvelisa da axlis msgavsebas, informaciis integrireba

wina samuSaos an wina codnis konteqstSi - `vaCvenoT moswavleebs, rom is,

ris Sesaxebac vesaubrebiT da rac maT ukve ician, erTmaneTs hgavs~ (Friedrich, Galvin, and

Book 1976, gv. 78)

_ gakveTilis farglebSi akeTebs gadasvlebs mosazrebidan mosazrebaze;

_ miuTiTebs aqtivobis, tempis, donis Secvlas;

_ mianiSnebs momaval mosazrebebze.

¤ Sejameba

vfiqrobT, rom am qcevebma SeiZleba arsebiTi roli Seasrulos swavlebis momaval mecnierebaSi,

swavlebis Sedegebis amxsnel kanonTa momaval nakrebSi. mimdinare kvleva gviCvenebs

maTsa da swavlaSi warmatebas Soris korelacias; magram Cven jer ver davamtkicebT mizez-

Sedegobriv kavSirs. Tumca, erTi ram danamdvilebiT viciT: am qcevaTa ganxorcielebis

uamravi gza arsebobs, romlis repertuari praqtikosma maswavleblebma SeimuSaves. swored

maT davesesxeT qvemoT mocemuli repertuaris aRwerisas. ase, rom mcdeloba, Tavi movuyaroT

Cveni saqmis, swavlebis profesiuli codnis bazas, erTmniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli

maswavleblebisa da mkvlevarebis uwyvet TanamSromlobaze.

3 makkartim swavlis stilis Sesaxeb ramdenime mniSvnelovani Teoretikosis mosazreba gaaerTiana modelSi, romelic moswavleebs

oTx ZiriTad jgufad yofs. isini vizualur seqtorul diagramaze oTx kvadrantad arian warmodgenili. erT-erTi, pirveli

kvadrantis moswavleebisaTvis (romlebsac aseve ewodebaT `novatori moswavleebi~) gansakuTrebiT saWiroa swavlis mizezis

codna. saWiroa maswavlebelma am moswavleebs kargad auxsnas pasuxi kiTxvaze `ratom?~)


moswavleebisTvis marSrutis micema

sicxade

marSruti aris aqtivobis kursis an garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi mosalodneli nabijebis

CamonaTvali an monaxazi. marSruti hgavs dRis wesrigs an sagzao rukas. is mianiSnebs

moqmedebaTa adgilsa da Tanamimdevrobas. magaliTad, maswavlebeli ambobs: `dilas daviwyebT

saSinao davalebis SemowmebiT, Semdeg axali Tavis masalas ganvixilavT, mere ki jgufurad

vimuSavebT Tqvens proeqtebze~. moswavleebisTvis es codna sasargebloa. isini gonebrivad

mihyvebian dasaxul Tanamimdevrobas da ician, ras unda moelodnen. swavlis TanamimdevrobiTi

stilis mqone moswavleebisTvis gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa swavlis `marSrutis~ TvalsaCino

adgilze gamofena.

moswavleebs vacnobT, ra ecodinebaT an ris gakeTebas SeZleben

(mizani)

moswavleTaTvis dasaxul aqtivobaTa marSrutisa da samuSaos miznis gacnoba erTi da igive

ar aris. marSrutis micemaSi cudi araferia; saqme is aris, rom marSruti ar aris mizani. arc

zusti miTiTebebis micema da procedurebis aRweraa igive, rac miznis Camoyalibeba (zusti

miTiTebebis micema da procedurebis aRwera ganxilulia me-15 Tavis nawilSi `saswavlo gamocdilebis

struqturireba~). maswavlebelis mier miznis CamoyalibebiT moswavleebi igeben,

ris gakeTebas SeZleben isini instruqtirebis dasrulebis Semdeg: `dRes viswavliT, rogor

gadavitanoT furcelze is, rasac zepirad meubnebodiT maTematikis gakveTilze, kerZod is,

rom gvaqvs mTelis naxevari, meoTxedi an sami meoTxedi. iciT, arsebobs gansakuTrebuli saSualeba

aseTi ricxvebis dasawerad da dRevandeli mecadineobis Semdeg Tqven es gecodinebaT

da SeZlebT codnis gamoyenebas~.

maswavlebelTa umravlesobas naswavli aqvs qcevis miznebis wardgena-gacnoba. miuxedavad

imisa, rom miznebis wardgenis leqsika mizans emsaxureba, aucilebeli ar aris misi mudmivad

gamoyeneba. zogierTi mizani SeiZleba arc ki iyos detaluri qcevis mizani. qvemoT mocemuli

qcevis miznis magaliTi rva wlis bavSvebisTvis gasagebi eniT aris Camoyalibebuli (SevaqoT es

maswavlebeli `saTanado~ metyvelebisTvis), magram aseve kargi samsaxuri SeiZleba gagviwios

sxva enobrivma modelebmac, magaliTad: `am filmis naxva gvikarnaxebs, ra SeiZleba gavigoT

hemingueis, rogorc adamianis pirovnul Tvisebebze~. amrigad, moswavleebi orientirebuli

arian imaze, Tu ra ecodinebaT gakveTilis bolos. aseTi debulebebi ayalibeben `did suraTs~,

radgan gvTavazoben yovlismomcvel orientacias momdevno aqtivobebis Taobaze, gvTavazoben

CarCos, romelic moswavleebs momdevno aqtivobaTa gagebaSi exmareba.

moswavleTaTvis miznebis gacnobis dasrulebamde unda ganvixiloT masTan dakavSirebuli,

magram damoukidebeli sakiTxi: moswavleTaTvis miznis axsna, anu gavceT pasuxi maT kiTxvaze

- `ra Cemi saqmea?~ miznebis gacnobis Semdeg moswavleebma SeiZleba zustad gaigon, ra gvsurs

icodnen maT vietnamis omis Sesaxeb gakveTilis bolos. maT SeiZleba ubralod umniSvnelod

CaTvalon amis codna. zogierTi moswavlisTvis swavlis miznis sargeblianobisa an relevanturobis

codna, arsebiTad cvlis maT mier gaweul Zalisxmevas. `pirveli kvadrantis moswavleebis~

Sesaxeb makkarti (1987) wers:

yvela moswavles swavlis motivi sWirdeba. racionaluri moswavlisTvis `ratom?~

kiTxvaze pasuxi sasicocxlo mniSvnelobisaa. TiTqos martivi WeSmaritebaa,

rom moswavleebs motivi sWirdebaT, magram am motivs iSviaTad vaZlevT maT.

maswavleblebis varaudiT, moswavleebma ician, rom aucilebelia imis codna, rasac

maT aswavlian. pedagogTa azriT, es motivi savsebiT sakmarisia da moswav-

199


Tavi 8

200

leebisaTvis mniSvnelovani iqneba eqspertebis azri swavlis Sesaxeb. sinamdvile-

Si ase ar aris. moswavleebs sakuTari motivi sWirdebaT... nebismieri swavleba an

treiningi survilis gaCeniT unda daviwyoT. TviT zrdasrulTa swavlebisasac

ki, roca saqme pirovnuli moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis miznis mqone, Zalze

motivirebul moswavleebTan gvaqvs, maswavlebelma unda auxsnas maT programis

mniSvneloba. maswavlebelma dro unda dauTmos imaze saubars, risi gakeTebis

imedi aqvs da ratom. motivireba imdenad martivi da fundamenturi ram gaxlavT,

rom mxolod unda gagvikvirdes, Tu vinme mas ar iyenebs (McCarthy 1987, gv. 92, 94)*

amrigad, zogierTi moswavlisTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani (xolo yvelasTvis sasargeblo)

iqneboda maswavlebliseuli motivis gageba, ratom unda iswavlon vietnamis omisa

da masSi SeerTebuli Statebis monawileobis Sesaxeb: `vietnamis omi CvenTvis mniSvnelovania,

radgan am omsa da sxva istoriul omebs mravali saerTo mizezi hqonda. Tu aSS sxva omSi

Caebmeba, mosalodnelia, rom mraval Tqvengans SeiaraRebul ZalebSi samsaxurisTvis da sabrZolvelad

gamoiZaxeben. amitom TqvenTvis, rogorc moqalaqeebisTvis, arsebiTia, SeZloT

mimdinare movlenebisa da mTavrobis liderTa gadawyvetilebebis gaanalizeba. rogorc moqalaqeebs,

SegiZliaT gaazrebuli arCevani gaakeToT im liderebisTvis xmis micemis dros,

romlebic TqvenTvis sasurvel politikas uWeren mxars. dRevandeli swavla momavalSi imis

gadawyvetaSi dagexmarebaT, risTvis unda vibrZoloT Cven, rogorc qveyanam da erT mSvenier

dRes es ueWvelad Tqveni arCevani iqneba~.

aseve naTlad SeiZleba moswavleebs davusabuToT sxva sakiTxebis swavlis mniSvnelobac:

miTis, rogorc literaturuli Janris swavla; an vulkanuri, danaleqi da metamorfuli warmoSobis

mTebis identificireba maTi atributebiT.

swavlis mizezebis yoveldRiuri aRniSvna aucilebeli ar aris. rogorc wesi, gakveTils

moswavleebi, codnisa da unar-Cvevebis TvalsazrisiT, erTi safexuriT maRla ahyavs. albaT,

miznebisa da mizezebis aRniSvna axali Tavebis an Temebis swavlis dawyebamde iqneba upriani.

moswavleebisTvis swavlis mizezebis gacnoba, SesaZloa, sasargeblo varjiSi iyos TviT

maswavleblisTvisac. Tu konkretuli sakiTxis swavlis mizezis axsna ar SegviZlia, iqneb es

sakiTxi arc unda vaswavloT.

cnebis Sesaxeb moswavleTa codnis gaaqtiureba

swavlaze moqmedi erTaderTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria is, rac moswavlem ukve

icis. daadgineT maTi codna da Sesabamisad aswavleT.

devid ozibeli, `ganaTlebis fsiqologia: kognituri Sexeduleba~

cnebis an Temis Sesaxeb moswavleTa arsebuli codnis gaaqtiurebis xerxebi maT ara marto

momavali saqmianobisTvis ganawyobs, aramed `Carli braunis saxifaTo sindromsac~ uSlis

xels:

gaixseneT, rogor iqceva Carli brauni xelSi axali wignis aRebisas. wignis naxvamde,

is furclebs iTvlis. 625 gverdi. `me verasodes viswavli amas!~ is kiTxvis

dawyebamdea damarcxebuli, sakuTar Tavs imis gaanalizebis Sanssac ki ar aZlevs,

rom mas ar mouwevs yvelafris swavla. yvelaferi axali rodia, mas ukve garkveu-

* gamoyenebulia specialuri nebarTviT. The 4MAT System: Teaching To Learning Styles With Right/Left Mode Techniques by Bernice

McCarthy, (c) 1980, 1987 by Excel, Inc. Excel, Inc.-is specialuri werilobiTi nebarTvis gareSe dauSvebelia Semodgomi gamoyeneba.

mas, visac mTliani naSromis wakiTxva surs gamomcemels unda daukavSirdes: Excel, Inc., 200 West Station Street, Barrington,

III. 60010, 1-800-822-4MAT an 1-708-382-7272


li codna aqvs. is sakuTar Tavs saSualebas ar aZlevs, gaigos, rom bevri ram, rac

unda iswavlos, ukve icis (McNeill 1984, gv. 34)*

sicxade

upirveles yovlisa, moswavleebs unda davusvaT kiTxva: `ra iciT X-is Sesaxeb?~ da CaviweroT

(an Tavad Caiweron individualurad) pasuxebi. cnebisa Tu Temis Sesaxeb codnis gaRrmavebis

kvalobaze maswavlebeli unda daubrundes am Canawerebs da gansazRvros, ra miamates

moswavleebma arsebul codnas. zogjer moswavleebma SeiZleba aRmoaCinon, rom axali masala

`Zvel qurqSia gamowyobili~; zogjer ki uaryofilia maTi Zveli warmodgenebis nawili. nebismier

SemTxvevaSi, konkretuli Temis Sesaxeb arsebuli codnis gacnobiereba, axali informaciis

Casaweri rukis SeqmnaSi miexmareba. swored ase emsaxureba maswavlebeli sagnis/ebis

Sesaxeb `didi suraTis~ Seqmnas.

uTvalavi xerxi SemuSavda arsebuli codnis gasaaqtiureblad. erT-erTi maTgani semantikuri

rukis Sedgenaa, rasac maknili (1984) ase aRwers:

pirvel yovlisa, moswavleebs hkiTxeT, ra gaifiqres sityva X-is gagonebisas (X

aris is Tema, romlis Sesaxebac maT unda waikiTxon). sasurvelia, Tavisufali

asociacia. moswavleTa mier SemoTavazebuli asociaciebi dawereT dafaze. ecadeT,

asociaciebi kategoriebad dayoT.

magaliTad, sityva `fulze~ pasuxebi SeiZleba Semdeg kategoriebad daiyos:

fulis gamoyeneba, fulis formebi, fulis erTeulebi, fulis Sovnis gzebi da

sxva. daexmareT moswavleebs kategoriebad dajgufebaSi da Semdeg sTxoveT am

dajgufebaTa wakiTxva, raTa meti gaigon X-is Sesaxeb. kargi iqneba, wavaxalisoT

moswavleebi, dasvan SekiTxvebi imis Sesaxeb, risi gageba surT X-is Sesaxeb teqstidan.

dajgufebis wakiTxvis Semdeg klass yuradReba gadaaqvs kategoriaTa nakrebze

da X-Tan dakavSirebul Tavdapirvel (wakiTxvamdel) SekiTxvebze. am dros

moswavleebi wakiTxulis safuZvelze axal mosazrebebs amateben, asworeben da

avseben pirvelad rukas (McNeill 1984, gv. 10).

makniliseuli semantikuri rukis Sedgenis savarjiSos aRwera SerCeuli teqstis wakiTxvamde

xdeba. Tumca rukis Sedgena aseve warmatebiT SeiZleba gamoviyenoT eqsperimentis Catarebamde,

filmis naxvamde an stumarTan gasaubrebamde. saqme is aris, rom maswavleblebi

amzadeben moswavleebs axali informaciis misaRebad am ukanasknelTa gonebaSi arsebuli

rukebis (an `sqemis~, rogorc mkvlevarebi uwodeben) gamoxmobiT, anu Temis Sesaxeb maTeuli

warmodgenis gaxsenebiT. Sedegad, moswavleebi ufro aqtiuri msmenelebi, mayureblebi da

mkiTxvelebi xdebian.

praqtikosebisa da mkvlevarebis mier SemuSavebuli xerxebi, romelTa gamoyeneba TiTqmis

yvela sagnis swavlebisas SeiZleba, e. w. `sityvebis mimofantva~ an `vmv~-ia (inglisuri

sityvebis Know – Want to Know – Learned (KWL) qarTuli Targmanis – vici – minda vicode –

viswavle (vmv) abreviatura. mTargmn. Sen.). maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo Sedegia is, rom

moswavleebi kogniturad aqtiurni xdebian axali informaciis mimarT.

`sityvebis mimofantvis~ dros (Hammond 1985) maswavlebeli statiidan, moTxrobidan an

teqstidan 10-dan 20-mde sakvanZo sityvas an termins iRebs da wers (`mimofantavs~) cxrilis

an dafis nebismier adgilas teqstis saTauris qveS. teqstis wakiTxvamde, moswavleebs sTxovs,

imuSaon jgufebad da gonebrivi ieriSis gamoyenebiT Caiweron (an Caiweros jgufis `Camwerma~)

Semdegi miTiTebis pasuxebi: `moifiqreT winadadebebi, romlebic, Tqveni azriT, asaxavs am

sakvanZo sityvebsa da terminebs da teqstis saTaurs Soris kavSirs~. es xerxi uzrunvelyofs

moswavleTa CarTulobas, maRali donis azrovnebas, fokusirebul kiTxvas da ukeT wvdomas.

* gadmobeWdilia nebarTviT. McNeill, J. D. Reading Comprehension: New Directions for Classroom Practice. Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman

and Company, 1984. © 1984 Harper Collins College Publishers. yvela ufleba daculia.

201


Tavi 8

`vmv~-s varianti, romelic Cven mogvwons, did jgufad momuSave moswavleebs TemasTan dakavSirebul

stimuls (rogoricaa wignis garekanis gaformeba da saTauri) acnobs da sTxovs,

xmamaRla gauziaron erTmaneTs TavianTi reaqciebi. maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs, SeniSvnebi

samidan erT-erT svetSi Caweron: vici, vfiqrob, rom vici da minda vicode. cxrilis Seqmnis

dros ar xdeba ganxilva an kiTvebze pasuxis gacema. es savarjiSo, `sityvebis mimofantvis~

msgavsad, uzrunvelyofs aqtiur monawileobas, avlens moswavleTa mier cnebebis arsebul

codnas da qmnis pirobebs imisTvis, rom maT Tavad Seadginon kiTxvis grafiki.

kargi iqneba, Tu am cxrilebs teqstis wakiTxvis (Seswavlis) Semdegac mivubrundebiT.

`vici~-s kategoriaSi moxvedrili zogierTi SeniSvna SeiZleba mcdari aRmoCndes; zogierTi

`vfiqrob, rom vici~ _ dadasturdes an ara; magram `minda, rom vicode~-s arc erTi SeniSvna

upasuxod ar unda darCes.

202

akavSirebs

aCvenebs moswavleTa Zveli da axali codnis msgavsebas

sasargebloa, roca maswavlebeli aCvenebs axali masalis msgavsebas wina samuSaosTan an

moswavleTa arsebul codnasTan, `axdens imis demonstrirebas, rogor hgavs bevri ram, razec

saubrobs, imas, rac moswavleebma ukve ician’’ (Freidrich 1976). gTavazobT ramdenime magaliTs:

[komentarebi mrgval frCxilebSi aris moswavlis reaqciebi.] `roca gamravlebaze

pirvelad vmuSaobdiT, viswavleT, rom is dakavSirebuli iyo SekrebasTan

– rogor?~ kiTxulobs maswavlebeli (gaimeora Sekreba.) `sworia! anu ras niSnavs?~

(gamravleba hgavs erTi da imave ricxvis mimatebas imdenjer, ramdenzec

mas amravleb.) `kargi, Zalian kargi. gayofis operacia, romelzec dRes vmuSaobdiT,

marTlac Zalian hgavs gamravlebas, Tumca, is mokle gziT ki ar amatebs

ricxvebs, aramed?~ (aklebs.) `sworia! yvela xedavs? jimi?~ [SegiZliaT aRniSnoT

`diax~ pasuxi am maswavleblis `Semowmebis unaris~ grafaSi!] `SegiZliaT axsnaT

Tqveni sityvebiT, rogor hgavs gayofa gamravlebas?~ [aRniSneT `diax~ `Sesamowmebeli

SekiTxvisTvis~!] (is aris gamravlebis sapirispiro.) `sainteresodaa naTqvami;

vfiqrob, gesmiT. marji, Seni azriT, ras gulisxmobs jimi `sapirispiroSi~?

[aRniSneT `diax~ pasuxi `Sesamowmebeli SekiTxvisTvis~!]

ai, kidev erTi magaliTi qimiis Sesavali kursidan.

maswavlebeli: `amrigad, Cven davamtkiceT, rom es sarCilavi naTura ufro

magrad wvavs, vidre pirdapiri propanis sanTura. gaxsovT, ra gavakeTeT Cven am

wlis dasawyisSi, roca natriumqloridi sasinj milSi gavacxeleT?~ (is aalda.)

`rogor avxseniT es movlena?~ (natriumqloridis gacxelebam gamodevna Jangbadi

da Jangbadma ufro swrafad da mxurvaled dawva cxeli nakverCxali.) `sworia! da

sarCilavi naTurac amas hgavs. Cven gvaqvs es ori rezervuari~. [maswavlebeli ganagrZobs

saubars da aCvenebs, rogor urevs SemaduRebeli manqana or gazs, acetilensa

da Jangbads da rom damatebiTi Jangbadis arseboba Zalian zrdis Sida

wvis temperaturebs].

Zvelisa da axlis integracia informaciebs Soris gonebriv kavSirebs amyarebs ise, rom

Segnebulad inarCunebs mTeli mzardi jaWvis gamosaxulebas mxedvelobis areSi. axali informaciis

Seswavlisas, moswavleebi mTlian jaWvs xedaven, romelic axla erTi rgoliT ufro

grZelia. rgolisa da jaWvis analogia SeiZleba ar gamodges sxvagvarad dakavSirebuli farTo

moculobis informaciisTvis, magaliTad, rogoricaa interneti, magram sicxade imave mizans


sicxade

emsaxureba _ daukavSiros axali codna arsebuli codnis ufro did suraTs (Ausubel 1968;

Gagne 1974).

jenis balgreni (Janis Bulgren) da misi kolegebi kanzasis universitetTan arsebuli `swavlaSi

unarSezRudulobis kvleviTi intitutidan~ iyeneben ganmamtkicebel cxrilebs, raTa

vizualuri da zusti gziT aCvenon axal da Zvel koncefciebs Soris msgavsebebi da gansxvavebebi.

ganmamtkicebeli cxrili aris grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba – am SemTxvevaSi, specifikuri

miznis – axali da Zveli (ukve naswavli) informaciebis Sesadareblad da Sesapirispireblad

(sqema 8.8). maTi gamoyenebis fazebi grafikuli aqtivobebis gamoyenebis msgavsia.

ganmamtkicebeli cxrili

nacnobi informacia axali informacia

Qarxana ujredi

maxasiaTeblebi

msgavsi saerTo

maxasiaTeblebi

maxasiaTeblebi

Menejmenti akontrolebs aqtivobebs birTvi

Robe/usafrTxoebis

sistema

aregulirebs Sesvlasa da

gamosvlas

ujredis garsi

Eleqtrosadguri awarmoebs energias mitoqondria

Sejameba: ujredi aris struqtura, romelSic birTvi akontrolebs aqtivobebs,

xolo mitoqondria awarmoebs energias.

sqema 8.8: ganmamtkicebeli cxrili

ganmamtkicebeli cxrili aris specifikuri miznis grafikuli winmswrebi aqtivoba, romelic

gamoiyeneba axali da Zveli informaciis Sesadareblad da Sesapirispireblad.

amgvar integrirebasa da `moswavleTa arsebuli codnis gaaqtiurebas~ Soris Semdegi gansxvavebaa:

`gaaqtiureba~ momlodinea; is ekranze moswavleTa gonebaSi ukve arsebul cnebebs

alagebs; maTi goneba mzadyofnaSia da elis axals Sesadareblad da Sesapirispireblad. maT

gonebaSi arsebuli codna SeiZleba zusti an arazusti, sruli an arasruli iyos. misi win

wamowevis mizania gaaqtiureba da sabazo wertilis moniSvna axali codnis gamosacdelad. maT

SeiZleba sakuTar Tavs hkiTxon: rasac qimiaSi vswavlobT, aris Tu ara is, risi swavlac gvindoda?

mizani _ `Zvelsa da axal codnas Soris msgavsebis Cveneba~, xolo, meore mxriv, `ukan yurebaa~.

maswavlebels surs, moswavleebma dainaxon, rom axali masala, sinamdvileSi, arc imdenad

axali an gansxvavebulia (an Zneli), Seesatyviseba imas, rac maT ukve ician, maT gonebaSi ukve

arsebobs axali codnis Sesabamisi struqtura an kontiniumi.

203


Tavi 8

204

akeTebs gadasvlebs mosazrebidan mosazrebaze

es aris mokle gadasvlebi gakveTilis farglebSi, romelic hgavs diqtoris mier ganxorcielebul

gadasvlebs da yvelaze xSirad pirdapiri instruqciis dros gamoiyeneba. (maswavlebeli

ver akeTebs gadasvlebs informaciis porciebs Soris, Tu Tavad ar uZRveba saswavlo

aqtivobas.) sicxadis TvalsazrisiT, misi nabijebi aris verbaluri maCveneblebi, romelic moswavles

saswavlo rukis mixedviT `moZraobaSi~ exmareba, magaliTad: `kargi, es amocana Cvengan

gamravlebas moiTxovda. axla, modiT, Semdeg amocanaze gadavideT da vnaxoT, msgavsia Tu

ara~.

yuradReba miaqcieT gansxvavebas zemoT motanil SeniSvnasa da maswavleblis am naTqvams

Soris: `kargi, modiT, Semdeg amocanaze gadavideT~. moswavleebi am naTqvams erTi adgilidan

meoreze gadahyavs, magram gadasvlas ar uzrunvelyofs. sicxadis pirobebSi gardamavali

nabiji moiTxovs Sesrulebuli da mosalodneli (momavali) samuSaoebis dakavSirebas.

is integraciis msgavsad gonebriv kavSirebs uzrunvelyofs, magram moswavlis warsuli gamocdilebis,

sxva saganTan an drosTan dakavSirebis nacvlad, es aris kavSiri imasTan, rac

konkretulad gakveTilamde iyo.

ai, TvalsaCino magaliTi: `ai, ase amravlebs komerciuli sabanko sistema fuls, romelic

Setanilia mimdinare angariSebze da qmnis axal fuls. axali fulis Seqmnis kidev erTi gza

aris samomxmareblo krediti. modiT, vnaxoT, rogor emateba yvela es plastikuri sakredito

baraTi sabanko sistemas kidev ufro meti fulis Sesaqmnelad~.

miuTiTebs aqtivobis, tempis an donis Secvlas

es martivi gancxadebebia kognituri samuSaos bunebis cvlilebisaTvis moswavleTa momzadebis

mizniT.

aqtivobis Secvla: `ai amis gakeTebas vapirebT dRes laboratoriuli muSaobis SedegebTan

dakavSirebiT. axla modiT, Semdegi Tavi vnaxoT, rom warmodgena

Segveqmnas axal masalaze~.

tempis Secvla: `axla tempis Secvla mogviwevs, ase rom, moemzadeT cota meti aqtiurobisTvis!~

donis Secvla: `axla imave operaciebiT, or-safexurianis nacvlad, sam-safexurian

amocanebze gadavdivarT~.

mianiSnebs samomavlo gegmebze

ganixileT maswavleblis es ori gancxadeba:

`iciT, wyalbadisa da qloris mJavas ori molekula gantolebis am mxares ver

geqnebaT, radgan toloba ar gamogivaT. axla amaze ar unda inerviuloT, magram

male gavigebT, rom qimiur gantolebebSi toloba unda iyos. rodesac tolobaze

visaubrebT, CavatarebT eqsperimentebs sxvadasxva qimiuri nivTierebis proporciebze,

romlebic mTlianad ixarjeba qimiur reaqciaSi~.

`Tu fiqrobT, rom laura mxolod saxlSi Sromobda muyaiTad da dedas saojaxo

saqmeSi exmareboda, daicadeT, sanam ar gaigebT, rogor miexmara is mamas Tibvis

dros. (`eg ras niSnavs?~ kiTxulobs moswavle.) es aris Tivis mosavlis aReba, romelic

maSinac da axlac fermis cxovrebis Zalian mniSvnelovani nawilia. Tibvas

ramdenime Tavis Semdeg ganvixilavT da vfiqrob, is Tavi mogewonebaT~.

miniSnebis am magaliTebSi aRebulia axali termini an idea da Seqmnilia warmodgena mis


sicxade

Sesaxeb. amgvari warmodgenis Seqmna miznad imas isaxavs, rom axali termini an idea nacnobi

gaxados moswavlisTvis. `ah, maxsovs, amis Sesaxeb Cven gasul kviras visaubreT~, SeiZleba

gaifiqros moswavlem da daiwyos warmodgenebis morgeba sakuTar kognitur CarCoze. miniSnebam,

romelic xSirad daugegmavia, SeiZleba Tavi iCinos, rogorc swavlebis xelsayrelma

SesaZleblobam. magaliTad, meore nawyvetSi moswavleebma SeniSnes, rogor bejiTad muSaobs

laura saxlSi, ramac maswavlebels gaaxsena, rogor miexmara laura mamas Tibvis dros, rasac

mohyva Tibvis Sesaxeb misi komentari.

maswavleblis mier gakveTilis damTavreba momavali samuSaos prognoziT moswavleebisTvis

garkveuli saxis miniSnebaa, Tumca Cven am nabijs kognitur gadasvlad miviCnevT. gansxvaveba

is aris, rom kognituri gadasvla pirdapir kavSirebs amyarebs ramdenime wuTis win

dasrulebul da ramdenime wuTis Semdeg mosalodnel aqtivobebs Soris, maSinac ki, roca

momdevno `ramdenime wuTi~ mxolod meore dRes dadgeba. miniSneba inteleqtualur `sagzao

niSnebs~ svams iseT adgilebSi, romlebic gzad xvdebaT moswavleebs, magram, SeiZleba, mokle

periodSi ar ganixilon.

Sejameba

maswavlebeli yovelTvis Tavad ar ajamebs; xandaxan am funqciis Sesrulebas moswavles

sTxovs. mniSvneloba ar aqvs, vin asrulebs am funqcias; Tu vinme gakveTilis bolos detalurad

mouyris Tavs yvelafers yvelas dasanaxad da gasagonad, maSasadame, gakveTili Sejamda

da am maswavlebels sicxadis am meaTe punqtSic `diax~ pasuxi SeiZleba davuweroT. 4

roca moswavleebi Tavad ajameben da yvela maTgani erTdroulad aris CarTuli, damatebiT

ori Zlieri faqtoric unda gaviTvaliswinoT. pirvelia `aqtiur monawileobad~ wodebuli

swavlis principi (ix. me-9 Tavi), xolo meore is, rom moswavleebi kogniturad aqtiurebi

xdebian masalasTan mimarTebiT; isini axdenen personalurad miRebuli informaciisa da cnebebis

reorganizacias, raTa SeZlon sakuTari sityvebiT gadmocema. moswavleTaTvis Sejamebis

Txovna TavisTavad imis Txovnas niSnavs, rom sakuTari sityvebiT gadmogvcen naswavli. (es,

aseve, niSnavs maTeuli Sejamebis Semowmebas, sizustisa da sisrulis TvalsazrisiT.) Txovna

`gadmoeciT Tqveni sityvebiT~ arsebiTia, radgan is moswavleebs aiZulebs, Tavad Secvalon,

gadaawyon da moawesrigon informacia. isini axal masalas ubralod maTi gonebis biblioTekis

Taroze debis saSualebas `ar aZleven~. maT unda `aiRon~ axali masalis `ulufebi~ da Tavi

mouyaron; da swored es aqti amtkicebs naswavls.

Sejamebis mravali gza arsebobs ise, rom yvela moswavle CaerTos. erT-erTia `swavlis Jurnalis~

warmoeba (Pradl & Mayher 1985).

rogorc wesi, yoveli mniSvnelovani monakveTis bolo xuTi wuTis ganmavlobaSi

moswavleebi akeTeben SeniSvnebs da pasuxoben Semdegi saxis SekiTxvebs:

ra viswavle dRes? ra iyo gaugebari?

ra momewona, ra ar momewona, ras mivaRwie dRes?

ra viswavle diskusiidan an gakveTilidan?

ramdenad nayofierad vimuSave klasSi? (sanders 1985)

maswavlebels SeuZlia sityvieri Sejamebac sTxovos Sesatyvis momentebSi wyvilebad momuSave

moswavleebs gakveTilis bolos an gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi. meri bad roum (Mary Budd

Rowe) gviCvena, rom damaxsovrebis unari izrdeba, roca yoveli 10-wuTiani instruqciis Semdeg,

mcire jgufebSi moswavleebs eZlevaT 2 wuTi Sesajameblad da erTmaneTisaTvis asaxsne-

4 Tu moswavleebs vTxovT teqstis Sedgenas gakveTilis mTavar sakiTxebze, isini kargad CaerTvebian Sejamebis procesSi.

205


Tavi 8

lad. es `10-2~ wesi moswavleebs iseTive SesaZleblobas aZlevs, rogorsac masalis `sakuTari

sityvebiT~ gaaqtiureba. Tobini (Tobin 1985) aRniSnavs: `[am teqnikis] Sedegebi Seesabameba Cvens

mosazrebas, rom moswavleebs sWirdebaT dro gakveTilis Sinaarsis gadasamuSaveblad iseT

informaciulad datvirTul sagnebSi, rogoricaa mecniereba.“

Semajamebeli SekiTxvebi SeiZleba specifikuri iyos da nebismier Sinaarss moergos: `Cvens

msjelobaze dayrdnobiT, CamouTvaleT Tqvens partniors samoqalaqo omis ZiriTadi mizezebi.

Semdeg sTxoveT, man CamogiTvaloT mizezebi~. Tu klasi SeTanxmdeba samoqalaqo omis

mizezebis Sesaxeb, saxeze gveqneba informaciis Sejameba. (Tu klasi ver miaRwevs SeTanxmebas,

wyvilebisaTvis aseTi davalebis micema Sejamebaze meti iqneba, gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu maT

sakuTari Sexedulebebis dasabuTebas vTxovT.) garda amisa, maswavlebelma SeiZleba moswavleebs

sTxovos, werilobiT Seajamon saxelmZRvanelos Tavis yoveli mniSvnelovani nawili.

kiTxvis aseT periodul Sewyvetasa da Sejamebas, Sedegad mohyveba monacemTa aqtiuri kognituri

gadamuSaveba; moswavleebs uwevT Sinaarsis sakuTari sityvebiT gadmocema da dawera _

es ki ukeT swavlas niSnavs! kvlevebma damajereblad gviCvena, rom moswavleebi ukeT wvdebian

teqsts (ara mxolod moTxrobis) (mag.: D’Angelo 1983), roca Tanamimdevrulad asruleben

amgvar Sejamebas. bevrma mecnierma SemogvTavaza kiTxvis procesSi werilobiTi Sejamebis

swavlebis sasargeblo modelebi (Hahn & Gardner 1985).

am TavSi aRvwereT maswavleblis moswavleebisadmi kognituri empaTiis samgvari qceva:

`gansazRvravs dabneulobasa da mcdar koncefciebs~, `amowmebs~ (imis gasarkvevad, rodis kargaven

moswavleebi mniSvnelobis Zafs) da `umklavdeba dabneulobas“ (arkvevs dabneulobis

moments da umklavdeba). Cven SevZeliT gagverCia am qcevaTa ramdenime Tvisebrivad gansxvavebuli

forma. Semdeg ganvixileT, axsnis ramden da romel meqanizmebs iyenebs maswavlebeli,

misi metyvelebis modelebi da araorazrovani qceva. dabolos, aRvwereT maswavleblis xuTi

nabiji, romliTac is moswavleebs `didi suraTis~ gaazrebaSi exmareba: marSrutis dasaxva;

miznebis gacnoba; moswavleTa arsebuli codnis gaaqtiureba; dakavSireba (oTxi saxis). yoveli

maTgani sicxadis parametris funqciuri aspeqtia.

Cven es-esaa SevajameT Tavi. swored es gaxlavT `didi suraTis~ bolo nabiji _ Sejameba.

SegiZliaT Tqvenc SeajamoT, ra iswavleT axali am Tavidan?

206

Semdeg gverdebze ixilavT tests, romelic saSualebas mogcemT damoukideblad an kole-

gasTan erTad gadaxedoT sicxadis parametrs.


s i c x a d e - S e j a m e b a

daakvirdiT Tqveni an kolegis swavlebas da SeafaseT qvemoT CamonaTvalis mixed-

viT. yoveli qceva an Sesrulebis done SeZlebisdagvarad daadastureT magaliTiT.

kognituri empaTia

1. gansazRvravs dabneulobasa da mcdar koncefciebs

2. axsniTi meqanizmebi:

cxrilebi an dafa

analogiebi

media/teqnologiebi

xmamaRla fiqris

modelireba

3. metyveleba

miuRebeli

misaRebi

mravalferovani

ufro srulyofilad

Camoyalibeba

fizikuri modelebi

Tanamimdevruli minimaluri

miniSnebebi

mniSvnelovani informaciis

xazgasma

jgufs morgebuli

4. araorazrovneba. naTlad zustad gadacema:

individs morgebuli

azrobrivi xatebi

martivi miniSnebebi

diagramebi

grafikuli

aqtivobebi

miniSnebaTa gansazRvra aucilebeli nabijebi mimarTulebis micemisas

miniSnebaTa mniSvneloba aqtivobaTa miznebi

SekiTxvaTa fokusi

5. Semowmeba:

ar aqcevs yuradRebas

kiTxulobs sxeulis enas

svams Sesamowmebel SekiTxvebs

6. moswavleTa dabneulobasTan gamklaveba

ar reagirebs

`didi suraTi~

xelaxla xsnis

gaxseneba

wvdoma

gansazRvravs dones

signaliT signalis gareSe

agrZelebs axsnas da ukan ubrundeba

sazRvravs dabneulobis moments konkretuli SekiTxvebiT

7. __ aZlevs marSruts

sTxovs moswavles sakuTari fiqrebis axsnas

8. __ acnobebs moswavleebs, ra ecodinebaT an ris gakeTebas SeZleben

¤ swavlis mizani

¤ ratom aris es mniSvnelovani

9. __ aaqtiurebs moswavleTa arsebul codnas

10. __ akavSirebs

s i c x a d e - S e j a m e b a

207


208

¤ aCvenebs Zvel da axal codnas Soris msgavsebas

¤ akeTebs gadasvlebs mosazrebebs Soris

¤ miuTiTebs aqtivobis, tempis an donis Secvlas

¤ akeTebs miniSnebebs

11. __ ajamebs


s i c x a d e - s a v a r j i S o

waikiTxeT gakveTilis nawyvetebi. mindorze mianiSneT sicxadis mizniT gadadg-

muli nabiji, romelic warmodgenilia yovel epizodSi Tu citataSi.

1. moswavlem ver upasuxa verc erT SekiTxvas mcenaris sicocxlis kategoriebze

agebul biologiis testSi. maswavlebeli gakveTilamde esaubreba mas: `mari,

SegiZlia amixsna, ra gaige angiospermebs, gimnospermebsa da sxva saxeobebs Soris

kavSiris Sesaxeb im CamonaTvalidan, romelzec am kviraSi vimuSaveT~.

2. fizkulturis maswavlebeli frenburTis klass (15 wuTi klasSi): `Cven vivarjiSeT

srolasa da dartymaSi, raTa ukeT migveRo Cawodeba da ar SegvSineboda

burTis. am varjiSiT dartymebze koncentrirebas vapirebT, rac realuri

TamaSisTvis mogamzadebT, roca ukana rigma xSirad winisken unda daartyas

imis nacvlad, rom scados dartyma mTel gzaze zemodan gadasagdebad~.

3. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `drois am monakveTSi pirvelad geqnebaT

Tqvens sakiTxav Jurnalebze muSaobis SesaZlebloba; Semdeg sxva problemebze

vimuSavebT, risTvisac yuradRebiT wakiTxva dagvWirdeba. bolos ki SesaZlebloba

geqnebaT, daweroT yuradRebiT kiTxvis Tqveneuli problemis Sesaxeb~.

4. qimiis laboratoriaSi moswavle atarebs eqsperiments nivTierebebis siTxeSi

gaxsnaze. maswavlebeli uaxlovdeba da ekiTxeba: `nawilobrivaa gaxsnili Tu

mTlianad?“: `nawilobriv~, pasuxobs moswavle. `anu, eg ras niSnavs?~ kvlav

ekiTxeba maswavlebeli.

5. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: SeerTebul StatebSi `didi depresiis~ periodis

Seswavlamde, modiT, gavixsenoT yvelaferi, rac (1) viciT am periodis

Sesaxeb, rac (2) vfiqrobT, rom viciT da (3) risi codnac gvsurs. scadeT,

gansazRvroT am samidan romel kategorias miekuTvneba Cems mier mowodebuli

informacia~.

6. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `aswieT xeli, roca dafaze daweril amocanas

amoxsniT~. (maswavlebeli merxebs Soris dadis da moswavleTa muSaobas akvirdeba.)

7. moswavle warbSekruli dahyurebs samuSaos. `raime Tavsatexia?~ ekiTxeba mas-

Tan misuli maswavlebeli.

8. `ase rom, qalbatonma vordma Tavisi ori Savkaniani megobari metros matarebliT

gaamgzavra. es ar iyo metro misisipidan kanadamde. es iyo raRac sruliad

gansxvavebuli~.

9. sityva `upiratesobis~ gansazRvrebis Semdeg maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass:

`amrigad, es iyo mokled, am sityvis mniSvneloba. literaturaSi aqamde bevrjer

ar Segvxvedria es sityva, magram poetebze saubrisas vaxsenebT. ase rom,

yuradRebiT iyaviT am terminTan dakavSirebiT; Cven mas davubrundebiT~.

10. nergis qoTanTan mdgomi maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: ,,Cvens nergebs imitom

vzomavdiT, rom sabolood klasis saSualo gamogveyvana. dRevandeli maTematikis

savarjiSo amaSi dagvexmareba, radgan saSualos miRebas viswavliT~.

11. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `amrigad, `amerikis revoluciaSi~ iyo gadamwyveti

momenti. ra TariRi iyo es?~ (maswavlebeli xeliT dafisken miuTiTebs,

sadac weria es TariRi.) (ar ismens moswavleTa pasuxebs.) `devidma es-esaa gipasuxaT~.

(araviTari reaqcia.) `SexedeT dafas!~. (moswavleebi pasuxoben.)

12. moswavle odnav dabneulia maTematikis amocanaSi moqmedebaTa simravliT.

s i c x a d e - s a v a r j i S o

209


210

maswavlebeli jdeba masTan, rom ramdenime amocana erTad gaakeTon: `me es amocana

ase amovxseni; vnaxoT, Senc Tu ase gaakeTe. amocanaSi naTqvamia: `sarecxi

saSualebis 10 savse yuTi iwonis 100 girvanqas. calke sarecxi saSualeba iwonis

90 girvanqas. ramdens iwonis TiToeuli yuTi?~ kargi. es aris sarecxi sa-

Sualebis gareSe...…ra SeiZleba gamovTvalo aq... mmm... Tu mTlianad iwonis 100

girvanqas da calke sarecxi saSualeba aris 90 girvanqa... mmm... me SemiZlia 100-s

gamovaklo 90 da miviRo yuTebis mTliani wona. kargi, es iqneba 10. axla... ras

gvekiTxeba amocana? TiToeuli yuTis wonas. kargi, Tu 10 aris yuTebis mTliani

wona da aris 10 yuTi... me SemiZlia 10 gavyo 10-ze. miviReb 1-s. ase rom, es aris...

erTi yuTi iwonis erT girvanqas~.

13. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `am gakveTilze bevr amocanaze vimuSaveT da

sxvadasxva gza viswavleT maT amosaxsnelad. modiT, erTad SevadginoT sia

problemis gadaWris yvela im strategiisa, romlebic, Cveni azriT, efeqtiani

iyo~.

14. moswavlem SecdomiT amoxsna maTematikis amocana saSinao davalebis furcelze.

maswavlebeli masTan erTad muSaobs: `modi, vnaxoT, sad SegeSala. ramdeni

kubi daiTvale?~ (`eqvsi~.) `kargi. ramdeni gverdi aqvs yovel kubs?~ (`eqvsi...

oh!~) Sen gverdebis ra raodenoba gewera?~ (`sami~.) `ase rom, aq SegeSala.

daimaxsovre, kubs eqvsi gverdi aqvs, eqvs kubs ki, eqvsjer eqvsi, anu 36 gverdi

eqneba. xedav, sad SegeSala?~

15. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `gaxsovT, roca Cven davadgineT prezidentebis

Sefasebis kriteriumebi, yovelma Tqvenganma erTi prezidenti airCia

am kategoriebis mixedviT Sesafaseblad? iciT, dRes msgavsi ramis gakeTebas

vapirebT _ davadgenT kanonmdeblobis Sesafasebel kriteriumebs da maTze

dayrdnobiT Tqven SeafasebT konkretul kanonproeqts~.

16. algebris saSiano davalebaSi moswavle gamravlebis nacvlad gamudmebiT

yofda. gakveTilis dawyebamde maswavlebelma moswavlesTan erTad gadaxeda

samuSaos, Tumca Canda, rom moswavle ukve mixvda Tavis Secdomas. miuxedavad

imisa, rom is gakveTili algebris sxva koncefciaze unda agebuliyo, maswavlebelma

orjer gamoiZaxa es moswavle, roca saqme gamravlebas exeboda.

Semdeg or punqtSi warmodgenilia sicxadis TvalsazrisiT SecdomaTa magaliTe-

bi:

17. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `wasakiTxad gaZlevT igav-araks da masTan

dakavSirebiT samuSaos. raRac gamotovebulia igav-arakSi; Tqveni azriT, ra

aris gamotovebuli?~ (`dialogi?~) `ara. igav-arakis raRac elementi, romelic

yovelTvis aris masSi~. (`garemo?~) `ara~. (`siuJeti?~) `ara~. (`morali?~) `mar-

Talia. Tqven mogiwevT moralis Camoyalibeba~.

18. maswavlebeli mimarTavs klass: `minda vnaxo, marTla gesmiT Tu ara fotosin-

Tezi. ra ewodeba mcenaris nivTierebas, rac mas mwvane fers aZlevs?~ (`qlorofili~.)

`kargi. ras niSnavs prefiqsi `foto~?~ (`sinaTles~.) `kargia. ra

sWirdeba mcenares gasazrdelad?~ (`naxSirorJangi~.) `araCveulebrivia! Tqven

namdvilad gesmiT. modi gavagrZeloT~


literatura:

sicxade

Abel, R. Robert, and Raymond W. Kulhavy. "Maps, Mode of Text Presentation and Children's Prose

Learning." American Educational Research Journal 23, no. 2 (Summer 1986): 263-274.

Anderson, L. M., C. M. Evertson, and J. E. Brophy. "An Examination of Classroom Context: Effects of

Lesson Format and Teacher Training on Patterns of Teacher Student Contacts during Smallgroup

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216

gansakuTrebuli SeniSvna

madlobas vuxdiT hal menlis (Hal Manley) konkord-karlislis regionuli umaRlesi saswavleblis

TanamSromels da riCard depes (Richard Deppe) karlislis sajaro skolis Tanam-

Sromels sicxadis parametrTan dakavSirebuli magaliTebis mopovebaSi gaweuli daxmarebisTvis.


9

swavlis principebi

rogor vaxerxebT, rom gakveTilebi ufro

mizanmimarTuli da nayofieri gavxadoT?


swavlis principebi

am TavSi aRwerilia `Zalauflebis ocdaoTxi patara nakrebi~, romelTagan TiToeuli

imdenad TviTkmaria, rom SeiZleba damoukidebelad gamoviyenoT. nebismieri maswavleblis

repertuaris Sevseba yoveli maTganiT aucileblad gazrdis moswavleTa swavlis

xarisxsa da simtkices. xmamaRali ganacxadia? SeiZleba, magram ganaTlebasTan mimarTebaSi

utyuari.

ras niSnavs TqvenTvis Semdegi gvarebi: pavlovi, Torndaiki, hali, votsoni, gaTri, maureri,

spensi, tolmani, skineri? dRes maT saxelebs iSviaTad gaigonebT, miuxedavad imisa,

rom isini swavlas universaluri kanonebisa da principebis mqone mniSvnelovan fenomenad

miiCnevdnen. mravali principi swored am mec-

nierebma aRmoaCines. kvleva 1885 wlidan (Ebbinghaus)

iwyeba da is ganaTlebaSi praqtikuli

rekomendaciebis yvelaze myari, mdidari da

STambeWdavi bazaa. `rogor vaswavloT~ kiTxvis

pasuxad es principebi erTian Teorias an

Zalauflebis ocdaoTxi patara nakrebi, romlebic

aucileblad gazrdis moswavleTa swavlis

xarisxsa da simtkices.

midgomas ar gvTavazobs. pasuxi Tanamedrove mimdevrebma SemogvTavazes (Bruner, Ausubel,

Piaget). yoveli principi swavlis efeqturobaSi wvlilis TvalsazrisiT aris ganxiluli da

mimofantulia literaturaSi rogorc mravali Zvirfasi qva, romelic mpovnels elodeba.

bevr maTgans 1970-ian wlebSi mouyares Tavi madlen hanTerma (Madeline Hunter) da misma kolegebma

da maswavleblisTvis xelmisawvdomi forma misces (`vaswavloT ufro meti, ufro

swrafad~ maswavleblisTvis gankuTvnili, misi erT-erTi wignis saTauria). magram ratomRac,

es principebi maswavlebelTa kvalifikaciis amaRlebis kursebisa an kolejis maswavlebelTa

ganaTlebis nawili ver gaxda.

am Tavis kiTxvisas, swavlebis zogierT Tqveneul princips amoicnobT. Cven davadgineT,

rom maswavlebelTa umravlesoba regularulad mxolod eqvs an Svid maTgans iyenebs sakuTar

intuiciaze dayrdnobiT, ise, rom principis saxelwodeba arc ki icis. zogi ufro mets iyenebs,

zogi _ ufro naklebs. Cven iseTi maswavlebeli gvWirdeba, romelic yvela princips iyenebs.

amrigad, am TavSi yvelasTvis iqneba raRac axali.

Cven SevZeliT literaturaSi arsebuli principebidan ocdaoTxis identificireba (principebis

sasargeblo Sejamebisa da gavrcobisaTvis ix. iseTi wyaroebi, rogoricaa Hilgard and

Bower 1966; Bugelski 1971; and Hudgins 1977). maTi SeswavliTa da axali principebis gamosayeneblad

xelsayreli SemTxvevebis ZiebiT, SegiZliaT gaamdidroT sakuTari repertuari da ufro

nayofieri gaxadoT swavleba.

219


Tavi 9

mogvianebiT, Cven swavlebis sxvadasxva models da mis gamoyenebas SeviswavliT, aseve ganvsazRvravT

maT gansxvavebul miznebsa da Teoriul safuZvels. modelebze saubrisas swavlebas

iseve ganvixilavT, rogorc dramaturgi – scenars. Cven mTliani gakveTilis dizains, Tanamimdevrobas

da konkretuli saxis swavlebis mizniT calkeuli maswavleblis mier gadadgmul

nabijebs SeviswavliT. am SemTxvevaSi calkeul principebs ar SevexebiT, Tumca maTi arseboba

da mniSvneloba mudam gvemaxsovreba.

220

mniSvneloba

rac ufro Sinaarsiani da relevanturia moswavleTaTvis davaleba an informacia, miT

ufro advilad swavloben. maswavleblebi, romlebic am principiT xelmZRvaneloben, swavlebas

moswavlis pirad gamocdilebas, cxovre-

rac ufro Sinaarsiani da relevanturia moswavbas ukavSireben da axal Sinaarss moswavlisTleTaTvis

davaleba an informacia, miT ufro vis nacnob struqturas aZleven. erT-erTma

advilad swavloben.

maswavlebelma, romelic am princips iyenebs,

Semdegi magaliTi mogviyvana: `mizani qronologiasa

da istorias Soris gansxvavebebis

dadgenaa. me ornawilian davalebas vqmni. pirvel dRes moswavleebs aqtivobaTa drois skalis

warmoebas vTxov. meore dRes pirveli dRis istoriis daweras da, SeZlebisdagvarad, mizez-

Sedegobrivi kavSiris Cvenebas~. es davaleba naTlad warmoaCens gansxvavebas qronologiasa

da istorias Soris moswavleTaTvis pirovnuli mniSvnelobis mqone konteqstis – maTi erTi

dRis aqtivobaTa – saSualebiT.

garemos msgavseba

garemos (qmedebebis, SegrZnebebis, formatebis, rutinebis) msgavseba moswavlis mier `Sesasrulebeli

samuSaos nakrebis~ safuZvelia. es imas niSnavs, rom rodesac garemos garkveuli

Tvisebebi, regularulad asocirdeba swavlis konkretul tipTan an periodTan, romlis drosac

mosalodnelia yuradRebis an samuSaos konkretuli tipi, moswavleTa azrovneba gakveTilis

an aqtivobis konkretuli tipis Sesabamisad `gadaewyoba~.

maswavlebels SeuZlia swavlis garkveuli formebisTvis regularulad gmoiyenos msgavsi

formatebi (garemos misces garkveuli sivrcis, droisa da rutinis Tvisebebi), raTa

moswavleebSi Seqmnas molodini konkretuli samuSaos Sesasruleblad. magaliTad, bunebismetyvelebis

maswavlebels laboratoriaSi samuSaod xalaTebi aqvs yvela moswavlisTvis.

gakveTilis dawyebamde moswavleebi xalaTebs icvamen. laboratoriuli xalaTi garkveuli

miniSnebaa, rom isini mecnierebad unda `gadaiqcnen~. 1

Ggarda amisa, SesaZloa maswavlebelma aqtivobis saSualebiT Seamzados moswavleebi

gakveTilisaTvis. magaliTad, vTqvaT maswavlebeli apirebs gegmis Sedgena aswavlos, rac moswavleebisgan

sakuTari mosazrebebis Tematur dajgufebas moiTxovs. maswavlebels SeuZlia

klasi Seamzados TamaSiT, saxelwodebiT `gamoicani Cemi kategoria~. is dafaze terminebis

CamonaTvals Semdegi wesiT wers: `diax~ sityvis qveS dadebiT magaliTebs, xolo `ara~-s qveS

– uaryofiTs. moswavleebma unda gamoicnon kategoria, romelsac `diax~-is magaliTebi miekuTvneba

(`samxreTi Statebi~).

1 madloba brus olivers (Bruce Oliver) virjiniis fearfeqsis sagrafodan am ideisTvis.


Ddiax ara

misisipi niu iorki

virjinia vaiomingi

jorjia kalifornia

kentuki aiova

florida arizona

swavlis principebi

TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg maswavlebeli ambobs: `azrovnebis im tips, romelic axla

gamoviyeneT dRevandeli aqtivobis Sesasruleblad mivmarTavT. moamzadeT Tqveni SeniSvnebis

baraTebi da…. . .~

dug raseli (Doug Russell 1980) aRniSnavs, rom es aqtivoba SesaniSnavi stimulia moswavleebisTvis

(ix. me-3 TavSi tempis parametri) – isini myisierad erTvebian. amave dros dagvianebuli

moswavleebic mSvidad emzadebian gakveTilisTvis da dro optimaluri gamoiyeneba.

kontaqti

`pirveli STabeWdileba waruSlelia~ _ kontaqtis principis amsaxvelia.MerTmaneTTan axlos

myofi movlenebi, obieqtebi, moqmedebebi da emociebi ufro advilad da myarad asocirdeba

moswavlis gonebaSi. Znelia pirveli asociaciis daviwyeba, magaliTad, Tu pirvel Sexvedraze

mari-anas `mari-lus~ dauZaxeb, aRmoaCen, rom yovel Sexvedraze ase eZaxi. igive xdeba

aTeulebis Sekrebisas – jer aTeulebs kreb da Semdeg erTeulebs. Znelia am Cvevis moSla.

moswavleebs ar unda mivceT Secdomebisa da araswori asociaciebis Camoyalibebis saSualeba.

Tu isini arasworad akeTeben sqolioebs pirvel jerze, es mcdari formati mogvianebiT

xels SeuSlis swori formatis daswavlas. (oci wlis Semdegac ki, erT-erTi cnobili avtori

isev ibneva sqolioSi mocemuli elementebis Tanamimdevrobis gamo, radgan misi mexsierebidan

bolomde ar waSlila mcdari modeli, romlis gameorebis saSualebac mas saSinao davalebis

Sesrulebis dros misces, yovelgvari Sesworebis gareSe). es principi ZiriTadad sagnebis/

movlenebis wyvilTan asocirebul mexsierebasa da procedurul swavlas ukavSirdeba, rogoricaa

axali sityvebis an algoriTmebis daswavla da kiTxvebs, romelic maRali donis azrovnebas

moiTxovs. swavlis procesSi, maswavlebelma unda gaiTvaliswinos moswavleTa savaraudo

Secdomebi da Tavidan aicilos isini swori pasuxis SeTavazebiTac ki manam, sanam

moswavle SecdomiT upasuxebs (da amgvarad daiswavlis mcdar asociacias, romlis daviwyebac

mogvianebiT mouwevs).Mmaswavlebelma ar unda dauSvas, rom moswavleebma dawyvilebuli kav-

Siris saswavlo situacia mcdari pasuxiT daimaxsovron; bolo pasuxi swori unda iyos.

maswavlebeli aseve fxizlad unda iyos potenciuri uaryofiTi emociuri asociaciebis

mimarT, romlebic SeiZleba moswavleebs CamouyalibdeT. magaliTad, Tu moswavleebi ardadagebis

Semdeg uaryofiTi emociebiT damZimebulni brundebian, maswavleblis mier SeTavazebuli

axali Tema maTSi uaryofiT asociaciebs gamoiwvevs, rac, Tavis mxriv, xels SeuSlis

swavlas. aseT dros poeziaze saubaric uadgilo iqneba. kargi iqneba, Tu konkretuli Temis

SeTavazebamde maswavlebeli mokle aqtivobas waumZRvarebs, romelic dadebiT ganwyobas aR-

Zravs moswavleebSi.

221


Tavi 9

222

monaTesave damabnevlebi

`monaTesave damabnevlebis~ gacnobamde uzrunvelyaviT swavlis Sesatyvisi Sesavali. maswavleblebi,

romlebic am principiT xelmZRvaneloben, frTxiloben, rom ar daabnion an ar

Seasuston naswavli erTeulebi, magaliTad, aso-bgera `Z“ iseTi axali erTeulis SetaniT,

rogoricaa `x“, radgan SesaZloa moswavleebs es ori aso-bgera erTmaneTSi aerioT. am Sem-

TxvevaSi dawyebiTi skolis maswavlebelma unda axsnas aso-bgera `S“, Semdeg romelime sxva

aso-bgera/ebi da imavdroulad gaimeoros `Z“. roca darwmundeba, rom moswavleebma `Z“ safuZvlianad

daiswavles, axsnis axal aso-bgera `x“-s. amrigad, man ar unda mosTxovos moswavleebs

umniSvnelo gansxvavebebis moZebna or monaTesave erTeuls Soris, vidre ar axsnis iseT

masalas, sadac ufro mkveTrad iqneba gamijnuli gansxvavebuli erTeulebi. maswavlebels

mxolod maSin SeuZlia mosTxovos moswavles monaTesave erTeulebis gansxvaveba, rodesac

Sinaarsobrivi wyvilis, sul mcire, erTi erTeuli mainc iqneba saTanadod gagebuli (yuradReba

miaqcieT, rom saxelmZRvaneloebSi, samwuxarod, xSirad erTdroulad aris mocemuli

monaTesave damabnevlebi. magaliTad, dedamiwis brunva RerZis da mzis garSemo an amindiTa da

eroziiT momxdari cvlilebebi bunebaSi).

analogiurad, wesebis daswavlamde ar unda gavacnoT wesidan gamonaklisebis magaliTebi.

acnobierebs ra am princips, sabazo skolis maswavlebeli wers:

konstitucia nebismier sabazo skolaSi socialur mecnierebaTa saswavlo programis

ZiriTadi nawilia. swavleba xSirad moicavs `uflebaTa Sesaxeb bilis~

ganmartebebs, konkretuli situaciebis ganxilviT. magaliTad, Temis `sityvis

Tavisufleba~ Seswavlisas ganixileba iseTi situacia, rogoricaa xalxiT

gadaWedil TeatrSi yvirili, `cecxli!~. sanam maswavlebeli sTxovs moswavleebs

realisturad ganasxvaon `sityvis Tavisuflebis~ misaRebi da miuRebeli formebi,

is darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom maT ician ZiriTadi koncefciebi, saproceso

kanonis CaTvliT. am SemTxvevaSi isini ufro rTuli situaciis ganxilvasac Se-

Zleben.

mniSvnelovani maxasiaTeblebis gamoyofa

maswavleblebi, romlebic am principiT xelmZRvaneloben, Sesaswavli masalis mniSvnelomniSvnelovan,

ucvlel maxasiaTeblebs an erTeulebs gamoyofen da axarisxeben. axali koncefciis

ganmartebisas isini mis arsebiT Tvisebebsa Tu maxasiaTeblebs gamoyofen. magaliTad, `ra

aris mdinaris estuaris ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi?~ pasuxi: deltiseburi an maraos forma;

mdinaris fskeri; momlaSo wyali (nawilobriv mlaSe, nawilobriv mtknari) da naleqi fskerze.

am oTxidan nebismieri erTi elementis gareSe moswavleebs ver SeeqmnebaT warmodgena mis

mniSvnelobaze.

ai, kidev erTi magaliTi: rodesac moswavleebs miTis daweras vaswavliT, kargi iqneba, Tu

qvemoT mocemul CamonaTvals SevTavazebT:

¤ gmirebi

¤ magia

¤ bunebrivi fenomenis arsis axsna

es `miTis~ ganmsazRvreli arsebiTi maxasiaTeblebia. zemoCamoTvlilTagan nebismieri erTi

aspeqtis gareSe miTi aRar gveqneba. arsebobs maxasiaTebelTa nusxis Sedgenis mravali saSualeba.

magaliTad, SeiZleba moswavleebs ramdenime gansxvavebuli miTis wakiTxva daavaloT

da Semdeg saerTo aspeqtebze imsjeloT. miTis ukeT gagebis mizniT, SegiZliaT SesTavazoT


swavlis principebi

Sesabamisi literatura an pirdapir auxsnaT miTis maxasiaTeblebi magaliTebis moSveliebiT.

instruqciis formas mniSvneloba ar aqvs, mTavari Sedegia.

arsebobs amave principis gamoyenebis kidev erTi gza – monaTesave koncefciebi. magali-

Tad, `ybedobisa~ da `Txrobis~ Sedarebisas maswavlebeli maxasiaTebelTa or paralelur

CamonaTvals asexelebs da adarebs. es CamonaTvali, SesaZloa, identuri iyos garda erTi punqtisa:

`ganzraxvisa~. ganzraxva (adamianisTvis saWiro informaciis miwodebis nacvlad misi

unayofo saubriT Sewuxeba) kritikuli maxasiaTebelia, romelic ,,ybedobas~ `Txrobisgan~

ganasxvavebs.

Cven mniSvnelovani maxasiaTeblebis gamoyofis ori odnav gansxvavebuli magaliTi ganvixileT:

(1) koncefciis realuri arsis ganmsazRvreli maxasiaTeblebis CamoTvla (magaliTad,

`miTi~) da (2) msgavsi koncefciebis maxasiaTebelTa CamonaTvalis Sedareba, raTa erTmane-

Tisgan gamovyoT samizne (`ybedoba~) da monaTesave (`Txroba~) koncefciebis ganmasxvavebeli

Taviseburebebi. mesame gza obieqtis mravali SesaZlo Taviseburebidan im mniSvnelovanis

moZiebaSi dagvexmareba, romelic mas sxvebisagan gamoarCevs. magaliTad, mravali ZuZumwovari

balniani da cocxladmSobia. miuxedavad imisa, rom, SesaZloa, zog ZuZumwovars es Taviseburebebi

ar hqondes, ZuZus woveba ZuZumwovarTa saerTo maxasiaTebelia.

arsebiTi maxasiaTeblebis gamoyofis zemoCamoTvlili samive gza mniSvnelovania swavlis

xelSewyobis TvalsazrisiT.

maswavleblis mier mniSvnelovani aspeqtebis xasgasma ar niSnavs mniSvnelovani maxasiaTeblebis

gamoyofas. xazgasma – xazgasmaa! garkveuli aspeqtebi SesaZloa mniSvnelovani iyos,

magram ara kritikuli. magaliTad, `am TavSi am oTxi aspeqtis codna umniSvnelovanesia~ an

`samoqalaqo omamde momxdari am sami movlenis codna SesaZloa yvelaze mniSvnelovania~.

xazgasmiT, maswavlebeli mizanmimarTulad cdilobs mniSvnelovan aspeqtebze moswavleTa

yuradRebis gamaxvilebas, magram es radikalurad gansxvavdeba koncefciis arsebiTi maxasiaTeblebis

gansazRvrisagan.

ganviTarebul da ganviTarebad qveynebs Soris gansxvavebebis Ziebisas, maswavlebelma

SeiZleba ganviTarebuli qveynebis ganmsazRvreli ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi gamoyos: magaliTad,

meqanizebuli xvna-Tesva da mosavlis aReba, sabazro ganawilebis efeqtiani sistema,

gzatkecilebis infrastruqtura da satransporto qseli. magram maxasiaTebelTa am CamonaTvalis

dafaze an teqstSi warmodgena arasakmarisia. maswavlebelma zustad unda Camoayalibos

kritikuli maxasiaTeblebis nusxa, gaamaxvilos moswavleTa yuradReba maTze (an Tavad

moswavleebi CarTos maxasiaTeblebis moZiebis procesSi), xolo Semdeg moswavleebma Tavad

unda SeZlon maxasiaTeblebis misadageba konkretuli qveynisTvis. mogvianebiT, rodesac moswavleebi

nebismieri qveynis Seswavlisas, kritikuli maxasiaTeblebis analizis safuZvelze,

ganviTarebuli qveynis ganviTarebadi qveynisgan gansxvavebas SeZleben, gvecodineba, rom

codnis transferi moxda.

swavleba transferisTvis (konteqstidan konteqstSi)

maswavleblebi, romlebic am princips mimarTaven, davalebaTa an amocanebis iseT serias

qmnian, sadac unar-Cvevebis (codnis) gamoyeneba gansxvavebulia uSualo saswavlo garemosgan.

qvemoT motanilia transferisTvis swavlebis kargi magaliTi. cnebebis `faqti~ (`is,

rac myisieri SegrZnebebiT dasturdeba an rasac Sesabamisi sferos eqspertTa umravlesoba

eTanxmeba~) da `mosazreba~ (`rwmena; gansxvavebul SexedulebaTa mxardaWera~) gamijvnis Semdeg

maswavlebeli moswavleebs magaliTebis daxarisxebas sTxovs. magaliTad, `meris sviteri

acvia~ da `meri yvelaze momxibvlavi gogonaa klasSi~. magaliTebi TandaTan rTuldeba (`zogi-

223


Tavi 9

erTs reinkarnaciis sjera~) da bolos moswavleebs magaliTebis damoukideblad dasaxelebas

sTxoven. Semdeg maT sagazeTo statiis moZiebas (axali konteqsti) da faqtebisa da mosazrebebis

gaanalizebas sTxoven. sabolood, moswavleebs miniSnebebs sTavazoben codnisa da unar-Cvevebis

im garemoSi transferisTvis, sadac ar evalebaT faqtisa da mosazrebis gamijvna. 2

zogjer transferisTvis damatebiTi zrunva saWiro ar aris; is TavisTavad xdeba. magaliTad,

Tu moswavleebi gamoklebis Seswavlisas sesxebis fenomens kargad Seiswavlian, isini

am codnas avtomaturad gamoiyeneben imave saRamos supermarketSi klasis wveulebisTvis

produqtebis SeZenisas. magram aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac codnis transferi spontanurad ar

xdeba da saWiroa xelovnurad SevqmnaT mastimulirebel movlenaTa seria. am jaWvis daskvniTi

movlenaa moswavleebis mier axal konteqstSi codnis damoukideblad ganxorcielebuli

transferi. swored es arTulebs am principis gagebas. Cven moswavleebi wylis napiramde

migvyavs da Tu transferi realurad moxda, isini wyalSi Tavad unda Caxtnen.

magaliTad, qalbatoni qreini, 12-14 wlis moswavleebs gmirebis daxasiaTebas aswavlis.

isini moTxrobis personaJebis dialogebsa da qcevebze dakvirvebiT maTi xasiaTis gagebas

cdiloben. misi mizania moswavleebma iswavlon, rogor anviTarebs avtori mkiTxvelis warmosaxvas

da aRqmas personaJebis dialogebiTa da qmedebiT. qalbaton qreinis surs, rom moswavleebma

daxasiaTebis gamoyeneba yoveldRiur cxovrebaSic SeZlon, anu SeZlon adamianebis

`gamocnoba~, maT dialogebsa da qcevebze dakvirvebiT gansazRvron maTi grZnobebi da azrebi.

mas surs, moswavleebma SeZlon daxasiaTebis unaris, rogorc literaturuli xerxis transferi

adamianebis gagebis mizniT. moTxrobis gaanalizebis Semdeg maswavlebeli moswavleebs

sayvareli telegadacemis yurebas avalebs; maT personaJis xasiaTis ganmsazRvreli dialogi

an qmedeba unda aRweron. mogvianebiT maswavlebeli mezoblebsa Tu ojaxis wevrebze dakvirvebis

Sedegebis warmodgenas sTxovs.Aamgvarad, is cdilobs moswavleebma akademiur konteqstSi

gaanalizebuli daxasiaTebis gamoyeneba TandaTan realur cxovrebaSi gadaitanon.

Tu moswavle mxatvruli gmiris mimarT avtoriseuli mikerZoebis wvdomas SeZlebs da am

codnas aramxatvruli literaturisa Tu sagazeTo statiis kiTxvis drosac gamoiyenebs,

transferi miRweulia. maswavlebeli am saxis transfers davalebebis Sesatyvisi TanamimdevrobiT

da naswavlis mravalmxrivi gamoyenebis waxalisebiT aRwevs (Brown 1989; Fogarty, Perkins,

and Barell 1991). xSirad es principi gansxvavebis miuxedavad, `garemoSi gamoyenebis~ principSi

erevaT, romlis mixedviT abstraqtul garemoSi naswavli unari myisierad unda gamoiyenon

realur garemoSi.

224

garemoSi gamoyeneba (unar-Cvevidan garemoSi)

moswavleebma axali qcevebi an unar-Cvevebi axal garemoSi iseve unda gadaitanon, rogorc

realur cxovrebaSi gadaaqvT: magaliTad, marTlweris codnis transferi karnaxiT werisas

da mosmenis unaris transferi klasis realuri diskusiebis da konfliqtis mogvarebisas.

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom orive magaliTSi

moswavleebma axali qcevebi an unar­Cvevebi sityva `transferia~ gamoyenebuli. `garemoaxal

garemoSi iseve unda gadaitanon, rogorc Si gamoyeneba~ is principia, romelic trans-

realur cxovrebaSi gadaaqvT.

feris albaTobas zrdis. zogisTvis garemoSi

gamoyeneba transferisTvis swavlebis nawilia.

garemoSi gamoyeneba erTjeradi aqtivobaa,

romelic moswavleebs unar-Cvevebis realuri cxovrebis konteqstSi gamoyenebas aiZulebs,

magaliTad politikuri kandidatebis argumentebSi alogikurobis amocnoba. magram trans-

2 magaliTi agebulia Madeline Hunter-is wignze Teach for Transfer (1971).


swavlis principebi

feris swavlebisaTvis saWiroa unar-Cvevis daSoreba abstraqtuli, akademiuri konteqstidan

winaswar organizebul aqtivobaTa seriebiT.

sicxade

fiqroben, rom swavlis gamocdilebis sicxade, xalisi, energia, siaxle an mimzidveloba

yuradRebis meqanizmebis saSualebiT axali masalis ufro siRrmiseul aRqmas ganapirobebs.

am principiT vxelmZRvanelobT, Tu swavlebisas moswavleebSi emociis (gakvirveba, moxibvla)

aRZvras vcdilobT, rac maT qcevazec aisaxeba (gafarToebuli Tvalebi, gaRebuli piri, xangrZlivi

mzera, uCveulo umoZraoba). sakuTari ideis ukeT warmoCenisTvis erT-erTma avtorma

maswavlebelTa jgufs e.w. `ideebis CanTa~ - patara SefuTuli saCuqrebis seriad warmodgenili

swavlis principebi gaacno. amiT man xazi gausva imas, Tu raoden TviTkmari, Zvirfasi,

damoukidebeli da mniSvnelovania TiToeuli principi.

Aaqtiuri monawileoba

es principi swavlebis procesSi moswavleTa aqtivobas (kiTxva-pasuxi, diskusiebi) gulisxmobs.

pasiuroba da mxolod mosmena am princips gamoricxavs. yvela moswavlis aqtiuri

monawileoba mxolod fizikur moZraobebs an sxva manipuliaciebs ar gulisxmobs. is SesaZloa

moicavdes werilobiT monawileobas, rodesac yoveli moswavle pasuxobs dasmul kiTxvas; an

verbaluri monawileoba iyos imgvarad organizebuli, rom ramdenime moswavles erTdroulad

SeeZlos saubari (wyvilebSi an jgufebSi sakamaTo sakiTxze SeTanxmebis miRweva).

moswavleTa msgavsi CarTulobis mravali teqnika arsebobs. magaliTad, atomis birTvis

struqturis, atomis raodenobasa da mis masas Soris sxvaobis axsnis Semdeg maswavlebeli

ambobs: `modiT, atomis raodenobasa da masas Soris gansxvaveba Tqvens megobars auxseniT~. am

principis mcodne maswavleblebi mas nebismier xelsayrel SemTxvevaSi mimarTaven.

emociis xasiaTi

emociis xasiaTi swavlebis xarisxis pirdapirproporciulia. am principis mixedviT swavlis

siRrme da siswrafe swavlis dros aRZruli emociis (dadebiTis Tu uaryofiTis) proporciulia.

Tumca, garkveul zRvramde. erTi mxriv, rac ufro sasiamovnoa swavla, miT ufro

efeqtiania, Tumca raRac momentSi siamovneba upiratesi xdeba da, SeiZleba, swavla Caanacvlos.

sxva sityvebiT, dgeba klebadi ukugebis momenti. moswavleebze gaZlierebuli zrunva

(`individualurad SegamowmebT garkveul dros~) swavlas xels uwyobs, magram garkveul momentamde.

gadaWarbebuli zrunva mRelvarebaSi gadadis, rac abrkolebs da xels uSlis swavlas.

dgeba klebadi ukugebis momenti.

maswavleblebi am princips Semdegnairad iyeneben: cdiloben swavlis gamocdileba ufro

sasiamovno (magram ara hedonisturi) gaxadon da/an gazardon zrunvis done (`am kviraSi gavlil

masalaze testi gveqneba~), magram ar vardebian ukiduresobaSi. ukiduresobis an klebadi

ukugebis wertilis Sesafaseblad wesebs ver moviSveliebT, radgan ukiduresobis gamosavlenad,

damkvirvebels mouwevs maswavleblis mier dadebiTi an uaryofiTi emociebis gamomwvevi

qmedebebis aRnusxva da moswavleTa reaqciebis subieqturi Sefaseba.

225


Tavi 9

`seqtembers 30 dRe aqvs~.

226

mnemonika

am principis mixedviT maswavlebeli axali masalis ukeT

dauflebis mizniT moswavleebs Sualeduri instrumentebis (warmosaxva,

anagrama, aliteracia) gamoyenebas sTavazobs. magaliTad:

Desert (udabno) – erTi `S~, martod marto udabnoSi.

Dessert (deserti) – bevris WamiT gasuqdebi.

arsebobs mravali mnemonikuri instrumenti da maTi efeqtianobis Semafasebeli kvleva.

magaliTad, erT-erTi sakmaod efeqtiani instrumentia, e.w. sakvanZo sityvis teqnika, romelic

axali sityvebisa da axali terminebis Sesaswavlad gamoiyeneba. axali terminis Sesaswavlad

moswavleebs iseTi sakvanZo (mmaniSnebeli) sityvis swavlas sTxoven, romelsac msgavsi JReradoba

aqvs (mag.: `purse~ (safule) da `persuade~ (darwmuneba); „he’s a date~ (is Seyvarebulia) da

`hesitate~ (yoymani). Semdeg moswavleebs im naxatis (ubralo monaxazis) Sinaarsis damaxsovrebas

sTxoven, romelic sakvanZo sityvas Seicavs da garkveulwilad ukavSirdeba axal cnebas.

levinma (Levin 1982) da sxvebma axal sityvasTan `persuade~ (darwmuneba) dakavSirebuli naxati

uCvenes. maRaziaSi myofi qali meores safuleze miuTiTebs da ambobs: `oh, marta, Sen unda

iyido es safule (purse)!~ `mgoni damarwmune (persuade) amaSi~, pasuxobs marta. naxatis qvemoT

weria: `persuade (purse) (darwmuneba (safule)): roca vinmes raimes gakeTebaze daiyolieb~.

am naxatebSi erT-erTi personaJis naTqvami sakvanZo sityvas Seicavs, meorisa _ axal termins.

kvlevis Sedegebi am teqnikiT axali sityvebis Seswavlis efeqturobis Sesaxeb Zalze

pozitiuri da erTmniSvnelovania (Levin 1993).

gTavazobT mnemonikuri sakvanZo sityvebis gamoyenebis nimuSebs:

1. gaixseneT axali sityvis msgavsi JReradobis an ritmis mqone sityva. swored is iqneba

sakvanZo (mimaniSnebeli) sityva.

2. SeqmeniT naxati, sadac sakvanZo da axali sityvebi moqmedebaSi an obieqtebad iqneba

mocemuli.

3. furcelze warmoadgineT or personaJs Soris dialogi, sadac erTi sakvanZo, xolo

meore axal sityvas iyenebs.

4. dialogi imdenad daxveweT, rom dialogis konteqstma da naxatma axali sityvis mniSvneloba

axsnas.

MMTanamimdevroba da ukusvla

Cveulebriv, masalis pirveli da bolo nawilebis Seswavla yvelaze advilia, xolo Sua

nawilis – yvelaze rTuli. swavlis xelSewyoba SeiZleba masalis bolo nawilidan dawyebiT an

masalis mcire nawilebad dayofiT. swavlis am principis gamoyeneba dazepirebis, maTematikisa

da marTlweris savarjiSoebSi SeiZleba. maswavlebels SeuZlia masalis Tanamimdevroba daar-

Rvios da jer rTuli nawilis swavla SesTavazos; SesaZlebelia TviT rTuli nawili daiyos

mcire nawilebad da maT meti yuradReba daeTmos; sxvadasxva saSualebiT (muqi Srifti, sxvadasxva

feri, xazgasma) gamokveTos teqstis rTuli erTeulebi. saSualo skolis laTinuri

enis maswavlebeli wers:

moswavleebma kviraSi aTi axali laTinuri sityva unda iswavlon. (1) isini

gakveTilis dawyebamde xuTi wuTis ganmavlobaSi umowmeben erTmaneTs sityvebis

codnas. (2) Semdeg damoukideblad swavloben im sityvebs, romelic ar axsovdaT.


swavlis principebi

(3) axal sityvebs Tavisi mniSvnelobebiT rveulSi weren. im sityvebs, romelic

ar axsovdaT siis pirvel da bolo adgilze weren, xolo kargad naswavls – siis

SuaSi. pasuxebs xels afareben da TviTSemowmebis mizniT sityvebs ramdenimejer

imeoreben. am proceduras yoveldRe imeoreben. savarjiSos Sesrulebaze

jamSi 10 wuTi gvexarjeba, am dros me warmatebiT viyeneb gakveTilis dawyebamde

calkeul moswavleebTan sasaubrod.

Tanamimdevrobis am principisa da masalis pirveli da bolo nawilebis mniSvnelobis mixedviT

SesaZlebelia sagakveTilo drois gadanawilebac. gakveTilis (dRis an semestris) dasawyisSi

da bolos ganviTarebuli movlenebi moswavleebs yvelaze advilad amaxsovrdebaT; Sesabamisad,

drois es monakveTebi maqsimalurad sasargeblod unda gamoviyenoT (ix. Tavi 5).

Sedegebis codna

Sedegebi konkretulad da droulad unda vacnoboT. maswavleblebi, romlebic am princips

mimarTaven, moswavleebs savarjiSos dasrulebisTanave sTavazoben detalur ukukavSirs.

principis mixedviT, rac ufro CarTulia moswavle masalaSi, miT optimaluria swori Sedegebis

makoreqtirebeli gavlena da maqsimaluri efeqtis momtania srulyofili da konkretuli

ukukavSiri. (me-12 TavSi `pirovnuli urTierTobis damyareba~ vasabuTebT im azrs, rom

srulyofili ukukavSiri moswavleebis pativiscemis formaa, misi saSualebiT maswavlebeli

amJRavnebs, ramdenad mniSvnelovania Sesrulebuli davalebis detaluri ganxilva.)

gTavazobT Sedegebis codnis or magaliTs:

samrewvelo revoluciis Sedegad gamowveul socialur cvlilebebTan dakav-

Sirebuli davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg moswavleebma sakuTari pasuxebi swor

pasuxebs Seadares. Tavad Seaswores Secdomebi da ganmartebebisTvis maswavlebels

mimarTes.

moswavleebi sakuTar pasuxebs wignSi mocemul pasuxebs adareben, damoukideblad

asworeben da yovel Secdomas ganmartaven.

moswavleebis mier testirebis Sedegebis codna am princips ar asaxavs. isini yovel

gakveTilze ecnobian sakuTar Sedegebs, amaSi gansakuTrebuli araferia. gansakuTrebuli

(da swavlis xelSemwyobi) konkretuli, srulfasovani da drouli ukukavSiria. Sedegebs kompiuteruli

TamaSic dauyovnebliv gviCvenebs, Tumca ar gvTavazobs Sedegebis gaumjobesebis

gzebs.

maswavlebeli Sedegebis codnis princips maSin iyenebs, Tu davalebis dasrulebisTanave

ukukavSirTan erTad moswavleebs TviTSemowmebis an sul mcire, daSvebuli Secdomis gamosworebis

saSualebebs sTavazobs (Butler and Winne 1995).

ganmtkiceba

qcevis ganmamtkicebeli SeiZleba iyos nebismieri ram, dawyebuli tkbileuliT da jetoniT

(samaxsovro jildo), damTavrebuli maswavlebliseuli aRiarebiT `Tavi ar dagizogavs, ar

danebdi da arss mainc Caswvdi“. aqcenti verbalur ganmtkicebaze gvaqvs gakeTebuli, radgan

miuxedavad imisa, rom am saxis ganmtkicebaze zRva literatura arsebobs da is maswavlebel-

Ta leqsikis tradiciuli nawilia, iSviaTia misi ostaturad gamoyeneba. am mZlavri stimulis

gamoyenebis mravali saSualeba arsebobs. pedagogiuri codnis bazis mixedviT verbaluri ganmtkiceba

zusti, Sesatyvisi da, saWiroebisamebr, uwyveti an wyvetili unda iyos.

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Tavi 9

zustia verbaluri ganmtkiceba, Tu is zedmiwevniT asaxavs, konkretulad ra Seasrula moswavlem

kargad. sjobs vTqvaT, `dRes ar Cqarobdi da Secdoma TiTqmis ar dagiSvia~, vidre

ubralod aRvniSnoT, `kargi namuSevaria~. moswavle davalebis sizustes mSvidad muSaobas

daukavSirebs da swored is (mSvidi muSaoba) ganmtkicdeba. Tu maswavlebeli ambobs, `amocanebis

amoxsna daasrule, aalage Seni nivTebi Cemi Sexsenebis gareSe da daiwye wera. araCveulebrivia!~,

moswavlem icis, ras exeba sityva `araCveulebrivi~.

Sesatyvisi ganmtkiceba mniSvnelovania, radgan mas moswavlis survili ganapirobebs.

mesame piris TandaswrebiT Seqebam moswavle SeiZleba Seacbunos. Tu meeqvseklasel aTlet

moswavles kaligrafias SevuqebT, mas megobrebis dacinvis SiSi Seacbunebs; ukeTesi iqneba Tu

vetyviT, `jon, Sen Cveni erT-erTi saukeTeso moTamaSe xar da vfiqrob, motoruli koordinacia

iseTive kargi gaqvs, rogorc koordinacia mindorze~ (Hunter 1977). Tu davfiqrdebiT,

mivxvdebiT, ratom ver gvaZlevs sasurvel Sedegebs Seqebisa da ganmtkicebis Sesaxeb is kvlevebi,

romlebic mxedvelobaSi iRebs qcevis sixSires da moswavlis miRwevebTan korelacias

eZebs. sasurvel Sedegs mxolod ganmtkicebis Sesatyvisi gamoyenebiT viRebT.

ganmtkicebis mesame mniSvnelovani Taviseburebaa misi reJimi. b. f. skinerma aRmoaCina, rom

operantuli ganpirobebis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli qceva ufro myari da xangrZlivia, Tu mas

gamovlenisTanave ganvamtkicebT. magram am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania ganmtkicebebs Soris

intervalis TandaTanobiT zrda. cxrilSi es grafili daaxloebiT ase aisaxeba:

228

ganmamtkiceblis SeTavazeba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

qcevis ganxorcieleba x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

qcevis Camosayalibeblad ganmtkicebis wyvetili reJimis gamoyeneba ufro metad qcevis

modifikaciis sistematur gegmas Seesabameba, romelic maswavlebelma SeiZleba xelis awevis

qcevis ganmtkicebis da wamoZaxebis qcevis Sesustebis, an gakveTilze dagvianebis qcevis Sesustebis

da droulad misvlis qcevis ganmtkicebis mizniT gamoiyenos.

miuxedavad imisa, rom mkvlevarebi erTxmad aRiareben Sinagani ganmtkicebis dadebiT

efeqtebs, wlebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobs cxare debatebi garegani ganmamtkiceblebis

gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. pol Cansma (Paul Chance 1992) es sakiTxi momavlis WrilSi ganixila da

aRniSna, rom garegani ganmamtkiceblis gamoyeneba araTu misaRebi (ar amcirebs moswavleTa

motivacias ganmamtkiceblis gareSe Seasrulon aqtivoba), aramed aucilebelia. misi azriT,

garegani ganmamtkiceblebia maswavleblis Rimili, Seqeba, milocva, sityvebi `gmadlob~ an

`marTalia~, xelis CamorTmeva, Caxuteba, mxarze xelis dadeba, taSi, warmatebis sertifikatis

gadacema da sxva qcevebi, romlebsac `dadebiTi Sedegi aqvs moswavlis qcevaze~. gareganma

jildom SesaZloa Seamciros qcevaSi (mag., kiTxvaSi) moswavlis CarTvis stimuli, Tu

am ukanasknels mxolod monawileobas movTxovT da ara Sedegs (kargad wakiTxvas). magram Tu

jildo warmatebis proporciulia, anu moswavles kargi saqmianobis an miznebis miRwevisTvis

gadaecema, garkveuli drois Semdeg, jildos gauqmebis Semdegac ki, mas CarTulobaze

uaryofiTi gavlena ar eqneba. udavoa, rom warmatebis proporciul jildos aqtivobisadmi

interesis gaZliereba SeuZlia.

Sinagani jildo moswavlis mier kargad Sesrulebuli saqmianobiT ganpirobebul siamovnebas

gulisxmobs, magaliTad, Tu is imdenad kargad kiTxulobs, rom siamovnebas iRebs kargi

moTxrobis wakiTxviT. `miuxedavad Sinagani jildos mniSvnelobisa, is arasakmarisi pirobaa

efeqtiani swavlisTvis~ (Chance 1992, gv. 206), Tu mxolod mas daveyrdnobiT.

xelmZRvanelobis xarisxi

ra zomiT sWirdebaT moswavleebs xelmZRvaneloba davalebis kargad Sesasruleblad?

axali davalebis Sesrulebisas moswavleebs metad sWirdebaT gzis gakvalva, Tumca Semdgom,


swavlis principebi

saqmianobis dauflebis kvalobaze xelmZRvanelobis `moculoba~ mcirdeba. swavlis es principi

maswavleblis mier sxvadasxva moswavlisTvis sxvadasxva `moculobis~ xelmZRvanelobis

SeTavazebaSi ki ar vlindeba, aramed erTi da imave moswavlis an moswavleTa jgufisTvis

droTa ganmavlobaSi (axali masalis dauflebis siadvilis kvalobaze) gaweuli xelmZRvanelobis

`moculobaSi~. amis SemCneva xanmokle dakvirvebis safuZvelze zogjer rTulia. maswavlebelma

SesaZloa axali unari gaacnos klass da myisierad SesTavazos xelmZRvaneloba am

unaris dauflebaSi. magaliTad, mTeli klasisTvis masalis gacnobis Semdeg imuSaos mxolod

erT jgufTan, xolo danarCenebs (visac maswavleblis daxmareba ar sWirdebaT) daavalos damoukideblad

varjiSi, an auxsnas masala mTel klass da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, individualurad

daexmaros moswavleebs. es ukanaskneli drois TvalsazrisiT ufro efeqtiania, Tu

maswavlebeli warmatebiT gaarTmevs Tavs (maswavleblis mier dasaxuli miznis miRweva iseTi

mniSvnelovani araa, rogorc mis mier situaciis jansaRi Sefaseba _ ra masalas sWirdeba

ufro intensiuri an individualuri axsna, raTa moswavlem codnis miznobrivad gamoyeneba

SeZlos).

rTuli davalebebis dayofa ufro martiv nawilebad

am princips maSin vawydebiT, rodesac maswavlebeli iseTi masalis axsnas cdilobs, romelic

moswavleebma ver daZlies. davaleba iyofa ufro patara nawilebad da yuradReba maxvildeba

yovel nawilze. magaliTad, Tu moswavleebma amocanis piroba ver gaiges, maswavlebeli

gamoTvlebis dawyebamde mTavari kiTxvis Camoyalibebas an konceptualizaciis mizniT

amocanis dasuraTebas sTxovs. es principi vlindeba davalebis analizSi da uzrunvelyofs

amocanis daswavlis Tanamimdevrul wina pirobebs.

varjiSi

moswavleebi bevri unda vavarjiSoT axali unaris an operaciis swavlis dawyebisas (xSiri,

drois mokle intervalebSi Catarebuli varjiSi), xolo Semdeg drois intervalebi gavzardoT.

axali informaciis mniSvnelovani erTeulebi unda gavameorebinoT yovel jerze, rom

moswavle masalis konkretuli nawilis daswavlaSi darwmundes. daswavlis Semdeg codnis ganmtkicebisTvis

masalis 2-3-jer gameoreba (Warbswavla) aris saWiro. fizikuri da motoruli

unarebisagan gansxvavebiT, sadac varjiSi daxelovnebis pirobaa (meti ukeTess niSnavs), akademiur

unarebis xangrZlivi varjiSi swrafad aRwevs klebadi ukugebis (mobezrebis) wertils.

tabulebis an cxrilebis Seswavlisas yoveli elementi sxvebisgan damoukidebeli mn