mdinare mtkvris trans- - Kura River Basin

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mdinare mtkvris trans- - Kura River Basin

transsasazRvro mdinaris menejmentis meore faza, mdinare mtkvrisaTvissomxeTi, azerbaijani, saqarTveloTACIS/2007/134-398zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisaxelmZRvanelo dokumenti gadawyvetilebismimReb pirTaTvisteqnikuri angariSisaboloomomzadebulia:peter ronsakis, jasper ansbaekis, anatoli piCuginis mierEPTISA Servicios de Ingenieria S.A. (espaneTi) da Grontmij Carl Bro A.S (dania)Targmanis redaqtorebi: marine arabiZe, marina makarovaseqtemberi 2010proeqti dafinansebulia evrokavSiris mierSeniSvna: moxseneba mozadebulia evrokomisiis finansuri mxardaWeriT.teqstSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi konsultantebs ekuTvnis da arwarmoadgens komisiis oficialur mosazrebebs.1


mimoxilvaTu zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis istorias gadaavlebT Tvals,SeamCnevT, rom warsulSi zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programebiprocesTa mmarTvelebsa da gadawyvetilebaTa mimReb pirebs didiraodenobis daumuSavebel masalas awvdidnen da saWiro informacia xSiradarasakmarisi iyo. dRes, rodesac wyalTan dakavSirebulma problemebmaufro didi mniSvneloba SeiZina, codna gaizarda da politikur procesebSiwylis sakiTxebi metad prioritetuli gaxda, dadga zedapiruli wylebismonitoringis ganviTarebisadmi ufro gulisxmieri midgomebis dro. cxadia,unda Seiqmnas adekvaturi informaciisa da monacemebis saTanado gacvlispirobebi, raTa moxdes rogorc procesebis mmarTvelTa, asevegadawyvetilebis mimRebTa yoveldRiuri Sromis mxardaWera. mtkvrisSemTxvevaSi, mdinaris auzis teritoriasTan dakavSirebuligadawyvetilebebis mimRebma pirebma reagireba unda moaxdinon wylismenejmentis cvlilebebze da gamowvevebze, romlebic saxelisufleboreformebis, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis, decentralizaciis, garemosgadagvarebis, klimaturi da mniSvnelovani socialuri cvlilebebisSedegad wamoiWra. am situaciis kvaldakval, monitoringis praqtikuladganmaxorcielebeli pirebi, swori gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad,uzrunvelyofilni unda iyvnen arsebiTi, mowesrigebuli monacemebiTa dasruli informaciiT. Tumca, xSir SemTxvevaSi, SeiniSneba komunikaciisdeficiti, erTis mxriv _ procesTa mmarTvelebsa da gadawyvetilebismimRebTa, meores mxriv ki – wylis xarisxis monitoringis eqspertTa Soris.amis erT-erTi mTavari mizezi isaa, rom zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programebi ar Seiswavlis wylis sistemebs im masStabiT,romelic relevanturia gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis da, amdenad, aferxebsinformaciis gacvlas procesTa marTvisa da monitoringis jgufebs Soris.aucileblia marTvis, gadawyvetlebis miRebisa da monitoringis procesebsSoris ukeTesi integraciis uzrunvelyofa ufro farTo menejmenturisistemis farglebSi, romelic daefuZneba orive mxarisaTvis erTnairadgasageb integrirebul enas.amrigad, mtkvris monitoringis proeqtma unda SeimuSaos saxelmZRvaneloprincipebi, romelic zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis praqtikosebsgadawyvetilebis mimRebTa moTxovnebTan da monitoringis programebis miermowodebul monacemebsa da informaciasTan daakavSirebs. saxelmZRvanelodokumenti cikluri monitoringis bazazea agebuli (ix. nax. 1).aseve, wylis xarisxis monitoringisadmi integrirebuli midgomis midgomissademonstraciod, warmodgenilia evrokavSiris wylis CarCo direqtivis(wCd -s) danarTi V-is mier gansazRvruli zogierTi principi.zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programis Seqmisa Tu ganaxlebis drosavtorebma unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom zedapiruli wylebis monitoringi,erTis mxriv, rTuli da kompleqsuri samuSaoa, meores mxriv ki programagasagebi da mimzidveli unda iyos gadawyvetilebis mimReb im pirTaTvis,romlebic programis dafinansebas apireben.aqedan gamomdinare, monitoringis praqtikosebma unda gaarkvion,ra saxis informacia sWirdebaT2


gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs. (sainformacio moTxovnebi da gamoyenebagadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTaTvis t) da, amave dros, mkveTradgamoxaton zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis dizainis(monitoringis dizaini t) teqnikuri aspeqtebi (xarisxis menejmentisaRWurvilobis CaTvliT)gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa sainformacio moTxovnebi da gamoyenebamonitoringispraqtikosTamier gadawyvetilebis mimRebi pirebisaTvis yvelaze xSirad dasmuliSekiTxvebi, romlebic saxelmZRvaneloSi detaluradaaganxiluli, Semdegia:1. ra aris gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis mTavari sakiTxebi damoTxovnebi da rogor unda iyos isini integrirebulizedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis arsebul programaSi(sadac is arsebobs)?2. saxeldobr, vin unda iyos informaciis adresati, raTa igi swored impirebamde mivides, vinc gadawyvetilebis misaRebad saWiro poziciasflobs?3. relevanturia Tu ara miwodebuli informacia?4. romelia informaciis miwodebis swori saSualebebi (instrumentebi dameTodebi)?5. rogoria wylis problemebis politikuri mniSvneloba qveyanaSi darogor aris formulirebuli wylis problematika?6. wylis xarisxis produqtebi saTanadod mimzidvelia da RirebulidamfinansebelTaTvis?7. rogoria zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisaTvis saWiromosalodneli xarjebi?mosazrebebi monitoringis dagegmvis Sesaxebzedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis dagegmva sakmaod rTuli dakompleqsuri amocanaa, romelic moiTxovs iseTi sferoebis CarTulobas,rogoricaa wylis politika, wylis menejmenti, wylismecniereba, statistika, hidrologia, garemosdacviTi mecnierebani daekonomika.zogadad, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis dagegmva mimarTuliunda iyos mTavari sakiTxebisa da informaciuli moTxovnebisaken. Tumcasanam monitoringis praqtikosebi zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programis Seqmnas daiwyebdnen, pasuxi unda gaeces SekiTxvaTamTel rigs, maT Soris:1. rogoria mdinaris flora da biota?2. wylis xarisxis romeli elementebi unda klasificirdes da rogor?3. rogor xdeba zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis elementebis sinjebisaReba?4. sad unda moxdes am sinjebis aReba?5. sandoobis ra done moeTxoveba monitoringis mier mowodebulstatistikur Sedegebs?3


6. saWiroa Tu ara yvela nakadis sinjis aReba? Tu7. sakmarisi iqneba TveSi an sezonis ganmavlobaSi TiTo sinjis aReba?8. ra finansuri resursebia xelmisawvdomi zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringisaTvis?SekiTxvebis sruli sia gacilebiT didia. monitoringis praqtikosTaTvissasargeblo iqneba menejmentis im “instrumentTa” Seswavlac, romlebsacgadawyvetilebis mimRebni iyeneben (wylis xarisxis standarti,garemosdacviTi standarti, klasifikaciis sqemebi, nebarTvebi, iZulebisprocedurebi, dagegmvis moTxovnebi da a.S.) es monawileebs saSualebasmiscems gaerkvnen monitoringis miznebSi. magaliTad, evrokavSiris wCd-sprograma wylis menejmentis sam aspeqts moicavs:• dakvirvebiTi monitoringi xorcieldeba mdinaris mTel auzSi,zedapiruli wylebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb sruli informaciismisaRebad, misi sawyisi pirobebis dasadgenad da im grZelvadianitendenciebis gamosakveTad, romlebic gamowveulia rogorc bunebrivimizezebiT, aseve adamianis saqmianobiT;• operatiuli monitoringi xorcieldeba zedapiruli wylebisobieqtebis riskis donisa da agreTve situaciis gasaumjobesebladmiRebuli zomebis xarisxis gansasazRvrad;• gamoZiebiTi monitoringi xorcieldeba problemaTa - maT Soris,SemTxveviTi dabinZurebis mizezebis - dasadgenad.zogadad, zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programa sami mTavaridaniSnulebiTaa Seqmnili: monacemTa Segroveba, monacemTa damuSaveba damonacemTa warmodgena gadawyvetlebis mimRebTa informirebisaTvis. es samifunqcia saxelmZRvaneloSi ganxilulia xarisxis uzrunvelyofa/xarisxiskontrolis Sedegebis kuTxiTac. zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programis dagegmvisas, gasaTvaliswinebelia axaliteqnologiebi da sistemebi (mag. informaciuli sistemebi – is (IS)geografiuli informaciuli sistemebi – gis (GIS)), romlebmacmniSvnelovanwilad Secvala monacemTa interpretaciisa da warmodgenisSesaZleblobebi, miusadaga isini gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa moTxovnebsa dainteresebs. dabolos, monitoringis praqtikosebi unda acnobierebdnen, rommonitoringis programa Sefasebuli da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, Secvliliunda iyos gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mosazrebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.vimedovnebT, rom mkiTxveli gaecnoba saerTaSoriso literaturas dasaxelmZRvaneloebs operatiuli praqtikebis Sesaxeb zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringisa da Sefasebis teqnikur detalebSi ukeTgasacnobiereblad,4


SinaarsimimoxilvaSinaarsi1 Sesavali1.1 vis sWirdeba mocemuli saxelmZRvanelo?2 safuZvlebi2.1 ra unda vicodeT gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mxridanmonitoringisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebis Sesaxeb?2.2 ra aris zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringi?3 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis sainformacio strategiebi.3.1 politikis ganmsazRvrelTa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTamoTxovnebi3.1.1 arsebuli zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisprogramis (Tuki aseTi arsebobs) amocanebis gansazRvra dacvlilebaTa artikulireba3.1.2 informaciis sworad mimarTvis uzrunvelyofa3.1.3 darwmuneba, rom informacia swored maT miewodeba, visacgadawyvetilebis misaRebad adekvaturi pozicia ukavia3.1.4 informaciis miwodebis swori gzebis moZieba.4 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis Seqmna4.1 monacemTa Segroveba4.1.1 risi monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes da rogor?4.1.2 sad unda ganxorcieldes monitoringi?4.1.3 sad da ramdenad xSiradaa saWiro monitoringi?4.1.4 ra resursebia xelmisawvdomi an mosalodneli?4.2 monacemTa menejmenti da damuSaveba4.2.1 rogor uzrunvelvyoT monacemTa saimedooba?4.2.2 monacemTa Semowmeba da dadastureba4.2.3 xarisxis uzrunvelyofa da xarisxis kontroli zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis monitoringSi4.3 monacemTa Semowmeba4.3.1 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis standartebi4.3.2 zedapirul wylebTan dakavSirebuli garemosdacviTi xarisxisstandartebi4.4 monacemTa warmodgena da angariSgeba4.4.1 informaciis tipebi4.4.2 monacemTa vizualizacia da angariSgeba4.4.3 monacemTa xelmisawvdomoba5 monitoringis programis Sefaseba6 daskvniTi SeniSvnebigamoyenebuli literaturanaxatebis siacxrilebis siaabreviaturebis siadanarTi 1 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programaTasxvadasxva tipis dagegmvis nimuSebidanarTi 2 zogierTi SeniSvna xarisxis uzrunvelyofisa da xarisxiskontrolis sistemis Sesaxebxarisxis kontrolis tipebis magaliTebi5


1. Sesavalimdinare mtkvris regioni dRes dgas wylis menejmentis sferoSi mimdinareim mravali uprecedento cvlilebisa da gamowvevis pirispir, romlebsacsamTavrobo reformebi, urbanizacia, decentralizacia, garemosgadagvareba da klimaturi, agreTve sazogadoebaSi momxdari sxvamniSnelovani cvlilebebi iwvevs. am sagulisxmo cvlilebebis mimarTswori poziciis dasakaveblad, mdinare mtkvris auzis qveynebi dganan auziswylis resursebTan dakavSirebuli codnisa da menejmentis ganiTarebisaucileblobis winaSe. am procesis erT-erTi umTavresi momentia wylisresursebis ukve arsebuli monitoringis monacemebi da informacia.amdenad, wylis resursebis menejerTa Soris izrdeba zedapiruli wylebismonitoringis erovnuli programebis mier mopovebuli informaciismniSvnelobis gacnoebiereba. dRes gadawyvetilebis mimRebi pirebi, wylisresursebis menejmentisa da procesTa dagegmvisas, garkveuli doziTiyeneben mtkvris auzis qveynebis mier mopovebul informacias rogorcwylis xarisxis, aseve wylis raodenobis Sesaxeb. Tumca mdinare mtkvrisauzSi wylis monitoringis programebis bolodroindelma mimoxilvam daanalizma (ganxorcielebulma damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobisteqnikuri daxmarebis programis mtkvris proeqtis mier, 2009) gamoavlinazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monacemebSi arsebuli zogierTi xarvezi daproblema. wylis resursebTan dakavSirebuli monacemebis mTavariproblemebia arasruloba (dauxvewavi standartebi) da arahomogenuroba,agreTve xelmisawvdomi monacemebi srulad ar faravs da asaxavs viTarebas.garda amisa, aradamakmayofilebeli iyo monacemebis xelmisawvdomoba daCanawerTa xangZlivobac. wylis xarisxis monacemebis zogadi xarveziadaumuSavebeli monacemebi da gaumarTavi moxsenebi. arsebobs problemebimonacemTa prezentaciis sakiTxSic (damoukidebel saxelmwifoTaTanamegobrobis teqnikuri daxmarebis programis mtkvris proeqti, II faza,2009). am problemaTa safuZvelze, wylis resursebis menejerTa SorisSesaZloa gaCndes undobloba wylis monitoringis mier warmodgenilmoncemTaA mimarT. Seqmnili situaciis gamo, proeqti miznad isaxavs imgvarisaxelmZRvanelos Seqmnas, romelic xids gadebs gadawyvetlebis mimRebTamoTxovnebsa da monitoringis programiT mopovebul xarisxis monacemebsada informacias Soris.es saxelmZRvanelo dokumenti agebulia monitoringis ciklis bazaze (ix.nax. 1). agreTve, wylis xarisxis monitoringisadmi integrirebuli midgomissademonstraciod, warmodgenilia evrokavSiris wylis CarCo direqtivisdanarTi V-iT gansazRvruli zogirTi principi. Mme-2 Tavi iZlevazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis, agreTve wylis menejmentSimonacemebis gamoyenebis ganviTarebisa da istoriis mokle mimoxilvas. Mme-3TavSi yuradReba eTmoba monitoringis ciklis pirvel etapebs, ZiriTadad -gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis saWiro im informaciul moTxovnebsa dastrategiebs, romlebic dakavSirebulia zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringTan.me-4 Tavi detalurad aRwers zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis programisSeqmnas (monacemTa Segroveba, monacemebis menejmenti da interpretacia –xarisxis uzrunvelyofisa da xarisxis kontrolis CaTvliT da monacemTaprezentacia da moxsenebebi). Mme-5 da me-6 Tavebi eZRvneba monitoringis6


programis Sefasebas (gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa moTxovnebisdakmayofilebis aucileblobis gaTvaliswinebiT) da SeniSvnebs.vimedovnebT, rom mkiTxveli, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisada Sefasebis teqnikur detalebSi gasacnobiereblad, arsebuligamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebis mizniT, gaecnoba saerTaSorisoliteraturas da saxelZRvaneloebs moqmedi praqtikebis Sesaxeb.1.1 vis sWirdeba mocemuli saxelmZRvanelo?am saxelmZRvanelos mTavari mizania daexmaros zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis kontrolSi CarTul saxelmwifo da sajaro instituciebsa dasaagentoebs gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebze morgebuli programebisSeqmnasa da ganaxlebaSi, sinjebis aRebis, analizisa da monacemebismenejmentis sferoebSi SeZlebisdagvarad meti standartuli saoperacioprocedurebis SeTavazebiT, efeqtian fasze orientirebiT. amgvari midgomaaisaxeba xarisxis Sesaxeb dagrovil saboloo codnaze, romlisgamoyenebac SesaZlebeli iqneba analizisas, aseve sxva Sedegebis misaRebad(dagegmareba, wylis mejementi, garemos menejmenti da a.S.). am procesismeSveobiT, agreTve ukeTesi xarisxis menejmentisa da xarisxis damowmebisprocedurebis gamoyenebiT, yvela monawile mxare dazogavs teqnikur dafinansur resursebs.2. safuZvlebizedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringi im infromaciisa da monacemebismniSvnelovani wyaroa, romelic saWiroa wylis resursebis menejmentisganxorcielebis, garemos dacvis, dabinZurebis SemTxvevaTaA dadgenisa dasazogadoebis ganaTlebisaTvis. amdenad, mniSvnelovania mecnieruladdasabuTebuli, teqnikurad gamarTuli da efeqtiani Rirebulebismonitoringis programebis ganviTareba.2.1 ra unda vicodeT gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mxridan monitoringisadmiwayenebuli moTxovnebis Sesaxeb?gasul wlebSi saxelmwifo monitoringis programebi mxolod mcirenawili iyo dafinansebuli, Seqmnili an dagegmili damakmayofilebeldoneze. sajaro fondebidan gamoyofili didi Tanxebis adekvaturgankargvasTan dakavSirebuli gardauvali SekiTxvebi zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis ganmaxorciebeli mravali saagentos mierdamakmayofileblad ar iyo pasuxgacemuli. Tumca zogjer dResac gvxvdebasituacia, rodesac ver xerxdeba kavSiris moZebna zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis xarjebsa da informaciis saWiroebebs Soris wylisresurebis saTanado menejmentisaTvis, rogorc erovnul, asevetranssasazRvro doneebze . imisaTvis, rom saxelmwifom da sxvebma SeZlonzedapiruli wylebis kontrolis gansazRvra, marTva da aRricxva,zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis mier mopovebuli informaciakvlav gadamwyvetia. amdenad, monitoringis praqtikosebma zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis monitoringis programirebis adreul stadiazeve undagaiTvaliswinon: gadawyvetilebis mimRebni imsaxureben imas, rom icodnen,“ra saxis produqtebSi ixdian fuls, ra xarisxis standartebsdaakmayofilebs es produqtebi’’.7


zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis Seqmnis anganaxlebis dawyebisas, avtorebma unda gaiTvaliswinon, rom zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis monitoringi kompleqsuri struqturaa, romelic moicavs:• gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa moTxovnebisa da interesebis Semxvedrstrategias.• monacemTa Segrovebis sivrciT Tu droiT sqemas.• wylis xarisxis qimiuri, fizikuri Tu biologiuri elemenetebis(indikatorebis) ganviTarebas.• procesebs, romlebic uzrunvelyofs monacemTa da informaciisgonivrul Sefasebas.• im organizaciuli infrastuqturis Seqmnas, romelSic undaganxorcieldes procesebi.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisa da Sefasebis fundamenturipirobaa im sivrciT masStabze morgeba, romelSic menejmenti undaganxorcieldes. es martivi piroba saSualebas aZlevs menejmentispolitikas, midgomebsa da aqtivobebs, mWidrod iyos dakavSirebulisakuTari wylis resursebis im SedegebTan, romlebsac monitoringisa daSefasebis procesi gamoavlens.2.2. ra aris zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringi?monitoringi informaciuli sistemis tipia, romlis meSveobiTac, mocemuldroSi da gansazRvruli wesiT, xdeba monacemTa Segroveba, daxarisxeba,marTva, analizi da warmodgena. monitoringis mizania uzrunvelyosadekvaturi informacia politikisa da menejmentis formulirebis,aRiarebis, CarTulobis da/an kontrolisaTvis. M ufro farTo gagebiT,monitoringi SeiZleba CarTuli iyos wylis menejmentis informaciulciklSi informaciul moTxovnasa da informaciis gamoyenebas SoriskavSiris dasamyareblad.wylis menejmentiinformaciuli moTxovnebiinformaciis gamoyenebamonitoringis strategiaangariSgebaqselis gegmamonacemTa analizisinjebis aRebamonacemTa klasificirebalaboratoriuli analizi8


naxati 1 monitoringis cikli (wyaro: UNECE, 2000)saxelmZRvanelo principia, rom monitoringi (da Sefaseba) undaganixilebodes, rogorc erTmaneTTan dakavSirebul aqtivobaTaASemadgeneli nawili, romelic iwyeba sainformacio moTxovnebisgansazRvriT da sruldeba informaciuli produqtebis gamoyenebiT.aqtivobaTaA am cikls “monitoringis cikli” ewodeba (ix. naxati 1) dagamoyenebulia mocemuli saxelZRvanelos Seqmnisas.istoriulad, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis sistemebmaganviTarebis ramdenime faza ganvles, “monacemTa mogrovebiT’’ dawyebuli,“informaciis generirebiT” dasrulebuli.3. wylis xarisxis monitoringis sainformacio strategiebimonitoringis sistemebis ganaxlebisas an Seqmnisas, upirvelesi nabijiamonitoringis miznis – informaciis amocanebis gansazRvra. monitoringisprogramis es etapi procesis yvelaze kritikuli nawilia: am etapze daSvebulmaSecdomam SeiZleba mTeli programis ngreva gamoiwvios. Tu Secdoma daSvebuliaanalizisas, monacemebi SeiZleba xelaxla gaanalizdes; magram Tuki mTelimonitoringis programa arasaTanadodaa daprogramebuli, maSin saukeTesoanalizic ki problematuri xdeba, xolo uares SemTxvevaSi – “misiaSeusrulebeli” rCeba.warsulSi, rodesac zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisprogramebi politikis ganmsazRvrelebs monacemebis did raodenobasdaumuSavebeli saxiT awvdida, saTanado informacia arasakmarisi iyo. dRes,rodesac wylis resursebi politikur proeqtebSi mniSvnelovan adgilsikavebs, dadga ufro gonivruli midgomebis dro. cxadia, rom unda Seiqmnasmonacemebisa da informaciis damakmayofilebeli gacvlis pirobebi, raTamoxdes rogorc politikis, aseve gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mxardaWera maTyoveldRiur saqmianobaSi. Tumca, Tu dRevandel situacias SevxedavT,arsebobs komunikaciis deficiti, erTis mxriv _ politikisganmsazRvrelTa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa, meores mxriv ki – wylisxarisxis monitoringis eqspertTa Soris. amis erT-erTi umTavresi mizeziisaa, rom zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programebi arSeiswavlis wylis sistemebs gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis saWiromasStabiT da, amdenad, politikis processa da monitoringis jgufebsSoris informaciis gacvla aradamakmayofilebelia. aqedan gamomdinare,aucilebelia politikis ganmsazRvrelTa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaukeTesi integraciis uzrunvelyofa ufro farTo menejmentis sistemisfarglebSi, romelic daefuZneba orive mxarisaTvis erTanirad gasagebintegrirebul enas. rogorc naxat 1-zea naCvenebi, gamoiyofa monitoringisciklis ori mxare; zeda nawili SeiZleba aRweril iqnas, rogorc“gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mier informaciis moTxovna da misi gamoyeneba’’,xolo qvedas SeiZleba ewodos “monitoringis programis Seqmna’’. ammidgomis miyola dagvexmareba monitoringis saukeTeso instrumentebisarCevaSi, raTa saTanadod daigegmos da ganisazRvros monitoringismasStabi da kompleqsuroba.3.1 politikis gnmsazRvrelTa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa moTxovnebi9


efeqtiani informaciis miwodeba gulisxmobs sakvanZo principTaAgarkveulraodenobas, romelTa mixedviTac sarwmuno xdeba, rom informacia saWiro,adekvaturi, sasurveli, gamoyenebadi, xelmisawvdomi da droulia.gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad saWirozedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringTan dakavSirebuliinformaciuli moTxovnebis gansazRvra ramdenime safexurs moicavs:1. zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis (Tuki aseTiarsebobs) miznebisa da saWiro cvlilebebis gansazRvra.2. informaciis zusti adresatis gansazRvra, sxvagvarad – darwmuneba,rom informacia swored mas miewodeba, visac adekvaturi poziciaukavia gadawyvetilebis misaRebad.3. darwmuneba, rom misawodebeli informacia adresatis moTxovnebsSeesabameba.4. infomaciis miwodebis swori gzebis moZieba.am TavSi es 4 safexuri detaluradaa ganxiluli.3.1.1 arsebuli zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis (TukiaseTi arsebobs) amocanebis gansazRvra da cvlilebaTa artikulirebamonitoringis praqtikosTaA mier gansaxorcielebeli aqtivobebis pirveletapze im procesebis dadgenaa aucilebeli, romelic ukve mimdinareobs.aseTebia: zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis politikis arsebuli mdgomareobada funqcionireba. amis gakeTeba ara mxolod procesebis monawile pirTafunqciebis zust gansazRvraSi gvexmareba, aramed monitorings politikurmniSvnelobas sZens. am aqtivobaTa gansazRvris wyaroebi SeiZlebamoicavdes erovnul wylis politikas, wylis resursebis dacvasTandakavSirebul kanonmdeblobas (e.w. wylis aqti), sadac zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis miznebi specifikuradaa gansazRvruli. am etapzepolitikis ganmsazRvrelTa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mier yvelazexSirad dasmuli SekiTxvebi aseTia:• rogoria wylis saerTo xarisxi qveyanaSi?• ramdenad icvleba wylis xarisxi droTa ganmavlobaSi?• romelia problematuri regionebi da ra aris am problemaTaAmTavari Sedegebi?• romel regionebs sWirdeba dacva?• daculobis ra donea saWiro?• ramdenad efeqtiania wylis resursebis dasacavad miRebuli zomebi?• rogoria wylis xarisxis monitoringis saerTo Rirebuleba?garda amisa, saWiroa imis codna, Tu “politikis sasicocxlo ciklis”romel etapzea lokalizebuli zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis aqtivobebi da rogoria maTdami gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaAdamokidebuleba. rogorc politikis ganmsazRvrelTa, asevegadawyvetilebis mimRebTa interesebis dasakmayofileblad, politikurisasicocxlo ciklis sxvadasxva etapze aqtivobisA sxavadsxva formaasaWiro. (ix. naxati 2) amdenad, politikis sasicocxlo ciklis sxvadasxvaetapze zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis jgufma sxvadasxva10


konkretuli midgoma, instrumenti da SekiTxva unda gamoiyenos. am etapisaqtivobaTaAmeore jgufi monitoringis praqtikosTa mier fokusirebuliunda iyos, sul mcire, qvemoT moyvanil SekiTxvebze pasuxis Ziebaze; aseve,maT Sedarebaze gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa mier yvelaze xSirad dasmulwina SekiTxvebTan:• rogoria zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis(Tuki aseTi arsebobs) mimdinare miznebi?• ra saxis cvlilebebis ganxorcielebas isurvebdiT Tqvenimonitoringis programis Sedegad?• ra winaaRmdegobaTa da barierTa gadalxvaa saWiro Tqven miergansazRvruli cvlilebebis gansaxorcieleblad?politicalimportanceProblemrecognitionPolicy Policy Results’formulation implementation evaluationPolicy life cycletimeResearch, environmental behaviour,risk assessment, toxicological propertiesInventories, surveysDefinition of criteria and targetsMonitoring of temporal trends,spatial distributionsCompliance monitoringnaxati 2 wylis xarisxis kontrolis politikis sasicocxlo cikli. (wyaroarnoldi, g, 2004)teqsti naxatze:politikis sasicocxlo ciklimarcxnidan marjvniv: politikuri mniSvneloba.problemis Secnobapolitikis formulirebapolitikis ganxorcielebaSedegebis Sefasebadrokvelva, garemosdacviTi qmedeba, riskis Sefaseba, toqsikologiuriTvisebebi11


inventari, gegmakriteriumebis da miznebis gansazRvramimdinare tendenciaTaA monitoringi, sivrciTi distribuciaSesabamisobis monitoringizemoxsenebul kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemisa da saTanado analizis Semdegunda gvqondes rogorc gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa interesebis, aseve wylisxarisxis monitoringis miznebis adekvaturi sainformacio paketi.3.1.2. informaciis sworad mimarTvis uzrunvelyofaim situaciebSi, sadac ukve arsebobs zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis organizaciebi, albaT cnobilia, rogor mimdinareobs isetapi, romelzec zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis informaciisganviTarebisaTvis saWiro xalxisa da organizaciebis gansazRvra xdeba.politikis ganmsazRvrel da gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa umravlesobassurs zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis informacia gonivrulad gamoiyenos.arsebiTad, es etapi saWiro xalxis gansazRvrisa (gadawyvetilebis mimRebipirebi, agreTve, maTTan dakavSirebuli sxva pirebi) da urTierTobebisdamyarebis aucileblobidan gamomdinareobs. cxadia, gadawyvetilebismimReb pirebTan erTad CarTuli unda iyvnen sxva pirebi, magaliTad,mrCevlebi, visi azric gavlenas axdens gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebze;adamianebi, romlebsac SeuZliaT gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebze zewolismoxdena (mag. parlamentis wevrebi) aseve isini, visac SeuZlia monitoringisjgufis mier mowodebuli rekomendaciebis mxardaWera (akademiuri dakvleviTi sazogadeba); dabolos, media, romelsac SeuZlia sakiTxebissazogadoebamde mitana (raTaA wylis problematika sajaro sivrceSimudmivad aqtualuri iyos). es adamianebi gavlenas axdenen gadawyvetilebismimReb pirebze. gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTaAmiznebis gansazRvrisaTviskargi iqneba Semdegi rCevebis gaTvaliswineba:• zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis SeqmnisdasawyisSi daxarjeT dro imis gasarkvevad, Tu vin ras warmoadgens.• gaarkvieT, vinaa lideri “SexedulebaTa formirebis’’ sakiTxSi.• ecadeT moipovoT im akedemiuri wreebisa da sxva saxelmwifosaagentoebis mxardaWera, romlebic aRiareben, rom Tqvenidawesebulba aris rogorc sando (mecnierulad argumentrebuliinformaciis gamo), aseve – politikis ganmsazRvrelTa mierformulirebuli amocanebis adekvaturi.• uzrunvelyaviT urTierkavSiris damyareba zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis programasa da im politikisganmsazRvrelTa da gadawyvetilebebis mimRebTaA miznebs Soris,romlebmac potenciurad unda gamoiyenon am programiT mopovebulimonacemebi da informacia.• gamarTeT monawile pirebs Soris rogorc araformaluri, aseve –oficialuri Sexvedrebi, aseve – vorkSopebi, sadac moiwvevTgadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs. mowveulni zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis programis maRali donis profesionalebiunda iyvnen.12


• situaciebSi, sadac arCevnebis Sedegad xelisufleba icvleba,gamarTeT Sexvedrebi axal warmomadgenlebTan. uzrunvelyaviT isinizedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programasTandakavSirebuli saTanado informaciiT, gaarkvieT, rogoria maTimiznebi, ra molodinebi SeiZleba gqondeT da SesTavazeTprogramasTan mierTeba.am samuSaoTa Sesrulebis Semdeg gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebsa dazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis sxvaprofesionalebs situaciis Sesaxeb zusti warmodgena unda SeqmnaT.Sedegad, am procesma unda dagarwmunoT, rom zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringi “swor relsebze” dgas.3.1.3 darwmuneba, rom informacia swored maT miewodeba, visacgadawyvetilebis misaRebad adekvaturi pozicia ukaviaam konteqstSi, informaciuli moTxovnebis analizi gagebuli unda iyos,rogorc ufro farTo informaciuli konteqstis nawili informaciismimRebTa perseqtividan - risi codna sWirdebaT maT da sad cdiloben mismopovebas.maSasadame, am etapze saWiroa koncentrireba imis gagebaze, Tu rogoriazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis informaciis moTxovna,agreTve im farTo konteqstze, romelSic es informacia grovdeba.damatebiT, imis gasagebad, Tu ra saxis informacia ainteresebTgadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs, unda gavarkvioT, rodis da sad eZeben isinimonacemebs da ra saxis monacemebs iyenebeben gadawyvetilebis miRebisas.aseve sasargebloa imis codna, gamoiyeneba Tu ara monacemebi dainformacia regularuli wesiT. Semdegi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, romelzecyuradRebis gamaxvilebaa saWiro, aris is, Tu rogor da sad iyeneben wylisxarisxis politikisa da wylis menejmentis arsebul monacemebspolitikosebi. Tu aseT SemTxvevas adgili aqvs, mosalodnelia, romzedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis Sedegebi mimzidveliaRmoCndeba da gamoyenebuli iqneba ufro farTo konteqstisaTvis,magaliTad – socialur-politikuri zewolisaTvis an, aRricxvisas,politikisa da monitoringis Sedegebis kombinirebisaTvis.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis Seqmnisas anganaxlebisas, miznebis ganmsazrRvrel pirebsa da monitoringis jgufebsSoris yvelaze aqtualuri Tema SesaZloa iyos monacemTa forma, tipebi daanalizis done. zogierTma gadawyvetilebis mimRebma SeiZleba miTxovosinformaciis daumuSavebli saxiT miwodeba, raTa moxdes misi Sidaanalitikur procesSi integrireba (Tumca es arc ise xSirad xdeba).umeteswilad, monitoringis jgufis mier warmoebuli analizi saWiroa maTmier gaweul Sromasa da gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa interesebs SoriskavSiris sademonstraciod.misawodebeli informaciis mniSvnelovani aspeqtia gadawyvetilebismimRebTa mier monacemebis teqnologiur doneze gamarTva (mag. IT/IS-i dakomunikaciuri qseluri muSaoba); aseve – monitoringis praqtikosTa miermiwodebuli informaciisa da monacemebis gamoyenebis personaluri unarebi.13


samizne gadawyvetilebaTa mimRebi pirebisadmi miwodebuli informaciisadekvaturobis uzrunvelsayofad, unda ganxorcieldes cxril 1-SiaRwerili Semdegi aqtivobebi.cxrili 1 informaciis tipebi da maTi Sesabamisoba gadawyvetilebis mimRebpirTa interesebTan.AaqtivobagansazRvreT samizne politikisada gadawyvetlebis mimRebTaTvisyvelaze arsebiTi Sedegebi.gansazRvreTsamiznegadawyvetilebaTaA mimRebipirebisaTvis saWiro codnis tipida misi moZiebis adgili.gansazRvreT informaciis tipi,romelic yvelaze metad sWirdebaTsamizne gadawyvetilebaTaA mimRebpirebs, Semdeg daukavSireTinformacia sxvaTa interesebs. argamogrCeT informaciis miwodebisformebis mimzidvelobaze zrunva.gansazRvreT is gzebi, romliTacsamizne gadawyvetilebis mimRebpirebs daarwmunebT, romzedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programis miermopovebuliinformaciasasargeblo da gamoyenebadia.zoma/qmedeba• warmmarTveli Zalebi –zewola-saxelmwifo-zegavlenapasuxismgebloba_gamoyenebuli unda iyossakiTxTa CamoyalibebisaTvis.• SearCieT, sad SeiZleba iyosgamoyenebuli monitoringisstrategiuli zegavlena.• CamoayalibeT Sexedulebawylis ekosistemebis Sesaxeb• CamoayalibeT Sexedulebawylis specifikuri gamoyenebisSesaxeb• cnobierebis xarisxis amaRleba• uzrunvelyaviT informaciagaremos mdgomareobisa daxangrZlivi tendenciebisSesaxeb.• CaatareT analizi, Tu rogorSeiZleba Seicvalos momavalSiadamianTa sazogadoeba dawylis ekosistema (mag. sakiTxissocialur-ekonomikuriaspeqtebi)• monacemTa Segrovebis sivrciTilokalizacia.• tendenciebis analizisuzrunvelyofa.• gadawyvetilebis mimRebTinformacia iseTi gziT undamiewodos, romelic maTTvisyvelaze xelsayrelia• deklarirebuli unda iyosxarisxis damowmebis/xarisxiskontrolis standartebi.• Zalze mniSvnelovania immonacemTa speqtris codna,romelic yvelaze sasargebloiqneba samizne gadawyvetilebismimRebTaTvis.14


amgavari analizi dagvarwmunebs, rom SeTavzebuli informacia adekvaturida sasurvelia samizne gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis da Seqmnis situacias,rodesac zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis mxardaWerisakenmowodeba Sesmenil iqneba.3.1.4 informaciis miwodebis swori gzebis moZiebarodesac monacemebi da informacia moTxovnil formebs Seesabameba,saWiroa im gzebis moZieba, romliTac es informacia sakvanZo pirebisxelSi unda moxvdes. amisaTvis mravali xelmisawvdomi saSualeba arsebobs,magaliTad:• moxsenebebisa da saWiro dokumentebis gamoqveyneba;• vorkSopebisa da ormxrivi Sexvedrebis mowyoba;• komunikaciis organizeba ufro farTo auditoriisaTvisxelmisawvdomi vebsaitebis gamoyenebiT.am saSualebebis rogorc Sinaarsi, aseve forma SeiZleba gansxvavebuliiyos. isini SesaZloa emsaxurebodes sakvanZo mesijebis demonstrirebas(zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringTan dakavSirebuli mTavariTezisebis mokle formulirebebi) an dafuZnebuli iyos ufro rTul dakompleqsur scenarze. aseTi scenarebi gadawyvetilebis mimRebT exmarebagaurkvevlobis daZlevaSi da qmedebis gzebis imgvarad gansazRvraSi, rominformacia cxadi iyos, gaugebrobebi ki – Tavidan acilebuli. dResarsebuli dagegmvis kompiuteruli programebi (gss-ze dafuZnebuli)SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas gansxvavebul scenarTa vizualizaciisaTvis,rogorc magaliTad, evrokavSiris wCd moiTxovs evrokavSiris wevriqveynebisagan.rac Seexeba imas, Tu rogor da sad unda miewodos zedapiruli wylebismonitoringis programis mier mopovebuli monacemebi da informacia, amsakiTxis mniSvnelovani aspeqtia “wylis sakiTxTa ciklis’’ codna, rasacSeuZlia mniSvnelovani daxmareba gagviwios procesebis droSi dagegmvisas,sxva konkurent an monaTesave sajaro da politikuri interesebisgaTvaliswinebiT. procesis am etapze zedapiruli wylebis monitoringisSeTavazebani SeiZleba gadawyvetilebis mimReb samizne pirebs warvudginoT.magaliTad, imaSi dasarwmuneblad, rom moTxovnili informacia saTanadogzebiT miewodeba gadawyvetilebis mimReb samizne pirebs, SegviZliaganvaxorcieloT momdevno aqtivobebi (ix. cxrili 2):cxrili 2 samizne gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa mier moTxovniliinformaciis miwodebis gzebiaqtivobakomunikaciisganviTarebastrategiiszoma/qmedeba• komunikaciis strategiamoicavs yvela sakvanZomoqmed pirs, aseve medias.• amgvari strategiisgansaviTareblad gamoiyenebaarsebuli standartulidokumentebikomunikaciis sxvadasxva tipisgansazRvra,sxvadasxva• gadawyvetlebis mimRebTainteresebze morgebuli15


klientisaTvis Sesaferisi masalis informaciaformatireba• daumuSavebeli monacemebidan– monacemTa analizamde dadaxarisxebulindikatorebamde, gss rukebida sxv.Amzad iyaviT zewolisaTvis • mzad iyaviT moulodneliSansisaTvis, waradginoTmonitoringis SedegebimediaSi.• gaiTvaliswineT, romadvilad wasakiTxi mesijebisSemcveli mokle dokumentebisasargebloa ara mxolodmediasTan muSaobisas.darwmundiT, rom maT, visaczedapiruli wylebis monitoringisprogramis informaciiT mimarTeT,namdvlad miiRes igi.• darwmundiT, romgadawyvetilebis mimRebisamizne pirebi namdviladgaecnen moxsenebas an sxvaproduqtebs.• moawyeT interviuebi angamokiTxva da moiTxoveTpasuxi, gamosadegia Tu aramiwodebuli informacia.4 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis Seqmna‘’kargi monitoringis programis Seqmna dagarwmunebT, rom swor SekiTxvebssvamT, saTanado monacemebs agrovebT da monacemebs informatiulad sasurveldoneze waradgenT. monitoringis programis gegma pirveli gasaRebiamonacemTa xarisxis damowmebisas da imdenad martivi an imdenaddetalizebuli unda iyos, ramdenadac amas Tqveni sainformacio strategiismiznebi moiTxovs. monitorings mokle gzebi ar gaaCnia’’ (wylis xarisxismonitoringis programa, dasavleT avstralia, 2009)zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis Seqmna sakmaodrTuli da kompleqsuri amocanaa, romelic iTxovs sxvadasxva sferosCarTulobas, rogorebicaa: wylis politika, wylis menejmenti, wylismecniereba, statistika, hidrologia, garemosdacviTi faseulobebi daekonomika.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programebis Seqmnisas,gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos miznebi da informaciuli moTxovnebi.bunebrivia, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis erovnuliprogramebi gavlenas moaxdens am miznebze (mag. kanonis SezRudvebi), racSeiZleba xelisSemSleli faqtori aRmoCndes miRwevaTaA gazomvisas. amismiuxedavad, monitoringis praqtikosebi unda acnobierebnden situacias dapativiscemiT ekidebodnen mas monitoringis programis Seqmnisas.miznebisa da monitoringis informaciis sailustracio masalis saxiT,SesaZloa ganvixiloT evrokavSiris wylis CarCo direqtiva (evrokavSiris16


wCd (ixileT grafa qvemoT)). evrokavSiris wCd-s preambula gansazRvravs -mTeli qveynis masStabiT - SedarebiTi da sistemuri bazis wylis statusismonitoringis moTxovnebs. es moTxovnebi mTlianadaa mocemulievrokavSiris wCd-s me-8 muxlSi da ganmartebulia danarT V-Si(monitoringis tipebi da monitoringis principebi)danarTi V miuTiTebs, rom zedapiruli wylebis Sesaxeb informaciasaWiroa:• statusis klasificirebisaTvis. (SeniSvna: regionis wevrma qveynebmaunda waradginon auzis maTdami kuTvnil teritoriaze mdebareTiToeuli ubnis ruka, romelic asaxavs wylis TiToeuli obieqtisekologiuri da qimiuri mdgomareobis klasifikacias, SesrulebulsdireqtiviT gansazRvruli feriTi kodis sistemiT)• danarTi II-is riskis Sefasebis procedurebis Sevsebisa daganxorcielebisaTvis.• samomavlo monitoringis programebis efeqtiani da SedegianiagebisaTvis.• bunebrivi pirobebis grZelvadiani cvlilebebis aRwerisaTvis.• farTo anTropogenuri aqtivobiT gamowveuli grZelvadianicvlilebebis aRwerisaTvis.• saerTaSoriso sazRvris gaswvriv gavrcelebuli an zRvaSi CamdinaredabinZurebis SefasebisaTvis.• riskis qveS myofad identificirebuli wylis obieqtebis mdgomareobisaRwerisaTvis, raTa droulad ganxorcieldes situaciisgamosasworebeli an dacviTi RonisZiebebi.• SemTxveviTi dabinZurebis magnitudisa da zegavlenis gansazRvrisaTvis.• interkalibraciuli samuSaoebis gamoyenebisaTvis (SevniSnavT, rom esar aris me- 8 muxlis moTxovna)• daculi teritoriebis standartebsa da intersebTan SesabamisobisgarantirebisaTvis da• zedapiruli wylebis obieqtebisaTvis gankuTvnili sarekomendaciopirobebis (Tuki isini arsebobs) aRwerisaTvis (SevniSnavT, rom es araris me- 8 muxlis moTxovna).(evrokomisia, saxelmZRvanelo dokumenti #7, EvrokavSiri wCd)SekiTxvaTa paketi win unda uswrebdes zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programas. SeiZleba wamoiWras iseTi SekiTxvebi, rogoricaa:‘’mdinareSi arsebuli ra flora da biota unda klasificirdes?’’;“rogoraa aRebuli zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis elementebis sinjebi?’’;‘’sad unda moxdes sinjebis aReba?’’; ‘’sandoobis ra done moeTxovebastatistikur Sedegebs?’’; ‘’aucilebelia Tu ara yvela nakadis sinji?’’;‘’iqneba Tu ara TveSi an sezonze erTi sinji sakmarisi?’’SekiTxvebis sia SesaZloa kvlavac gagrZeldes. amave etapze sasargebloiqneba menejmentis im ‘’instrumentTa’’ Seswavla, romlebic gadawyvetilebismimRebTaA mier gamoiyeneba (kriteriumebi, standartebi, nebarTvebi,iZulebis procedurebi, dagegmvis pirobebi da a.S.) aseve im miznebisgacnoba, romlisTvisac monitoringis programa iqmneba. magaliTad,evrokavSiris wCd-s mier gansazRvruli monitoringis programa moicavswylis menejmentis Semdeg aspeqtebs:17


• dakvirvebiTi monitoringi xorcieldeba mdinaris mTel auzSi,zedapiruli wylis statusis Sesaxeb sruli informaciismosapoveblad, raTa ganisazRvros sawyisi pirobebi da Semowmdesrogorc adamianuri, aseve bunebrivi aqtivobiT ganpirobebuligrZelvadiani tendenciebi;• operatiuli monitoringi xorcieldeba riskis qveS myofizedapiruli wylebis obieqtebis dasadgenad, agreTve situaciisgasaumjobeseblad miRebuli zomebis warmatebulobis xarisxisgansasazRvrad;• gamoZiebiTi monitoringi xorcieldeba problemaTa mizezebisdasadgenad, SemTxveviTi dabinZurebis CaTvliT.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis Seqmnisgamartivebuli magaliTi naCvenebia naxat 3-zenaxati 3 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programisganaxlebis diagramaproduqti instrumentebi informaciul moTxovnaTaanalizisakiTxTa damoTxovnaTa statistikurimimdinare statusis gansasazRvrisiaanalizi, inventari da a.S. analiziarealis mimoxilva,landSaftismodelebi, statistikurianalizisad unda ganxorcieldesTanmimdevruli monitoringi?sinjebisaRebisadgilebissiawylis obieqtebsaqvsmaRalialbaToba, ardaakmayofilon wxawylisobieqtebiukveakmayofileben wxa-s anaqvsdabalialbaToba,verdaakmayofilon igi(monitoringigrZeldeboda, sulmcire, 6wlisganamvlobaSi)18


auzis daxasiaTeba,arealis mimoxilva,adgilis specifikissinjebisaReba,Cveulebrivi monitoringi.rogor unda movagrovoTinformacia?aRricxva,wylisxarisxismdgomareobis rukais wylis obietqebi, romelTawxa-sTanSeusabamobadadasturebuliamonitoringis programamonitoringis gagrZelebazogadad, zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programa Sedgenilia samifunqcionaluri etapis mixedviT: monacemTa Segroveba, monacemTaAdamuSaveba da monacemTaA warmodgena, romelTa umTavresi mizaniagadawyvetilebis mimRebTa informireba. es sami funqcia ufrodetaluradaa ganxiluli modevno qveTavSi.4.1. monacemTa Segrovebaes safexuri gulisxmobs zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programissivrciT da droiT gansazRvrasa da aRweras. monacemTaA Segroveba Sedgebaori mTavari komponentisagan – sinjebis aRebisa da laboratiriulianalizisagan. am saxelmZRvanelos miznebTan Sesabamisad, monacemTaSegrovebis Tema ramdenime sakiTxadaa dayofili.4.1.1 risi monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes da rogor?zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis nebismieri programisgansaxorcieleblad, saWiroa zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis arsebuliparametrebis didi raodenobidan mTavari da damatebiTi parametrebisSerCeva. imis gansazRvra, Tu ‘’risi monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes’’,damokidebulia zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programis miznebsa daamocanebze, magram, amave dros, garkveulwilad SezRudulia finansuri Tuteqnikuri resursebiT.zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programam wylis xarisxis parametrebisSerCeva miznebsa da amocanebs unda moargos. magaliTad, Tu programismizania daadginos, Seesabameba Tu ara wylis obieqti rekreaciis funqcias(sabanao wyali), Seswavlili unda iyos iseTi parametrebi, rogoricaaazotis, fosforis, qlorofil ‘a’-s koncentracia da fekaliebisSemcveloba. Tu mizania ganisazRvros qimiuri mdgomareobis zogadiparametrebi, rogoricaa pH, Jangbadis koncentracia, nutrientiskoncentracia, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis parametrebSi Setanili undaiyos saTanado organuli mikrodamabinZureblebi da mZime metalebi.zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis saxelmwifo programebs mravalqveyanaSi ukve gansazRvruli aqvT wylis xarisxis parametrebis minimaluri19


nusxa, romelic dgindeba kanoniT. aseve, magaliTad saxiT arsebobsevrokavSiris wCd-s nawili - danarTi V (ix. cxrili 3)cxrili 3 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis parametrebi dakvirvebiTimonitoringisaTvis (wyaro : direqtiva 2000/60/Eevrokomisia)biologiuri xarisxis hidro-morfologiuri fizikur-qimiurielementebixarisxis elementebi xarisxis elementebifitoplanqtoni xangrZlivoba temperatururulipirobebiwylis sxva flora hidrologia JangbadiT gajerebamakro uxerxemloebi morfologia marilianobaTevzinutrientebiskoncentraciamJavianobis mdgomareobasxva damabinZureblebiprioritetulinivTierebebiSerCeuli zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis parametrebisaTvis sul mcire,koncentraciis done, (an koncentraciis mosalodneli zRvrebi), aRmoCeniszRvari (an raodenobriobis zRvari) an gazomvisas cdomilebis dasaSvebidone gansazRvruli unda iyos monitoringis programis SeqmnisdasawyisSive. (rogorc magaliTi, ix. cxrili 4)cxrili 4 wylis xarisxis parametrebTan dakavSirebuli informacia(wyaro: transnacionaluri monitoringis qseli - TNMN, 2006, mdinare dunaisvis saerTaSoriso komisia ICPDR. vena)parametrierTeuli savaraudo qvedazRvarizedazRvariaRmoCeniszRvaridaSvebagaxsniliJangbadinitrati (NO3-N)mg/l 0,5 5 0,2 0,2 an 20%mg/l 0,2 1 0,2 0,1 an 20%tyvia (Pb) µg/l 10 100 3 3 an 20%kadmiumi (Cd) µg/l 1 10 0.5 0.5 an 20%pp’DDT µg/l 0.05 0.5 0.01 0.01 an 30%...... … ... ... ... ...SekiTxvis meore nawili – « rogor CavataroT monitoringi »,fokusirebulia monitoringis monacemTa xarisxze. zogadad, monacemTaxarisxi SeiZleba gaizomos xuTi gziT: sizuste, sicxade, sisrule,warmomadgenlobiToba da SedarebiToba. monacemTa xarisxisaTvismoTxovnili done damokidebulia zedapiruli wylebis monitoringisprogramis miznebsa da amocanebze, gansakuTrebiT – rogor iqnebamonacemebi gamoyenebuli gadawyetilebis mimRebTa mier. mogrovilimonacemebi ufro zusti iqneba, Tu sinjebi:• srulia (ramdenadac SesaZlebelia)20


• warmomadgenlobiTia (wylis obieqtebis an wyalSemkrebi auzis)• da SedarebiTia (sxva monacemebTan mimarTebiT)sicxade aris erTi da igive maxasiaTeblebis an parametrebisganmeorebad gazomvebs Soris Tavsebadobis done da informaciasiZleva arCeuli meTodis saimedoobis Sesaxeb.sizuste aris sandoobis done, romelic aRwers, ramdenad axlosaagazomva mis ‘namdvil’ mniSvnelobasTan.sisrule gulisxmobs aucilebel monacemTa raodenobas, romelic saWiroazedapiruli wylebis sistemebis bunebrivi cvalebadobisaTvis (drosa dasivrceSi) Tavis gasarTmevad da romelic zustad asaxavs zedapiruliwylis obieqtebis realur mdgomareobas.monacemi rom warmomadgenlobiTi iyos, man unda warmoadinos sinjebisaRebis adgilebis SeZlebisdagvarad zusti pirobebi.arawarmomadgenlobiTi sinjebi im SecdomaTa umTavresi mizezia, romelicanalizis proceSi SeiZleba iqnas daSvebuli. magaliTad, dabinZurebulizonidan odnav qvemoT aRebulma sinjebma, SeiZleba analizisasdabinZurebis aranairi signali ar mogvces ZiriTad dinebasTan Serevisgamo, amdenad, nakadebis Serevis zona adekvaturad unda iyos SerCeuli,raTa zustad vicodeT, rom sinjebi iqneba reprezentatuli imdamabinZurebelTa zusti koncentraciebis dasadgenad, romlebzecdakvirvebas awarmoebs monitoringis jgufi mocemul wylis obieqtze.sinjebis aRebis Sedegebi SedarebiTia, Tu isini erTsa da imave pirobebSi,erTi da igive wesiTaa aRebuli; magaliTad:• sinjebis aRebisas xdeboda erTi da igive standartebiTxelmZRvaneloba.• sinjebis transportireba xdeboda erTi da igive tipis konteineriT,erTnair pirobebSi;• gamoiyeneboda erovnuli saakreditacio organoebis mierakreditebuli is laboratoriebi, romlebic sinjebis analizisaserTi da igive an msgavs meTodebs mimarTaven.monitoringis jgufma aseve unda gaiTvaliswinos, rom sinjebis aRebisSedegebi ver iqneba idealurad zusti (gazomvis TvalsazrisiT),ramdenadac realobaSi gazomvebs cdomilebis garkveuli done yvelaSemTxvevaSi gaaCnia.sizustesicxadenaxati 3. wylis monacemTa sizuste da sicxade21


SeniSvna: sinjebis amRebTa jgufi, ZiriTadad, sinjebis aRebisa daanalizis gegmas unda mihyves. sinjebis amRebi da laboratoriuli jgufisaTanadod momzadebuli unda iyos da kargad unda icnobdes sinjebisaRebisa da analizis standartizebul meTodebs.4.1.2 sad unda ganxorcieldes monitoringi?monitoringis adgilebi unda SeirCes zedapiruli wylebis monitoringisprogramis interesebis, moTxovnebisa da miznebis gaTvaliswinebiT (ix.magaliTi evrokavSiris wCd). monitoringis adgilebis SerCevisasgasaTvaliswinebeli sxva faqtorebia: advili misadgomoba, usafrTxoeba,adekvaturoba da arealis sxva adgilebTan mimarTeba. umetes SemTxvevaSi,miznebis misaRwevad saWiroa araerTi adgilis monitoringi.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programaTa umravlesobakoncentrirebulia sakmaod didi masStabis arealze, amdenad, monitoringisjgufma sakmao raodenobis adgilebi unda Seiswavlos, raTa mTeliarealis met-naklebad sruli suraTi Seqmnas. amis miRweva Zalian rTulia,radgan zogadad, calkeuli adgilebi mxolod sakuTar pirobebswarmoadgenen da ara saerTo arealis pirobebs. mravali adgili kerZo dagansakuTrebulia - sakuTari, konkretuli specifikiT. isini xSiradSeirCeva gansjis safuZvelze, sxvagvarad – adgilobrivi codnissafuZvelze an, ubralod, xelsayreli mdebareobis gamo. Tumca, sinjebisaRebis adgilebis raodenobisa da lokaciis Sesafaseblad, arsebobsramdenime meTodi da procedura, raTa am SerCevam monitoringis miznebsada amocenebs upasuxos. (jilberti, 1987) metic, yvelas SeuZlia misdiosevrokavSiris wCd danarT V-Si SemoTavazebul rekomendaciebs (esdokumenti ixileT danarT 1-Si).adgilebis SerCevisas, aseve gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos mdinarismaxasiaTeblebi da biologiuri faqtorebi. es gulisxmobs kaSxlebs,sagubrebs, kldeebs, ukudinebebs, Senakadebs da sasaqonle fonebs, asevemakrofitebs, wyalmcenareebsa da mcurav wyalmcenareebs.zogadad, sinjebis aReba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes garkveuli raodenobisadgilebSi, e.w. ‘fiqsirebul adgilebSi’, romlebic registrirebuli dadokumentirebuli unda iyos geografiuli koordinatebiT, yovelTviuri anyovelkvaratluri dakvirvebis safuZvelze. (ix naxati 5) fiqsirebuliadgilebis dadgena gankuTvnilia sistematur adgilebSi sinjebis uwyvetiaRebisaTvis. (dakvirvebiTi monitoringis programa da operatiulimonitoringis programa)22


naxati 4. fiqsirebuli sinjebis aRebis adgili mdinare mtkvris auzSi.(evrokavSiris proeqtis foto, 2009)garda amisa, ‘’miznobrivi midgoma’’ SeiZleba gamoiyenebodes kritikulimdebareobiT gamorCeul adgilebSi sinjebis aRebisaTvis, rogoricaaCamdinare wylebis CaSvebis adgilidan zemoT da qvemoT (gamoZiebiTimonitiroingis programebi). miznobrivi sinjebis aReba gamoZiebiTmonitorings esaWiroeba aseve mdinaris auzis specifikur obieqtebzemonacemebis mosagroveblad an gavlenis Sesaswavlad (mag. zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis resursebze zewolis dasadgenad). monitoringis qseliszogierTi magaliTi, hipoTeturi zedapiruli wylebisaTvis, naCvenebianaxatze 6.23


teqsti (zemodan qvemoT)urbanuli areebi, industriuli kompleqsi, dakvirvebiTi monitoringi,operatiuli monitoringi, gamoZiebiTi monitoringi; mdinareebi, saxelmwifosazRvarinaxati 5. monitoringis qselis zogierTi magaliTi hipoTeturi zedapiruliwylebisaTvis4.1.3 sad da ramdenad xSiradaa saWiro monitoringi?SeniSvna : monitoringis qselis agebis erT-erTi meTodis mixedviT,TiToeuli mdinaris auzis (an sxva geografiuli erTeulis) sinjebisaRebis adgilebi, statistikuri gansxvavebebis dasadgenad, jvaredinadunda Sedardes erTmaneTTan. statistikuri analizis mier sinjebis aRebisadgilebs Soris statistikuri gansxvavebebis warmodgenis Semdeg Sedegebiunda damuSavdes lokaluri pirobebis, elevaciisa da vegetaciis, aseve –statistikuri maxasiaTeblebis pirveladi codnis Sesaxeb damatebiTiinformaciis uzurvenlyofis konteqstSi. magaliTad, analizma SeiZlebaaCvenos, rom ori sadguris specifikuri gamtaroba gansxvavebulia -Tundac mravlobiTi qimiuri parametrebis konteqstSi, am gansxvevebasmcire mniSvneloba hqondes - da rom sinjebis aRebis adgilebi SeiZlebaganixilebodes, rogorc dublikaturi an Warbi. sapirispirod, analizmaSeiZleba aCvenos, rom nimuSebis aRebis adgilebi arsebiTad argansxvevdeba erTmaneTisagan, magram Sesaswavli arealis geografiuli anekologiuri specifika iseTia, rom orive adgilis monitoringiaucilebelia sivrciTi dafarvis misaRebi donis uzrunvelsayofad.mniSvnelovania imis codna, moipoveba Tu ara sinjebis mogrovebisadgilebSi srulyofili SedarebisaTvis sakmarisi monacemebi. Tumcamravali amgvari adgilis datoveba monitoringis gegmaSi saWiroa, raTamomavalSi maTi xelaxali analizi Catardes. (samxreT floridisgaremosdacviTi moxseneba, SFER, 2008)24


zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programas sWirdeba gazomvebis droisxangrZlivobisa da sixSiris zusti gansazRvra. sinjebis aRebis sixSirisgansazRvra damokidebulia zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis prametrebze,amocanebze, wylis obieqtebis tipebze, negatiuri zegavlenebis droze(zogierT faqtors SeuZlia sagulisxmo zarali miayenos mdinares mciredroSi, risi dadena arc ise advilia) da xelmisawvdom resursebze.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringi SeiZleba daiyos regularul(dakvirvebiTi monitoringi da operatiuli monitoringi) da SemTxvevebzedafuZnebul (skrininguli kvleva da gamoZiebiTi monitoringi) saxeobebad,romelTa sixSire gansxvavebulia. magaliTad, zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis tendenciebis gamosavlenad, sinjebi SeiZleba aRebul iqnasyovelTviurad an kvartalurad, xuTi an aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi. kerZod,tendenciis analizisaTvis saWiroa SeZlebisdagvarad grZelvadianmonacemTa mogroveba, raTa moxdes saSualo monacemis gamoyvana sezonurda wliuri naleqebis variaciisaTvis. monacemTa mogrovebisas, xSiradgamoiyneba statistikac, raTa monitoringis jgufebs saSualeba mieces amcvlilebaTa mowesrigebuli suraTis Sesaqmnelad da, sabolood, imisgasarkvevad, Tu ra movlenebTan gvaqvs saqme sinamdvileSi. gonivrulistatistikuri analizisaTvis aucilebeli monacemebis misaRebad saWiroamonacemTa uwyveti mogroveba, sul mcire, sami wlis ganmavlobaSi.monitoringis praqtikosebma saorientaciod SeiZleba gamoiyenon cxril 5-Si warmodgenili sixSireebi.cxrili #5 monitoringis sixSire dakvirvebiTi monitoringis dros (wyaro:direqtiva 2000/60/evrokomia)xarisxis elementebi Mmdinareebi tbebiHhidromorfologiurixangrZlivoba6 welihidrologia uwyveti 1 Tvemorfologia 6 weli 6 welifizikur-qimiuritemperaturulimdgomareobs3 Tve 3 TveJangbaTiT gajereba 3 Tve 3 Tvemarilianoba 3 Tve 3 Tvenutrientebis3 Tve 23 TvemdgomareobamJavianobis mdgomareoba 3 Tve3 Tvesxva damabinZureblebi 3 Tve 3 TveprioritetulinivTierebebi1 Tve 1 Tvemeores mxriv, imis Sesamowmeblad, SeuZlia Tu ara klimatur pirobebs,magaliTad mzis radiacias, temperaturas an mdinaris dinebas gaxsniliJangbadis koncentraciaze da wyalmcenareTa zrdaze gavlenis moxdna,sinjebis aReba movlenebze unda iyos damyarebuli (magaliTad, sinjebisaReba unda moxdes stabiluri amindis dros (mzian da ara qarian amindSi),rogorc ki is dadgeba; ix. naxati 7). es iTxovs sinjebis aRebisaTviskargad momzadebas da dagegmvas. Tumca unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rommonitoringis jgufs dasWirdeba ZiriTad monacemTaA bazac, romelTanacunda moxdes SemTxveviTi monitoringis dros dros aRebuli sinjebisSedareba.25


water temperature23,00( O C)22,5022,0021,5021,0020,50O2 (mg/l)18161412108642water temperatureteoretical O2measured O220,00730008500010100113001250014100153001650018100193002050022100233005000210003300045000610000timewylis temperatura, droTeoriuli 02, gazomili 02naxati 6 gaxsnili Jangbadis dRiuri variaciebi da wylis temperaturazafxulis dReebis ganmavlobaSi (ivlisi 22-23, 1998) kunovos nimuSebisaRebis adgilas. (mdinare dunai) (wyaro: slovakiis hidrometeorologiuriinstituti, bratislava, slovakia)garda amisa, saWiroa gvaxsovdes, rom xSirad xelmisawvdomi resursebi,rogorc adamanuri, aseve finansuri, gadamwyveti faqtoria zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis monitoringis RonisZiebebis gansazRvrisas, sxvagvarad -imis dagegmvisas, ramdenad xSirad da ra vadiT unda ganxorcieldeszedapiruli wylebis xarisxis programa.4.1.4 ra resursebia xelmisawvdomi an mosalodneli?zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programa mniSvnelovnadaadamokidebuli sinjebis obieqtebze, tipze da miznebze da wylis xarisxisSerCeul parametrebze. unda vacnobierebdeT, rom gadawyvvetlebis mimRebnimoelian, sul mcire, xarjebisa da mogebis miaxloebiT analizs, rogorcresursebis gayofis procesis nawils; es uzrunvelyofili unda iyosmonitoringis praqtikosTa mier. politikis ganmsazRvrelTa mxridanzedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis dafinansebisaTvismzadyofna damokidebuli iqneba rogorc imaze, Tu rogoraa gaziarebulimaTi informaciuli moTxovnebi, aseve imazec, Tu ramdenad mimzidveliamonitoringis produqtebi maTTvis da ramdenad pirdapiraa isinidakavSirebuli sajaro politikis interesebTan. amdenad, girCevT pirdapirsTxovoT samizne gadawyvtilebis mimRebT, gamoxaton, ras aniWebenupiratesobas zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebissakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. (ix. naxati 7)26


Cost of monitoring peryearHIGHplus specific organicsGOODplus heavy metalsMODERATEBasic water quality parametersPOORBADWater quality analysisAchievements of water quality objectivesnaxati 7 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis xarjebsa da wylisxarisxis analizs Soris kavSiri, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis miznebismisaRwevadteqsti naxatSi:marjvniv zemodan qvemoT:monitoringis wliuri Rirebulebaplius specifikuri organikaplius mZime metalebisabaziso wylis xarisxis parametrebiwylis xarisxis analiziwylis xarisxis miznebis miRwevebinaxatSi marcxniv zemodan qvemoT:maRalikargisaSualoaradamakmayofilebelicudipirvel etapze xarjebi gamoiTvleba zedapiruli wylebis xarisxisprogramis amocanebisa da sainformacio moTxovnebis safuZvelze. Tuki esbiujeti scdeba dafinanasebis xelmisawvdom resursebs, zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis programa unda ganaxldes. zogadad, rekomendebulia e.w.« nabij-nabij midgomis » wesis gamoyeneba, romelic mimarTuli iqnebazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis programis Tavdapirveli miaxloebiTigaTvlidan _ saboloo zust Sefasebamde. xarjebi SeiZleba SemcirdeszogierTi midgomiT, rogoricaa partniorebis moZieba an TanamSromlobiTiSeTanxmebebi. amgvari midgomebis Sedegad, xarjebi iyofa or an metinstituciaze (mTavrobebi, regionaluri xelsiuflebebi, kvleviTiinstitutebi, proeqtis partniorebi da a.S.)27


4.2 monacemTa menejmenti da damuSavebaaradamakamayofilebel monacemTa menejmenti Zvirfasi droisa daresursebis xarjvaa – pirveladi sinjebis aRebisaTvis daxarjuliZalisxmevis, monacemTa xelaxla mogrovebis aucileblobisa daaraadekvaturi menejmentis gamo. mokled rom vTqvaT,“aradamakmayofilebeli xarisxis monacemebi uaresia, vidre monacemTasaerTod ararseboba” (maasdami, r, 2000)es etapi aRwers, rogor unda mowesrigdes zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis monacemebi, dawyebuli Segrovebis stadiidan, damTavrebuligadawyvetilebis mimReb da sxva potenciur pirebamde monacemebisa dacodnis produqtebis miwodebiT.zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis nebismieri programa undaSeicavdes monacemTa menejmentis ganyofilebas, romelic gansazRvravs,rogor unda iyos monacemebi aRwerili, Semowmebuli da analizisaTvismomzadebuli. Tumca cxadia, rom monacemTa menejmenti manamde iwyeba, sanamsinjebis aRebas SevudgebiT da monitoringis procesSi gamoviyenebT.monacemTa menejmenti efuZneba standartebs, mihyveba arsebul process dakargi investrebaa, ramdenadac Sedegis saxiT gamoixatebadamakmayofilebel da misaReb monacemebSi, romlebsac droTa ganmavlobaSiufro meti fasi edeba. eqsperimentebma aCvena, rom Tu monacemebiarasaTanadodaa mowesrigebuli Segrovebis procesSi, isini ueWveladusargeblo iqneba, an ver moxerxdeba misi mogvianebiT CarTva monacemTabazaSi, arasakmao informatiulobis gamo. amitomaa mniSvnelovanimenejmentis principebis manamde Camoyalibeba, sanam sinjebis mogrovebadaiwyeba, agreTve maTi ganuxrelad gamoyeneba zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis programis mimdinareobis mTeli periodis ganmavlobaSi.monitoringis programis am nawilis agebisas, mniSvnelovania vicodeT, “rasuzrunvelyofs monitoringis programa?’’zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis kargad agebulma progrmam undaSemogvTavazos, sul mcire, Semdegi:• monacemebi sakvlevi adgilebidan, raTa moxdes mTeli arealisa damimdebare teritoriebis bunebrivi mdgomareobis daxasiaTeba.• Mmonacemebi, romlebic saSaualebas iZleva moxdes mTeli mdinarisauzisa da konkretuli adgilebis an/da wylis masebis klasifikacia.• monitoringis ganviTarebis saSualebebi, mdinaris auzis menejmentisgegmis (an sxva gegmebis) da saWiro gazomviTi programebis CaTvliT,aseve safuZveli maTi etapobrivi Semowmebisa da ganaxlebisaTvis.• zedapirul wylebTan dakavSirebuli axali problemebis adreuliaRmoCena, gafrTxileba da gansazRvra.28


4.2.1 rogor uzrunvelvyoT monacemTa saimedooba?am garemoebaSi gasarkvevad, sakvanZo mniSvnelobis sakiTxia gansxvaveba“saimedoobasa” da “misaRebobas” Soris. saimedooba ufro metad teqnikurmarTebulobas gulisxmobs, xolo misaReboba menejeris mier praqtikuliRirebulebis Sefasebaa. saimedooba gankuTvnilia analitikosisaTvis,maSin, rodesac misaReboba audienciis (gadawyvetilebis mimRibis)pasuxismgeblobas gulisxmobs. (maasdami, r., 2000)rogorc ukve aRiniSna, monacemTa xarisxi monitoringis programis yvelaetapis Semadgeneli nawilia. mniSvnelovania davrwmundeT, rom Segrovilimonacemebi sando, kargad dokumentirebuli da gadawyvetilebismimRebTaTvis sasurvelia. zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisprogramis dokumentacia, uzrunvelyofili sinjebis aRebisa dalaboratoriuli analizis gegmis mixedviT, gaaZlierebs momxmarebelTandobas gadawyvtilebis miRebisas Seesabameba Tu ara es monacemebi maTinteresebs. zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programam undaSeimuSaos werilobiTi gegma – xarisxis damowmebis monitoringis gegma. esarsebiTi Semadgenelia, romelic ganmartavs, rogor iqna monacemebiwarmoebuli. amgvari codnis gareSe monacemebisadmi ndoba SeuZlebeliiqneba.monacemTa sandoobaSi dasarwmuneblad, sabaziso mniSvnelobis mqonedaRiarebuli unda iyos Semdegi etapebi:sinjebis aRebamde:• zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis dokumetireba,rogorc sinjebis aRebis, aseve laboratoriuli analizis detalurigegmiT;• Sesabamis saministrosTan an wylis politikasa da menejmentzepasuxismgebel sxva saxelmwifo subieqtTan zedapiruli wylebismonitoringis programis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba;• sinjebis amRebTa jgufis saTanado momzdeba.sinjebis aRebisas:• Catardes xelsawyoebis dakalibreba (velze gasvlamde da Semdeg);• sinjebis aRebis dros sinjebis dokumentaciisa da usafrTxoebisuzrunvelyofa (mag. sinjebis aRebis protokolebi dakvirvebiskomentarebisa da sxva saWiro informaciis miTiTebiT, romelTaASevseba savaldebulo iqneba jgufis wevrTaTvis);• xarisxis kontrolis sinjebis (ix. danarTi 1) gamoyeneba sinjebisaRebis SedegTa gamosadegobis xarisxis Sesamowmeblad.sinjebis aRebis Semdeg:• Sevsebuli sinjebis aRebis protokolis formebis daregistrireba daSenaxva im departamentSi (an laboratoriaSi), romelic aRniSnulzepasuxismgebelia;• wylis sinjebis gagzavna analitikur laboratoriaSi sinjebisprotokolebTan erTad;• darwmuneba, rom wylis sinjebis analizisas gamoyenebuliastandartizebuli analitikuri meTodebi (sasurvelia akreditacia);• laboratoriis wevrTa adekvaturi treningis uzrunvelyofa;29


• monacemTa bazaSi gadacemamde analitikuri Sedegebis eleqtroniulformatSi gadatana, Semowmeba da Senaxva:• darwmuneba, rom monacemebi gaanalizebuli, damuSavebuli daaRwerilia samizne gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTaA sainformaciomoTxovnebisa da interesebis Sesabamisad.zedapiruli wylebis montoringis programis praqtikosebs unda esmodeT,rom saimedooba Znelad misaRwevia, magram advilad dasakargi. amdenad,girCevT yvelaferi gaakeToT aseTi Sedegis Tavidan asacileblad.4.2.2 monacemTa Semowmeba da dadasturebamonacemTaA xarisxis aucilebeli moTxovnebis Sesrulebis Semdegmonacemebi gadadis monacemTaA bazaSi; Aam dros isini unda Semowmdes dadadasturdes monitoringis menejeris mier. SesaZlo problemaTa Tavidanasacileblad, es SeZlebisdagvarad adreul stadiaze unda moxdes,sasurvelia manamde, sanam zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisprograma ganxorcielebis stadiaSia da ara sinjebis aRebis procesisdasrulebis, laboratoriidan wylis sinjebis gadaRvrisSemdeg.dadasturebisas ismis kiTxva: “imis daSvebiT, rom monacemebi Semowmebulia,(sxvagvarad – sruli, koreqtuli da moTxovnebis Sesabamisia) aris Tu aradadasturebuli, rom isini gvamcnobs imas, rac moeTxoveba?’’ aq undamoxdes wylis xarisxis kargad cnobili parametrebis gamoyeneba.magaliTad, SeiZleba laboratoriebma mogvawodos minimaluri Jangbadisqimiuri moxmarebis (COD mn ) ufro dabali koncentracia, vidre Jangbadisbiologiuri moxmarebisa (xuTdRiani inkubacia) (BOD5)), magrameqsperimentma sruliad sapirispiro aCvenos (reagentemma SeiZleba organulnivTierebaTa ufro Zlieri daJangva moaxdina, vidre biologiuriprocesebisas). an sxva magaliTi: SeiZleba laboratoriam gazomosqlorofilis dabali Semcveloba da Sedegi sworad da srulad CaidosmonacemTa bazaSi, magram imave dRis sxva gazomvebma (mag. gaxsniliJangbadis, nutrientebis, T-sa da pH-is gazomva) aCvenos, rom ufro maRalidone unda yofiliyo. SesaZloa monitoringis wevrs gauCndes kiTxva: “raunda gavakeTo am SemTxvevaSi?” pasuxia: ‘’amas miyola sWirdeba’’. xarisxiskontrolis Sedgebi, isnic, romelTac laboratorias awvdiT da isinic,romlebsac Tavad laboratoriebi SeimuSaveben, aseve unda gadamowmdes.Tqven mier aRmoCenili Secdomis Sesaxeb moxseneba unda miewodoszedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programze pasuxismgebelmenejers. amas an nimuSebis xelaxali laboratoriuli analizi undamohyves, an Tavidan unda gadamowmdes laboratoriuli moxsenebebi.4.2.3 xarisxis uzrunvelyofa da xarisxis kontroli zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringSixarisxis uzrunvelyofa da xarisxis kontroli arwmunebs monacemebiTmosargebleebs, rom monacemebi realuri, gonivruli da xarisxismoTxovnebis Sesabamisia.xarisxis uzrunvelyofa da xarisxis kontroli (QA/QC) Seadgens xarisxismenejmentis srul sistemas, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis30


programis farglebSi. QA/QC unda Camoyalibdes, rogorc zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis nawili, raTa uzrunvelyoswarmoebul monacemTa xarisxTan Sesabamisoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom QA/QC,sazogadod, sinjebis aRebisa da laboratoriuli analizisas gamoiyeneba,isini aseve unda gamoiyenebodes zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis srul procesSi, monacemTa analizis, damuSavebisa damenejmentis CaTvliT. xarisxis kontroli SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorcmonitoris uzrunvelyofa monacemebiT imis Sesaxeb, ramdenad kargadaaSesulebuli sinjebis analizi da sworadaa Tu ara gamoyenebulimonacemTa analizis meTodologia. ZiriTadad, esaa sabaziso kontroliswesTa krebuli, romlis amocanaa dagvajeros, rom xarisxis damowmebisamocanebi Sesrulebulia. amis praqtikuli gamoyeneba SeiZleba iyosxarisxis kontrolis sinjebis aReba (ix. danarTi 1), procesebis, Sedegebisada gawmendis procedurebis auditi.meores mxriv, xarisxis uzrunvelyofa konkretulad gansazRvravsmonacemTa warmoebisa da sizustis moTxovnaTa sazoms da moicavsdokumentirebul procedurebs, samuSao instruqciebs, jgufis trenings daCanawerebis warmoebas. martivad rom vTqvaT, QA aris QC -s warmatebisSemowmebis meTodi’’xarisxis uzrunvelyofa gulisxmobs xarisxis kontrols, magram aseve sxvamraval aspeqtsac. QA zogadad moicavs:• xarisxis menejmentis srulad dokumetirebul sistemas;• zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis kargaddokumentirebuli programis momzadebas (sinjebis aRebis,analitikuri da monacemTa menejmentis nawilebis CaTvliT);• sinjebis aRebisas standartizebuli da regularuli procedurebisgamoyenebas, romelic dokumentirebulia zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis programaSi;• aRWurvilobis gamoyenebamde specifikuri, srulad dokumetirebuliprocedurebiT darwmunebas, rom igi gamarTuli, sufTa da saTanadodmorgebulia.• darwmunebas, rom sinjebis aRebisa da laboratoriuli analizisganmaxorcielebeli pirebi kompetenturi da kargad momzadebuliarian imisaTvis, rom qmedebebi wesebis Sesabamisad ganaxorcielon.• kargad awyobil sistemas, rogoricaa magaliTad, wylis informaciissistema (an sxva monacemTa bazebis sistemebi), romelic yuradRebiTawarmoebs (amowmebs da adasturebs) da inaxavs monacemebsstandartizebuli procedurebis gamoyenebiT da xelmisawvdoms xdismonacemebs nebismier dros, gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa an sxvaTa miergamosayeneblad.zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programebis umravlesobisaTvis ararsebobs savele an laboratoriuli analizebisaTvis sakontrolosinjebis savaldebulod dadgenili raodenoba. mTavari wesia, rom sinjebis10% unda iyos xarisxis sakontrolo nimuSi. es niSnavs, rom Tu 20 sinjiaaRebulili, sul mcire, erTi nimuSi unda iyos damatebuli, rogorcxarisxis sakontrolo nimuSi.(maio, a., 1996)31


sinjebis aRebis da analitikuri procedurebis Secdomebis gavrcelebuliwyaroa dabinZureba. xarisxis kontrolis sinjebi dagvexmareba gavigoT,rodis da ra dabinZurebam SeiZleba iCinos Tavi (sailustraciod ixileTdanarTi 2). sanam monacemTa xarisxi sabolood araa cnobili, sinjebismonacemebidan myari daskvnebis gakeTeba dauSvebelia. xarisxis kontrolissinjebis ricxvi da tipebi damokidebulia miRebul monacemTa saboloogamoyenebaze, agreTve zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis kontrolismonitoringis programis finansur da droiT resursebze. gamoyenebuliSeiZleba iyos danarT 2-Si aRwerili xarisxis kontrolis sinjebi.4.3 monacemTa Semowmebazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis programis erT-erTi kritikuli damniSvnelovani elementia zedapiruli wylebis Sefaseba wylis xarisxisstandartebisa da klasifikaciis sistemis gamoyenebiT.4.3.1 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis standartebiwylis xarisxis standartebi (wxs / WQS) dadgenilia mdinareebisa datbebis xarisxis specifikuri miznebsaTvis; magaliTad, imis Sesamowmeblad,Tu ramdenad vargisia Tevzis an wylis sxva cocxali arsebebisaTvis,rekreaciisaTvis, sasmeli wylis warmoebisaTvis, soflis meurneobis,mrewvelobisa an sxva gamoyenebisaTvis. wylis xarisxis standartebi asevegamoiyeneba saxelwifo instituciaTa mier qveynis zedapruli wylebisdabinZurebsagan dacvisaTvis saWiro gadawyvetilebis misaRebad dakanonmdeblobis mosawesrigeblad. aseTi sakanonmdeblo wesebigamoyenebuli unda iyos wylis xarisxis gansazRvrisas. isini SeiZlebaSeicavdes Semdeg wesebs:• zedapiruli wylebis sasargeblo gamoyenebis asarCevisaklasifikacio sistema.• wylis xarisxis cifruli da aRweriTi standartebi;• aradegradirebadi maragi;• tenian niadagTa dasacavi maragebi;• wylis xarisxTan dakavSirebuli da zedapiruli wylebisdabinZurebisagan damcavi sxva standartebi.wylis xarisxis cifrul da aRweriT standartebs mravali funqcia aqvs.yvelaze xSirad maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba Semdegi miznebiT:1. damabinZureblebis koncentraciis maqsimalurad dasaSvebi donisgansazRvra da sasargeblo gamoyenebisa da funqciebis dacva.2. zedapiruli wylebis resursebis Sefaseba standartebismonitoringis monacemebTan Sedarebis gziT.3. im dabinZurebuli wylis resursebis gansazRvra, romelic arSeesabameba wylis xarisxis amocanebs.4. wylis xarisxis gasaumjobesebel qmedebaTa da gawmendiT samuSaoTanormebis dadgena.5. damabinZurebelTaTvis wylis xarjvisa da Camdinare damabinZurebelnivTierebaTa zRvris dadgena.6. zedapiruli wylebis obieqtebis riskis Sefaseba da gawmendisamocanebis ganszaRvra.32


wylis xarisxsis standartis erT-erTi niSvnelovani funqciaa wylisxarisxis mdgomareobis Semowmeba qveynis masStabiT da im wylebisgansazRvra, romelic wylis xarisxis standartebs ar Seesabameba.4.3.2 zedapirul wylebTan dakavSirebuli garemosdacviTi xarisxisstandartebigasul wlebSi evrokomisiam wylis specifikuri miznebiT dacvidanyuradReba wylis saerTo ekosistemis sijansaReze gadaitana. amkonteqstSi, evrokomisiam, evrokavSiris wylis samuSaoTa direqtivisfarglebSi, direqtiva 2008/105/e.k.-iT daadgina garemosdacviTi xarisxisstandartebi (gxs (EQS)), rogorc zedapiruli wylebis maragis qimiurixarisxis Sefasebis mniSvnelovani instrumenti (SeniSvna: wylis xarisxisstandarti kvlavac gamoiyeneba sasmeli da sabanao wylis SesaxebevrokavSiris specifikur direqtivebTan Sesabamisad). gxs aris dadgenilizRvari, anu raodenoba, romelsac ar unda aRematebodes wyalSi garkveulinivTierebebis koncentracia. warmodgenilia standartTa ori tipi:• nivTierebaTa koncentraciis saSualo mniSvneloba unda gamoiTvaloswlis ganmavlobaSi. am standartis mizania uzrunvelyos wylisgrZelvadiani xarisxi.nivTierebaTa maqsimaluri dasaSvebi koncentracia unda gaizomosspecifikurad. am standartis mizania Seamciros moklevadianidabinZurebis pikebi.xarisxis standartebi iyofa Sida zedapiruli wylebisa (mdinareebi, tbebi)da sxva zedapiruli wylebisaTvis (transsasazRvro, sanapiro dateritoriuli wylebi). specialuri standartebia dadgenili metalisa dasxva konkretuli nivTierebebisaTvisac. evrokavSiris wevrma qveynebma undauzrunvelyon am standartebTan Sesabamisoba; agreTve Tvali undamiadevnon, rom gansazRvrul nivTierebaTaAkoncentracia naleqsa da/anbiotaSi dasaSveb zRvars ar aRematebodes.4.4 monacemTa warmodgena da angariSgeba“monacemebi da informacia usargebloa, Tu adamianebs isini ar esmiT’’samizne gadawyvetilebis mimRebi pirebisaTvis raime monacemis dainformaciis gagzavnamde, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringispraqtikosebma sakuTar Tavs unda dausvan ramdenime SekiTxva, romlebicfokusirebuli iqneba ukve Segrovil da monacemTaA bazaSi daculmonitoringis monacemebze da gaiazron, rogoria moTxovnili monacemebisada informaciis miwodebis saukeTeso gza, gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaAcodnis asamaRleblad da gadawyvetilebis miRebisas gamosayenebeliinformaciiT uzrunvelsayofad.monacemebsaA da informaciasTan dakavSirebul kiTxvaTaA nawili aseTia:• ra sabaziso informaciis miReba SeiZleba daumuSavebel monacemTaAwyaroebidan?• ra mimarTebaa wylis xarisxis monacemebs Soris?33


• ra Sefasebebi SeiZleba gakeTdes sxvadasxva monacemTa SedarebiT?• xelmisawvdomia Tu ara wylis xarisxis standartebi da/anklasifikaciis sistemebi?• ra daskvnebi SeiZleba gakeTdes monacemebidan gamomdinare gamoyeneba/Sedegebis problemebTan dakavSirebiT?kiTxvaTa sxva jgufi fokusirebulia imaze, Tu ra formiT da rogormiewodeba monacemebi da informacia gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs:• informaciis ra tipebia moTxovnili? (daumuSavebeli informacia,statistikuri informacia, tendenciebi an cvlilebebi analizSi,jamuri informacia da a.S.)• rogor unda SeifuTos monitoringis monacemebi da informacia?• samizne gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis informaciis rogori formiTwardgena iqneba sasargeblo?• nayofieri iyo Tu ara wina monitoringis monacemebi qmedebisa dazomebisaTvis?• rogor SeiZleba raime saxis komunikaciis damyareba samiznegadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebTan, maTTvis monacemTa misawodeblad?• aris Tu ara raime ukuqmedeba samizne gadawyvetlebis mimRebTamxridan, miwodebul da wardgenil monacemebTan dakavSirebiT?4.4.1 informaciis tipebizedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programis mniSvnelovaninawilia warmoebuli informaciis tipebis gansazRvra. es zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis monitoringis programas Tavidan aacilebs maTdamiararealistur moTxovnebsa da molodinebs.arsebobs meTodologiebze dafuZnebuli ramdenime sainformacio tipi,romlis meSveobiTac monacemebidan moipoveba informacia da miewodebasamizne gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs. maT Sorisaa Semdegi: aRweriTiinformacia, cifruli informacia, grafikuli informacia da statistikuriinformacia.cifruli informacia (daumuSavebeli monacemebi) mxolod iSviaT,gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi miewodeba samizne gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebs(maregulirebeli qmedebebi, SeTanxmebiTi monitoringi da sxva). zogadad,rogorc wesi, cifruli monacemebi mxolod grafikuli an/da statsitkuridamuSavebis winmswrebi etapia, specialuri sainformacio miznebismiasaRwevad. mniSvnelovania ganisazRvros, rogor moxdeba daumuSavebeliinformaciis gamoyeneba dasawyisSi.grafikuli damuSaveba advilad asagebia, ufro sainteresoa da, TxrobiTiaRwerisagan gansxvavebiT, naklebad mosalodnelia darCes gaugebari. (ix.naxati 9 da naxati 10)34


naxati 8 gaxsnili Jangbadis koncentracia mdinare loqsaheCis xuTsegmentSi, wylis xarisxis samizne periodSi (1998-2002, 2006-2007, 2007-2008(wyaro: mdinare loqsaheCis wylis xarisxis da biologiuri monitoringi,2008)O 2[mg.l -1 ]1614121086420199219931993Dunaj - Bratislava midle GD. 296/2005 - O 2< 5 mg.l -1199419941995199519961996199719971998199819991999200020002001200120022002200320032004200420052005200620062007200720082008naxati 9 gaxsnili Jangbadis koncentraciis tendenciis analizi mdinaredunaiSi – bratislava. (wyaro: slovakeTis hidrometeorologiuriinstituti, weliwdeuli, 2008)statsitikuri informacia yvelaze sasargeblo informaciaa raodenobrivigadawyvtilebebis misaRebad, rogoricaa droTa ganmavlobaSi zedapiruliwylis xarisxi gauaresda Tu gaumjobesda an, Tu konkretuli standartebiiqna miRweuli. statistikuri meTodebi SeiZleba dagvexmaros zedapiruliwylebis obieqtebis xarisxis mdgomareobis gagebaSi (wylis xarisxissaSualo, cvladi an eqstremaluri pirobebi).sivrciTi analiziTu zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis sinjebis aRebis adgilebis jamuristatistikuri Sefaseba mdinaris auzSi wylis xarisxebs Sors gansxvavebasgviCvenebs, aucilebeli iqneba zedapiruli wylebis xarisxisa da mdinarisauzis sxva monitoringis monacemTa ufro fokusirebuli sivrciTicvlilebebis analizis Catareba.wylis xarisxis mdgomareobis sivrciTma gavrcelebam mdinaris auzSi,SesaZloa gviCvenos “cxeli wertilebis” mdebareoba da potenciuri35Year


dabinZurebis wyaroebi. sivrciTi analizis monacemebi aseve sasargebloaspecialur wyaroTa potenciuri gavlenis Sesafaseblad, rodesacsrulyofili monacemebi arasakmarisia. gansxvavebam mdinaris dinebebiszemoT da qvemoT monitoringis monacemebs Soris SeuZlia gviCvenos amgavlenis wyaroebi. imave monacemebze dayrdnobiT, SeiZleba CatardesmonacemTa analizi damabinZureblebis Sesamcireblad warmoebulimenejmentis (miRebuli zomebis) efeqtianobis Sesafaseblad. TiToeulisadguris jamuri statistikuri monacemebis ubralod gadaxedvasac kiSeuZlia zedapiruli wylebis xarisxSi gansxvavebebi gviCvenos. didimdinaris auzSi mraval adgilze erToblivi muSaobisas SeiZlebageografiuli sainformacio sistemis (gss/GIS) gamoyeneba zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis sivrciTi variaciebis efeqtianad gamosavlenad daSesafaseblad, rogorc es naCvenebia naxat 11-ze mocemul sanimuSo rukaze.mdinaris mTeli auzis sadgurebidan zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis jamurimonacemebis gss-is meSveobiT warmodgena aseve SesaZleblobas iZlevamoxdes auzis saTanado regionebSi sivrciTi cvlilebebis gamomwvevwyaroTa gansazRvra. es informacia mniSvnelovania mdinaris auzisaTvispotenciurad saxifaTo wyaroebis gamosavlenad.naxati 10 mdinare mtkvris auzis gss ruka Jangbadis biologiurimoxmarebis (xuTdRiani inkubacia) saSualo moculobis vizualizaciiT,sinjebis aRebis sxvadasxva adgilze (wyaro: mdinaris menejmentiserToblivi programa – mtkvris auzi, saboloo moxseneba, 2004)droiTi analizisxva mniSvnelovani analizia zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis droiTitendenciebisA Sefaseba. droiTi nimuSebis Sefasebas mniSvnelovanidaxmarebis gaweva SeuZlia wyalSemkreb auzSi potenciuri wyaroebis,sezonuri variaciebis da zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis gaumjobesebisa angauaresebis trendebis dadgenaSi. droiTi analizi SeiZleba SeicavdesgrZelvadiani trendebis analizs identifikaciisaTvis monacemebSizogadad zrdis an klebis tendenciebis asaxvisaTvis da Tviuri, sezonuri,yoveldRiuri da saaTobrivi tendenciebis ufro fokusirebul analizs (ix.naxati 12). degradirebuli zedapiruli wylebis kvlevam SeiZleba gviCvenos36


imgvari mizezebis arseboba, romlebic aseT periodebSia aqtiuri.magaliTad, gazafxulis TveebSi nutrientebis koncentraciis SefasebamSeiZleba gviCvenos wyaroebis gazrdili aqtivoba, magaliTad, regionSimocemul TveebSi sasuqis gamoyeneba. analizma aseve SeiZleba gviCvenosmdinaris auzis mdgomareobis gamosakvlevad saWiro im samomavloanalizTa (mag. amindis, dinebis) CatarebisA aucilebloba, romlebicmocemul sezonebSi zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis gaumjobesebis saqmeSidagvexmareba. magaliTad, zafxulis TveebSi maRal temperaturas SeuZliawyalmcenareTa produqtiulobis gazrda, rac, Tavis mxriv, gaxsniliJangbadis raodenobis Semcirebas gamoiwvevs.Monthly means O2 concentrations1412Dissolved oxygen in mg/l108642O2 mg/l01 3 5 7 9 11Months02-is koncentraciis saSualo Tviuri mniSvnelobanaxati 11 gasnili Jangbadis koncentraciis saSualo TviurimniSvneloba mdinare dunaiSi – bratislava (1990-2007) (wyaro: slovakeTishidrometeorologiuri instituti, bratislava)zogierT SemTxvevaSi arsebobs specifikuri sainformacio moTxovna,rodesac gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis misawodeblad saWiroa zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis kerZo parametrTa kombinireba. amgvari specifikurimoTxovnebis dakmayofilebis gzaTa Ziebisas, sakvanZo sityvebi SeiZlebaaRmoCndes agregacia, integracia da ganzogadeba.agregacia SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc drosa an sivrceSi zedapiruliwylebis xarisxis erTi parametris mniSvnelobis imave periodis sxvaparametris mniSvnelobasTan gaerTianeba. sivrciTi agregaciis magaliTadSeiZleba ganvixiloT SerCeuli arealis yvela sadguris SeerTeba dazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis saSualo maCveneblis gamoyvana.integracia SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc zedapiruli wylebis xarisxisgansxvavebuli parametrebis mniSvnelobaTa CarTva axal maniSvnelobaSi,zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis parametrebis kombinirebis mizniT. erTisivrciTi arealis calkeuli parametris mniSvnelobebi da kombinirebulimniSvnelobebi erTdroulad unda iyos warmodgenili. magaliTad, iseTiparametrebi, rogoricaa wylis simkvrive, pH da mZime metalebi SeiZlebaintegrirdes zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis axal parametrSi. aseTiintegraciisas xdeba zedapiruli wylebis rogorc xarisxobrivi (fizikurqimiuri,biologiuri), aseve raodenobrivi parametrebis erT mniSvnelobadgaerTianeba. amgvari indeqsireba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes rogorc wylis37


menejmnetSi, aseve mdinaris auzis mimdinare ekologiuri cvlilebebisSeswavlisas.SeniSvna: wylis xarisxis indeqsTa gamoyenebisas unda vicodeT, rom maTidaniSnulebaa mdinaris wylis zogadi xarisxis Sefaseba, zedapiruliwylis xarisxis parametrebis SerCeul jgufTan mimarTebaSi.4.4.2 monacemTa vizualizacia da angariSgebazedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis cifrul monacemTawarmodgenisas, erT-erTi mTavari mizani gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTayuradRebis SenarCuneba unda iyos. amis miRweva Zalze Zneli iqneba, Tuinformaciis miwodebis saSualebad mxolod cifrebiT Sevsebul cxrilebsgamoviyenebT. adamianTa umravlesobas ar ainteresebs sinjebis aRebisTiToeuli adgilis yoveli parametris absoluturi mniSvneloba.mosalodnelia, rom isini, ZiriTadad, TiToeuli adgilis daskvniTinawiliT (mdgomareoba kargia Tu cudi) da tendenciaTaA sezonuri anwliuri suraTiT dainteresdebian.jamur statistikas SeuZlia Zalian didi moculobis monacemebi adviladaRsawer da analizisaTvis xelsayrel mcire cifrul informaciadSekumSos. tendenciaTa da sxva maxasiaTebelTa gamosaTvlelad mravalimeTodi arsebobs (statistikuri programuli uzrunvelyofis paketebi).geografiuli sainformacio sistemebi (gss (GIS)) arsebiTia zedapiruliwylebis xarisxsis monacemTa sistemis arsebuli mdgomareobisorganizebisaTvis. sxvadasxva grZedze da ganedze arsebuli mravaliadgilis monacemTa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebiT, igi integrirebulimonacemebis Seqmnis saSualebs iZleva. adgilebi SeiZleba miekuTvnebodesspecifikuri wylis maragebs, aseve mdinaris mTel auzs. (ix. naxati 13)38


naxati 12 mdinare dunais auzis riskis qveS myofi wylis obieqtebis ruka.(wyaro: mtkvris proeqti, 2009)dRevandelma teqnologiebma mkveTrad Secvala geografiuli sainformaciosistemebis rukaTa roli. dRes isini, nacvlad statikuri saCvenebelisaSualebisa, dinamikur kvleviT saSualebas warmoadgens. es gulisxmobs,rom geografiuli sainformacio sistemebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba ufrozogadad, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis kontrolis im sistemebSi,romlebic moicavs sivrciT informacias mravali adgilis Sesaxeb.momxmareblisaTvis moxsenebis wardgenisas, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis monawileebma unda icodnen, rom arsebobs mravaligansxvaveba da specifikuri moTxovna, rac damokidebulia gadawyvetilebismimRebTa da politikis ganmsazRvrelTa doneebze. wylis xarisxismoxsenebebisadmi saxelmwifo moTxovna iqneba wylis maragebis, maTigamoyenebis, potenciuri dabinZurebis cnobil wyaroebze arsebulimonacemebis mTavrobis mier dadgenili standartebis Sesabamisadwarmodgena. regionaluri an/da adgilobrivi mTavrobebi damunicipalitetebi SesaZloa dainteresdnen im informaciiT, romelicSeexeba maTi iurisdiqciis arealSi mdebare specifikuri wylebis xarisxs,kerZod - wliur moxsenebebSi zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringismier zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis gasaumjobeseblad miRebuli zomebisdemonstrirebisaTvis. (ix. cxrili 6)cxrili 6 mdinare dunais auzSi wylis xarisxis wliuri angariSis nimuSimdinare: dunai. moculoba: 188 700 km2 2006distancia: 1560 km simaRle zRvis donidan: 89 m H04mdebareoba: SualeduriganmsazRvrelisdasaxelebaganzomilebiserTeuli# min saSualo maqs. C50 C90 klasidineba m3/wm 3651060.02530.3 8460.0 1950.04756.0temperatura °C 12 0.5 12.2 22.2 12.5 20.8Sewonilimg/l 12 4.0 26.1 82.0 20.5 38.7nawilakebigaxsnilimg/l 12 8.2 10.6 14.0 10.2 8.6 IJangbadiBOD5 mg/l 12 1.3 2.5 4.3 2.1 3.9 II..... .... .. .. ....(wyaro: mdinare dunais dacvis saerTaSoriso komisia (mddsk / ICPDR))Tumca, zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis nebimieri moxsenebisgamoqveynebamde, sasargeblo iqneba moxsenebis gavrcelebisa dapublikaciis strategiis SemuSaveba. darwmundiT, rom moxsenebisgamoqveynebis Semdeg mzad iqnebiT pasuxi gasceT gadawyvetilebis mimRebipirebisa da, zogadad, sazogadoebis mier Tqvens monacemebTan dakavSirebiTdasmul SekiTxvebs.39


4.4.3 monacemTa xelmisawvdomoba‘’zogierT qveyanas ar surs wyalTan dakavSirebuli monacemebis gaziareba,vinaidan am informacias kondfidencialurad Tvlis’’ (xadka, n.s., BBC axaliambebidan. 2010)zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monacemebi da informacia xelmisawvdomiunda iyos ara mxolod samizne gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTaTvis, aramedsxva momxmareblebisaTvis da, zogadad, sazogadoebisaTvis. Tumca zogierTqveyanaSi kanoni zRudavs zedapruli wylis Sesaxeb informaciissajaroobas an ar arsebobs am sakiTxis damaregulirebeli sakanonmdeblonormebi. arsebobs mravali gza, romelTaA meSveobiTac SeiZlebazedapiruli wylebis Sesaxeb informaciis misawvdomobis regulireba.(moxsenebebi, eqselis failebi, monacemTa bazebi, integrirebulisainformacio sistemebi, geografiuli sainformacio sistemebis rukebi daa.S.) dReisaTvis arsebobs Sida monacemTa bazebis mravali platforma.yvelaze martivi monacemTa bazaa stendebi, romlebic SeiZleba adekvaturiiyos zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis mcire programebisaTvis.monitoringis kompleqsuri programebisaTvis ufro Sesaferisia sinjebisaRebis mravali adgilis da/an wylis xarisxis parametris amsaxveliinformacia. Zalian didi monacemTa bazebi xSirad iyenebs ORACLE-s,rogorc platformas, romelic ufro Sesabamisia internetiTxelmisawvdomad. aseT bazebSi monacemebi, metamonacemebi da sxva qvemdebareinformacia ganTavsebulia saTanado cxrilebis saxiT, romlebic moicavssadguris informacias, sinjebis Sesaxeb informacias, gamoyenebulimeTodebis, analizisa da xarisxis kontrolis Sesaxeb informacias.monacemTa bazebis am tipebSi monacemebi mravali sxvadasxva gziT SeiZlebaiyos organizebuli imis mixedviT, Tu rogor unda moxdes maTi gamoyeneba(warmosadgeni analizis tipebi). garda amisa, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programaze pasuxismgebelma pirebma unda gaiTvaliswinonmonacemebis _ rogorc zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringisprogramis sayovelTao monacemTa menejmentis nawilis _ sxva monacemTabazebSi gadagzavnis moTxovna, rogoricaa centraluri kadastri,saxelmwifo monacemTa bazebis saagento an saerTaSoriso monacemTa bazebi(evrokavSiri, gaerTianebuli erebis evropis ekonomikuri komisia (UNECE)euTo da a.S.). (ix. naxati 14)zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programis Seqmnis dawyebisas,aucilebelia ganisazRvros, romeli monacemi iqneba xelmisawvdomi da rasaxiT. xSir SemTxvevaSi, saxelmwifo an mosazRvre qveynebis doneze,xelmisawvdomia mxolod rukebis saxiT mowodebuli gaerTianebulimonacemebi an informacia. zogadad, rekomendebulia monacemebisa dainformaciis xelmisawvdomobis momxmarebelTa Soris diferencireba, e.w.“privilegirebuli misawvdomobis” meSveobiT. (ranJireba gadawyvetilebismimRebi pirebidan – sazogadoebis farTo fenebamde; ix. naxati 14)40


naxati 13 evropis wylis informaciis sistemasTan SeerTeba internetismeSveobiT5. monitoringis programis Sefasebagadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa qcevaze zedapiruli wylebis monitoringisSedegebis zegavlenis Seswavla monitoringis praqtikosebs uzrunvelyofsinformaciiT, romlis gamoyenebac SeiZleba droTaA ganmavlobaSi,zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis strategiis dasaxvewad dagasaumjobeseblad. Tumca amgvari samuSaos Catareba martivi ar aris. arcise advilia imis gazomva da Sefaseba, ramdenad cvlis monitoringisSedegebi gadawyvetilebis mimRebTa qcevas. signalebi, romlebicmonitoringis strategiis muSaobis Sesaxeb iZleva niSans, zogjer ZalianumniSvneloa da gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirTa qcevasa Tu ganwyobaSimonitoringis muSaobis Sedegad GgaCenili mxolod Zalze mciresimptomebis saxiT vlindeba. rogorc zedapiruli wylebis xarisxismonitoringis programis SefasebiTi procesis nawili, SesaZloa gaCndesSemdegi kiTxvebi, romelTa gamoyenebac SesaZlebelia gadawyvetilebismimRebTa qcevaSi momxdari cvlilebebis Sesaswavlad:• uTxoviaT Tu ara TqvenTvis gadawyvetilebis procesSi monawileobismiReba an im komisiebisa da eqspertTa jgufebis Sekrebebze daswreba,romlebic strategiul gadawyvetilebebs SeimuSaveben?• pasuxoben Tu ara Tqvens satelefono zarebs is pirebi, romlebicpolitikis gansazRvrasa da gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi sakvanZofigurebs warmoadgenen?• eswrebian Tu ara isini Tqvens Sexvedrebs?• gamoqveynda Tu ara bolo periodSi adrindelze ufro metiinformacia da statiebi wyalTanA dakavSirebul sakiTxebze?• uTxoviaT Tu ara TqvenTvis monitoringis Sedegebis gacnoba?41


dasmuli SekiTxvebis gansjis an maT Sesaxeb sxvebTan diskusiis Sedegad,monitoringis praqtikosebi SeZleben sakuTari monitoringis programisgaumjobesebas da potenciuri konfliqtebisa Tu azrTa sxvadasxvaobisacilebas, yvela monawile mxarisaTvis sasargeblod.6. daskvniTi SeniSvnebizedapiruli wylebis monitoringis arsebuli programis Secvlisa TuganviTarebisas, aucilebelia gvaxsovdes samizne gadawyvetilebis mimRebTamoTxovnebi da nacionaluri kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli wylisxarisxis principebi. garda amisa, aucilebelia davrwmundeT, romzedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis mTeli programa xorcieldeba“monitoringis ciklis etapTa” umravlesobis dacviT mainc. es etapebia:• zedapiruli wylebis monitoringis programis Seqmna, naTelisainformacio moTxovnebisa da wylis xarisxis principebisSesabamisad;• monitoringis strategiisa da saSualebebis frTxili arCeva;• monitoringis programis wylis saxelmwifo kanonmdeblobasTanSesabamisobaSi darwmuneba;• zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monacemTa xarisxisa dastabilurobis maRali donis SenarCuneba.• potencialis gaZlierebisa da samuSao jgufis treningis gegmisSeqmna.• grZelvadiani monacemebis dasawyisidanve xelmisawvdomoba.• gadawyvetilebis mimRebTaTvis monitoringis monacemTa uwyveti damimzidveli saSualebebiT miwodeba.• monitoringis CarTva integraciul sainformacio sistemaSi,raTaAmoxdes maregulirebeli mowesrigebisa da grZelvadianimenejmentis, agreTve sxva meoradi momxmareblebisA – mkvlevarebis,ganaTlebis muSakebis, zogadad, sazogadoebis mxardaWera.• wylis xarisxis monitoringis programis SeqmnaSi ukuqmedebisa damiRebuli gamocdilebis CarTva.es dokumenti ganxiluli unda iyos, rogorc pirveli nabiji, romeliczedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis praqtikosebma SeiZlebagamoiyenon gadawyvetilebis mimReb pirebTan kontaqtisas zedapiruliwylebis xarisixis monitoringis programis Sesaqmnelad, gansakuTrebiT –sajaro seqtorSi muSaobisas. Tumca girCevT gaecnoT da SeajeroT esdokumentacia sxva saTanado teqnikur saxelmZRvaneloebTan dastandartebTan, raTaA SeqmnaT da ixelmZRvaneloT zedapiruli wylebisxarisxis monitoringis programiT.42


gamoyenebuli literaturaArnold, G., 2004.“ISARM-MED, Consultative Meeting”, Thessaloniki, Greece.Bartram, J. and R. Balance, 1996. Water Quality Monitoring a practical guide to the design andimplementation of freshwater studies and monitoring programmes. UNEP and WHO. London, UK.Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework forCommunity action in the field of water policy, Brussels, 2000.Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 onenvironmental quality standards in the field of water policy, amending and subsequently repealing Councildirectives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive2000/60/EC, Brussels, 2008.EC, Guidance Document No. 7 Monitoring under the Water Framework Directive, Brussels.EU Kura project, 2009. Delineation and classification of the water bodies in the Debed River basin. Interim report.Gilbert, R.O., 1987. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring. Van Nostrand Renholds, New York,320 pp.Handbook for Developing of the Watersheds Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters, USEPA, 2008. WashingtonDC 20460, USA.ICPDR, 2008. Water Quality in the Danube River basin, Yearbook 2006. Vienna, Austria.Khadka, N. S., 2010. Charting unknown Himalayan waters. BBC News. London, UK.Lovett, G.M, D.A. Burns, C.T. Driscoll, J.C. Jenkins, M.J. Mitchell, L. Rustad, J.B. Shanley, G.E. Likens and R.Haeuber. 2007. Who Needs Environmental Monitoring? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(5): 253–260.Loxahatchee River Water Quality and Biological Monitoring, Technical Report, 2008.Maasdam, R., 2000. Exploratory Data Analysis in Water Quality Monitoring Systems. MSc Thesis. University ofSalford.Mayio, A., 1996. Monitor's Guide To Quality Assurance Project Plans. EPA 841-B-96-003, USEPA Washington DC20460, USA.(SFER) South Florida Environmental Report, 2008. Chapter 1B: Strategies for Reengineering Water QualityMonitoring in South Florida, USA.Tacis Project, 2004 „Joint River Management Programme - Kura Basin“. Final Report, Brussel.Tacis Project, 2004 „Joint River Management Programme - Kura Basin“. Final Report – Annex part, Brussel.UNECE, 2000. Guidelines on monitoring and assessment of transboundary rivers. Task Force onMonitoring and Assessment. Geneva, Switzerland.USAID Program for Institutional and Regulatory Strengthening of Water Management. Final Status Report andRecommendations for State Water Cadastre Information System. Yerevan, 2008.USEPA, 2006. Monitoring and Assessment Water Quality. Washington DC 20460, USA.Ward, R. C., Loftis, J. C. and G. B. McBride, 2003. Design of Water Quality Systems. John Wiley&Sons, NewJersey, USA.43


Water quality monitoring program design, Western Australia, 2009.Wieler, C., 2007. Delivery of Ecological Monitoring Information to Decision – Makers. For the EcologicalMonitoring and Assessment Network, Environment Canada. Canada.44


naxatebis sianaxati 1 monitoringis cikli (wyaro: UNECE, 2000)naxati 2 wylis xarisxis kontrolis politikis sasicocxlo cikli. (wyaroarnoldi, g, 2004)naxati 3. wylis monacemTa sizuste da sicxadenaxati 4. fiqsirebuli sinjebis aRebis adgili mdinare mtkvris auzSi.(evrokavSiris proeqtis foto, 2009)naxati 5. monitoringis qselis zogierTi magaliTi hipoTeturi zedapiruliwylebisaTvisnaxati 6 gaxsnili Jangbadis dRiuri variaciebi da wylis temperatura zafxulisdReebis ganmavlobaSi (ivlisi 22-23, 1998), kunovos nimuSebis aRebis adgilas.(mdinare dunai) (wyaro: slovakeTis hidrometeorologiuri instituti,bratislava, slovakia)naxati 7 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis xarjebsa da wylis xarisxisanalizs Soris kavSiri, zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis miznebis misaRwevadnaxati 8 gaxsnili Jangbadis koncentracia mdinare loqsaheCis xuT segmentSi,wylis xarisxis samizne periodSi (1998-2002, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 (wyaro: mdinareloqsaheCis wylis xarisxisa da biologiuri monitoringi, 2008)naxati 9 gaxsnili Jangbadis koncentraciis tendenciis analizi mdinare dunaiSi –bratislava. (wyaro: slovakeTis hidrometeorologiuri instituti, weliwdeuli,2008)naxati 10 mdinare mtkvris auzis gss ruka Jangbadis biologiuri moxmarebis(xuTdRiani inkubacia) saSualo moculobis vizualizaciiT, sinjebis aRebissxvadasxva adgilze (wyaro: mdinaris menejmentis erToblivi programa – mtkvrisauzi, saboloo moxseneba, 2004)naxati 11 gasnili Jangbadis koncentraciis saSualo Tviuri mniSvnelobamdinare dunaiSi – bratislava (1990-2007) (wyaro: slovakeTishidrometeorologiuri instituti, bratislava)naxati 12 mdinare dunais auzis riskis qveS myofi wylis obieqtebis ruka. (wyaro:mtkvris proeqti, 2009)naxati 13 evropis wylis informaciis sistemasTan SeerTeba internetis meSveobiTcxrilebis siacxrili 1 informaciis tipebi da maTi mimarTeba gadawyvetilebis mimRebipirebisadmi.cxrili 2 gadawyvetilebis mimReb samizne pirTaTvis moTxovnili informacismiwodebis gzebicxrili 3 zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis parametrebi ZiriTadi monitoringisaTvis(wyaro : direqtiva 2000/60/evrokomisia)cxrili 4 wylis xarisxis parametrebTan dakavSirebuli informacia (wyaro:transnacionaluri monitoringis qseli - TNMN, 2006, mdinare dunais dacvissaerTaSoriso komisia ICPDR vena)45


cxrili #5 monitoringis sixSire ZiriTadi monitoringis dros (wyaro: direqtiva2000/60/evrokomisia)cxrili 6 mdinare dunais auzSi wylis xarisxis wliuri angariSis nimuSi46


abreviaturaTaA siaaxpwCdgxsgssisssoQA/QCtnmqiusaidiwxawxsanalitikuri xarisxis programawylis CarCo direqtivagaremos xarisxis standartigeografiuli sainformacio sistemainformaciuli sistemasaerTaSoriso standartis organizaciaxarisxis uzrunvelyofa, xarisxis kontrolitranssasazRvro monitoringis qseliamerikis SeerTebuli Statebis ganviTarebis saagento,wylis xarisxis amocanebiwylis xarisxis standarti47


danarTi 1. zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis programaTa sxvadasxvatipis dagegmvis nimuSebi1.3.1. ZiriTadi monitoringis dagegmvaamocanebiwevrma qveynebma unda ganaxorcielon ZiriTadi monitoringi, raTa uzrnvelyoninformacia:o danarT II-Si detalurad ganmartebuli SefasebiTi procedurebis zegavlenisSesavsebad da gansaxorcieleblad;o samomavlo monitoringis programis efeqtianobisa da produqtiulobisuzrunvelsayofad;o bunebrivi pirobebis grZelvadiani cvlilebebis Sesafaseblad;o gavrcelebuli anTropogenuri aqtivobebiT gamowveuli grZelvadianicvlilebebis Sesafaseblad.amgvari monitoringis Sedegebi gadaxedili da gamoyenebuli unda iyos danarT II-Si aRwerili zegavlenis Sefasebis procedurebTan erTad, raTaA ganisazRvrosmdinaris auzSi menejmentis gegmis monitoringis programis moTxovnebi.monitoringis adgilebis SerCevaZiriTadi monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes sakmao raodenobis wylis masebze,raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos mTliani zedapiruli wylebis statusis Sefasebamdinaris auzis TiToeul ubanze. amgvari adgilebis SerCevisas, wevri qveynebiunda darwmundnen, rom monitoringi, SeZlebisdagvarad, ganxorcieldeba iq, sadac:o wylis dinebis ritmi sagulisxmoa mdinaris mTeli auzis masStabiT; didimdinareebisa im regionebis CaTvliT, sadac misadgomi areali 2500 km2-saRemateba;o arsebuli wylis moculoba sagulisxmoa mTeli mdinaris auzis masStabiT,didi tbebisa da wyalsacavebis CaTvliT;o wylis sagulisxmo raodenoba gadakveTs saxelmwifo sazRvars;o adgilebi identificirebulia sainformacio gacvlis gadawyvetileba77/795/EEC-iT;o aucilebelia damabinZureblebis Sefaseba, saxelmwifo sazRvris gadakveTis ansazRvao wylebSi Cadinebis gamo.xarisxis elementTa SerCevaZiriTadi monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi,monitoringis yvela im zonaSi, romelsac mdinaris auzis menejmentis gegmamoicavs:o biologiuri xarisxis elementebis parametrTa gamosavlenad;o hidromorfologiuri xarisxis elementebis parametrTa gamosavlenad;o zogadi fizikur-qimiuri xarisxis elementebis parametrTa gamosavlenad;o mdinaris auzSi Cadenili damabinZureblebis prioritetuli siisSesadgenad;o yvela sxva danarCeni damabinZureblis aRsaricxad,48


garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac wina monitoringis Sedegebma gviCvena, romwylis masam karg mdgomareobas miaRwia da ar arsebobs raime mizezivivaraudoT, rom danarT II-iT gansazRvrul adamianur aqtivobas SeiZlebodamdinaris mdgomareoba Seecvala. aseT SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadi monitoringi undaganxorcieldes mdinaris auzis menejmentis yovel mesame etapze.49


1.3.2 sakontrolo monitoringis dagegmvaamocanebisakontrolo monitoringi unda gaxorcieldes Semdegi miznebiT:• im wylebis statusis dasadgenad, romlebic SesaZloa garemosdacviTstandartebTan Seusabamobis safrTxis winaSe dadges;• amgvari wylebis mdgomareobis nebismieri cvlilebis Sesafaseblad,gazomvis programebis meSveobiT.programa SeiZleba Seswordes mdinaris menejmentis gegmis ganxorcielebisprocesSi, danarT II-iT gansazRvruli moTxovnebiT mopovebuli informaciisSedegad; SeiZleba Semcirdes sixSire iq, sadac es mniSvnelovan gauaresebas argamoiwvevs, an moxdes Sesabamisi wnevis regulireba.monitoringis adgilebis SerCevaeqsloataciuri monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes yvela im wylis masisaTvis,romlebic _ an danarTi II-is Sesabamisad ganxorcielebuli zemoqmedebisSefasebis safuZvelze, an dakvirvebidan gamomdinare _ identificirebulia,rogorc meoTxe punqtiT gansazRvrul ekologiur miznebTan Seusabamobis riskisqveS mdgomi, aseve im wylebisaTvis, romlebSic prioritetul siaSi SemavalnivTierebaTa simcire aRiniSneba. Aam nivTierebaTa kontrolis adgilebi undaSeirCes ekologiuri xarisxis kanoniT gansazRvruli standartebis Sesabamisad.yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi, maT Soris, rodesac aseTi nivTierebebis prioritetulisia kanonmdeblobiT araa gansazRvruli, monitoringis adgilebi unda SeirCesSemdegi saxiT:• wylis masebisaTvis, romlebic lokalizebuli resursebis mniSvnelovanizemoqmedebis saSiSroebis winaSe dgas, saTanado kontroli undaganxorcieldes TiToeul masaze, raTa gaizomos lokalizebuli wyaroebismagnituda da gavlena. sadac wylis masa ramdenime wyaros zemoqmedebissubieqtia, monitoringis adgilebi SeiZleba SeirCes, raTaA moxdes amzemoqmedebis magnitudisa da gavlenis saerTo Sefaseba.• wylis masebisaTvis, romlebic gabneuli resursebis mniSvnelovanizemoqmedebis saSiSroebis winaSe dgas, saTanado kontroli undaganxorcieldes wylis TiToeul masaze, raTa gaizomos daSlis wyaroebismagnituda da gavlena. unda moxdes iseTi wylis masebis SerCeva, romlebicdaSlis wyaroebis aRmoCenisa da zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis amocanebTanSeusabamobis maRali riskis qveS dgas.• wylis masebisaTvis, romlebic hidromorfologiuri resursebismniSvnelovani zemoqmedebis saSiSroebis winaSe dgas, saTanado kontroliunda ganxorcieldes wylis TiToeul masaze, raTa gaizomos maTzehidromorfologiuri zemoqmedebis magnituda da gavlena.xarisxis elementTa SerCevawylis masebze zemoqmedebaTa magnitudisa da gavlenis Sesaswavlad, wevrmasaxelmwifoebma minitoringi unda ganaxorcielon im xarisxis elementebze,50


omlebic am zemoqmedebis indikatorebia. am zemoqmedebaTaA gavlenisSesafaseblad, wevrma qveynebma monitoringi unda ganaxorcielon SesabamisobiT:• parametrebTan, romlebic aCvenebs biologiuri xarisixis an zemoqmedebismimarT yvelaze mgrZnobiare elementebs;• parametrebTan, romlebic aCvenebs yvela prioritetuli nivTierebis an sxvadamabinZureblebis mniSvnelovan moculobas;• parametrebTan, romlebic aCvenebs hidromorfologiuri xarisixiszemoqmedebisadmi yvelaze mgrZnobiare elementebs.1.3.3 kvleviTi monitoringis dagegmvaamocanebikvleviTi monitoringi unda ganxorcieldes:• sadac nebismieri gadaWarbebis mizezi ucnobia;• sadac zedamxedvelobiTi monitoringi gviCvenebs, rom meoTxe punqtiTgansazRvruli amocanebis miRweva wylis masisaTvis problematuria daZiriTadi monitoringi jer ar ganxorcielebula, raTa moxdesgaremosdacviT stndartebTan wylis masebis Seusabamobis mizezTa dadgena;an• SemTxveviTi dabinZurebis magnitudisa da gavlenis dasadgenad.kvleviTma monitoringma programis ganxorcieleba unda uzrunvelyosinformaciiT, romelic mniSvnelovania SemTxveviTi dabinZurebis efeqtTaaRmosafxvreli da garemosdacviTi amocanebis gadaWrisaTvis saWiro zomebismisaRebad.(wyaro: evrokavSiris wylis saqmeTa direqtiva, danarTi V)51


danarTi 2. zogierTi SeniSvna xarisxis uzrunvelyofisa da xarisxis kontrolissistemis Sesaxebsinjebis xarisxis kontroligadawyvetilebis an qmedebis konkretuli xasiaTi analitikuri SedegebisgamarTulobazea damokidebuli. amdenad, zedapiruli wylebis monitoringisrogorc sinjebis aRebis, aseve analizis nawili CarTuli unda iyos xarisxiskontrolisa da xarsixis damowmebis sistemaSi. sinjebis aRebis procesSi xd/sksistemebis CarTvis ramdenime etapi mocemulia qvemoT motanil cxrilSi.Eetapi xarisxis kontroli xarisxisdamowmebaaRWurvilobi uzrunvelyaviT aRWurvilobis kalibracia gazomviTi SeamowmeTs momzadeba samuSaoebisaTvis.sinjebidadgenli meTodebiT gulmodgined gawmindeT sinjebismosaTavsebeli konteineri da WurWeli.ar gamoiyenoT WurWeli, Tu igi gabzaruli, ferSecvlilian dazianebulia.SeinaxeT sinjebis WurWeli mSRal, sufTaA adgilas.daaRricxeTWurWlismzadyofnagamoyenebisaTvisaRricxeTWurWlismzadyofnagamoyenebisaTvissinjebismogrovebasaveleSeniSvnebiSenaxva datransportirebauzrunvelyaviT treningi sinjebis aRebis teqnikaSiuzrunvelyaviT jgufi savele informaciiT – adgiliszusti koordinatebis, sinjebis aRebis procedurisa dasinjebis Senaxva/fiqsaciis aRweriT,SeitaneT daskvniTi punqti TiToeuli sinjis moxsenebaSi,raTaA uzrunvelyoT gadamowmeba da sizuste.SeitaneT sinjebis mogrovebis gzamkvlevSi sinjebisSenaxvisa da transportirebis meTodebi.darwmundiT, rom nimuSebioTaxSi.Senaxulia macivarSi an grilsavelepirveladisinjebisegzemplarebisavelesasinjiprocedurebisregularuliauditi.(mag. yoveli10 sinjismogrovebisetapisSemdeg)savelesinjebismogrovebisregularuliauditisavelesinjebismogrovebisregularuliauditi52


sagzaopirveladisinjisnimuSi.xarisxis kontrolis (xk) sinjebiteqsti naxatSidistilirebli wyali. adgilze transportireba. sinjis aRebis procesi.laboratoriaSi waReba. laboratoriaSi datoveba. laboratoriaSi dabruneba.analitikuri xarisxis kontrolizedapiruli wylebis monitoringisaTvis savele sinjebis gamoyenebis ilustracia(teqnikuri daxmareba damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa TanamegobrobisaTvis, 2004-danarTis nawili.)monacemebis xarisxis moTxovnaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, monitoringis saagentosaucilebelad unda hqondes regularuli da kargad organizebuli analitikurixarisixis kontrolis progrma (axp), Sida da sagareo xarisxis kontrolilaboratoriebSi, romlebic CarTulia zedapiruli wylebis monitoringisprogramaSi. axp-m, sxva moTxovnaTa Soris, unda ganaxorcielos Semdegi:• Seamowmos monawile laboratoriebis analitikuri unarebi;• daadginos laboratoriebis samuSao pirobebis seriozuli Semaferxebelipirobebi;• daadasturos zedapiruli wylebis xarisxis monitoringis monacemebi.• ganaviTaros labioratoriaTa analitikuri kompetencia, ukeTesi SedegismisaRwevad;• ganaviTaros laboratoriaTaA Sida da sagareo xarisxis kontroli .sinjebis mogrovebis gegmis msgavsad, savele sinjebis aReba xdebamomzadebisa da analitikuri procesis sxvadasxva etapze, raTaA moxdesdakvirveba:• nebismier narCenSi Sxamebisa da damabinZureblebis arsebobaze;• araswori procedurebiT gamowveul jvaredin dabinZurebaze;53


• sxva mizezebiT gamowveul dabinZurebaze, rogoricaa mravaljeradigamoyenebis saganTa arasaTanado sterilizacia.rekomendebulia, savele pirveladi sinjebis aReba moxdes yoveli 20 sinjisanalizis Semdeg. aq mniSvnelovania imis codna, romsavele pirveladi sinji ar unda Seicavdes romelime sakvlev nivTierebas.xarisxis kontrolis tipebis magaliTebixk sinjisavelepirveladi sinjisagzaopirveladisinjigamosavlenipirveladi sinjidublikaturisinjigayofili sinjiaRwerasavele pirveladi sinji aris savele pirobebSiwarmoebuli sinji, romelic gamoiyeneba mTel analitikurprocesSi (sinjebis aReba, transportireba) problemebisgamosavlenad. mis Sesaqmnelad, sinjebis mogrovebisasaiReT sufTaA konteineri 'sufTa wyliT, (e.i.distilirebuli, deionizebuli wyliT, romelic ar SeicavsTqvens sakvlev nivTierebas). sxva konteinerebi SeavseTadgilis wyliT. maTSi moTavsebuli wylis tipebismiuxedavad, yvela sinjs erTnairad unda moeqceT.magaliTad, Tu saWiroa sinjebis wyals daumatoT raimeagenti wylis Senaxva-konservaciisaTvis, igive undamoimoqmedoT savele pirveladi sinjebis mimarTac.sagzao (an satransporto) pirveladi sinji arismonitoringis adgilze gasvlamde, laboratoriulpirobebSi distilacia-deionizaciis wesiT momzadebulisimulirebuli sinji. aseTi sinji Seinaxeba, konservirdebada transportirdeba iseTive wesiT, rogorc sxva sinjebi.is sinjebis amRebs Tan aqvs savele pirobebSic, magram arwamormoadgens Camnacvlebels sxva sinjebisaTvis. essinjebi gamoiyeneba transportirebisas sinjebisdabinZurebis xarisxis Sesamowmeblad da inaxeba sinjebisaRebis periodidan analizamde. rekomendebulia iqonioTTiTo aseTi sinji, normaluri sinjebis TiTo jgufisaTvis.gamosavleni pirveladi sinji aris “sufTa” sinji, romelicgamoiyeneba aRWurvilobis dabinZurebis Sesamowmeblad. misimeSveobiT xdeba mravaljeradi gamoyenebis aRWurvilobisdabinZurebis gamovlena. distilirebuli-deinozebuliwyali daculia sinjis konteinerSi da masze regularuliaRWurvilobis zemoqmedebis Semdeg mowmndeba ise, rogorcsxva sinjebi.dublikaturi sinji aris erTsa da imave dros, erTadgilas, erTi wesiT mogrovili ramdenime sinji. maTSeuZlia aCvenos garemos bunebrivi da sinjebis aRebisprocedurebiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi. isini aCvenebseqsperimentul Secdomebs da, amdenad, cdomilebisgazomvaSi gvexmareba. wyvili aseTi sinji mxolod imasgviCvenebs, rom cvlilebebi arsebobs, magram met sinjsSeuZlia meti informacia mogvces maT Sesaxeb.gayofili sinji, an savele dublikati, aris or an met54


nawilad gayofili da sxvadasxva konteinerSi moTavsebulierTi sinji, romelic gankuTvnilia laboratoriulianalizisaTvis. aseTi sinjebi sicxadis gasazomadgamoiyeneba. sinjebi uda Seerios erTmaneTs gayofamde. Tuanalizi sxvadasxva konteinerebSi arasworadaa Catarebuli,Tavs iCens mniSvnelovani Secdomebi. velze sinjis dayofassavele dayofa ewodeba, xolo laboratoriaSi –laboratoriuli dayofa.gamWoli sinji gamWoli sinji aris sinji, romelzec damatebul iqnaanalizisaTvis saintereso garkveuli koncentracia. issizustis gasazomad gamoiyeneba. Tu es xdeba savelepirobebSi, rezultati aireklavs Senaxvis,transportirebis, laboratoriuli mozadebisa da analizisgavlenas. Tu laboratoriaSia Sesrulebuli - aireklavscvlilebebs, romlebic Senarevis damatebis Semdeg,uSualod gazomvis win moxda.55

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