saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #2 (43), 2010 ART SCIENCE ...

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saxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani #2 (43), 2010 ART SCIENCE ...

saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisada kinos saxelmwifo universitetiShota Rustaveli Theatre and FilmGeorgian State Universitysaxelovnebo mecnierebaTa Ziebani#2 (43), 2010ART SCIENCE STUDIES#2 (43), 2010gamomcemloba `kentavri~Tbilisi _ 20101


SinaarsiT e a t r m c o d n e o b amaia goSaZevariaciebi yofna-aryofnis motivebze ................................................................11marine (maka) vasaZesaubrebi robert sturuas `saTeatro enaze~(robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis) .............21k i n o m c o d n e o b azviad doliZekinos iaponeli imperatori ............................................................................31irakli maxaraZeamerikeli indielis saxe amerikul vesTernSi ........................................35dinara maRlakeliZekinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebi ....................................................44eTer okujavaXX saukunis 20-iani wlebis qarTul-amerikul kinoSiSeniSnuli analogiebi ...........................................................................................59u n i v e r s i t e t i s s a m a g i s t r op r o g r a m ak u l t u r i s m e n e j m e n t inaTia grZeliSvilisareklamo saxeobebi da struqtura ............................................................67TaTia elbaqiZemuzeumebis roli dRevandel sazogadoebaSi ..............................................73TaTa inaSviliSoubiznesi, reklama da PR ................................................................................78elene meCiTovakulturis dafinanseba saqarTveloSi .........................................................83sofo cercvaZemenejeris imiji ........................................................................................................89leila janaSiasaqarTvelos xelnawerTaAerovnuli centris menejmentiszogierTi sakiTxi .............................................................................................94k u l t u r u l i t u r i z m i sm e n e j m e n t ieka avTandilaSivlimcxeTa, rogorc kulturuli turizmis centri .........................................100eleonora gogolaSviliimereTSi kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebisstrategiuli mimarTulebis analizi .........................................................110lela elizbaraSviliqarTuli tradiciebisa da kulturis turistuli funqcia .............115jano TiTiraSviliborjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis funqcionalurizonirebis turistuli aspeqtebi .................................................................123nino oTaraSvilimomlocvelobiTi turizmis resursebi saqarTveloSi .......................131TinaTin qristesaSvilididi abreSumis gzis turistuli potenciali ......................................138v o k a l u r - t e q n i k u r -s a S e m s r u l e b l o k v l e v i T ia n a l i z izaqaria faliaSvilis opera`abesalom da eTeri~marixis kanconeta, eTeris ariebi(vokalur-teqnikur-saSemsruleblo kvleviTi analizi)lia barbaqaZez. faliaSvili, `marixis kanconeta~ operidan:`abesalom da eTeri~ .......................................................................................146eka gureSiZezaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidan ........................................163nino sakandeliZe`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidan .......................179maia xaWapuriZeeTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~(`dedinacvlis~ saSemsruleblo kvleviTi analizi) .............................1944 5


u n i v e r s i t e t i ss a d o q t o r o p r o g r a m ak u l t u r i s p o l i t i k ak u l t u r i s m e n e j m e n t inino azmaifaraSvilisaerTaSoriso organizaciebis mniSvnelobaglobalizaciis procesebSi ..............................................................................204elene babakiSvilisponsoroba da kulturis politika .........................................................219sofio komlaZesagamomcemlo organizaciis ............................................................................228struqturis analiziana kotrikaZekinoindustriis dafinansebis zogierTi sakiTxi ....................................234s a t e l e v i z i o x e l o v n e b adaviT gujabiZemixeil TumaniSvili da Teatri teleekranze .........................................238s c e n o g r a f i i s i s t o r i ad a T e o r i alali gelaSviliCacmuloba XIX saukunis saqarTveloSi kinofilm`qeTo da kotes~ mixedviT .............................................................................246avtorTa Sesaxeb ..................................................................................................251CONTENTST H E A T R E S T U D I E SMAIA GOSHADZEVariation on the Theme To Be Or Not To Be............ .......................................254MARINE (MAKA) VASADZEConversations about Robert Sturua’s“Theatrical Language”(Formation of Robert Sturua’s Theatrical Language)....................................... 255F I L M S T U D I E SZVIAD DOLIDZEJapanese Emperor of Film .....................................................................................257IRAKLI MAKHARADZEImage of American Indian in American Western ................................................258DINARA MAGLAKELIDZEDevelopmental Trends of Cinema Theory ............................................................259ETER OKUDJAVARemarkable analogies in Georgian-American cinema of the 20sand 30s of XXth century ..........................................................................................261U N I V E R S I T Y ’ M A P R O G R A MC U L T U R A L M A N A G E M E N TNATIA GRDZELISHVILIStructure and Varieties of Advertisement .............................................................263TATIA ELBAKIDZEThe Role of a Museum in Present Society........................................................ 263TATA INASHVILIShow Business, Advertising and PR .....................................................................264ELENE MECHITOVAFinancing of Culture in Georgia ..............................................................................265SOPO TSERTSVADZEThe Image of a Manager .........................................................................................265LEILA JANASHIARole and Public Activity of Georgian National Center of Manuscripts .............2666 7


M A N A G E M E N T O FC U L T U R A L T O U R I S MEKA AVTANDILASHVILIMtskheta as a Center of Tourism ..................................................................... 267ELEONORA GOGOLASHVILIAnalysis of strategic directions of cultural tourismdevelopment in Imereti .......................................................................................267LELA ELIZBARASHVILITourist Function of GeorgianTraditions and Culture ............................................................................................268JANO TITIRASHVILITouring Aspects of Borjomi- Kharagauli National ParkFunctional Zone ....................................................................................................269NINO OTARASHVILIPilgrimage tourism resources in Georgia ...............................................................269TINATIN KRISTESASHVILITourist potential of “The Great Silk Road” ...........................................................270R E S E A R C H A N A L I S Y S O FP E R F O R M A N C E F R O M AT E C H N I C A L V I E W P O I N TOPERA “ABESALOM AND ETERI” BY Z. PALIASHVILI(Canzoneta of Marekhi, Arias of Eteri)(Vocal-technical-performance research analysis )LIA BARBAKADZE.Z. Paliashvili, “Canzoneta of Marekhi” from the opera“Abesalom and Eteri”...............................................................................................271EKAGURESHIDZEZ. Paliashvili, “Aria of Eteri” Act IV .................................................. 271NINO SAKANDELIDZE“Aria of Eteri” from the opera “Abesalom and Eteri” Act I................................272MAIKO KHACHAPURIDZEAria of Eteri from the opera “Abesalome and Eteri” by Z. Paliashvili(Performance Research Analysis of “Step mother”) ............................................273U N I V E R S I T Y ’ P h . D P R O G R A MC U L T U R A L M A N A G E M E N TC U L T U R A L P O L I C YNINO AZMAIPARASHVILISignificance of International Organizations in the Processesof Globalization .........................................................................................................274ELENE BABAKISHVILISponsorship and Cultural Policy ......................................................................275SOFIO KOMLADZEAnalysis of Structure of an Editorial Organization ......................................... 276ANA KOTRIKADZEIssues Related to Financing of Film Industry ...................................................278T E L E V I S I O N A R TDAVIT GUJABIDZEMikhail Tumanishvili – and TV-theatre ................................................................279H I S T O R Y A N D T H E O R YO F S C E N O G R A P H YLALI GELASHVILIXIX century Georgian Fashion StyleAccording to the draft samples from musical “Keto and Kote” ........................2808 9


Teatrmcodneobamaia goSaZevariaciebi yofna-aryofnis motivebzeСо мной сегодня вечность вся 1yvelaferi, rasac aryofnidan yofnaSi gadavyavarT,Semoqmedebaa, _ ambobda platoni. cxovrebisadmi `yofniseul~_ SemoqmedebiT damokidebulebas genialurobis gamomxatveladmiiCnevda nikoloz berdiaevi da am mxriv, kirkegoris msgavsad,pirovnul mniSvnelovnebas istoriisTvis xSirad sruliadSeumCnevel adamianTa Sinagan monapovrad aRiqvamda.yofna yovelive arsebulis sakuTari SesaZleblobebis mTelisisavsiT, garedan ganusazRvrel-ganupirobebeli TviTobiT aRqmagancdisgamomxatvelia da, imavdroulad _ mxolod awmyoseuliSesaZleblobebisa da mdgomareobis gamomxatveli (parmenidesTqmisa ar iyos, iyo an iqneba axla xom aryofnas niSnavs).TviTonac, upirvelesad, awmyoSi `yofnisas~ vlindeba,latenturi arsebobis inertulobidan Tavs aRwevs darealizdeba. TviTobis amouwuravi arqeti pis erT-erTmaxasiaTeblad iungi swored SemoqmedebiTi aqtivobisgamomxatveli procesis saxiT mis arsebobas miiCnevs: `brahmaniRvTiuri arsia, TviTobaa, garkveuli fsiqologiuri mdgomareobacda procesic. RvTiuri arsis TviTobasTan identurobis idea,dinamikuri SemoqmedebiTi energiis, libidos ideaa~. 2TviToba ara erTxel da samudamod damsaxurebul jildos,miRweul monapovars, Sedegsa da mdgomareobas warmoadgens,aramed swored awmyoSi `yofnisas~ _ aq da amJamad arsebobisprocesSi CarTulobisas realizebad adamianis Sinagan arss.aq da amJamad arsebulTan, moZravTan, cvalebadTan, Sesabamisad_ cocxalTan, cocxal awmyoseul realobasTan mimarTebaSigamoRviZebis, Tvalis axelis, `mkvdreTiT~ aRdgomis misteriamsoflio literaturaSi, albaT, erT-erTi yvelaze STambeWdavisaxierebiT warmoCindeba miTo-poeturi da religiurisimbolikiT gajerebul ernest hofmanis moTxroba-zRapar `oqrosqoTanSi~.10 11


maia goSaZerodesac hofmanis moTxrobis gmiri, axalgazrda anselmiamaRlebis dResaswaulze xis Ziras ganmartoebuli zecasTavis ubedur varskvlavze dabadebas, uCinobasa da usaxsrobasuCivis, sakuTari umniSvnelobis gancdiT Sepyrobil sociumispirmSomde moulodnelad yovelgvari ierarqiisa dagapirobebulobis miRma arsebuli sicocxlis maTrobelasurneli aRwevs. mudam arsebulis miRmismier drosa dasivrcisken mimarTuli mzeris `Rrublian~ melanqolias, TiTqos,idumali sixarulis uxilavi mnaTobi aqarwylebs. awmyoSiarmyofis maradiul SimSils Sinagani sisavsis mzardi gancdaenacvleba da misTvis aqamde, TiTqos, ucnobi sinamdvilis idumaliCurCuli moesmis.rodesac mosaRamovebisas mze aramwveli sxivebis amboriTgaTenebamde eTxoveba samyaros, nawvimariT danamuli xeebi kisios uxilavi partnioruli TanxlebiT acekvdnen, gaSliliyvavilis (iungis mier mraval kulturaSi TviTobis arqetipisgamomxatvel erT-erT simbolod miCneulis) gulidan, TiTqos,sareclidan wamomdgar umSvenieres qal-gvelTa samebis rokvabunebis mejlisis gvirgvinad iqca. mocekvave solistTazurmuxtisferi, gazafxulisa da ganaxlebis, aRdgomisa dasamebis emblematuri feris triada, xis tanis irgvliv brunvisas,TiTqos, spiralurad moZravi sulieri energiis plastikurgansxeulebad iqca, miwaSi fesvgadgmuli da zeciskentotebaSverili xe ki varskvlavebiT moWedil casaviTzurmuxtebiT mokaSkaSe, zurmuxtebis mfrqvevel sicocxlissakralur xed transformirda.bunebis mejlisi _ arsebiTad adamianis sakuTar TviTobasTanziarebis Sinagani realobis warmomCeni peizaJi, swored awmyoSiarsebulSi, miwier-sxeulebrivSi, yofiTsa da yoveldRiurSi _upirvelesad ki, empiriul (saxarebiseul metaforas TudavesesxebiT) Zvel kacSi fesvgadgmul-ganfenili Zvirfasisubstanciis madideblad gvevlineba.yvavilis gulidan, arsebiTad misive arsebis uxilavisiRrmidan amosuli triadidan umSvenieresis mzeris silurjeSi_ Sinagani zecis silurjeSi CaZiruli anselmi, morigikalendaruli dResaswaulis nacvlad egzistencialuriamaRlebis, Sinagani feriscvalebis, ZvelSi kvdomisa da axlisTvisdabadebis sakralurobas eziareba. swored arsebulTanmimarTebaSi gamoRviZebis _ aryofnidan yofnaSi, sikvdilidansicocxleSi, marad ukvdav awmyoSi `gasvlis~ hofmaniseulimisteria cxovrebisadmi SemoqmedebiTi mimarTebis, cnobierebiszrdisa da gafarToebis, sulieri energiis STamberavi ganaxlebis,sicocxlis damamkvidrebeli suliskveTebis namdvil triumfadgvevlineba.prestiJul Cinsa da uZravi idiliis myudro naWuWzemeocnebe biurokrat anselms poeti anselmi amarcxebs _ bednierTu ubedur varskvlavze dabadebis pirmSo-tusaRs Sinaganizecis mkvidri _ ama Tu im saxis gapirobebulobis uZraobazeki marad `cocxal~ awmyoSi moZravi sicocxlis TavisufaliSemoqmedebiTi stiqia imarjvebs.aq da amJamad arsebulTan, erTian SemoqmedebiT realobasTan,uSret Sinagan wyarosTan Tanaziareba, upirvelesad, sworedaq da amJamad arsebul sakuTar TavTan, garedan ganusazRvrelganupirobebelSinagan adamianTan iseTive Semxvedri daTanmxvedri mimarTebebis gamomxatvelia, rogorc taZrisa dasakuTari Tavisken savali gzis identurobis idea _ nebismieriorTodoqsiaze aRmatebuli WeSmaritebis gamomxatveli.nekrofilia fromiseuladvariaciebi yofna-aryofnis motivebzeswored awmyosadmi mimarTebas, adamianis wamyvani fsiqikuritendenciis, sicocxlis moyvareobis an moZuleobis umTavresgamomxatvelad miiCnevda fsiqologi erix fromi.fromis mier biofiliad Seracxuli sicocxlis moyvareoba,sicocxlis yovelTvis mxolod awmyoSi moZrav stiqiaSiCarTulobisken swrafvaSi vlindeba, awmyos muRamis gancdaSivlindeba (pasternakiseuli melodiurobiT mJRer sityvebSic,rom gamosWvivis `ukvdavebaa Tavad sicocxle – `жизнь ибессмертье одно`). 3nekrofiliad (mkvdaris, rogorc inertulis, ucvlelis,araSemoqmedebiTis moyvareobis gamomxatvelis) fromis mierSeracxuli sicocxlis moSiSi da moZule fsiqikuri tendencia12 13


maia goSaZeki swored Sedegze da ara procesze, flobaze da ara Ziebaze,erTxel da samudamod, aTvisebul-Sesisxlxorcebulis naWuWSigaxvevaze da ara cnobierebis zrdasa da gafarToebazemimarTebaSi vlindeba, awmyoseuli realobisgan mudmiv gaucxoebadistancirebaSivlindeba.procesis SedegSi, moZravis uZravSi, warmavlis waruvalSi,mokvdavis ukvdavSi STanTqmis, sicocxlis samudamo sakuTrebaSimiRebis, samudamod mopovebul, uZrav Sedegad qcevis, erTxelda samudamod damsaxurebuli netarebis obieqtad qcevis maniasikvdilis instinqtis mSobadsa da masazrdoebel STagonebiswyarod gvevlineba patrik ziuskindis romanSi `parfiumeri~.nebismier viTarebaSi, nebismier drosa da sivrceSi yofnisganganurCevlad yovelTvis mainc armyofi, Tvalxilulobismiuxedavad, arsebulis mudam daunaxavi ziuskindis romanisgmiri, parfiumeri Jan batist grinuei, avtorisve TqmiT,`yvelafers esenciis msgavsad kvaldakval aRiqvamda, rogorcwarsulis sulis matarebelsa da awmyoTi xelSeuxebels~. 4awmyosgan mudam gaucxoebuli, awmyos mudam miuRebeli,awmyoSi mudam armyofi ziuskindiseuli parfiumeri Jan batistgrinuei yovelTvis swored aq da amJamad sicocxlis moZravistiqiis uarmyofeli sikvdilis instinqtis _ nekrofiliis(fromiseuli gagebiT) gansaxierebad gvevlineba.yovelive cocxalis, Sesabamisad moZravis, cvalebadis,mzardisa da ganviTarebadis da, imavdroulad, warmavalswrafmavlismoZule parfiumeriis genia ukvdavi surnelebisSemnarCunebeli sunamos Seqmnisa da flobis maniiT iyoSepyrobili. edemiseuli da, imvdroulad, waruvali sunamosSeqmnas ki swored warmavlis, Sesabamisad, cocxlis mokvdinebisSedegad aRwevs.netarebis momgvrel surnelebaTa adre Tu gvian qrobadobisgardauvalobasTan brZolis ziuskindiseuli parfiumeris Jini,arsebiTad swored mudmivi Zalisxmevis gamovlenis momTxovni,warmaval-swrafmavali cxovrebis Tavad procesis erTxel dasamudamod mopovebul uZrav SedegSi gaxevebis, sanukvar momavladaRqmul edemiseul idiliis netar inertulobaSi dabrunebisukvdav ocnebas warmoaCens.variaciebi yofna-aryofnis motivebzeTviTmoqmedi idiliis wiaRSi uSfoTvelad miZinebis,usasrulo `hefi-endad~ qceuli cxovrebis `ukvdav~ sakuTrebaSimiRebis survili ziuskindiseul romanSi, siuJeturiTvalsazrisiT edemSi dabrunebis iluziis STamberavi sunamosSeqmnisa da flobis maniis saxiT vlindeba. saamur surnelebaTadapyrobis swrafvaSi, pirvel warmatebas parfiumeri yvavilebisTavisuflebisken mswraf aromatebze borkilebis dadebiT aRwevs.zRva yvavilebis Wknobis, mokvdinebis, svel `gvamebad~ qcevissanaxaobiT monusxuli parfiumeri kuprSi aduRebulisurnelovani sulis mesakuTred iqceoda. aromatizirebuliqonisgan damzadebuli, edemiseuli surnelebis mfrqvevelisunamos SeynosvisTanave adamians maradiuli axalgazrdobisada netarebis mopovebis gancda eufleboda. cxovreba maSinvesiberisa da sikvdilis gardauvalobisgan, yovelgvariZalisxmevis gamovlenis saWiroebisgan, - zogadad nebismierisaxis procesSi myofobisgan Tavisufal uZrav Sedegad iqceoda,- TviTmoqmed idiliis uZrav peizaJad iqceoda. gafiqrebisTanave,yvela survilis aRmsrulebel edemSi virtualuraddabrunebuli, erTxel da samudamod mopovebul netarebaSi(cxeli wyliT gavsebul abazanaSi CamjdariviT) xevdeboda.swored mokvdavi aromatis mimTvisebeli ukvdavi surogati,WeSmaritad cocxali aromatisTvis sulis amomxdeliaduRebuli kupris naxarSi afrqvevda edemiseul surnelebas,ukvdavebasTan ziarebis momnusxvel iluzias aziarebda misSemynosavebs. swored aduRebuli kupris samflobelos Semoqmediiqca kuprSive `gamomcxvari~ edemis avtorad _ marad moZraviwarmavlobis uZravi maradisobiT Canacvlebisken swrafvissayovelTao maniis masazrdoeblad.waruvali bednierebis iluziis STamberavi produqcia sworedwarmavlis damTrgunavi, WeSmaritad cocxali aromatisTvissulis amomxdeli cnobierebis pirmSo-nayofad gvevlineba.sagulisxmoa, rom RvTaebrivi surnelebis maradSemnarCunebeli sunamos Seqmnas parfiumeri mis mier moklulqaliSvilTa sxeulebidan mopovebuli esenciis safuZvelzeSeZlebs. qalebis seriuli mkvleli maniakis siuJeturiTvalsazrisiT TiTqmis deteqtiuri istoria awmyoSi mudam14 15


maia goSaZearyofnis _ sicocxlis yoveldRiuri, yovelwuTieri`mkvlelobis~ ambavs warmoadgens, nicSes cnobili naSromissaTaursa da paTossac Tu davesesxebiT erTob adamianurambavs mogviTxrobs, cocxlis surogatiT, warmavlis waruvaliT,awmyos momavliT, moZravis uZraviT, procesis SedegiT, gareganisSinaganiT, TviTobis TviTmoqmedi wesrigiT CamnacvlebeliusinaTlobis Sinagan istorias warmoaCens.oRond ara axla!awmyos winaSe mudam uZlurad xelebis mosavsave, oRondara aq da ara amJamad suliskveTebis gamomxatveli sulisZaxilad gaismis Seqspiriseuli makbetis cnobili sityvebi:`xvale xvals misdevs~ 5 (dedanSi: tomorrow and tomorrow andtomorrow 6 ) iseve, rogorc Cexoviseuli sami dis cnobili`laitmotivuri~ SeZaxili: `moskovSi, moskovSi, moskovSi!~ 7 –TiTqos, awmyodan aq da amJamad arsebobidan gaqrobis msurvelis,uZluri sulis Zaxili.`ukvdavi~ momavliT damajildovebeli, yovlismomcveliwesrigis gareSe, `umizezod~ da `uSedegod~ cxovrebis vermiRebis motivi (Cexoviseul gmirTa samyaroSi mudamSexmatkbilebuli mravalxmianobiT gaJRerebuli), marad axlismSobadi SemoqmedebiTi stiqiis, nebis, aqtivobis uarmyofeli,sicocxlis moSiSi da moZule fsiqikuri tendenciisgamomxatvelad iqceva.uflis nebis yovlisSemZleobis moaruli frazebiTa daTvinieri morCilebiT amRiarebel Cexoviseul gmirTaTvis iRbaliTu uiRbloba, SenaZeni Tu danakargi cxovrebaSi yoveliveuflis nebis gamomxatvelia, sakuTari Sinagani, pirovnuli arsisada SesaZleblobebis garda, pirovnuli zrdisa da ganviTarebisken,cnobierebisa da Tvalsawieris gafarToebisken, TavisufaliSemoqmedebiTi aqtivobisken swrafvis garda, swored Semoqmedisxatisamebr adamianis Seqmnilobis ideis garda.oRond ara me, ara martom, ara aq da ara amJamad _SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aseTia Cexoviseul gmirTa umravlesobiscxovrebiseuli kredos gamomxatveli paTosi. yovlismomcvelivariaciebi yofna-aryofnis motivebzewesrigisa Tu qaosis, maradisobisa Tu warmavlobis winaSeindividualuri Zalisxmevis gamovlenis amaoebisa da zedmetobisidea, maTi ucvleli Zilispirulis maradiul laitmotivadrCeba. awmyos, rogorc sanukvari momavlis dadgomamde, rogorRacgasayvan, mosaklav droSi (mosacdel oTaxSi myofiviT)`yuryutis~ xanad aRqma, maT mudmivad Tanamdev ganwyobadrCeba.mxolod sicocxlesTan gamosalmebis saSiSroebis winaSemisTvis, marTlac, sabediswerod dasrulebuli duelis winwamierad mainc SeZlebs tuzembaxi (piesidan `sami da~)arsebulTan mimarTebaSi gamoRviZebas, mudam Waobad aRqmuliim patara qalaqis mSvenierebis gancdas, sadac mdinarecaa,tyec, ulamazes xeTa nairsaxeobebic xaroben, misi mkvidrni kimxolod koRoebs aRiqvamen.sagulisxmoa, rom kacobriobis naTel momavalze meocnebe`sami dis~ gmirebi ara mxolod arafers iRoneben maTi axloblis,tuzenbaxisTvis, uazrod Tavsmoxveuli duelis CasaSlelad,aramed mis daRupvasac ki zezeulad mZinareni, TiTqos, sakuTarTavze ZaldatanebiT amCneven.awmyoseuli realobisgan sakuTari Tavisa da erTmaneTisgangaucxoebuli Cexovis gmiri zamTarSi zafxuls mistiris,zafxulSi _ zamTars, ucxoeTSi _ samSoblos, samSobloSi _ucxoeTs, umuSevari mosamsaxures Senatris, samsaxurSi moaruli_ saxlSi mjdoms, daojaxebuli _ martoxelas, martoxela ki_ daojaxebuls.imedsa Tu uimedobaSi gamqcevi, warsulisa Tu momavlisken,saiqiosa Tu ucxo planetebisken momzirali, aswleulebisaTu aTaswleulebis Semdgom cxovrebas rom Senatris, nebismierisiSoresa da xangrZlivobas gulgaxsnil-xelgaSlili romegebeba mudam karCaketili, Zunwi da Seuvali swored arsebulismimarT rCeba, iqneba es yofiTi Tu Sinagani `realoba~, Sinaganixma Tu mowodeba. erTaderTi rac mis gulsa da suls arekareba, risi aRqma-gancda da gaazreba ar surs, yofniseulimimarTebis momTxovni realobaa.swored momavliT gaTenebamde ZilquSidan gamosvlisarmsurvelad, TiTqos, marTlac, dabadebamdel netar16 17


maia goSaZeinertulobaSi dabrunebis msurvelad gvevlineba Cexovis gmirikinomsaxiobTa Teatriseul `alublis baRSi~.giorgi margvelaSvilis mier dadgmul speqtaklSi TeTrialublis edemis baRis maradiul mkvidrTa, mudam awmyosacdenilsa da am acdenilobaSi, TiTqos, urTierTamreklavoreulTa wyvilebad qceul gmirTa infantiluri samyarosprotagonistad ranevskaia (nineli WankvetaZe) gvevlineba; misTavisebur, arsobriv da ara erTi medlis ori mxaris warmomCenanti podad, mudam garedan gapirobebulobaze apelirebadiumweobis uarmyoflad ki _ lopaxini.mTeli speqtaklis manZilze mudam Seusmeneli lopaxini(gia roiniSvilis SesrulebiT) ara mxolod ranevskaias mieruaryofil Tayvanismcemlad, ara mxolod mis Taviseburalternativad, arsebobis gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebiswarmomCenad, aramed alublis baRis maradiul mkvidrTa mierSeusmeneli maTive Sinagani xmis, Seucnobadi da amdenaddakarguli `sinamdvilisa~ da SesaZleblobebis personificirebadgmirad iqceva.speqtaklSi lopaxini siyvaruls uxsnis pirdapiri gagebiTsmenadaxSul ranevskaias, dawolis win xmaurisagan damcavsacobebs yurebSi rom Caidgams, daZinebis amao mcdelobisSemdeg warmomdgari ki zardaxSidan amoRebuli raRacqaRaldebis Tvalierebas iwyebs. sanam ranevskaia, rogorc Cans,mamulis dagiravebasTan dakavSirebul sabuTebSi garkvevas amaod(Zilismomgvrelobis efeqts Tu ar CavTvliT) cdilobs, oTaxSilopaxiani Semodis anTebuli sanTliT xelSi.ukve miZinebul saxlSi ratomRac SemorCenili Tudabrunebuli stumari penuarSi gadacmuli ranevskaiasdanaxvisTanave moibodiSebs, gasvlasac daapirebs, magram _sapasuxo reaqciiT, ufro swored ki, ureaqciobiT sakuTarSeusmenlobaSi darwmunebuli Seyovndeba, sanTels karadis TavzeSemodgams da, TiTqos, salocavi xatis win Tavis grZnobasaRsarebasaviT gamoTqvams, Tumca, imavdroulad, yovelgvariabezari molodinisgan Tavisufali TviTkmarobiT. avanscenazemayureblis pirispir qaRaldebSi TavCaqindruli ranevskaiaszurgs ukan, moSorebiT, naxevrad Cabnelebul scenis siRrmeSi,variaciebi yofna-aryofnis motivebzeganaTebuli `aRmsareblis~ saxe, TiTqos, raRac uxilavi siRrmidan`amoyvinTuli~ sazrisiT gaelvebuli uCinardeba.mTeli speqtaklis manZilze ama Tu im saxiT lopaxinismudmivi uaryofa _ iqneba es misi msoflaRqma, ranevskaiasadmiutyvi (Tumc sruliad aSkara) grZnoba Tu friad metyvelimowodeba-gafrTxileba, umoqmedobis SemTxvevaSi mamulisdakargvis gardauvalobis Sesaxeb, swored raRac arsismierirealobisadmi edemis baRis maradiul mkvidrTa `zurgSeqcevis~motivis gamomxatvelad iqceva.sagulisxmoa, rom sakmaod xangrZlivi dros manZilzeranevskaiasTvis lopaxinis mier mirTmeuli yvavilebi (sicocxliswarmaval-swrafmavali stiqiisa da masTan Tanaziari TviTobisarqetipis maradiuli gamomxatvelni) `daunaxaobisa~ da gaTelvisobieqtad iqcevian. rodesac xangrZlivi ganSorebis Semdegkvlav Tavis mamulSi dabrunebuli ranevskaia rogorc iqnadainaxavs lopaxinis mier misken gawvdil yvavilebis Taiguls,TiTqos, scenaze mdgari msaxiobisa da mis winaSe myofimayureblis rolSi erTdroulad aRmoCenili, gamorTmevisTanavehaerSi moisvris. lopaxinis mier akrefili yvavilebisxelmeored gamorTmevisTanave ranevskaia imave Jests imeorebs,odnav onavruli keklucobiT Serbilebuli, magram, TiTqos,raRac iracionaluri yovlismflangvelobis brma sijiutiT.ziuskindis romanSi swored momavlis ukvdavsayofad`sulamoxdili~ yvavilebis msgavsad, kinomsaxiobTa Teatrisscenaze mimofantuli zed gadavlisa da gaTelvis, TiTqos,uxilav obieqtad qceuli yvavilebi, sicocxlis yovelTvisswored awmyoSi moZravi, warmaval-swrafmavali stiqiisusasrulod ganmeorebadi uaryofis niSan-xatad gvevlinebian.miwisqveSa gamoqvabulSi, Zilis moyvaruli parfiumerismsgavsad, ranevskaia nineli WankvetaZis SesrulebiT, sicocxlismarad moZrav stiqias daxSuli sivrcis uZraobaSi, arsebiTadmisive ucvleli cnobierebis Taviseburad proecirebaduZraobaSi gaurbis, xan garemomcvelebisgan Tavs (ufrosebisgandamaluli bavSviviT) wignebis karadas afarebs, xan ki Zvelmanebisdamtev skivrSi Cawveba da am saxiT tovebs, ufro swored ki,am saxiT gaaqvT dakarguli mamulidan.18 19


maia goSaZearyofnis netar inertulobaSi _ samyarosTan pirveladi,edemiseuli, harmoniis inertulobaSi gaxevebisken mswrafalublis baRis mkvidrTa scenuri istoria ganxorcielebadisganuxorcieleblobis, gansacdelis ganucdelobis, aRsaqmelisaRuqmelobis, Sesmenadis Seusmelobis Sinagan istoriaswarmoaCens.ama Tu im saxiT moazrebuli gapirobebulobis winaSeindividualuri Zalisxmevis gamovlenis amaoebis SegrZneba,swored arsebobis sakuTari SesaZleblobebis Ziebisgan gaqcevis,sakuTar `fexze~ wamodgomis nacvlad uzenaes sazriszeamaRlebuli nostalgiis kvarcxlbekze gaSeSebis SesaZleblobasiZleva.yofna-aryofnis dilema, sikvdil-sicocxles Soris (cxadia,egzistencialuri TvalsazrisiT) arCevani swored `ukvdav~Sedegsa da `mokvdav~ process Soris arCevanSi vlindeba _maradisobiT dajildoebis imediTa Tu moTxovniT, yoveliveamJamad arsebulis, mocemulis, realizebadis gaufasurebasada yovelgvari gasaCivrebis gareSe, swored awmyoSi, arsebulSi,mocemulSi sakuTari SesaZleblobebis mTeli sisavsiT cxovrebasSoris arCevanSi vlindeba.1. Пастернак Борис, Собрание сочинений, М., т. 2, 1969, gv. 567.2. Карл Густав Юнг, Психологические типы, М., 1995, gv. 225.3. Пастернак Борис, Собрание сочинений, М., т. 2, 1969, gv. 225.4. Зюскинд Патрик, Парфюмер, М., 1967, gv. 43.5. uiliam Seqspiri, tragediebi, Tb., t. 3, 1987, gv. 227.6. William Shakespeare, Tragedies, L., 2001. gv. 167.7. Чехов Антон, Рассказы, повести, пьесы. М., 1967, gv. 654.8. Гофман Эрнест, Повести, рассказы, М., 1967.9. Бердяев Николай, Философия свободного духа, М., 1994.10. Антология мировой философий, М., 1969.11. Фромм Эрих, Душа человека, М., 1984.marine (maka) vasaZesaubrebi robert sturuas`saTeatro enaze~(robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebis sakiTxisaTvis)robert sturua _ reJisori, rusTavelis Teatris samxatvroxelmZRvaneli; levan xeTaguri _ profesori, Teatrmcodne, msoflioTeatris mimarTulebis xelmZRvaneli.qarTuli saTeatro profesiuli reJisura, anu sareJisoroTeatri, iseve rogorc evropuli, erT saukuneze cotaTi metsiTvlis. vgulisxmob imas, rom sareJisoro Teatrs (zogadad)safuZveli Caeyara me-19-e saukunis 80-iani wlebSi _ C. kini,an. antuani, o. brami, m. reinhardti, k. stanislavski, vs. meierholdi,b. brexti (mogvianebiT)... da a.S.. CamonaTvali Sors wagviyvans.saqarTvelom ki, teritoriulad patara (mcire), magramuzarmazari kulturis qveyanam, mxolod XX saukunisganmavlobaSi Sva msoflio masStabis (mniSvnelobis) samireJisori _ kote marjaniSvili, sandro axmeteli da robertsturua (ra Tqma unda, ar vgulisxmob dabadebis TariRebs).vfiqrob, es arc ise cotaa.yovel axal kulturul movlenas, mimdinareobas da a.S.Tavisi warmoSobis winapirobebi gaaCnia. samive reJisormagansxvavebuli _ sakuTari individualuri xelweriT _ epoqebiSeqmnes msoflio Teatralur samyaroSi, axali sityva TqvessaTeatro, sareJisoro enis formirebis sakiTxebSi. es exeba,kote marjaniSvils da sandro axmetelsac, magram amjerad,Cemi kvlevis obieqti robert sturuaa, misi saTeatro enisformirebis sakiTxi.sad SeiZleba veZieoT misi xelweris safuZvlebi,konkretulad qarTul da zogadad msoflio Tetris masStabiT?... rogor ganviTarda da Camoyalibda, misi saTeatro, sareJisoroena? ... da SeiZleba Tu ara, vuwodoT mas, erTi, romelimekonkretuli mimdinareobis reJisori? ...statiis _ dialogisa Tu saubris forma _ romelicavirCie, vfiqrob sainteresoa.20 21


maka vasaZesaubrebi robert sturuas `saTeatro enaze~m. v. _ batono levan, rogorc adre viyaviT SeTanxmebulebi,saubari daviwyoT robert sturuas `saTeatro enis~ Sesaxeb.kvlevis sagania robert sturuas saTeatro enis formirebissakiTxi da dialogis forma, romelic SemomTavazeT, vfiqrobsainterseso da mravlis momcemi iqneba CemTvis. vinaidan naTqvamia,saubarisas, kamaTis dros ibadeba WeSmariteba...msurs gamovikvlio, Tu rogor Camoyalibda iseTi fenomeni,rogoricaa _ robert sturuas Teatri da misi gamomsaxvelobiTisaSualebani. zogadidan gamomdinare konkretulisken wavide.SemoqmedebiTi koncefciidan gamomdinare, Seviswavlo misisareJisoro ena, romelic _ teqnikuri saSualebaa _ koncefciis,gamosaxatavad. es ori kopmponenti erTimeoredan gamomdinareobs.teqnika _ enaa, ena ki saSualebaa gamoxato Seni koncefcia,msoflmxedveloba... ra xerxebs iyenebs batoni robert sturuaamisTvis?...erTi periodi imasac ki vfiqrobdi _ robert sturuamSeqmna Tavisi modeli Teatrisa da mas vuwode `ekleqturiTeatris modeli~, magram termin ekleqturobas adre xelovnebisnebismieri dargis mimarT xmarobdnen im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is`cudi~ iyo. magaliTisTvis SeiZleba moviyvano nawyvetistatiidan `Teatri absurdi~ (Jur. `H2SO4~ 1924 w. #1, gv46) 1 :[...] `epigonoba. diletantoba. or skam Sua jdoma. yovelidadgma marjaniSvilis arisaqedan:eklektiuri naxerxiTeatraluri SantaJi~(stili daculia)amas werdnen kote marjaniSvilze 1924 wels _ qarTulida ara marto qarTuli _ Teatris reformatorze (gavixsenoTk. marjaniSvilis moRvaweoba ruseTSi, kerZod misi roli`Tavisufali Teatris~ SeqmnaSi a. TairovTan erTad). aRvniSnavimasac, rom am Jurnalis Semqmnelebi da avtorebi misi megobrebida bevr rameSi Tanamoazreebi iyvnen. me ki, am SemTxvevaSi,vgulisxmob imas, rom batonma robertma _ xelovnebis sxvadasxvadargis, sxvadasxva mimarTuleba gaaerTiana _ erT, mwyobrsistemaSi... amasTanave moaxerxa, es yvelaferi, Seerwya qarTultradiciul fenomenTan, rasac qarTuli kultura ewodeba...l.x. _ vfiqrob es termini ar gamodgeba robert sturuassaTeatro enis, gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis, koncefciisZiebisaTvis.Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom sturuam Tavisi samyaro Seqmna,sakuTari Teatraluri xelwera Seqmna..., magram msoflio saTeatroreJisuris konteqstSi mas saTeatro modeli ar gamougonebia.vTqvaT, rac gaakeTes magaliTad: reinhardtma, brextma, marjaniSvilma,meierholdma da a.S. vfiqrob, es sruliadac ar akninebs reJisors,piriqiT, man saukeTesod gamoiyena sxvadasxva mignebebi, romelicgaarTiana da SemogvTavaza iseTi gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebisnakrebi, romelsac dRes Cven SeiZleba sturuas Teatri vuwodoT.Cven ar gvaqvs misi Teoriuli mwyobri, qaRaldze gadmotanilimosazreba am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, Teoriuli konceptualurinaazrevi, gadmotanili qaRaldze...m.v. _ saTeatro modelis gamogoneba _ vfiqrob es sakamaTosakiTxia. diax, mas SeiZleba axali gamogoneba ara aqvs (borblisaar iyos), magram, rogorc Tqven aRniSneT, man Seqmna `TavisiTeatraluri samyaro~. samyaros Seqmna ki, TavisTavad, ukvemodels gulisxmobs. xolo `Teoriulad mwyobri, konceptualurinaazrevis gadmotana qaRaldze~ _ iqneb ar scalia amisTvis?...is xom sul sadadgmo, SemoqmedebiT procesSia?! anu, ufrometad, praqtikosi reJisoria. da, iqneb, vinmem Caiweros zustadmisi muSaobis procesi? miTumetes, rom giorgi tovstonogovidanmoyolebuli qarTul TeatrSi, amis magaliTebi gvaqvs. 50-ianiwlebis dasawyisSi, batoni akaki dvaliSvili studentobisdros da Semdegac _ iwerda, akonspeqtebda Tavisi maswavleblisgiorgi tovstonogovis muSaobis process. (akaki dvaliSviliaris mixeil TumaniSvilis Taobis reJisori. isini erTad mividnenrusTavlis TeatrSi da erTad daiwyes SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba.m.v.). cnobili faqtia, rom XX saukunis 50-iani wlebis meorenaxevridan, iwyeba e.w. Semotrialeba fsiqologiuri Teatrisaken.(Tumca, me vfiqrob, es, jer kidev, sakamaTo sakiTxia da amisSesaxeb mogvianebiT visaubrebT). Semdeg, am Canawerebze, sakuTar22 23


maka vasaZesaubrebi robert sturuas `saTeatro enaze~maxsovrobasa da SemoqmedebiT gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiTi,misi megobari da Tanamoazre batoni mixeil TumaniSvili, robertsturuas e.w. `ostati~ (maswavlebeli), qmnis mwyobr, TeoriulnaSroms _ qaRaldze gadmotanil sistemas _ saTeatroswavlebisa. mixeil TumaniSvilis SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobismeore naxevarSi ki, sxvadasxva Teatris istorikosebi TuTeoretikosebi, akeTeben Canawerebs misi repeticiebisa. es, uaxlesiistoriuli praqtika, vTvli, rom dResac SeiZleba ganmeordes.Tuki, praqtikos reJisors _ robert sturuas _ ar scalia _saTeatro koncefciis, enis, saSualebebis _ naSromadCamoyalibebisTvis, mis magivrad sxvam SeiZleba gaakeTos. momavalTaobebs dautovos sturuaseuli Teatris Secnobis saSualeba,im video-audio CanawerebTan erTad, rac arsebobs. (SoTarusTavelis sax. Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifo unuversitetisgamomcemloba `kentavri~, rusTavelis Teatris muzeumTan erTad,muSaobs robert sturuas repeticiebis Canawerebze. m. v.).SeiZleba, dadges dro da Tavadac gadmosces qaRaldze `Tavisimosazrebebi, Seqmnas mwyobri Teoriuli sistema~...l. x. _ arsebobs sxvadasxva dros gamoqvenebuli interviuebi,mosazrebebi, werilebi. batoni roberti Tavadac wersliteraturul nawarmoebebs, magram, mis mier dawerili, mwyobrisistema _ konceptualuri Teatrisa _ xelT ar gvaqvs. amitom,Cven, unda gamovikvlioT da Cven, unda SevqmnaT, mis naazrevzedayrdnobiT, sturuaseuli Teatris fenomeni.maxsovs, wlebis win, sturuam gamoTqva aseTi mosazreba,rom qarTuli dramaturgia ar arsebobs. mas Tavs daesxnenufrosi Taobis warmomadgenlebi. saqme imaSi gaxlavT, romrobert sturua amaSi marTali gaxldaT (arcerTi Cvenganiklasikosebs ar vgulisxmobT). vinaidan, roca isini ekamaTebianmas, im `niRbiT~, rom icaven qarTul Teatrs _ ufro metadazianeben, vidre _ piriqiT. zusti daTariReba, da movleniszusti Sefaseba, arasodes saziano ar aris kulturisTvis. esaris adgilis zusti gansazRvra. kulturaSi Sejibri imisTaobaze _ me, ori wliT adre mqonda, Tu gvian _ aseTikonceptualuri Sejibri ar arsebobs... da, vinc amaze agebsTavisi qveynis kulturis istorias yovelTvis wagebuli rCeba...m. v. _ vfiqrob, qarTuli Tanamedrove dramaturgia marTlacZalian sustia da am SefasebaSi namdvilad ar Semcdara batonirobert sturua. ara aqvs mniSvneloba _ ramdeni wers daramdens wers, mTavaria xarisxi da Sedegi.sainteresoa, rogor akeTebs piesis arCevans? rodis xvdeba,rom es is piesaa, an im literaturuli nawarmoebis inscenirebaa,romlis ganxorcielebac surs scenaze. SeiZleba iTqvas, romupiratesobas mainc e.w. `klasikur piesebs aniWebs~. amavedros dadgmuli aqvs Tanamedrove piesebic, maT Soris qarTuli.radgan qarTul dramaturgiaze Camovarda saubari, aucilebladunda gavixsenoT, rom mas qarTveli klasikosebic _ iliaWavWavaZe, daviT kldiaSvili da polikarpe kakabaZe sainteresod,axleburad, Taviseburad (sturuaseulad) aqvs danaxuli,moazrebuli da dadgmuli. `samaniSvilis dedinacvali~ (T.CxeiZesTan erTad), `yvaryvare~, `kacia_adamiani?!~, `darispanisgasaWiri~... am CamonaTvalidan ilia, ra Tqma unda ar iyodramaturgi, magram saocrad azrovnebda da werda e. w.`saxeebiT~ (gavixsenoT `kacia adamiani~, `glaxis naambobi~... esnawarmoebebi araerTxel daudgamT qarTul scenaze da gadauRiaTfilmebi).aqve minda moviyvano nawyveti robert sturuas da Cemisaubridan, romelic 2006 wlis noemberSi Sedga (gTavazobTnawyvetebs m.v.). kiTxvaze, Tu ra principiT xelmZRvanelobs,scenaze gansaxorcielebeli piesis arCevisas _ mipasuxa:r. s _ SemoqmoqmedebiTi, reJisoruli gzis dasawyisSi,vcdilobdi damedga mxolod iseTi piesebi, romlebic Cemscxovrebiseul `kredos~, Cems msoflmxedvelobas esadageboda,magram aris momentebi, rodesac Sen asruleb SekveTas.axalgazrdobaSi xSirad miwevda ganawilebiT Sexvedrilipiesebis dadgma. droTa ganmavlobaSi mivxvdi, rom amgvaraddadgmuli speqtaklebi arc ise cudi gamodioda, piriqiTac kixdeboda xolme. anu ar aris aucilebeli piesa zustademTxveodes Sens msoflmxedvelobas. nebismieri nawarmoebidanSegiZlia gaakeTo is, rac Sen gsurs. mokled vityvi, nebismiernawarmoebSi (Tu is sruli `katastrofa~ ar aris) SegiZliaipovo raRac marcvali da Semdeg masze aago mTeli Senikoncefcia, struqtura da a.S. Tu kargia dramaturgiuli24 25


maka vasaZesaubrebi robert sturuas `saTeatro enaze~nawarmoebi, maSin is, sxvadasxva epoqaSi, zustad moergebaTanamedroveobas. SegiZlia i povo iq saTqmeli, romelicgainteresebs Sen da Sens xalxs am konkretul droSi, amkonkretul momentSi. Teatri ki, yovelTvis iyo, aris da iqnebakonkretuli drois, Tanamedroveobis amsaxveli da gamomxatvelitribuna, amitomac ver moikida TeatrSi fexi e.w. socrealizmma,Tumca mxatvrobaSi, mwerlobaSi mSvenivrad damkvidrda damTeli mimdinareobac ki Seiqmna socrealizmisa.dRes, rodesac virCev piesas (an nebismier nawarmoebs)dasadgmelad, intuiciasac veyrdnobi. magaliTad, momewona xuTipiesa da miWirs arCevanis gakeTeba, imitom rom xuTive Zaliansainteresoa. mxatvruli done maRalia, Tanabari, SeesabamebaCemi da Cemi xalxis tkivils, problemebs. viReb raime yuTs anjams, sxvadasxva qaRaldis naglejze vwer saTaurebs, vyri amyuTsa, Tu jamSi, kargad amovurev da amoviReb erT-erTs.mokled, `latareas~ vTamaSob. Teatri, xelovnebis sxvadargebisgan gansxvevebiT, yvelaze ufro cocxali xelobaa,xelovnebaa. Tu is ar asaxavs Tanamedroveobas, maSin igimkvdaria. rac ar unda kargi piesa airCio dasadgmelad daCaTvalo, rogorc reJisorma, rom dadgma warmatebulia, Tu is,mayurebelma ar moiwona, speqtaklma mayurebeli ver miizida,maSin e. i. raRac aklia. es Seni (reJisoris) bralia. yovelTvisunda gaiTvaliswino mayureblis moTxovna. vinaidan Teatrida mayurebeli cal-calke ar arsebobs, erTiania, erTianadcocxlobs, erTnairad sunTqavs. maT, erT ritmSi unda ucemdeTpulsi, maTi majiscema, unda emTxveodes. speqtakli im konkretulmomentSi cocxlobs, rodesac scenaze TamaSdeba da mas,mayurebeli adevnebs Tvals.reJisorisTvis sainteresoa magidasTan piesaze muSaobisprocesi, scenaze gadatanis procesi, msaxiobebTan muSaobisprocesi, mxatvarTan, kompozitorTan, gamnaTebelTan da a.S.Semdeg. speqtakli, roca Sedgeba da mayurebeli masnaxavs, me is ukve imdenad aRar mainteresebs... isicocxlebs, Tu sworad davdgi, anu mayureblisaTvisgasagebad. parterSi sxvadasxva inteleqtis, feniswarmomadgenlebi sxedan, Sen, rogorc reJisorma muSaobisdros unda ifiqro yvelaze, raTa yvelasTvis misaRebida gasagebi gaxdes Seni Canafiqri. yvelam unda gaigos,risi Tqma gsurda. zogs, ubralod, nanaxiT siamovnebisgancda mianiWo, zogic ufro Rrmad Caswvdeba SensnamuSevars da detalebiT daiwyebs tkbobas da a.S.aris piesebi, romelebic uSualod ar exeba Tanamedroveobas,sakmaod rTuli, filosofiuri siRrmeebiT, mayureblisTvisaRsaqmelad mZime, samagierod, aseT piesebSi, aris deteqtiurimomentebi. TiTqmis yvela piesaSi aris dedeqtivis marcvali.magaliTad, aviRoT saberZneTi. epidavrosSi davdgi `oidiposmefe~, TiTqos araferi aqvs saerTo TanamedroveobasTan.samagierod, masSi devs deteqtivis marcvlebi. anu, mkvleli,borotmoqmedi, ise, rom Tavad ar icis. eZebs mamis mkvlels(Tavad mokla mama) da cxovrobs dedasTan (oidiposma, raTqma unda, ar icis, rom iokasta misi dedaa). me im dadgmaSiwina planze, swored es deteqtiurobis momenti gamovitane daara is, rom adamiani ver gaeqceva Tavis bedisweras (mogexsenebaTberZnul dramaturgiaSi, e. w. tragediebSi bedisweris TemaumTavresia, es exeba evri pidesac, sofoklesac da esqilesac.m. v.). ufro metsac getyviT, `hamletic~ deteqtivia, vinaidanCven, danamdvilebiT ar viciT, marTla mokla klavdiusma TavisiZma Tu ara. `eleqtrac~ deteqtivia, SurisZiebis deteqtivi.anu, reJisorma nebismieri piesis dadgmis dros unda moZebnosraime, riTac miizidavs mayurebels. vimeoreb, parterSi, sxvadasxvafenis, sxvadasxva inteleqtis mayurebeli zis da Sen, reJisormaunda SeZlo yvelasTan miitano Seni saTqmeli. Teatri yvelazedemokratiuli Janria da unda hyavdes mayurebeli.bevrs hgonia, rom me dramaturgias, dramaturgs udieradvepyrobi. es ar aris marTali. me yovelTvis vcdilobdramaturgis stili gamovavlino. yovelTvis, nawarmoebsveyrdnobi, Tumca, dRes, XXI saukuneSi, msoflios sxvadasxvaqveynis reJisorebi, Zalian `Tavisuflad~ udgebian klasikosi,Tu araklasikosi dramaturgebis piesebs. (aRsaniSnavia, romreJisorebi, aseve `Tavisuflad~ epyrobodnen piesebs jer kidevXIX saukinis bolodan, vgulisxmob, zemoT CamoTvlil,`sareJisoro Teatris~ mamamTavrebs, maT Soris k. marjaniSvils.mag. gr. robaqiZe, marTalia aRrfTovanebuli iyo k. marjaniSvilisda a. axmetelis `lamaras~ dadgmiT, magram amave dros, ukmayofilo26 27


maka vasaZe_ marjaniSviliseuli `monataJiT~ piesisa, romlis mixedviTaca. axmetelma ganaxorciela scenaze es piesa. m. v.). magaliTad,litvelma reJisorma _ o. korSunovasma `romeo da julieta~dadga, sadac moqmedeba viTardeba samzareuloSi _ sacxobSi(qarTvelma mayurebelma es speqtakli ixila 2009 wels TbilisissaerTaSoriso Teatralur festivalze _ `Tbilisi Internationale~ _marjaniSvilis TeatrSi. m. v.). anu, isini weren Zveli piesis,axal variants. me amgvarad ar viqcevi. Tu vdgam klasikosisnawarmoebs, vakeTebT axal Targmans da erTi sityvis meoreTiSenacvlebis dros mimyavs xolme teqstualuri mxare CemiCanafiqrisaken. roca, Tanamedrove dramaturgis piesaze vmuSaob(magaliTad laSa buRaZe, irakli samsonaZe), maSin maT vuTanxmdebi,an saerTod, maT vTxov, gadamikeTon, esa Tu is, epizodi, scenaTu teqstualuri masala... (zogjer, robert sturua ar dgamspiesiT gansazRvrul yvela suraTs, moqmedebas. gavixsenoT, Tundac,bolo wlebSi dadgmuli, samuel beketis `godos molodini~,maqs friSis 2009_2010 wlis rusTavelis Teatris sezonispremiera `bidermani da cecxlis wamkidebelni~. es `xerxic~,rogorc zeviT aRvniSne `ar axalia, Zvelia~ m. v.)saubrebi robert sturuas `saTeatro enaze~litvis sareJisoro da samsaxiobo skola atrialebs da qmnisaminds evropul sivrceSi. eseni arian dRemde moRvawe: nekroSusi,vaitkusi, bolo periodSi tuminasi da sxva. dRes evropaSiyvelaze meti moTxovna maTzea.m. v. _ geTanxmebiT, rom XX da XXI saukunis TeatraluriZiebebi, poloneTesa da litvaSi gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa.XIX saukunis bolo _ XX saukune, vTvli (da ara marto mevTvli ase), aris axali Teatraluri Ziebebis, aRmoCenebissaukune ara marto poloneTsa da litvaSi, aramed zogadadevropaSi, amerikasa da aziaSic (italia, britaneTi, safrangeTi,germania, iaponia, aSS da a.S.). es exeba, rogorc dramaturgias,aseve reJisuras, Teatralur mxatvrobas, musikas, saSemsrulebloteqnikas (msaxiobs vgulisxmob) da a.S. am ZiebebSi daaRmoCenebSi, axali Teatraluri stilistikis SeqmnaSi, sabWoeTisrkinis fardis miuxedavad (raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos)qarTuli Teatric CarTulia...(gagrZeleba ix. Semdeg nomerSi, #3 (44))l. x _ davubrundeT Cveni saubris dasawyiss, rogorc ukve vTqvi_ zusti daTariReba, da movlenis zusti Sefaseba, arasodessaziano ar aris kulturisTvis, es aris misi adgilis zustigansazRvra. magaliTad moviyvanoT poloneTi. polonuri Teatricentralur evropaSi yvelaze gvian Seiqmna. nacionaluri TeatriXVII saukunis meore naxevaris miwuruls, magram man moicva XXsaukunis Teatraluri Ziebebi, mTlianad da ager ukve XXI saukuneSicgadmovida; gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac sabWoTa rkinis fardiTrusuli Teatraluri Ziebebi, absoluturad miuwvdomeli gaxdamsofliosaTvis. dRes msoflio Teatrze saubrisas _ kantoris,grotovskis, svinarskis da sxv., am saxelebis gareSe ver vimsjelebT.eseni faqtiurad konceptualurad cvlian XX saukunis Teatrs.grotovski magaliTad dRes erT-erTia, im ramdenimesTan erTadvinc mTlianad axali saTeatro modeli Seqmna.meore magaliTs getyvi Zalian mniSvnelovans: es aris litva.litvaSi profesiuli Teatri XIX saukunis bolos, XX saukunisdasawyisSi iqmneba, ufro gvian vidre saqarTveloSi. dRes1 `Teatri absurdi~ Jur.. ‘H2SO4~ 1924 w. #1, gv 46a. vasaZe `mogonebebi, fiqrebi~, wigni pirveli, S rusTavelis Teatrisa dakinos saxelmwifo universitetis gamomc. `kentavri~, 2010.;Э. Гугушвили, Котэ Марджанишвили; [Ред. Н. Т. Финогенова]. - М. : 1979;v. kiknaZe, `saubrebi qarTul Teatrze~, 1979;v. kiknaZe `qarTuli reJisuris istoriis narkvevebi~, Tb., 1982;n. gurabaniZe, reJisori robert sturua, Tb.: 1997;`dialogi `yvaryvareze~, Jur. `Teatraluri moambe~, 1974, #4;n. gurabaniZe, `yvaryvare~, Jur. ‘sabWoTa xelovneba~, 1974, , #7;d. mumlaZe, `reJisoris SemoqmedebiTi portreti~, Jur. `sabWoTa xelovneba~,1981, #12;gaz. `kavkasioni~, parizi, 1964, #9gaz. `kultura~ 2006, #12 (29);gaz. `kultura~ 2008, #2 (40);`Teatri absurdi~ Jur. `H2SO4~ 1924’ #1, gv 46.http.// dic. academic. ru28 29


kinomcodneobakinos iaponeli imperatorizviad doliZemimdinare wels Sesrulda gamoCenili kinoreJisoris, akirakurosavas, dabadebidan asi wlisTavi. am didebulma xelovanma,romelic maradisobaSi 12 wlis win gadavida, madlierSTamomavlobas dautova Tavisi genialuri filmebi, romlebSicgamosWvivis sikeTisa da humanurobis dResaswauli, realobisZieba da iluziisadmi Seuguebloba, progresi sasowarkveTidanimedisaken, amitomac moipoves maT msoflio donis mniSvneloba.kurosava ufro socialurad moazrovne, meamboxe Semoqmediiyo, vidre politikurad angaJirebuli reJisori. igi yovelTviscdilobda Sors mdgariyo mis qveyanaSi mimdinare politikurimovlenebisagan da ufro metad ainteresebda mavani socialuriproblema, misi yvela mxare, misi yvela niuansi. swored amisgamo iqca igi mTeli kinematografiuli samyarosaTvis gamorCeulfigurad.akira kurosava daibada 1910 wlis 23 marts tokioSi, erTCveulebriv, mravalSvilian iaponur ojaxSi. is bavSvobidanveiyo gatacebuli mxatvruli literaturiTa da kinematografiT.es ukanaskneli gansakuTrebiT Seayvara erT-erTma ufrosmaZmam _ heigom, romelic `benSis~ (`mTxrobelis~) TanamdebobazemuSaobda kinoTeatrebSi da xSirad dahyavda akira sxvadasxvakinoseansze. 1936 wels kurosavam muSaoba daiwyo erT-erTkinokompaniaSi reJisoris asistentad da ramdenime wlismanZilze didi gamocdileba daagrova, ris Sedegadac 1942wels mas andes damoukideblad gadaeRo sadebiuto namuSevari`sanSiro sugata~. iqidan moyolebuli, akira kurosavam Seqmna30 kinosuraTi (plus erTi filmi man erToblivad gaakeTa orsxva iaponel kinoreJisorTan erTad). maTi umetesobaaRiarebulia kinos gamokveTil nimuSad, xolo 1950 welsgadaRebulma filmma `raSomon~ saerTaSoriso asparezze gaiyvanamanamde, erTgvarad, karCaketil mdgomareobaSi myofi iaponurikino, Tavisi STamagonebeli ZaliTa da niSandoblivi emociuriaspeqtebiT msoflios gaacno ara marto misi avtori, aramed30 31


zviad doliZekinos iaponeli imperatorimTeli iaponuri kinematografis mimarT aRZra da gaaRvivacxovelmyofeli interesi.kurosavas kinogmirebs, iseve rogorc Tavad mas, hqondaTdaJinebuli moTxovnileba, scodnodaT cxovreba iseTi, rogoricaris. iaponiaSi mas akritikebdnen imisaTvis, rom igi dasavluripublikisaTvis muSaobda, sinamdvileSi misi kolegebidan aravismasaviT ar uRvawia ise, rom Tavisi samSoblo da misisazogadoeba zedmiwevniT gasagebad eCvenebina dasavleTisaTvis.is amayad acxadebda, rom arasodes vakeTeb films gamorCeuladucxouri auditoriisaTvis. Tu nawarmoebs ar SeuZlia hqondesmniSvneloba iaponeli mayureblisaTvis, me, rogorc iaponelixelovani, misiT ubralod ar vinteresdebio. 1kurosavas arasodes Camouyalibebia sakuTari stili,arasodes aravisTan ganuxilavs igi da mxolod kritikosebimsjelobdnen da gamohqondaT sxvadasxva daskvna amis Taobaze.man bevri kinematografisti `fexze daayena~, bevri ram aswavla,Taviseburad `SeuZRva~ kinosamyaroSi. mis TanamSromlebs isarasodes gaufetiSebiaT, oRond yovelTvis sjerodaT misi daamayobdnen, rom iTvlebodnen kurosavas gundis wevrebad.msaxiobebsac sulac ar uWirdaT, piriqiT, siamovnebdaT masTanmuSaoba. bevri umadloda mas samsaxiobo karieris SeqmnaSigaweuli RvawlisaTvis. umetesi maTgani piradad umegobrdeboda.masze ambobdnen, rom imden repeticiebs atarebda, sanam msaxiobebsxmebi ar CauwydebodaT, an cxenebidan panta-puntiT ar cviodnen. 2es asec iyo, magram sworedac rom es iyo namdvili, muxlCauxrelimuSaoba. Tavad msaxiobebi, vinc masTan wlebis manZilzeTanamSromlobdnen, amtkicebdnen, rom igi ar icvleboda.erTxel kurosavas hkiTxes, filmis keTebis procesSi romeletaps aniWebda upiratesobas, man upasuxa, albaT, montaJi ufromniSvnelovania, magram, Tu ar gaqvs kargi scenari, veranairimontaJi ver dagexmarebao. 3 Cveulebisamebr, mas hqonda ramdenimeproeqti ideaSi, magram, roca romelimes airCevda, ramdenimewels amuSavebda, sanam uSualod scenaris dasawerad ardajdeboda. daweras, ZiriTadad, andomebda daaxloebiT naxevarweliwads. TanascenaristebTan erTad gaerideboda tokios,moaSurebda romelime sakurorto qalaqis myudro sastumros,xandaxan ki pirdapir Tavisi saxlis baRSi iwyebda weras.iaponelis pirobaze simaRliT sakmaod maRali (1.86 sm.)kurosava gadasaReb moedanzedac erTi TaviT maRla idgayvelaze. man daarRvia erovnuli kinos aTwleulobiTCamoyalibebuli tradiciebi, masSi gabatonebuli filosofia.axalgazrda kolegebs mouwodebda, rom waekiTxaT msofliodonis mxatvruli literatura, enaxaT aRiarebuli kinosuraTebi,SeeswavlaT saukeTeso reJisorebis kinoTeoriebi da Tu surdaTgamosuliyvnen kargi kinoreJisorebi, jer aucilebladkinodramaturgiaSi unda ecadaT bedi. mas miaCnda, rom saWiroiyo kinowarmoebisadmi mecnieruli midgoma, riTacmniSvnelovanwilad Seewyoboda xeli kinos, rogorc xelovnebisdargis Semdgom ganviTarebas. 4akira kurosava sxvadasxva gamokiTxvis Sedegad SehyavdaTda axlac SehyavT msoflios saukeTeso kinoreJisorTaaTeulebsa Tu xuTeulebSi, Tanac misi filmebis imdeni `rimeiqia~gadaRebuli, rom am mxriv is aSkara rekordsmenia. mravaliTikuni Searqves mas, magram maTgan yvelaze metad moswonda`imperatori~, xolo SekiTxvaze, ras niSnavda misTvis kino, ispasuxobda: `es Zalze martivia: amiReT me, gamomakeliT filmebida Sedegi nuli iqneba~. 5kurosavam 88 weli icocxla da sicocxlis bolomdekvlav kinoze fiqrobda: mas hqonda axali Canafiqri, romliskinematografiuli xorcSesxmis gegmebsac awyobda, magram aRardascalda.mcire xnis win, zustad 23 marts, kinoTeatrma `rusTavelma~da saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinossaxelmwifo universitetis msoflio kinos istoriismimarTulebam moawyves erToblivi RonisZieba _ akira kurosavasdabadebidan 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili saRamo, romelzecnaCvenebi iqna misi erTi Zveli, Cveni sazogadoebisaTvis ucnobikinosuraTi `saocari kviradRe~. amiT Cveni mokrZalebulipativiscema gamovxateT am genialuri Semoqmedis mimarT, TayvaniveciT mis samaradJamo xsovnas.1. Joseph Anderson and Donald Richie. The Japanese Film: Art and Industry.New York: Grove Press, 1960, gv. 378.32 33


zviad doliZe2. Donald Richie. The Films of Akira Kurosawa. Berkeley: University ofCalifornia Press, 1984, gv. 222.3. iqve, gv. 124.4. Akira Kurosawa. Something Like an Autobiography. New York: RandomHouse, gv. 193.5. Fred Marshall. Emperor of Film – No, Not Yet! In collection: `Akira Kurosawa:Interviews. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008, gv. 187.amerikeli indielis saxeamerikul vesTernSiirakli maxaraZe`S en u nda ga xs ov des, r om i ndielebia d a m i a ne b i a r a r i a n. i s i ni ga r eu l icxovelebi arian~.indielebTan mebrZoli amerikuli mxatvrulifilmi (1955)gaCenis pirveli dReebidanve amerikuli vesTerni 1 amerikismkvidr mosaxleobas _ indielebs, aCvenebda rogorcsisxlismsmel da sastik velurebs, romlebic TeTri adamianebisskalpebze nadirobdnen, kolonistebi ki Tavs icavdnen, Tumca,miuxedavad amisa, mainc cdilobdnen am ,,velurebTan~ daaxloebasada maTSi civilizaciis Setanas (sabWoTa kavSiris yofilsivrceSi Cveni codna ,,veluri~ dasavleTis, 2 indielebisa daindielTa omebis Sesaxeb mxolod germanul-ruminuliugoslaviuriwarmoebis mdare da ususuri vesTernebiT, goikomitiCiT, CingaCgukiTa da vinetuTi Semoifargleboda). kinomdeufro adre aseTi imijis SeqmnaSi didi roli iTamaSabulvarulma romanma (mas aseve dime novels eZaxdnen. sityvidandime [ing.] _ aTcentiani, zustad amdeni Rirda es nawarmoebebi),romelmac myarad Caunerga mkiTxvels is azri, rom ,,veluri~dasavleTi _ es dausrulebeli da amaRelvebeliTavgadasavlebiT savse samyaroa, sadac mefoben TeTrkanianiraindebi, romlebic nebismier wams mzad arian daexmaron umweoda gasaWirSi Cavardnil adamians.1865 wlidan 1890 wlamde ,,velurma~ dasavleTma bevradmeti legenda da Tqmuleba warmoSva, vidre amerikis mTelmaistoriam. amerikuli kinematografi ki Tavisi Casaxvis pirvelidReebidanve mixvda, Tu ra oqros sabados waawyda. 1903 welsekranebze gamovida pirveli vesTerni matareblis didi gaZarcva,aqedan moyolebuli vesTernis Janrma Seqmna miTosi, sadacamerikis namdvili da gamogonili warsuli da dRevandeloba34 35


irakli maxaraZeamerikeli indielis saxe amerikul vesTernSierTmaneTSi iyo gadaxlarTuli. erT interviuSi cnobiliamerikeli reJisori jim jarmuSi (igi 90-iani wlebis vesTernisJanris erT-erTi saukeTeso nimuSis _ mkvdaris, avtoria)ambobda: ,,30-40-ian wlebSic ki auditoriisaTvis zneobrivimagaliTis Catarebis mizniT holivudur vesTernebSi istoriismiTologizacia xdeboda. saqme iqamde midioda, rom mkvidriamerikeli mosaxleoba miTologiur gmirad iqca. mgoni esjon fordis filmSi maZiebelni moqmedeben komanCis tomisindielebi, maT ki navahos indielebi TamaSoben, romlebicSesabamisad navahos enaze saubroben. es igivea, rom Tqva: ,,diax,diax, vici es frangebi unda iyvnen, magram me mxolod germanelebismoZebna SevZeli, amas mainc veravin gaigebs~. 31890 wlisaTvis, roca literaturasa da TeatrSi vesTernisJanris fesvebi gaCnda, civilizaciisa da velur dasavleTsSoris arsebuli gamyofi zoli, anu frontiri (frontier [ing.] _sazRvari), rogorc mas uwodebdnen, aRar arsebobda, isoficialurad daixura. ase rom, Tavidanve vesTernis Janrimelanqoliuri tonalobisa iyo, radgan warsul dReebsa daimis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobda, rac aRar arsebobda.1865 wels frontiris xazi gasdevda mdinare misisipismomijnave Statebis dasavleT sazRvrebs da Semofarglavdakanzass da nebraskas samxreT dayolebaze. Tavisi samsaukunovaniarsebobis manZilze frontirma, am moZravma ,,sazRvarma~, 4 daiwyora msvleloba aRmosavleTis koloniebidan _ mTeli amerikagadasera. realurad frontiri iyo dasavleTisakengadaadgilebadi sazRvari qveynis aTvisebul, civilizebulnawilsa da kontinentis aborigenTa teritorias Soris.dasavleTSi, am auTvisebel da yamir miwebze, oqros maZiebelTa,mesaqonleTa da axlamosaxleTa mosvlas mohyva indielebTankonfliqtis zrda. amerikel indielTa TiTqmis yvela tomisxvadasxva dros ebrZoda TeTrkanianebs da amerikul regularularmias, gansakuTrebiT seriozuli winaaRmdegoba frontiriswinsvlas gauwies CrdiloeT dablobis tomma sium da samxreTdasavleTistomma apaCim.mTavrobis politika jer kidev jeims monros prezidentobisxanidan imaSi mdgomareobda, rom rac SeiZleba Sors hyolodaTindielebi TeTrkanianTa frontiris zolidan. 1893 welsistorikosma frederiq jeqson Ternerma Tavis TezisSifrontiris mniSvnelobaze amerikul istoriaSi indielTa roliSemdegnairad Seafasa ,,...isini unda Camogvcvlodnen gzidan~. 5XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi yvelaze TvalsaCino figura,romlis saxelTanac dakavSirebulia indielTa problema, endriujeqsoni iyo. jer kidev 1812 wlis amerika-inglisis omis SuaperiodSi jeqsoni, romelic maSin tenesis miliciasxelmZRvanelobda, gaigzavna samxreT alabamaSi, sadacdaundoblad CaaxSo krikis tomis indielebis ajanyeba, risSedegadac SeerTebul Statebs maT sakuTari teritoriis orimesamedi dauTmes. Semdeg jeqsonma seminolis tomis indielebigandevna espaneTis kuTvnil floridaSi. jeqsonma msgavsipolitika prezidentobis yofnis drosac gaagrZela.1830 wels kongresma miiRo ,,indielebis gasaxlebis aqti~da daafinansa aRmosavleTis tomebis gadayvana misisipis iqiT.1834 wels indielebisTvis gamoiyo specialuri teritoriaaxlandeli oklahomas adgilas. jeqsonis prezidentobis drosindielTa tomebma xeli moaweres (upriania iTqvas, ZaldatanebiTmoawerines) 94 xelSekrulebas da federalur mTavrobasmilionobiT heqtari miwa dauTmes, ris gamo aTeulobiT tomigasaxlebul iqna Tavisi winaprebis miwebidan. qevin qosTneri,avtori cnobili vesTernis cekvebi mglebTan (1990) erTinterviuSi ambobda: ,,filmi (cekvebi mglebTan) asaxavs amerikisistoriis im monakveTs, romelic yvelasaTvis kargad ariscnobili da romelsac aravin uwodebs genocids, indielebsanadgurebdnen, spobdnen maT kulturas, raTa daepyroT maTimiwa, dRes ki amboben: es miwa CvenTvis aucilebeli ar iyoo. 6yvelaze amazrzeni faqti msgavsi istoriidan exeba Cerokistomis indielebs, romlebmac 1791 wlis xelSekrulebiT Crdilokarolinasa da jorjiaSi sakuTari miwebis SenarCunebis garantiamiiRes, magram maTi bedi gadawyda, roca 1829 wels iq oqroaRmoaCines. Cerokis toms umaRlesi sasamarTlos mxridanmxardaWeramac ver uSvela. qveynis saTaveSi jeqsonisadministraciis misvlisTanave Cerokis indielebi aiZules 1838wels, daetovebinaT sakuTari miwebi da Sesdgomodnen grZelgzas oklahomisaken. avadmyofobisa da mZime pirobebis gamo 1536 37


irakli maxaraZeaTasi indielidan 4 aTasi daiRupa, ris gamoc am gzas ,,cremliskvali~ ewoda. 7amerikis mTavrobaSi iyvnen adamianebi, romlebic fiqrobdnen,rom indielTa gawyvetis politika yvelaze swori nabiji iyoda rac ufro Cqara moxdeboda es, miT ukeTesi iqnebodaamerikisaTvis. maSin aseTi araoficialuri lozungebic kiarsebobda: ,,CrdiloeTi amerika mTlianad gaiwmindosindielebisagan!~ da ,,kargi indieli es mkvdari indielia~, 8magram amerikis mkvidr mosaxleobas mxolod saomarimoqmedebebiT ver gaanadgurebdnen, radgan maSin, XIX saukunismeore naxevarSi, jer kidev darCenili iyo 280 aTasze metiindieli (cnobisaTvis: XV saukunis miwuruls indielTaraodenoba 10 milionze mets Seadgenda), amitom TeTrebmadaiwyes indielTa mTavari sakvebis _ bizonebis, ganadgureba.cnobil Soumens, megzurs, amerikis armiis polkovnik bafalobils, roca is amerikul rkinigzas emsaxureboda, moklulihyavda 4200 bizonze meti, amitomac Searqves es saxeli (Buffaloinglisurad niSnavs bizons). 9 cxovelebis aseTma umowyaloganadgurebam Tavisi Sedegi gamoiRo _ Tu 1840 wels preriebSi50 milionamde bizoni iyo, 1870 wlisTvis amerikis samxreTiTarc erTi aRar darCa. cnobilia faqtebic, roca saxelmwifofaqtorebi indielebze yiddnen Savi WiriT Seyril sabnebs.erTxel ki indielTa tomSi gagzavnes yvaviliT daavadebuliadamiani, rasac imunitetis armqone mTeli mosaxleobis amowyvetamohyva. aranaklebi indieli gadaiyola isev da isev TeTrkanianTamier Setanilma ,,cecxlovanma wyalma~ _ spirtianma sasmelma.raimeTi mainc rom gaemarTlebinaT is sisastike, rasacsinamdvileSi Cadiodnen veluri dasavleTis amTviseblebiaborigenebis mimarT, wignebisa da filmebis avtorebs indielebigamohyavdaT gamousworebel avazakebad da barbarosebad, TeTrebiki _ gmirebad, radgan isini, TiTqosda, eqstremalur situaciaSiCacvenilebi icavdnen TavianT ojaxsa da qonebas da amitom,rasakvirvelia, uxdebodaT Tavdamsxmelebis, anu indielebis,ganadgureba.bafalo bil qoudis mier 1883 wels Seqmnil Wild West(,,veluri~ dasavleTis) SouSi aCvenebdnen, Tu rogor awiokebdnenaxalmosaxleebsa da fermerebs indielebi, keTilSobili gmirebiamerikeli indielis saxe amerikul vesTernSida amerikuli armia ki maT icavda. 10 sazogadoebis TvalSiaseTi saxis ,,reklama~ Zalian cud reputacias uqmnidaindielebs. sainteresoa, rom mas Semdeg, rac XIX saukunisbolos indielebi ,,moarjules~ da cocxlad gadarCenilebirezervaciebSi Seyares, bevri maTganis sulismosaTqmel dafulis gasakeTebel saSualebad swored ,,veluri~ dasavleTisSou iqca. bevri cnobili indielTa beladi da meomari, maTSoris mjdomare xari, Savi cxen-iremi da jeronimo, amwarmodgenebSi monawileobda. xSirad isini Tavisi popularobiTCrdilavdnen amerikis yovlisSemZle adamianebs. magaliTad, 1905wels jeronimo, rogorc sapatio stumari, miiwvies prezidentTeodor ruzvelTis inauguraciisadmi miZRvnil aRlumze.rogorc Tanamedroveebi aRniSnaven, prezidenti aRaravis axsovda.yvelas surda, jeronimos gasaubreboda da xeliT Sexeboda.am legendarulma meomarma im dRes uamravi avtografi daariga_ TiTo 25 centad. inauguraciis Semdeg jeronimo Sexvdaprezidents da sTxova rezervaciidan sakuTar saxlSi, arizonaSi,daebrunebina, magram prezidentma igi uariT gaistumra. 11indielTa problema bevr amerikel kinematografistsawuxebda, jer kidev munji kinodan moyolebuli iyo mcdeloba,eCvenebinaT realuri istoriebi. munji vesTernebis varskvlavmauiliam s. harTma erTxel ganacxada kidevac: ,,dasavleTisSesaxeb naTqvami sinamdvile CemTvis ufro mniSvnelovania, vidreCemi samuSao~. 12 Tumca vesTernis Semqmnelebi da TviT harTicki xSirad sinamdviles legendas da Selamazebul faqtebsamjobinebda. ,,es dasavleTia, ser. roca legenda faqtad iqceva,dabeWdeT legenda~, _ gazeTis redaqtoris es sityvebi jonfordis vesTernidan kaci, romelmac mokla liberTi velensi,zustad asaxavda damokidebulebas zogadad amerikis dasavleTisistoriisadmi.indielTa negatiuri saxiT warmoCena lamis 60-ian wlebamdegrZeldeboda. miuxedavad sxvadasxva cvlilebisa, TiTqosda,veraferi Searyevda im klasikur, myar fundaments, imdakanonebul da xelSeuxebel wesebs, riTac sunTqavda dasazrdoobda vesTerni, sanam ar dadga 60-iani wlebi. es periodiamerikuli kinematografisTvis iqca erTgvar dadebiT evoluciurnaxtomad, romelic Seexo ara marto holivudis esTetikur38 39


irakli maxaraZemxares, man aseve Secvala misi sawarmoo sistema. holivudurisistemis krizisi daiwyo daaxloebiT 40-iani wlebis bolos,xolo sabolood is 60-ian wlebSi daiSala. meore msoflioomamde holivudi iyo is adgili, sadac Cqefda cxovreba,romelsac xSir SemTxvevaSi araviTari Sexebis wertili dasaerTo ar hqonia gare samyarosTan. holivudSi iqmnebodamiTologia. 60-ianebSi ki es izolirebuli samyaro ganadgurda.holivudi, nebsiT Tu uneblieT, aqtiurad Caeba sazogadoebrivcxovrebaSi da es maSinve aisaxa mis produqciaze.kinematografistebma axleburad gaiazres vesTernis Janrisdogmad qceuli WeSmaritebani da indielebis problemasTandakavSirebuli kardinalurad gansxvavebuli filmebi SesTavazesauditorias: Seienebis Semodgoma (1964), ombre (1967), uTxariTmaT, rom bili boi aq aris (1969), lurji jariskaci, pataradidi adamiani, adamiani cxeni, (1970), ulzanas Tavdasxma (1972)da sxva. 60-ian wlebSi amerikul sazogadoebaSi momxdarmacvlilebebma (robert kenedisa da martin luTer qingismkvlelobebi, SavkanianTa gamosvlebi sakuTari uflebebisdasacavad, studenturi amboxi, seqsualuri revolucia daareulobebi amerikis qalaqebSi) da vietnamis omma sakuTarikoreqtivebi Seitana: axalgazrdobas daekarga rwmena amerikisheroikuli warsulisadmi, razec ase myarad iyo dafuZnebulivesTerni. kritikosebi aRniSnavdnen, rom roca vesTernma 60-ian wlebSi Seabija, man dakarga adrindeli mimzidveloba,gaxda ufro nihilisturi, pirquSi da is xSir SemTxvevaSi,,sisxlSi banaobda~. pirvel rigSi, es aisaxa brwyinvalereJisorebis: serjio leones (dolaris trilogia) da semfeqinfas (veluri banda, peT gereTi da bili qidi) vesTernebSi.60-ian wlebSi mayurebeli, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrdoba, sxvamoTxovnebs uyenebda filmis mwarmoeblebs. ,,veluri~ dasavleTismiTebi Tavisi heroikuli figurebiT, altruistebiT, romlebicebrZodnen borotebas, dabolos, raRa Tqma unda, amarcxebdnen,mxolod nostalgiis moyvarulT Tu akmayofilebda da darbazSisicils iwvevda xolme.SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 60-ian wlebSi vesTerni gascdakinoekranebis farglebs. samxedroebi, romlebic vietnamSiibrZodnen, gazrdilni iyvnen vesTernebze. im dros erT-erTiamerikeli indielis saxe amerikul vesTernSiyvelaze popularuli serialidan, romelic „praim TaimSi~gadioda, rva iyo vesTerni. amitomac gasakviri araa, rom jonueini, yvela drois yvelaze cnobili kino qauboi, amerikeljariskacebisTvis vietnamSi erTgvar Tilismad iqca. TviT ueinma1968 wels dadga propagandistuli mxatvruli filmi vietnamisomis Temaze mwvane beretebi, sadac amerikelTa bazas dodJsiTi hqvia (erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili qalaqi ,,velur~dasavleTSi). ekrans miRma, namdvil vietnamSi, jariskacebi saSiSadgilebs indielTa teritoriebs uwodebdnen, vietnamelmegzurebs _ qiT qarsonebs. 13 amerikelebma TaviseburadgadaakeTes cnobili slogani ,,kargi indieli _ es mkvdariindielia~, oRondac sityva indieli CrdiloeT vietnameliTSecvales. amerikelTa warmodgenaSi amerikis dasavleTisfrontirma indoCineTSi gadainacvla da amerikelebi isevgadaiqcnen pionerebad, kavaleristebad, qauboebad, msrolelebadda Serifebad. maTi misia es iyo civilizaciis, progresisSetana da daCagrulTa dacva (msgavsi istoria axlac meordeba).maiql heris wignSi aris erTi epizodi, sadac vietnamSi Casulreportiors kapitani epatiJeba dagegmil sabrZolo operaciaze:,,wavideT qauboebisa da indielebis saTamaSod~. 14 xSiradvesTernis Janris saukeTeso nimuSebi zustad asaxavdnen imepoqas, romelSic es filmebi keTdeboda, vidre istoriis imperiods (umeteswilad, XIX saukunis meore naxevars), romelSicmoqmedeba viTardeboda. 60-ian wlebSi Seqmnili bevri vesTernivietnamis omis alegoriad aris warmodgenili. sem feqinfaaRniSnavda: ,,vesTerni _ es universaluri formaa, romelicsaSualebas gaZlevs, gamoTqva sakuTari mosazreba dRevandelobisSesaxeb~. 15am cvlilebebma, ra Tqma unda, imoqmeda vesTernebSi indielTaimijis Secvlaze da yvelafers Tavisi saxeli daerqva.kinematografistebi da amerikuli sazogadoeba inaniebdnencodvebs da bodiSs uxdidnen maT im usamarTlobisa dasisastikisaTvis, rasac amerikis mTavroba wlebis manZilzeCadioda amerikis mkvidri mosaxleobis mimarT. jon fordiambobda: ,,...Cven indielebs Zalian cudad vepyrobodiT; esCveni sircxvilia. Cven maT vatyuebdiT da vZarcvavdiT, vklavdiT,40 41


irakli maxaraZevanadgurebdiT... magram, Tu isini moklavdnen erT TeTr adamians,RmerTo, Cven vagzavnidiT jarebs!~ 16dro da mayurebelTa gemovneba Seicvala da dResdReobiTvesTerni iseTive popularobiT aRar sargeblobs, Tumcaamerikeli kinematografistebi isev ganagrZoben sakuTariuaxlesi istoriis gaxsenebas _ ,,veluri~ dasavleTis Temazefilmebis gadaRebas, gansakuTrebiT es exeba televizias, sadacam Janris bevri suraTi idgmeba. es filmebi bevrad ufropolitkoreqtulia da zedmiwevniT zustad asaxavs istoriulsinamdviles. werils prezident jon kenedis mravlismetyvelisityvebiT davasruleb: ,,roca Cven viviwyebT Cveni istoriisdid moamageebs, roca Cven ugulebelvyofT amerikeli indielebisheroikul warsuls, amiT Cven sakuTar memkvidreobasvauZlurebT...~ 171termini vesTerni warmoqmnilia inglisuri sityvidan west _ dasavleTi.2,,velur~ dasavleTSi igulisxmeboda aSS-is dasavleTi da centraluriStatebi.3http://gridassov.livejournal.com/19278.html?thread=645904amerikis Seswavlis sakiTxebi, amerikis Seswavlis saqarTvelosasociacia (gamomcemloba klio, tomi V), gv. 257.5Paul Simpson,The Rough Guide to the Westerns (Rough Guides Ltd, 2006),gv. 3.6The Making of Dances With Wolves, Directed by Jack Leustig (Laura DavisProductions, 1990).7Paul Simpson, The Rough Guide to the Westerns (Rough Guides Ltd, 2006),gv. 5.8Ibid, gv. 208.9Bill O’Neal, Best of the West (Publications International, Ltd, 2006), gv. 122.10am SouSi ,,rusi kazakebis~ saxeliT guruli mojiriTeebi gamodiodnen.11Jon E. Lewis, The Mammoth Book of the West the Making of the AmericanWest (Running Press, 2001), gv . 448.12Bill O’Neal, Best of the West (Publications International, Ltd, 2006), gv. 3.13qiT qarsoni _ ,,veluri~ dasavleTis cnobili megzuri da mebrZoli14ix.: Jim Kitses and Gregg Rickman, edited by, The Western Reader (LimelightEditions, 1998).15Stephen Prince, edited by, Sam Peckinpah’s The Wild Bunch (CambridgeUniversity Press, 1999), gv. 25.amerikeli indielis saxe amerikul vesTernSi16David Matuszak, The Cowboy’s Trail Guide to Westerns (Pacific SunsetPublishing, 2003), gv. 35.17http://www.nativevoices.org/articles/Kennedy.html Bob Boze Bell, Bad Men Outlaws & Gunfighters of the West (BozePublications, Inc., 1999).Peter Bogdanovich, John Ford (Univeresity of California, 1978).William K. Everson, The Hollywood Western (Carol Pub. Group, 1992).Marshall Fine, Bloody Sam The Life and Films of Sam Peckinpah (Donald IFine, 1991).Herb Hagen, The Encyclopedia of Westerns (Checkmark Books, 2003).Kevin J. Hayes, edited by, Sam Peckinpah Interviews (University Press ofMississippi/Jackson, 2008). Allan Hunter, edited by, The Wordsworth Book of Movie Classics(Wordsworth Reference, 1992).Robert E. Kapsis and Kathie Coblentz, edited by, Clint Eastwood Interviews(University Press of Mississippi/Jackson, 1999).Stephen Prince, Savage Cinema Sam Peckinpah and the Rise of UltraviolentMovies (University of Texas Press, 1998).Ted Sennet, Great Hollywood Westerns (Harry N Abrams, 1990).Paul Seydor, Peckinpah The Western Films A Reconsideration (Universityof Illinois Press, 1997).Donald E. Staples, edited by, The American Cinema (Voice of America ForumSeries, 1973).David Thomson, A Biographical Dictionary of Film, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996).42 43


Ddinara maRlakeliZekinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebikinematografis Sesaxeb Teoriuli mosazrebebis Camoyalibeba,faqtobrivad, mis dabadebasTan erTad iwyeba da kinos istoriisganviTarebis paralelurad viTardeba. kinos Teoria, kinosistoriasa da kritikasTan erTad xelovnebisa da kulturismecnierebaTa jgufs ganekuTvneba da damoukidebel mecnieruldisciplinas kinos mecnierebas qmnis.kinos Teoria, romelic sxvadasxva Teoriuli teqstisuzarmazar korpuss moicavs, kinematografs sxvadasxvaTvalsazrisiT, rogorc xelovnebis dargs, vizualur mediumsada ekonomikur produqts, anu, masobriv samomxmarebloindustrias Seiswavlis.XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi Seqmnili Teoriuli teqstebikinematografs ZiriTadad formisa da funqciuri daniSnulebisaspeqtiT ikvlevdnen. kinos Teoriis esTetikuri ganStoebakinematografis, rogorc xelovnebis dargis, damaxasiaTebelgamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs Seiswavlis, sociologiazeorientirebuli kinos Teoria kinematografis, rogorcaudiovizualuri komunikaciis formis sazogadoebriv dakulturul daniSnulebas ikvlevs, xolo fsiqologiurimimarTulebis kinos Teoriis kvlevis sferos filmis esTetikuridaniSnulebis, misi aRqmis fsiqologiuri Taviseburebebisa dafilmis mayurebelze emociuri zegavlenis kvleva Seadgens.kinematografis arsebobis jer kidev adreul wlebSi e. w.bazrobebisa da balaganis kinos periodSi (1895-1907), rocakinematografi, rogorc axali teqnikuri saocreba, masobrivmediumad da gasarTob sanaxaobad iwyebda Camoyalibebas,yoveldRiur presasa da saxelovnobo JurnalebSi ukveibeWdeboda publikaciebi, romlebic cdilobdnen, pasuxi gaecaTkiTxvaze: ra aris kino?1907 wlidan kinematografSi struqturuli cvlilebebiiwyeba, saukuneTa gasayaris axali teqnikuri saocreba,bazrobebisa da balagnis gasarTobi mediumi kino, masobrivmediumad iwyebs Camoyalibebas. iwyeba stacionarulikinodarbazebis mSenebloba, rac Seqmnili kinopruduqciisxarisxzec moqmedebs da socialur ekonomikur bazas qmnisprofesiuli presis ganviTarebisaTvis.naratiuli kinematografis warmoSobis pararelurad, XXsaukunis 1910-ian wlebSi, warmatebiT ikidebs fexs profesiulikinokritika. damoukidebel samecniero disci plinadCamoyalibebas iwyebs kinos Teoria. iwyeba kinematografis,rogorc xelovnebis axali dargis da kulturis mniSvnelovanifenomenis, mecnieruli kvleva.1909-1929 wlebSi kinematografis Sesaxeb bevri sxvadasxvaTeoriuli teqsti iqmneba, romlebic sxvadasxva aspeqtiT, formisaTu teqnikuri da esTetikuri SesaZleblobebis TvalsazrisiTganixilaven da Seiswavlian kinematografs.XX saukunis 1920 wlebSi evropa kinos Sesaxeb Teoriulimosazrebebis centri xdeba, frangi (epStaini, deluki, dulaki,musinaki), germaneli (gadi, rixteri, arhnaimi, irosi, balaSi,krakaueri), rusi sabWoTa (kuleSovi, vertovi, pudovkini,aizenStaini), italieli (barbaro, Ciarini), britaneli (rota,jirsoni, spotisvudi) kinematografistebisa da moazrovneebisrefleqsiebi axali mediumis Sesaxeb kinos klasikur Teoriadyalibdeba. 1915 wels Seqmnil teqstSi The Art of the MovingPicture Tavisi drois cnobili literatori da kinematografisSesaxeb erT-erTi pirveli Teoriuli Txzulebis avtori vaSellindsi tradiciul vizualur da naratiul xelovnebebzedayrdnobiT filmis sam ZiriTad tips gamoyofs e. w. moqmedebis,intimur da brwyinvale filmebs. xelovnebis sxva tradiciuldargebTan kinematografis Sedarebisas films lindsi mxatvrobasmoZraobaSi, arqiteqturas moZraobaSi da qandakebas moZraobaSiuwodebs. 1herbert tanenbaumis 1916 wels gamoqveynebuli teqstiFilm und Theater kinogamosaxulebis esTetikuri kanonebiskvlevas eZRvneba. tanenbaumis interesis sferos kinematografsada TeatrSi realobis asaxvis gansxvavebis kvleva Seadgens.misi Teoriuli mosazrebebi Teatrisa da kinoxelovnebisgamomsaxvelobiTi SesaZleblobebis gansxvavebulobis dadgenasada kinematografis esTetikuri SesaZleblobebis kvlevaSigamoixateba. 2 aristoteles poetikaze dayrdnobiT, tanenbaumi44 45


dinara maRlakeliZekinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebiaviTarebs mosazrebas, romlis mixedviTac aristoteles dramisTeoria kinoxelovnebazec Tavisuflad SeiZleba gavrceldes.tanenbaumi aristoteles dramis cnebas kinematografzeavrcelebs da xazs usvams kinogamosaxulebaSi drois, adgilisada moqmedebis erTianobis mniSvnelobas. gansakuTrebul rolskinematografSi igi msaxiobTa TamaSs aniWebs da TavisTanamedroveTagan gansxvavebiT Tvlis, rom kinoSi msaxiobisTamaSis manera pantomimisa Tu Teatris msaxiobis TamaSismanerisagan mkveTrad unda gansxvavdebodes. kinematografisumTavres princips tanenbaumi moqmedebaSi xedavs da adreulklasikur kinos TeoriaSi e. w. samsaxiobo TeoriulmimarTulebas aviTarebs. 3mecnieruli TvalsazrisiT, uaRresad mniSvnelovani kinosSesaxeb erT-erTi pirveli Teoriuli teqstis avtorineokantianuri filosofiuri skolis warmomadgeneli,fsiqologiis profesori hugo miunsterbergia, romlis naSromiThe Photoplay: A Psychological Study 1916 wels iqnagamoqveynebuli. hugo miunsterbergi kinematografs araobieqturi realobis reproduqciad aRiqvams, aramed adamianuriocnebebisa da warmosaxvis gamoxatvis mniSvnelovan formadmiiCnevs. miunsterbergis mixedviT, kinematografs unari Seswevsgare samyaros formebis (sivrce, dro, kauzaloba) gadalaxvisada Sinagan samyaros formebSi (mogoneba, warmodgena, grZnobebi)morgebisa. mis Teoriul mosazrebebs gansakuTrebul RirebulebasaniWebs fsiqologiuri principebis kinematografis fenomenzegavrceleba da mayurebelsa da films Soris interaqtiuriurTierTobis koncefciis ganviTareba. miunsterbergi filmisaRqmis Taviseburebebis kvlevisas im daskvnamde mivida, romfilmis saboloo aRqma mayureblis mier gamosaxulebisTiToeuli kadris interpretirebis Sedegia da aqedangamomdinare aqtiur Sinagan sulier process warmoadgens.miunsterbergma pirvelma ganaviTara kinos fsiqologiuri Teoria,romlis mixedviT filmis aRqma aqtiur sulier procesadunda iqnes gagebuli. mayurebeli da filmis avtori misiTeoriis mixedviT erTmaneTis partniorebs warmoadgenen. 4kinos esTetikuri Teoriis klasikosi, ungruli warmoSobisebraeli moazrovne bela balaSi 1924 wels venaSi Tavispirvel kinoTeoriul naSroms Der sichbare Mensch aqveynebs,mogvianebiT, 1926 wels, berlinSi misi Semdgomi monografiaDer Geist des Films ibeWdeba, romelSic avtori kinos esTetikurTeorias ukve formalisturi TvalsazrisiT aviTarebs.balaSis TvalTaxedviT kinematografs yvela sxvaxelovnebaze ukeT Seswevs realobis axleburi aRqmis unari.amasTanave am axali xelovnebis unikaluroba imaSia, rom igisaerTaSorisoa _ yvelasaTvis gasagebi mimikisa dagamometyvelebis ena. arcerT sxva xelovnebas, balaSis mixedviT,ar SeuZlia ise cxadi gaxados adamianuri grZnobebi, rogorces msxvil xeds ZaluZs kinematografSi. swored filmisgamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis msxvili xedisa da montaJissistematurma kvlevam miiyvana balaSi Tvalsazrisamde, romlismixedviTac kinematografi is mediumia, romelic obieqturirealobisagan gansxvavebul, axal vizualur kulturas qmnis.bela balaSi filmis Semoqmedad reJisorTan erTadmsaxiobsac asaxelebda, am TvalsazrisiT, igi kinos Teoriis e.w. samsaxiobo Teoriis mxardamWeria. balaSis Teoriuli naazrevienaTesaveba rusul da aRmosavleT evropul formalisturmimarTulebas xelovnebasa da kinos TeoriaSi. misi Teoriulimosazrebebi aseve siaxloves pudovkinisa da aizenStainismontaJuri kinos TeoriasTanac amJRavnebs.xmovani kinematografis damkvidrebis Semdeg balaSi giuntergrolTan erTad kinematografis e. w. ganviTarebuli TeoriiserT-erTi pirveli avtorTagani xdeba. 1948 wels gamoqveynebulnaSromSi Filmkultura igi wina aTwleulebSi SemuSavebuliTeoriuli mosazrebebis reziumirebas xmovani kinematografiskonteqstSi axdens. 5geStalt fsiqologi rudolf arnhaimi Tavis 1932 welsgamocemul naSromSi Film als Kunst ayalibebs mosazrebas, romlismixedviT kinematografi realobisgan gansxvavebulad unda iqnesaRqmuli. arnhaimis Teoriuli mosazrebani filmis Seqmnis damayureblis mier misi aRqmis fsiqologiuri niuansebis kvlevasexeba. misi TvalsazrisiT, kinematografisaTvis damaxasiaTebeliTaviseburebani, montaJis meSveobiT drosa da sivrceSifragmenturad arsebobis unari, gamosaxulebisa da xmis ekranuliCarCoTi SemozRuduloba films sxva xelovnebaTagan46 47


dinara maRlakeliZekinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebigansxvavebul, gansakuTrebul eqspresiul potencials sZens.arnhaimi realobasTan mimarTebaSi kinematografis upiratesobasmis eqspresiul bunebaSi xedavs da Tvlis, rom am Taviseburebebisgamo kinomatografs unari Seswevs filmis realobamayurebelTaTvis arsebul realobaze ufro mniSvnelovanigaxados. 6rudolf arnhaimis Teoriul kvlevebTan gansakuTrebulsiaxloves XX saukunis 1920 wlebSi kinos formalisturiTeoriis praRis, peterburgisa da moskovis skolebiswarmomadgenlebi amJRavneben. formalisturi Teoriis mixedviT,nawarmoebis poeturi struqtura formalurad ganuyofladaadakavSirebuli mayureblis mier mis fsiqologiur aRqmasTan.swored formalisturi Teoriis konteqstidan warmoiSvakonstruqtivizmze orientirebuli sergei aizenStainisa davsevolod pudovkinis kinos montaJuri Teoriebi.jer kidev 1920 wlebSi rusuli sabWoTa kinoavangardiserT-erTi fuZemdebeli Ziga vertovi qmnis koncefcias, romelickinoTvalis saxelwodebiTaa cnobili. sabWoTa avangardistebisTvalsazrisiT, mayureblis mier filmis aRqmis dinamikaupirvelesad montaJiTaa ganpirobebuli. sergei aizenStainismontaJis Teoriis mixedviT, films, rogorc realobisdamoukidebel konstruqcias, mayureblis cnobierebisa daqvecnobieris konstruireba da Secvla SeuZlia. rusi sabWoTaavangardistebi montaJs, rogorc specifikur kinematografiulxerxs, axali adamianisa da axali samyaros SeqmnaSi warmarTvelrols aniWebdnen. kinematografis istoriaSi swored vertoviskinoTvalisa da aizenStainis atraqcionisa da dialeqtikurinteleqtualuri montaJis koncefciebi uyrian TeoriulsafuZvels filmis mayurebelze zegavlenisa da mediumisdaxmarebiT mayurebelTa politizirebis praqtikas.filmis, rogorc mediumis, gavlenas adamianur cnobierebaze1930-ian wlebSi ebrauli warmoSobis germaneli moazrovnevalter beniaminic ikvlevda. beniamini Tavis Teoriul naSromebSirefleqsirebas adamianuri aRqmis mediuri saSualebebiTganpirobebulobaze axdens da Teoriul mosazrebas aviTarebssxvadasxva istoriul politikur konstelaciaSi mediiszegavlenis Sesaxeb. 7 misi TvalsazrisiT, kinematografsmisTvis damaxasiaTebeli vizualuri gamomsaxvelobiTisaSualebebis, msxvili xedisa da montaJis meSveobiT yvelasxva tradiciul mediumze ukeT Seswevs unari mayurebelzezegavlenis moxdenisa da misi mani pulirebisa.XX s a u kuni s 19 4 0- i a n wleb S i b eni a m i ni smsoflmxedvelobasTan axlos mdgomi frankfurtis filosofiuriskolis warmomadgenlebi: Teodor adorno da maqs horkhaimerikulturuli industriis winaaRmdeg mimarTul kritikulTeoriul azrovnebas uyrian safuZvels. 8 amerikuli emigraciiswlebSi holivudis kinoproduqciis Sedegad miRebulSTabeWdilebas adorno da horkhaimeri kinos, rogorcmani pulaciuri mediumis Sesaxeb Teoriul mosazrebaSiayalibeben.xmovani filmis ganviTarebasTan erTad kinos TeoriaSiufro da ufro mzard Rirebulebas iZens kinoxelovnebis e.w. realisturi Teoria. Tavad realisturi mimarTuleba, rogorckinematografis erT-erTi esTetikuri forma, jer kidev 1920wlebSi msoflio kinos sxvadasxva reJisoris mier SeqmnilfilmebSi povebda kinematografiul xorcSesxmas. 1930 wlebSisafrangeTSi warmoSobili realisme poetique 9 erT-erTi wamyvanikinomimarTuleba xdeba evropaSi, xolo 1940-iani wlebis meorenaxevarSi italiaSi Camoyalibebuli am mimarTulebis axaliganStoeba neorializmi XX saukunis meore naxevris msofliokinematografis Semdgom ganviTarebaze umniSvnelovaneszegavlenas axdens. Sesabamisad, meore msoflio omis Semdgomkinos TeoriaSi zigfrid krakaueris socio-ideologiurikritikuli Teoria yvelaze ufro popularuli xdeba.krakaueri swored kinematografSi xedavs im mediums,romelsac yvela sxva xelovnebaze ukeT Seswevs fizikurirealobis gadarCenis unari. sergei aizenStainisa da vsevolodpudovkinis kinos formalisturi, montaJuri TeoriisagangansxvavebiT, romelic kinematografiuli produqciismniSvnelobas montaJiT gansazRvravs, krakaueri kinematografismTavar predikatad ara kinematografiul formas, aramed mismier realobis reproduqciis, realobis zusti asaxvis unarsmiiCnevs. krakueris mosazrebis Tanaxmad, kinos mizani arasinamdvilis Secvla unda iyos, aramed misi zedmiwevniT48 49


dinara maRlakeliZekinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebigadmocema, misi reproducireba, kinematografi mayurebelsrealobis ukeT aRqmaSi unda daexmaros. 10realizmi, rogorc kinoTeoriuli paradigma 1950-iani wlebisdasawyisidan, krakaueris garda, andre bazinis TeoriulmosazrebebSic povebs ganviTarebas. italiuri neorializmisgavleniT bazini ayalibebs Teoriul koncefcias, romlismixedviT kinematografi ganixileba rogorc droSi obieqturoba.bazinis Tvalsazrisis mixedviTac, kinos yvela sxva xelovnebazemetad Seswevs realobis mayureblis bunebriv aRqmasTandaaxloebis unari.andre bazini 1951 wels aarsebs kinoJurnals Carhiers duCinema, romelSic sistematurad ibeWdeba Tavad bazinisa damisi Tanamoazre axalgazrda kinoenTuziastebis da SemdgomSiXX saukunis meore naxevris franguli da evropuli kinoscnobili reJisorebis: fransua triufos, Jan-luk godaris, klodSabrolis, erik romerisa da sxvaTa statiebi. Jurnaligadamwyvet rols TamaSobs axali franguli kinomimdinareobisNouvelle Vague CamoyalibebaSi. aseve Zalze mniSvnelovaniaCarhiers du Cinema-s roli kinos saavtoro TeoriisCamoyalibebaSi. 1950-ian wlebSi fransua triufos mierinicirebuli pilitique des auterurs kinos saavtoro TeoriisCamoyalibebis safuZveli xdeba.Tavad saavtoro kinos koncefcia aleqsandre astrusisjer kidev 1948 wels gamoqveynebul eseSi gamoikveTa, romelSicavtori axal kinoavangardze msjelobs. 11 Aastrusikinematografs, rogorc specifikur enas, mxatvruli azrisgadmocemis vizualur formas ganixilavs. misi azriT,kinematografi xelovans sakuTari azrebisa da gancdebis,sakuTari msoflmxedvelobis vizualuri xerxebiT gamoxatvissaSualebas aZlevs. astrusis TvalTaxedviT, kinoreJisori iseveunda iyenebdes kameras, rogorc romanisa da eseis avtorebimoixmaren kalams.astrusis msoflmxedvelobiT STagonebuli fransua triufo1954 wels aqveynebs statias, romelSic igi brZolas ucxadebsimdroindel frangul kinematografs, mas konformizmSi sdebsbrals da scenaristebis kinos uwodebs.franguli kinos am tendenciis sanacvlod triuforeJisoris individualuri xelwerasa da msoflmxedvelobazedafuZnebuli saavtoro kinematografis damkvidrebas moiTxovs. 12kinos saavtoro Teoria ganuyofladaa dakavSirebulifransua triufosa da misi Tanamoazreebis mier 1950-ianwlebSi aqtiurad praqticirebul saavtoro kinos politikasTan.andre bazenis irgvliv Semokrebili axalgazrda frangikinomatografistebis saavtoro kinopolitika popularobiszenits XX saukunis 1960 da 1970-ian wlebSi aRwevs. 13 amperiodSi Seqmnili monografiebi kinos istoriaSi sworedkinos saavtoro Teoriis perspeqtividan iqmneba. didia saavtorokinos Teoriis zegavlena kinokritikasa da XX saukunis 1960-iani wlebSi Camoyalibebul kinomimdinareobebze: Der NeueDeutsche Film 14 da New Hollywood. 15XX saukunis meore naxevris kinos Teoriis ganviTarebaSierTgvar saetapo naSroms warmoadgens Jan mitris 16 1963-1965wlebSi gamoqveynebuli ortomeuli Esthetique et psychologiedu cinema. 17 masSi erTadaa fokusirebuli kinos klasikurTeoriaSi arsebuli sxvadasxva Teoriuli mosazreba,kinematografis, rogorc garkveuli enobrivi fenomenis, kinosfsiqologiuri da sociologiuri ganzomilebebisa da misigamomsaxvelobiTi SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb. mitrikinematografze, rogorc vizualur enaze da mayurebelzemisi zegavlenis problemebze, axdens koncentrirebas. misimecnieruli gamokvlevebi kinematografis Sesaxeb arsebuli e.w. klasikuri Teoriebis epoqis dasasrulze mianiSneben da,imavdroulad, kinematografis Tanamedrove Teoriebs uyriansafuZvels.Tu kinos e. w. klasikur TeoriebSi gansakuTrebuliyuradReba kinematografis, rogorc xelovnebis legitimaciisproblemebs eTmoboda, XX saukunis 1960 wlebidan kinos Teoriisrefleqsirebisa da gaazrebis sagani filmis, rogorc mediumis,arsebis, misi Sinaarsisa da formis, mayurebelze misizemoqmedebis dialeqtikis kvleva xdeba.1960-iani wlebis dasawyisSi qristian metci 18 lingvisturmodelebze orientirebul kinos semoitikur Teorias ayalibebs,imavdroulad, igi kinematografis semiotikuri kvlevis50 51


dinara maRlakeliZekinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebiprogramis sulisCamdgmelic xdeba 19 da ian maria petersTanda umberto ekosTan erTad kinos klasikuri Teoriebisagandistancirebul semiotikur, analitikur-empiriul kvleviTtradicias amkvidrebs. semoitikuri perspeqtividankinematografi enis analogiurad niSanTa organizebul fenomenadgaiazreba, kinematografis sociologiuri da fsiqologiuridimensiebi da kinogamosaxulebis SesaZleblobaTa detalurikvleva erTiandeba, xolo semiotikuri kvlevis gansakuTrebuliobieqti filmis mayurebelze zegavlenis Seswavla xdeba.semiotikuri kinos Teoria, romlis mixedviTac kinematografienis msgavsad niSanTa garkveul kods warmoadgens, erTmaneTisaganganasxvavebs filmur da kinematografiul kodebs. semiotikafilmis struqturas teqstisa da sistemis TvalsazrisiTSeiswavlis da kvlevis obieqtad erTmaneTisagan damoukidebelkinematografiul procesebs aqcevs. filmis mTliani qsoviliskvlevisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba kino montaJis formebisti pologiebs eTmoba, romelsac metci filmis sintagmebissaxeliT moixseniebs. metcis analizi filmSi gamosaxulebissintagmuri da paradigmuli kavSiris dadgenasa da filmismTlian qsofilSi TiToeuli gamosaxulebis gramatikisinterpretacias emyareba.umberto ekos 20 struqturalistur lingvistikazeorientirebuli vizualuri kodebis Teoriac kinematografsrogorc enas ganixilavs da filmis mTlian sxeulSi calkeuligamosaxulebis mniSvnelobas ikvlevs. filmis gageba ekos TeoriismixedviT erTian fenomens e. w. semiozs warmoadgens, romelSicfilmi obieqti da misi intepratatori (mayurebeli)urTierTzegavlenas axdenen. ekos mixedviT, xelovnebisnawarmoebis analizi Tavis TavSi ara marto nawarmoebisstruqturis, aramed mTliani kulturis analizsac moicavs.pier paolo pazolini 21 kinematografs realobis amsaxvelenad aRiqvams da gamoTqvams mosazrebas, rom adamianur qmedebaTaimitacia kinematografis mastruqturebel princips warmoadgens.qristian metcTan mecnierul diskursSi 1960-1970-ianwlebSi safrangeTSi saerTo kulturis problemebzeorientirebuli heterogenuli semiotikuri skola viTardeba,romelTa kvlevebis ZiriTadi sfero kinosemiotikis pragmatulida kognitivisturi frTa xdeba, xolo Tavad TeoriisfuZemdebeli qriastian metci Tavisi mecnieruli moRvaweobisgviandel periodSi misi maswavleblis ronald barTis 22moZRvrebaze dayrdnobiT fsiqoanalizze orientirebul kinosTeoriul naSromebs qmnis.XX saukunis 1970-ian wlebSi kinos TeoriaSi zigmundfroidis, Jak lakanis fsiqoanalitikur da lius alTuserismarqsistul Teoriebze orientirebuli e. w. aparatus Teoriebiiqmneba. aparatus Teoriis kvlevis ZiriTad obieqts mayurebelsubieqtis,mayurebel-interpretatoris filmTan identifikaciissakiTxi, ekranze naxulTan mayureblis mimarTebisa da Tavadfilmis mayurebelze zemoqmedebis procesis Seswavlawarmoadgens.aparatus Teoria istoriuli, sazogadoebrivi da zogadikulturis aspeqtiT awarmoebs mayureblisa da kinofilmisurTierTdamokidebulebis kvlevas, masSi ori ZiriTadimimarTuleba gamoiyofa: neoformalistur-kognitiuri dapoststruqturalistur-fsiqoanalitikuri. semiotikurTeori as Ta n axlos m dgom i neoformal is tu ri dapoststruqturalisturi koncefciebi xSirad Tanamedrove kinosTeoriaSi aparatus Teoriis saerTo saxelwodebiT moixsenieba.semiotikuri kvlevis principebTan monaTesave TeoriebiswarmoSoba XX saukunis 1970-iani wlebis Sua periodidaniwyeba, Tanamedrove kinos Teoria zogadad sam aseT mniSvnelovanTeoriul moZRvrebas icnobs: e. w. enunciaciis Teoria, romelicfilmis, reJisorisa da mayureblis pragmatul urTierTobasikvlevs, 1980 wlebSi qristian metcis Teoriuli kvlevebicam mimarTulebiT iwyeben ganviTarebas.fr a n C es ko ka s eti s m i er i ni c i r eb u l i k i nostranscendentaluri pragmatika, romelic kinokomunikaciisproblemebis kvlevazea orientirebuli da kinos fsiqosemiotika,romelic mayureblis mier filmis aRqmis procesis elementebsSeiswavlis. swored am koncefcias eyrdnoba devid bordueliskinos kognitiuri fsiqologiac. 23Ddevid bordueli rusuli formalisturi TeoriiszegavleniT neoformalistur Sexedulebebs aviTarebs da52 53


dinara maRlakeliZefilmis stilisturi normebisa da konvenciebis esTetikas,mayurebelze filmis zemoqmedebisa da mayureblis mier filmiscnobieri aRqmis problemebs ikvlevs. borduelisneoformalisturi, kognitivisturi gamokvlevebis ZiriTad Temasmayureblis mier filmis gacnobierebul aRqmasa dakinokulturas Soris urTierTkavSiris dadgenis Seswavlawarmoadgens. borduelisa da tompsonis gamokvlevebi calkeulifilmis mayureblis Cveuli aRqmis gaucxoebiT gamowveulikognitiuri procesis warmoCinebasa da misi saSualebiTkinematografis funqciisa da motivaciis istoriis gagebasisaxaven miznad.semiotikuri da formalisturi Teoriebis impulsebiTaainspirirebuli cnobili frangi kinos Teoretikos jildeliozis 24 1980-ian wlebSi kinos filosofiaSi SeqmniliumniSvnelovanesi Sromebic. deliozis Teoriuli teqstebi 25kinematografis semiotikur gagebas efuZneba. misi TvalsazrisiT,filmis reJisori, imavdroulad, filosofosicaa, romelic aracnebebis, aramed gamosaxulebisa da xmis saSualebiT operirebs.deliozis TvalTaxedviT, kinematografi moZravi gamosaxulebisuniversaluri mediumia.Dsamyaros swored kinematografismeSveobiT SeuZlia sakuTari Tavis danaxva, romelic mxolodgamosaxuleba, xati ki araa, aramed Tavadaa samyaro.deliozisaTvis kinematografi is konkretuli adgilia, sadacsamyaros dakvirveba da Secnoba xdeba. igi gansakuTrebulyuradRebas moZraobis mniSvnelobas uTmobs kinematografSida Tvlis, rom moZraoba Tavis TavSi moicavs rogorc inerantul,aseve trancendentur momentebs.deliozi gamosaxulebis moZraobasTan mimarTebaSi orumniSvnelovanes fazas ganasxvavebs kinos istoriaSi. moZraobiTigamosaxuleba ufro Zvelia, samyaros erTian warmodgenas emyarebada inerantuli xasiaTi aqvs, misTvis uwyveti montaJiadamaxasiaTebeli. droiTi gamosaxuleba ki transcendenturiada wyvetili montaJiT xasiaTdeba. jil deliozis Sromebikinos TeoriaSi gamosaxulebasa da xmaSi gacxadebulikinematografiuli azrovnebis istoriis dafiqsirebis mcdelobadSeiZleba CaiTvalos.kinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebierTmaneTis paralelurad arsebul kinematografisTanamedrove Teoriebs, romlebic devid borduelisa da noelkarolis formulirebiT XX saukunis 1970-iani wlebidanTeoriaTa erTian e. w. agregats qmnian, erTi saerTomaxasiaTebeli aerTianebT, kerZod, masobrivi mediumis filmissazogadoebaze zegavlenis kvleva, mayurebelTa mier filmisaRqmis meqanizmis mecnieruli interpretacia da gaazreba imisa,Tu ra aqcevs kinematografs postkapitalisturi sazogadoebise. w. idologiur agentad.Tu kinos klasikur TeoriebSi kinematografis, rogorcxelovnebis axali dargis, kulturul legitimaciisa da filmisgamomsaxvelobiTi Taviseburebis, misi esTetikisa da stiluriTaviseburebebis kvlevas eTmoboda gansakuTrebuli yuradReba,kinematografis Sesaxeb Tanamedrove Teoriuli kvlevebi filmismedialur, ekonomikur, socio-kulturul determinantebzeaxdenen gansakuTrebul aqcentirebas. Tanamedroveobaglobalizebuli procesebiT Secvlili samyaro kinosmecnierebazec did zegavlenas axdens. Tanamedrove kinosTeoriaSi erTmaneTis paralelurad Tanaarsebobs sxvadasxvaTeoriuli Sexeduleba, romlebic kinematografs sxvadasxvaaspeqtiTa da TvalTaxedviT Seiswavlian.XXI saukunis kinos mecnierebaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradRebaeqceva kinematografis intermedialuri, interteqstualuristruqturebis kvlevasa da vizualur mediaTa sxva formebTanmis damokidebulebaze refleqsirebas, aseve kinos genderul, 26fsiqoloanalitikur 27 da interkulturalobis 28 Teoriulkvlevebs.1. Vachel Lindsay, The Art oft he Moving Picture, New Jork, 1971.2. Helmut H. Diderich, Der Filmtheoretiker Herbert Tannenbaum, Frankfurta. M., 1987.3. SeniSvna: kinematografis, rogorc xelovnebis formis Sesaxeb SeqmnilTavdapirvel TeoriebSi ZiriTadad oTxi mimarTuleba gamoiyofa,kinoxelovnebis, samsaxiobo xelovnebis, kamerisa da ganviTarebis (anuxmovani kinos) Teoriebi;54 55


dinara maRlakeliZe4. ixileT: James Monaco, Film Verstehen, gam.: „Rowohl“ Reinbek bei Bamberg,2002, gv. 417- 427; Geschichte des deutschen Films, gam.: „Metzler“, Stuttgart,2004, gv.. 497-500 .5. Texte zur Theorie des Films, Bela Balazs, Reclam, Stuttgart, 2003, gv. 201-234 .6. Rudolf Arnheim, Texte zur Theorie des Films, Stuttgart, 2003, gv. 176-201.7. ix.: Walter Beniamin, Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischenReproduzierbarkeit, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1974.8. ix.: Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Dialektik der Aufklärung,Frankfurt am Main, 1947.9. SeniSvna: qarTulad iTargmneba, rogorc poeturi realizmi10. ix.: Siegfried Krakauer: Theorie des Films. Die Errettung der äußerenWirklichkeit, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am M.ain, 1964.11. ix.: Alexandre Astrus, Naissance d, une nouvelle Avantgarde: La Camera-Stylo, 1948, Paris.12. ix.: Francois Truffaut, Une certaine tendance du cinema francaise, Paris,1954.13. SeniSvna: saavtoro Teoriis, rogorc mecnieruli cnebis, damkvidrebaniu-iorkel kinos kritikoss endriu sariss miewereba, romelic 1964wels pirveli laparakobs Auteur Theory Sesaxeb.14. SeniSvna: axali germanuli kinos saxeliT cnobili kinomimdinareobadasavleT germaniaSi. mimdinareobas safuZvlad daedo oberhauzenissaxelwodebiT cnobili manifesti, romliTac axalgazrda reJisorebmaomi gamoucxades mamaTa Taobis kinos da igi mkvdrad gamoacxades.15. SeniSvna: axali holivudis kino, mimdinareobas sxvanairadpostklasikuri holivudis kinosac uwodeben.16. SeniSvna: Jan mitri 1907-1988, frangi kinoreJisori da mecnieri,mniSvnelovani monografiebis avtori kinos Teoriasa da istoriaSi.17. SeniSvna: qarTulad iTargmneba, rogorc kinematografis esTetikada fsiqologia.18. qristian metci: frangi kinos Teoretikosi, 1931-1993.19. SeniSvna: semiotikuri kvlevis ZiriTadi principi metcis SemdgomigamonaTqvamiT gamoixateba: gageba imisa, Tu rogor unda iqnes filmigagebuli.20. umberto eko: italieli mwerali, filosofosi, mediaTmecnieri,semiotikis mkvlevari.21. pier paolo pazolini: 1922-1975 ww., italieli kinoreJisori,poeti da publicisti.22. ronald barTi: 1915-1980 ww., frangi filosofosi da mwerali.ronald barTi struqturalizmis, dekonstruqtivizmisa dakinos Teoriis ganviTarebis tendenciebifsiqoanalizis meTodebs Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi fenomenebis: teqstis,fotografiis, kinematografis, reklamis kvlevisaTvis gamoiyenebda.struqturalisturi Teoriis radikalizaciis gamo barTipoststruqturalisturi Teoriis damfuZnebladac iTvleba.23. devid bordueli: amerikeli kinomecnieri, viskonsis universitetisada kiolnis kinos skolis profesori, kinos neoformalisturi TeoriisumniSvnelovanesi avtori. igi Tavis mniSvnelovan Teoriul Sromebskinematografis kognitiur fsiqologiaSi, romelic borduelisTvalsazrisiT, kinos formalisturi Teoriis elementia, xSirad TavismeuRlesTan, kristin tompsonTan erTad qmnis24. Jil deliozi: 1925-1995 ww., cnobili frangi filosofosi,Tanamedroveobis umniSvnelovanesi moazrovne. misi kvlevebi kulturissxvadasxva sferos: fsiqoanalizs, anTropologias, xelovnebas, musikas,kinematografs moicavs. didia misiHzegavlena Tanamedrove humanitarulimecnierebis iseT Teoriebze, rogorebicaa: Cultural Studies, Gender Studies,mediaTa da esTetikuri Teoriebi. deliozs mWidro mecnieruliTanamSromloba da megobroba akavSirebda cnobil frang moazrovneebTan:miSel fukosa da feliqs gvatarTan.25. ix.: Cinema I, 1983 w; Cinema II, 1985 w.26. SeniSvna: 1970-iani wlebidan arsebuli feministuri kinos Teoria,romelic patriarqalur sazogadoebriv normebsa da mamakacuraracnobierze dafuZnebul tradiciul kinematografs uaryofda 1990-iani wlebidan Teoriuli gaazrebis gansakuTrebul obieqtad aqcevsqali mayureblis mier filmis aRqmis Taviseburebis kvlevasa da kinosistoriis qaluri mzeris perspeqtividan konstruirebis problemas,kulturis fenomenis mamakacuri da qaluri diferenciaciiT kvlevas.Gender Studies, Popular Kulture da Cultural Studies Teoriebis gamoyenebasfeministur kinos TeoriaSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba.27. SeniSvna: kinematografi fsiqoanalitikuri Teoriis diskursSiaRiqmeba mediumad, romelsac e. w. sizmriseuli bunebis gamo specifikuriurTierToba akavSirebs sazogadoebriv da individualur aracnobierTan.fsiqoanalitikuri koncefciebis Camoyalibeba kinos TeoriaSi XXsaukunis 1970-iani wlebidan iwyeba da zigmund froidisa da Jaklakanis aracbobieris fsiqologias efuZneba kinos fsiqoanalitikurTeoriaSi.28. SeniSvna: interkulturaloba, multikulturaloba,transkulturaloba erTi da imave cnebis sxvadasxva dasaxelebaa.inerkulturuli komunikaciis Teoria sxvadasxva kulturis erTiansivrceSi Tanaarsebobis problemebs ikvlevs postmodernul,globalizebul sazogadoebebSi. kulturaTa sul ufro mzardi56 57


dinara maRlakeliZeglobalizaciisa da cifruli teqnologiebis epoqaSi Tanamedrovekinos mecnierebaSi interkulturalobis problemisadmi miZRvniligamokvlevebis mniSvneloba sul ufro metad izrdeba.Franz Josef Albersmeier (Hrsg.) Texte zur Theorie des Films, Stuttgart, 2003.Andre Bazin, Was ist Kino? bausteines zur Theorie des Films, Köln, 1975. Walter Benjamin, Das Kunstwerk im zeitalter seiner technischerReproduzierbarkeit,Frankfurt, 1963. David Bordwell, Post-Theory,Recontructing Film Studies,University ofWisconsin Press, 1996.Umberto Eco, Semiotik, Entwurf einer Theorie der Zeichen, München:Fink, 1991.Jürgen Felixs (Hrsg.) Moderne Film Theorie, Mainz, 2002.Christian Metz, Sprache und Film,Frankfurt am Main, 1973.Christian Metz, Semiologie des Films,München, 1972.Laura Mulvey, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, In: Screen, 1975.Gilles Deleuze, Kino I, Frankfurt, 1989.Gilles Deleuze, Kino II, Frankfurt, 1991.Andrew Tudor, Theories of Film, London, 1974.Nils Borstnal, Eckhard Pabst, Hans Jürgen Wulff, Einführung in die FilmundFernsehwissenschaft, Konstanz, 2008. Hugo Münstenberg, das Lichtspiel, Eine psychologische Studie, Wien,1991. Peter Wuss, Kuntswerk des Films und Massencharakter desMediums,Konspekte zur Theorie des Spielfilms, Berlin, 1990.eTer okujavaXX saukunis 20-iani wlebis qarTulamerikulkinoSi SeniSnuli analogiebiXX saukunis 20-iani wlebi swored is xanaa, roca naTladgamoCnda, rom kinematografs ZaluZs ara mxolod realobisdafiqsireba, aramed subieqturad aRqmuli realobis Cveneba.am tendenciam miiyvana kinematografistebi `subieqturkamerasTan~, romelic asaxavda sagnis an movlenisadmi avtorisdamokidebulebas (mag., fridrih murnau `ukanaskneli adamiani~(Der letzte Mann, igive: The Last Laugh, 1924).esaa pirveli postulati, romelic gvainteresebs TemasTanmimarTebaSi da aqve meorec: zemoTqmulis fonze CvenTvissaintereso xdeba ori mkveTri individi xelovani, amerikulkinoSi sruliad gamorCeuli figura robert flaerti daqarTveli mixeil kalatoziSvili, romlebmac sxvadasxvaeTnografiuli masalis safuZvelze, qronologiurad erTsada imave dros, magram gansxvavebul geografiul sivrceSiSeqmnes filmebi, sadac SemoqmedebiTad aisaxeboda adamianibunebasTan pirispir, aq igulisxmeba stiqia, cxovrebis wesi dasxv. (mag.: uxmo _ `nanuki CrdiloeTidan~ (Nanook of theNorth,1922 da ukve xmovani filmi _ britaneTSi gadaRebulifilmi `adamiani aranidan~ (Man of Aran, 1934 da kalatoziSvilis`jim SvanTe~, 1931). amgvarad, Cem mier xsenebul avtorTamiRwevebi iqneba Cemi kvlevis ZiriTadi sagani, xolo Sdegebi_ misi konceptualuri arsis pasuxi.aRiarebuli faqtia, rom qarTuli kinos istoriaSi 20-30-iani wlebis saukeTeso filmTa Sorisaa mixeil kalatoziSvilisdokumenturi `jim SvanTe~, romelsac im filmTa SorismovixseniebT, romlebmac kinoenis TvalsazrisiT Tavisi kvalidatoves kinos istoriaSi. am TvalsazrisiT, mis gansakuTrebiTxelSesaxeb miRwevas gamovyof, rac imaSi mdgomareobs, rom`jim SvanTem~ erTgvarad moicva munji kinos gamomxatvelobiTisaSualebebi ara mxolod imis gamo, rom Tanabrad gamoiyena20-iani wlebis rusuli da amave periodis evropuli kinos,58 59


eTer okujavaXX saukunis 20-iani wlebisqarTul-amerikul kinoSi SeniSnuli analogiebikerZod, germanuli kinematografiuli skolis, monapovrebi, aramedimiTac, rom `jim SvanTem~ eTnografiuli Tematika iseveaqtualuri gaxada qarTul kinoprocesSi, rogorc _ robertflaertim amerikul kinoSi.flaertim 1931 wels da amerikaSi momuSave germanelmareJisorma fridrix vilhelm murnaum erTad gadaiRes, ufrozustad ki murnaum daasrula flaertis mier dawyebulimxatvruli filmi `tabu~, wynari okeanis erT-erTi kunZulismcxovrebTa romantikuli ambis Sesaxeb. murnau-flaertisnamuSevari, rogorc Temis arCevaniT, iseve misi gansaxierebismaneriT eqspresionistul stilizacias unacvlebs realurisuraTebis Cvenebas. zebunebrivi Zalebis SegrZnebasa da sxvaemociuri impulsebis gamowvevas is axerxebs realuri,cxovrebiseuli suraTebis CvenebiT. mas swored am TvalsazrisiTikvlevda andre bazeni _ cnobili frangi kinomkvlevari,romelic gansakuTrebiT mkafiod gamokveTda ara montaJurinteresebs, aramed filmis naratiul sawyiss. rac bunebrivia`jim SvanTeSic~ ikiTxeba, magram masSi SedarebiT mZlavrobsrakursi, montaJuri gadasvlebi, eqspresia, ram masalisadmiSemoqmedebiT damokidebulebaze metyvelebs. da mainc, bazenismier xazgasmuli fraza imis Sesaxeb, rom filmSi `tabu~xomaldi, romelic ekranis marcxena kididan Semocurdeba,bediswerasTanaa gaigivebuli (Tumca flaerti-murnauiotisodenadac ar Tmoben filmis mkacr realistur kanonebs)~ 1_ CvenTvis sainteresoa, radgan kalatoziSvilTan asevebediswerasTan gaigivebuli STabeWdilebiTaa Seqmnili saxlissaxuraviT gadaxurvis epizodi, sadac, murnau-flaertis gemismsgavsad, realurad arsebuli sinamdvilidan konkretuliazrobriv-emociuri gancdis gamoxatulebaa svani glexis mierdasrulebuli saxlis saxuravi, romelic TandaTanobiT,mayureblis Tvalwin ixureba (TiTqmis imave tempo-ritmSi,rogorc xomaldis moZraoba `tabuSi~), da ikveTeba azri imisSesaxeb, rom saxli aSenda, magram svani kacis gasaWirs verixsnis aSenebuli saxli, isev problemad rCeba mTieli xalxisdramatizmiT aRsavse sinamdvile. gadaxurvis dasrulebis Semdeg,ekranis sruli sibnele sabediswero gancdiT aRsavse pauzaa(asevea flaerti-murnaus filmSi).cxadia, rom `jim SvanTes~ avtors, rogorc zemoT aRvniSne,konkretuli kompoziciis ganzogadebulad gaazreba aqvs miznad.am mizniskenaa mimarTuli `jim SvanTes~ mxatvari daviT kakabaZec.swored misi monawileoba ganapirobebs kalatoziSvilis filmismometebul SemoqmedebiT sawyiss.sxvaTa Soris, aRniSnuli epizodis magaliTze, `jim SvanTes~da `tabus~ saxviT esTetikas exmianeba mosazreba, romelsacigive bazeni gamoTqvams imis Sesaxeb, rom kuleSovis, eizenSteinisda abel hansis Semoqmedeba TviT movlenas ki ar gviCvenebs,aramed iribad migviTiTebs imaze, rom maT filmebSi calkeuliepizodebis Sinaarsi sruliad damoukidebelia epizodis sabolooSinaarsobrivi JRerisagan. aq mas mohyavs magaliTebad rusulimunji kinos cnobili msaxiobis mozJuxinis saxis axlo xedida mkvdari bavSvis gamosaxuleba, romelic mayurebels kadrSiasaxuli faqtis Sesatyvis STabeWdilebas uqmnis; an, ayvavebulivaSlis xeebis da gogonebis Sepirispirebuli Cveneba a.dovJenkosTan, rac imedis ganwyobas badebs mayurebelSi dasxv. es ganwyoba montaJuri Sepirispirebis Sedegia, magramkalatoziSvilsa da flaerti–murnausTan erTi planiT damontaJis gareSe gvexsneba qveteqsti, razec zemoT mogaxseneT.amgvarad, 20-iani wlebis e. w. munji periodis msoflioskinos sxvadasxva gziT xelewifeba mxatvruli ekranuli xatisSeqmna da aq dawinaurda, erTi mxriv, rusuli kino (montaJisTeoriis da praqtikis safuZvliani SedegebiT) da, meore mxriv,germanuli skola, romelmac kadris plastika (dekoracia daganaTeba) gamoiyena mTavar gamomxatvel saSualebad. rodesacandre bazeni wers, rom 1928 wels munjma kinom Tavisisrulyofis zenits miaRwiao, mas mxedvelobaSi aqvs `munji~kinematografis saxviTi sistemis sisrule imdenad tevadi,rom masSi bazeni xmovani kinos gamomxatvelobiT koncefciebsamCnevs (dabadebuli qveteqstebis gamo). am mosazrebis faqtobrivnimuSebad is asaxelebs 20-iani da 30-40-iani wlebiskinomoRvaweebis: erih fon Storohaimisa da Jan renuarisSemoqmedebiT kavSirebs orson uelsTan, karl Teodor draierisasrober bresonTan. andre bazens aq mxedvelobaSi aqvs, rogorcTviTon ambobs, ori erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego tendencia.60 61


eTer okujavatendencia, romelsac warmoadgenen reJisorebi, romlebsac sjeraTsaxviTobisa da tendencia, warmodgenili im reJisorebis mier,romlebsac sjeraT realobisa. bazenis mier gamoTqmuli esmosazreba sxva araferia, Tu ara lumierisa da meliesispirvel kinonimuSebSi gamomJRavnebuli kinematografiulikoncefcia, romelic dResac arsebobs da, cxadia, axal mxatvrulformebSia warmodgenili e. w. ferweruli stilis da mxatvruldokumenturikinematografis saxiT. rac Seexeba `jim SvanTes~,bazenis mixedviT, Cemi azriT, buniuelisa da murnaus esTetikurprincipebTan siaxloves ufro avlens, Tumca `jim SvanTe~sinTeziT, kerZod, emociur-racionaluri sawyisebis erTianobiTgamoirCeva da ara zemoTqmulidan erT-erTiT.amerikel kinomkvlevarTa azriT, mxedvelobaSi maqvs 20-ian wlebamde arsebuli Sromebi kinoTeoriis mimarTulebiT,romlebic iqamde, vidre evropuli kinoTeoria daikavebdawarmmarTvel adgils, sainteresoa hiugo miunsterbergismosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom arsebobs interaqtiuri urTierTobiscneba filmsa da msaxiobs Soris. igi ambobs, rom kinosuraTSiCveni moZraobis aRqma damokidebulia ara imdenad xedvaze,ramdenadac gamosaxulebis interpretaciis aqtiur gonebrivprocesebze. 30 wlis Semdeg es aqtiuri procesi cnobiligaxda, rogorc fsiqologiuri fenomeni, romelic miunsterbergma,rogorc mogaxseneT, bevrad adre SeniSna, kerZod, aRwera 1916wels. Tavis wignSi igi ramdenime Tavs uZRvnis ,,yuradRebas~,,,mexsierebasa da warmodgenas~, ,,emociebs~, igi ayalibebs filmisfsiqologiis Teorias, romlis mixedviTac, filmi aqtiuriprocesia – es aris gonebrivi moqmedeba, sadac msaxiobi da, meaqve davumatebdi, mayurebelic, aris filmis avtoris partniori(am mimarTebiTac, mkveTria analogiebi `jim SvanTesTan~,mxedvelobaSi maqvs amerikeli fsiqologis gansja, romelickinos erT-erTi pirveli kinoTeoretikosia amasTanave). sxvaTaSoris, miunsterbergis Sromas sakmaod rTuli bedi aRmoaCndaim TvalsazrisiT, rom Tavis droze bevri mowinaaRmdege hyavdada es sruliad gasagebia, misi Sroma erT-erTi pirveli iyoTeoriis mimarTulebiT da miT ufro imitom, rom miunsterberigida linsdei, adamianebi, romlebic cdilobdnen kinos TeoriaSiXX saukunis 20-iani wlebisqarTul-amerikul kinoSi SeniSnuli analogiebimuSaobas, erTi iyo fsiqologi da meore _ poeti; miunsterbergmadaadgina, rom filmis TeoriaSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyosara mxolod Seucnobeli esTetika, aramed zusti socialurida fsiqologiuri efeqtebic. man am or aspeqts uwodakinosuraTis ,,Sinagani~ da ,,garegani~ ganviTareba.miunsterbergis yvelaze didi miRwevaa filmis saxviT fenomenSifsiqologiuri principebis gamoyeneba. amerikeli mkvlevrebiweren, rom am mxriv froidis fsiqologia aucilebel iaraRswarmoadgenda filmis TeoriaSi. miunsterbergis midgoma arisprefroiduli, rac naTels hfens Tu, ratom iyo igi didi xnisganmavlobaSi ignorirebuli, magram amave dros igi iyogeStaltis fsiqologiis winamorbedi, ramac mis midgomassaocari Tanamedroveoba SesZina.froidiseuli filmis fsiqologiis Tanaxmad, mniSvnelovaniagamocdilebis gaucnobierebeli buneba da, maSasadame,koncentrireba xdeba garemos mimarT pasiur midgomaze. amissapirispirod, rogorc zemoT mogaxseneT, miunsterbergmagamosaxulebis interpretaciis aqtiur gonebriv procesebiwamoswia win.kalatoziSvilis filmTan dakavSirebiT amerikeli mkvlevrisnaazrevis moxmoba CemTvis `jim SvanTes~ mniSvnelobasmravalwilad afarToebs. igi zedrouli da zesivrcobrivia _gagebebis mxriv. es dromac daamtkica, roca jorJ sadulmada rusma mkvlevarma freilixma gamoTqves masze sakuTariSexedulebebi: pirvelma Tqva, rom esaa `sabWoTa kinos margaliti~(bunebrivia, imxanad qarTul kinos sabWours Tu uwodebdnenmxolod) da meore ki Tavis wignSi `ekranis oqros kveTa~moqmed pirTa xasiaTebis kvlevisas mimarTavs mixeilkalatoziSvilis films. `mifrinaven weroebis~ magaliTzemsjelobisas, mkiTxvels Seaxsenebs, rom am dros jer kidev ariyo g. Cuxrais `balada jariskacze~, s. bondarCukis `adamianisbedi~, a. tarkovskis `ivanes bavSvoba~ da arc f. felinis `8 1/2~. 2 is gansakuTrebiT mizandasaxulad akeTebs am eqskurssmomaval kinoprocesSi, raTa kidev ufro xelSesaxebadwarmovidginoT `weroebis~ mxatvruli faseuloba, 50-ian wlebSiase rom gamoikveTa rusul kinoSi da gamoTqvas fraza, romelsac62 63


eTer okujavagansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs `jim SvanTesTan~ mimarTebiT:`50-iani wlebis kinom Tavisi sagvareulo gaixsenao~ da eswiaRsvla `jim SvanTes~ xanis kalatoziSviliseuli miRwevebsdaukavSira.amgvarad, 20-iani wlebis qarTuli kino, `jim SvanTes~sruliad originaluri poetikiT evro-amerikuli sivrcisSemadgeneli nawili xdeba iseTi araordinaruli moRvawisxelovnebis gamo, rogoricaa m. kalatoziSvili.universitetissamagistro programa1. andre bazeni, `ra aris kino~, m., 1972, gv. 84.2. SeniSvna: igulisxmeba m. kalatoziSvilis (m. kalatozovi) filmi`gaugzavneli werili~, 1960.64 65


naTia grZeliSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilisareklamo saxeobebi da struqtura`reklama izidavs Sens yuradRebas,sul esaa~ _ kelvin klaini.kulturis menejmentinaSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiTstatiis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ prof. iuri mRebriSvilidResdReobiT saqonlis gasaReba SeuZlebelia reklamisgareSe. reklama namdvilad uwyobs xels gayidvebis gazrdas,axdens momxmareblis informirebas gamoyenebis da fasis Sesaxeb.misi daniSnuleba swored isaa, rom gaacnos sazogadoebasaxali produqti da Seayvaros. mTavaria, sworad iqnas SerCeulisamizne auditoria, Seiswavlo maTi survilebi, moifiqro ubralomagram individualobis matarebeli moxerxebuli daxelmisawvdomi winadadebebi. es savsebiT bunebrivia da SeiZlebaiTqvas _ mosaxerxebelic, radgan momxmarebels uWirs asiaTasobiT dasaxelebis saqonlidan imis arCeva, rac zustadmas sWirdeba. garda amisa, Cven adamianebi reklamirebulproduqts ganvixilavT, rogorc saukeTesos da metad sandos,vidre ara reklamirebuls. es ukanaskneli ki namdvilad kargisaSualebaa informaciis miwodebasa da darwmunebaSi. sakiTxavia,maincdamainc ratom aniWeben erT konkretul saqonelsupiratesobas maSin, rodesac imave tipis sxva saqoneli SesaZloa,ufro iafi Rirdes? pasuxi martivia _ erTis reklama kargia,meoresi ki _ cudi; imitom rom informacia erT SemTxvevaSiaRmoCnda saWiro adgilsa da saWiro dros, sxva ki ara; erTisreklama gasagebi da maRali xarisxisaa meoresi _ gaugebarida mosawyeni. momxmarebeli SeiZleba winaswar ar fiqrobdesraime saqonlis SeZenaze, magram raRacam uSualod maRaziaSiubiZgos am konkretuli nivTis SeZenisaken. es ki SeiZlebamiRweul iqnas efeqturi reklamiT.reklamas sakmaod didi istoria aqvs. reklamis primitiulformebs jer kidev uZveles periodSi vxvdebiT. warwerebmaqvebze, kedlebze, papirusebze egvi ptidan, romidan TusaberZneTidan Semogvinaxes Setyobinebebi, romlebSic mocemulia66 67


naTia grZeliSvilisareklamo saxeobebi da struqturainformacia gasayid saqonelsa Tu momsaxurebaze, uaxloesdroSi mosalodnel movlenebze, gaqceuli monebis povnisTvisdawesebul jildoebze. qalaq pompeis 1500-ze meti warweraadRemde Semonaxuli, romelTac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tanamedrovereklamis struqtura hqondaT. jer kidev xmelTaSua zRvisqveynebSi arqeologebma aRmoaCines nivTmtkicebebi, romlebicinformacias iZleodnen sxvadasxva RonisZiebisa da SeTavazebisSesaxeb. romaelebi qmnidnen kedlis naxatebs, raTa gladiatorTabrZolebze euwyebinaT. xolo finikielebi uzarmazar qvebzexatavdnen suraTebs sakuTari nawarmis stimulirebisTvis.radganac uZveles droSi wera-kiTxvis done dabali iyo,sareklamo Setyobinebebi egreT wodebuli macneebis saSualebiTvrceldeboda, romelic xalxmraval quCebSi idga da xalxsacnobda sxvadasxva informacias (unda aRiniSnos, rom amperiodSi Setyobinebebis mTavari mizani informaciis gavrcelebaiyo da ara darwmuneba).miuxedavad am yvelafrisa, Tanamedrove reklamaabsoluturad gansxvavdeba Tavisi winamorbedisgan.saerTod, ra aris reklama da ra funqcia akisria mas?reklama (reklam) laTinuri sityvaa da yvirils, moTxovnasniSnavs. es aris informacia, gavrcelebuli nebismieri meTodiT,nebismieri formiT da xerxiT, mimarTuli sazogadoebis farTomasebisTvis reklamirebis obieqtis mimarT maTi yuradRebismi pyrobis an interesis gaRvivebis mizniT. alternatiuligansazRvrebiT, reklama fasiani, calmxrivi komunikaciaa,romelSic gansazRvrulia sponsori da informacia ki _marTvadi. reklamis variantebia: publikacia, `piari~, produqtisCasma, sponsoroba, gayidvebis waxaliseba. amgvari informaciisgasavrceleblad mravali saSualeba gamoiyeneba: vitrinebi,uwyebebi, sasaqonlo da safirmo niSnebi. televizia, radio,filmebi, Jurnalebi, gazeTebi, interneti da bilbordebi. dResreklama ganixileba, rogorc marketingis umniSvnelovanesikomponenti. reklama bazris konkurenciis instrumentia.zogi miiCnevs, rom reklama araformalurad aris tyuili,radgan masSi araa savaldebulo sruli simarTlis Tqma, anu,rogorc wesi, ambob mxolod dadebiT mxares da arafersambob uaryofiTze, romelic, SesaZloa, mTlianad xazsac kiusvams im dadebiTs. ese igi, reklamaSi SegiZlia isaubro kargSedegze da konkretuli magaliTebic moiyvano, Tundac es ariyos tipuri SemTxveva da iyos Zalze iSviaTi Sedegi amproduqtiT sargeblobisa. reklama aris produqtis gayidvisxelSewyoba. am mimarTulebiT _ mizani amarTlebs saSualebas.Tumca, sadac konkurenciaa, iq konkurentebi erTmaneTs amowmebenda aseTi araswori reklamis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos ZaliTacki aakrZalvineben mas. magram, rasakvirvelia, arsebobs sareklamoinformaciis regulirebisa da momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacviscneba. amitom SeiZleba reklama naxevrad simarTlis mTqmelia,magram aSkara tyuili iSviaTia. SegiZlia Tqva simarTle oRond_ calmxrivad, anu, Tqva mxolod dadebiTi mxare da uaryofiTmxares nu ityvi. qveynebSi socialuri reklama xorcieldebagegmazomierad, igi xels uwyobs axalgazrduli sazogadoebismoTxovnilebebis formirebas, socialur-ekonomikuri dakulturis ganviTarebas. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom reklamaxazs usvams raRac saqonlis maRal xarisxs, aqcents akeTebsmis unikalurobasa da niSnebze, i pyrobs momxmareblisyuradRebas da sTavazobs winaswar, saqonlis SeZenamde, Tundacwarmodgena gvqondes masze.xSirad reklamasa da PR-s erTnairad moixsenieben. ZiriTadigansxvaveba maT Soris aris is, rom PR esaWiroeba yvelakompaniasa da organizacias, reklama ki _ ara. reklamisagangansxvavebiT, PR xangrZlivi moqmedebis strategiebs SeimuSavebs,reklamas ki, sadac ar unda ganTavsdes, mokle sasicocxloperiodi aqvs.martivad rom warmovidginoT, reklama _ es aris instrumenti,romelic moqmedebs informaciis fasiani saSualebebis gamoyenebismeSveobiT. misi mizania organizaciis, produqciis an ideispopularizeba da maTi realizaciis xelSewyoba.aSS-is marketingis asociaciis ganmartebiT, reklamakonkretuli, zustad dadgenili damkveTis mier saqonlis, ideisan momsaxurebis dafinansebuli, arapirovnuli warmodgenaa.xolo, kotleris Teoriis Tanaxmad, reklama _ es aris 1.fasiani; 2. arapiradi komunikacia, romelsac axorcielebs; 3.identificirebuli sponsori da romelic iyenebs; 4. masobriv68 69


naTia grZeliSvilisareklamo saxeobebi da struqturasainformacio saSualebebs, raTa daiyolios an zemoqmedebamoaxdinos auditoriaze.Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi reklama ganixileba, rogorc,,gayidvebis stimulatori~, bolo wlebSi Semosuli gansazRvrebaki _ ,,politikuri reklama~, ganapirobebs imas, rom es movlenaganvixiloT ufro farTo, Rrma diskursSi da mivceT masSemdegi ganmarteba: reklama – es gaxlavT informireba vinmesiraimes Sesaxeb.reklamas SeiZleba sxvadasxva funqcia gaaCndes, maT SorisgamovyofT or ZiriTads:• momxmareblis informireba (produqtis parametrebis,fasis, gamoyenebis wesebisa da gayidvis adgilebis Sesaxeb);• momxmareblis motyueba (magaliTad, aviRoT „TVmarketis~reklamebi ama Tu im saxis produqciaze).arsebobs kidev erTi funqcia, miaCvios momxmarebelikonkretul saqonels da monopoluri mdgomareoba daikavosbazarze. es yvelaferi, albaT, kargia, magram sinamdvileSireklama, albaT, ufro miraJia, momxmareblis gacureba, misSemecnebaze zemoqmedeba da zombireba. amis miuxedavad, man,marTlac, didi adgili daikava TiToeuli adamianis cxovrebaSi,is gansakuTrebiT 18-44 wlis asakis adamianebSia popularuli,rac reklamis SemqmnelTaTvis bazarze mimzidveli asakobrivijgufia.mas SexvdebiT yvelgan: saxlSi _ televizoris yurebisas(televizia xom saojaxo meurneobis 90%-is yuradRebasipyrobs), Tanac satelevizio reklama Tanamedrove reklamiserT-erTi mniSvnelovani saSualebaa. misi gamoyenebiT mayurebelsSesaZlebelia aCvenon saqoneli naturaluri saxiT, mouTxronmisi sargeblobisa da gamoyenebis wesebis Sesaxeb; manqanaSiradios mosmenisas, quCaSi bilbordebisa da laiTboqsebisdanaxvisas, erT-erTi eqspertis SefasebiT, adamiani dReSisaSualod 1600 sareklamo Setyobinebas iRebs, xolo meorismtkicebiT, es maCvenebeli TiTqmis 5000-s aRwevs.reklama aqtualuri gaxda dRes. amitomac reklamis biznesisul ufro da ufro imyarebs poziciebs msoflio bazarze.miuxedavad imisa, rom reklamas, ZiriTadad, komerciuli firmebiiyeneben, mas aqtiurad mimarTaven arakomerciuli organizaciebi,profesiuli da socialuri saagentoebi, romlebic reklamasuweven TavianT saqmianobas.reklama SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc upirobo saSualeba,risTvisac organizacia ixdis fuls, raTa urTierToba daamyarosmTlian bazarTan, sazogadoebasTan. aRsaniSnavia erTi faqti –karg reklamas ukveTavs ara is, visac bevri fuli aqvs, aramedfuli Sesdis mas, vinc swor da karg reklamirebas uwevsTavis produqts.dResdReobiT gazeTebis da Jurnalebis tiraJebis zrdasTanerTad, reklama xdeba saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Sesaxebinformaciis ucvlel xerxi. amJamad is biznesis erT-erTiZiriTadi mamoZravebeli Zalaa. dRes man xelovnebisa damecnierebis umaRles mwvervals miaRwia.mTels msoflioSi sareklamo kampanias, rogorc wesi,sareklamo saagentoebi awarmoeben. 1841 wels filadelfiaSivolni palmerma gaxsna pirveli sareklamo saagento. misiZiriTadi saqmianoba gazeTis mflobelTan reklamis ganTavsebismsurvelis dakavSireba iyo, raSic gasamrjelod is reklamissafasuris 25% iRebda. aseTi biznesi warmatebis Sedegad man1845 wels bostonSi da 1849 wels niu-iorkSi Tavisi saagentosfilialebi gaxsna. xolo pirveli sareklamo saagento, sadacara marto damkveTis da gazeTis mflobelis dakavSireba xdeboda,aramed sareklamo teqstebi da dekoraciebic muSavdeboda, anu,sruli momsaxurebiT 1891 wels niu-iorkSi jorj batenismier iqna daarsebuli. XX saukunis bolosTvis ki es kompaniaerT-erTi giganti gaxda sareklamo biznesSi.sareklamo saqmianobaSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba sareklamosaxeobebs. arsebobs reklamis sxvadasxva saxeoba, romlebicdidi gamocdilebis mqone specialistebis mier ukveCamoyalibebulia:• kargi da cudi.• saimijo da gayidvebis.• miznobrivi.• faruli da pirdapiri.• gaazrebuli da gauazrebeli.• maradiuli.70 71


naTia grZeliSvili• reklama, romelic brendis sicocxlisunarianobazeadamokidebuli.• warmavali.reklamis gamoyenebis formebi da meTodebi mravalsaxovaniada xandaxan metad originaluric, magaliTad, aseTi ucnauric:londonSi didi popularobiT sargeblobs restorani, romlispatroni absoluturad melotia. restornis yvela sxvaTanamSromelic absoluturad melotia. restornis abraze kiweria: `CvenTan verasodes aRmoaCenT Tmas wvnianSi.~ sasaciloa,magram, vfiqrob, originalur da ucnaurTan erTad es kargireklamaa – kargi reklamac xom xelovnebis qmnilebaa.dRevandel ganviTarebuli da civilizebuli kacobriobisTvisreklama aucileblad saWiroa, oRond mxolod momxmareblisinteresebs unda emsaxurebodes. igi, marTlac, unda uwyobdesxels axalgazrduli sazogadoebis moTxovnilebebis formirebas,socialur-ekonomikuri da kulturis ganviTarebas. reklamamunda gamoxatos sazogadoebis interesebi, daxvewos maTSiwesebi da gemovneba. man propaganda unda gauwios mxolodiseT saqonels, romelic sargeblobas moutans adamianis rogorcfizikur, aseve sulier ganviTarebas. is xazs namdvilad undausvamdes saqonlis maRal xarisxs, magram amasTanave misiuaryofiTi mxareebic ar unda iyos aSkarad dafaruli da,rac mTavaria, ar unda gvatyuebdnen!armstrongi, kotleri, marketingis safuZvlebi, Tb., 2006.m. seTuri, reklama marketingis sistemaSi, Tb., 1997.n. kacitaZe, reklama, Tb., 2006.TaTia elbaqiZemagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilimuzeumebis roli dRevandelsazogadoebaSimuzeumebi sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganuyofel nawilswarmoadgens. muzeumi, klasikuri ganmartebiT (berZnuliμουуеίο[ν]) muzaTa taZari da sazogadoebis ganviTarebissamsaxurSi myofi mudmivi instituciaa, romelic Riaa farTosazogadoebisTvis. muzeumi Seiswavlis, iZens, inaxavs, ikvlevsda gamofens adamianTa Semoqmedebisa da maTi garemos aRmwerfaqtebsa da materialuri kulturis nimuSebis mniSvnelovanmasalas.Aadreuli muzeumebi Seiqmna, rogorc samefo ansagvareulo koleqciebi, sadac maT mflobelobaSi myofixelovnebis nimuSebi da saucxoo Sedevrebi Sedioda. aseTgamofenebs Tavdapirvelad sakvirvelebaTa oTaxebs an sainteresosaganTa kabinets uwodebdnen. mogvianebiT instituciadCamoyalibebuli muzeumebi, rogorc struqturuli erTeulebi,galereiebisa da sagamofeno centrebisagan gansxvavebiT, arwarmoadgenen finansur mogebaze orientirebul struqturebsda aramomgebian arakomerciul organizaciebs, romelTa misiacmetnaklebad erTnairia: qveynis kulturuli memkvidreobissferoSi struqturuli da institucionaluri cvlilebebida erTiani samuzeumo politika, daculi koleqciebis Seswavladacva,sazogadoebisTvis xelmisawvdomoba. garda koleqciebisdacva-aRricxvisa da movla-Senaxvis saqmianobebisa, muzeumebiemsaxurebian samecniero kvlevebs, saganmanaTleblo, sagamofenosazogadoebrivsaqmianobebsa da turizmis sferoSiganxorcielebul aqtivobebs. XX saukuneSi, gansakuTrebiT kimeore msoflio omis Semdeg, momxdarma politikurma Zvrebmasazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoze moaxdina zegavlena.gaCnda ideebi muzeumebis reformirebasTan dakavSirebiT.miuxedavad imisa, rom wina periodTan SedarebiT garkveuligaumjobeseba SeiniSneboda, es jer mainc ar iyo oqros xana72 73


TaTia elbaqiZemuzeumebisaTvis. saxsrebis nakleboba, ugulebelyofa da axalitendenciebi imis maniSnebeli iyo, rom mTavrobebi ar aRiarebdnenmaTze pasuxismgeblobas da bevri muzeumi daSlisa da gauqmebiszRvarTan idga. finansuri dabrkolebebisa da cudiadministrirebis gamo muzeumebs finansuri da socialuriproblemebi gauCndaT, saWiro iyo siaxleebis mofiqreba samuzeumosaqmianobis ganviTareba da maTTvis sxvadasxva funqciis Semateba.Tanamedrove yofaSi muzeumebi erTmaneTisgan sakmaodgansxvavdebian formatiT: didi dawesebulebebidan mcire,erToTaxian muzeumebamde, romlebic gansxvavdebian koleqciaTaSinaarsiT _ arsebobs xelovnebis, istoriis, arqeologiis,mecnierebis, samxedro, eTnografiuli muzeumebi da sxvadasxvaucnaur koleqciaTa muzeumebic ki (magaliTad: Rilebis muzeumi,saaTebis muzeumebi, qviriTis muzeumi, bambukis muzeumi dasxva). muzeumebi gansxvavdebian momxmarebelTa kategoriebiTada samizne jgufebiTac. ukanaskneli ocdaaTi wlis ganmavlobaSimsoflioSi gaizarda maTi raodenoba da muzeumebs axaliroli daekisraT, radganac gaizarda da Seicvala sazogadoebismoTxovnilebebi. dRes es mzardi saerTaSoriso industriaa,romelic axal-axal funqciebs iZens kulturuli RonisZiebebisorganizaciis TvalsazrisiT. muzeumebis axali roli SeiZlebaaRvweroT, rogorc tradiciuli samuzeumo saqmianobisSenarCuneba, romelsac emateba saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba,sadac yuradReba gamaxvilebulia codnis gaziarebaze da yvelaadamianis cxovrebaSi xarisxis garkveuli elementis Setanaze.arian adamianebi, romlebic mistirian Zvel dros, rodesacmuzeumebi wynari, mSvidi adgilis simbolo iyo da ZiriTadaddamTvalierebelsac sazogadoebis zrdasruli nawiliwarmoadgenda. Tu situacias globalur konteqstSiganvixilavT, rasac ICOM-i da UNESCO unda akeTebdes, undavaRiaroT, rom aucilebelia muzeumebis integrireba Tanamedrovecocxal kulturaSi, muzeums aRar unda SevcqerodeT, rogorcsakurTxevels, igi unda gaxdes moqmedebebisa da diskusiebiscentri, sadac awmyo da warsuli mWidrod aris gadajaWvulierTmaneTze. muzeumebma unda daimkvidron mkafiodCamoyalibebuli sazogadoebrivi funqcia da amiT gaaumjobesonmuzeumebis roli dRevandel sazogadoebaSiurTierToba momxmarebelTan. muzeumi ganixileboda, rogorcadgili, sadac daculia warsulis saganZurebi da gamofeniliapativiscema didi kulturuli mniSvnelobis mqone nivTebisunikalurobis mimarT. aseTi elitaruli midgoma pasiur xasiaTsiwvevda, Sedegad muzeumi rCeboda konservatiul da statikurdawesebulebad, romelic ar monawileobda, ar iziarebdasazogadoebis moTxovnebs da momxmarebelsac pasiur ganwyobasuqmnida.Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi muzeumebis roli Seicvala –isini cdiloben Secvalon TavianTi xedva da damokidebuleba,aqtiuri dialogi gamarTon sazogadoebasa da koleqciebs Soris.muzeumebi iseve, rogorc bevri sxva saxelmwifo daarasaxelmwifo institucia, warmoadgenen zogadi, socialuri,politikuri da ideologiuri konteqstis nawils, maT muSaobasada saqmianobaze bevri garefaqtori axdens zemoqmedebas, aseTebia:demografiuli, ekonomikuri da bazris cvlilebebi. dRevandeldRes amis ZiriTad dasabuTebad SeiZleba miviCnioT muzeumebissaganmanaTleblo rolis gaaqtiureba. mTel msoflioSimuzeumebSi ganaTlebis misawodeblad axali SesaZleblobebisada struqturebis aRmocenebasTan erTad saganmanaTleblo rolsarsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba. dadga dro, rodesac undaSecvalon TavianTi principebi, romlebic safuZvlad udevsmaT ganviTarebas.kulturuli memkvidreobis movla-Senaxva saxelmwifoebssakmaod Zviri ujdeba, amitom saWiro xdeba damatebiTi finansurisaSualebebis moZebna. zogierTi arasamTavrobo organizacia,kerZo fondebi da sponsorebi, ukve karga xania monawileobenkonservacia-restavraciis kampaniebSi, isini moiTxovensazogadoebisaTvis maTi investiciebis sargeblobisdemonstrirebas. saxelmwifomac unda gamonaxos damatebiTiTanxa kulturuli memkvidreobis dacva-patronobisaTvis, undauzrunvelyos turistuli resursebis mozidva.muzeumebi veRar gaamarTleben sakuTar arsebobas mxolodsakuTari koleqciebis dacviT da gamofeniT, maT unda gvaCvenon,ras sTavazoben sazogadoebas da am winadadebebSi codnaganaTlebacunda Sediodes. Zalze priorotetul sakiTxs74 75


TaTia elbaqiZewarmoadgens saganmanaTleblo ganyofilebis daarseba. samuzeumoganaTleba dakavSirebulia muzeumis sakomunikacio xasiaTTan.isini xdebian ara marto sacavebi, aramed informaciismimwodeblebic _ es aris mcdeloba, Seicvalos cneba muzeumisa,romelic swavlulTa mier gamoyenebisaTvis gankuTvnilkoleqciebis sacavs gulisxmobs, komunikaciis saSualebis cnebiT.samuzeumo ganaTleba imas ki ar gulisxmobs, romdamTvalierebels gavacnoT, Tu ras uSvebian muzeumebi TavianTeqsponatebs, aramed es aris individualuri da sazogadoebriviganviTarebis procesi, romelsac safuZvlad udevs rigisasargeblo resursisa, romelSic Tavisi wvlili SeaqvT rogorcsazogadoebas, ise muzeumis damTvalierebels. saganmanaTleblopersonali da muzeumis mcvelebi (kuratorebi) erToblivadmuSaoben muzeumis sazogadoebrivi xasiaTis dasamkvidreblad.aqtiuri muzeumisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs cvlilebebsganaTlebis sferoSi, radgan isini amdidreben stumrebisSTabeWdilebebs koleqciebze, zrdian momsvlelTa raodenobas,izidaven ufro mravalferovan damTvalierebels, muzeumebsxelovnebis, Tavisufali drois gatarebis, turizmis, komerciulisaqmianobis centrSi aqcevs da wamyvan rols sTavazobssazogadoebas kulturuli ganviTarebis mimarTulebis micemaSi.dRes muzeumebi sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis maRali donisgamoxatulebaa, maT emuqrebaT safrTxe, romelic dakavSirebuliaaxal rolTan mudmivi cvlilebebis procesSi myofsazogadoebaSi _ es aris mxolod bazarze orientirebulipolitikis danergva, Sedegad muzeumebis realuri miznis _kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvisa da warmoCenis ukana planzegadasvla. muzeumebis dRevandeli miznis miRwevis ZiriTadisaSualebaa koleqciebis rolisa da sazogadoebis rolisdabalanseba. ukanasknel wlebSi muzeumebis winaSe wamoiWrabiznesTan konkurenciis problema, ZiriTadad _ xarisxis,misawvdomobasa da fasis TvalsazrisiT. samuzeumo produqtskonkurencias uwevs sxvadasxva kulturis produqti,Soubiznesis sxvadasxva saxeoba da RonisZieba: savaWro dagasarTobi saSualebebi, vorkSopebi, moZravi eqspoziciebi,performansi gamofenasTan erTad da sxv. muzeumebi iZulebulimuzeumebis roli dRevandel sazogadoebaSigaxdnen Secvliliyvnen, damTvaliereblebisaTvis SeeTavazebinaTmimzidveli momsaxureba da daekmayofilebinaT sazogadoebismoTxovnebi, siaxleebTan erTad aqtiuri xdeba komercializaciiscneba, rac dRevandel msoflioSi mniSvnelovan niSaswarmoadgens. aqtualuri gaxda samuzeumo marketingi, racmiznad isaxavs momsaxurebisa da produqtis mudmivigaumjobesebis miRwevas, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdesdamTvalierebelTa moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba, ufro farTomasStabiT ki _ damTvalierebelTa raodenobisa da SedegadSemosavlebis gazrda. sxvadasxva komerciuli aqtivoba bevradufro…mniSvnelovans xdis muzeumisa da momxmareblisTanamSromlobas.samuzeumo saqmis menejmenti. bari lordi da geil deqsTer lordi.moskovi, 2002 (rusul enaze).samuzeumo dokumentaciis asociacia. Falk.j.visitors: who doesn’t andwhy, museum news, Mar-apr 1998.USA:American Association of Museums.(MDA) http:www.mda.org.uklevan WilaSvili. msoflios didi samuzeumo centrebi, Tbilisi,1985www.icom.com76 77


TaTa inaSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSviliSoubiznesi, reklama da PR`Soubiznesi~ (Show business _ inglisuri Sesityvebaa) _es aris komerciuli saqmianoba, romelic uSualod arisdakavSirebuli xelovnebis samyarosTan, amasTanave Soubiznesiwarmoadgens damoukidebel sistemas momsaxurebis sferosfarglebSi. Soubiznesi qmnis da avrcelebs sanaxaobebspolitikur, inteleqtualur da mxatvrul produqts, amgvarad,Soubiznesi SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT rogorc masobriv sanaxaobaTaindustria. mis sferoSi Sedis: kino, televizia, estrada, Teatri,sporti, kompiuteruli TamaSebis industria.mniSvnelovania Soubiznesis oTxi aspeqti: 1.) komerciulimoqmedebis xasiaTi, 2.) garTobis moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba,3.) warmodgenebis sanaxaobrioba, 4.) orientacia mayurebelTafarTo wreze. es aspeqtebi mWidroT aris erTmaneTTandakavSirebuli.Soubiznesis komerciuli xasiaTi mdgomareobs maqsimalurimogebis miRebaSi, risTvisac igi zrdis Tavis momsaxurebissferoebs da iTvisebs axal bazrebs. dResdReobiT praqtikuladyvela sajaro RonisZieba warmoadgens, Tavis mxriv, Sous rogorcmasobrivi xasiaTiT, aseve biznes interesebiT. TiTqmis yvelaaseTi Sous ukan dgas pirovnuli an korporaciuli interesida mogeba. Sou sazogadoebriv azrze axdens zegavlenas dapropagandas uwevs ama Tu im saxiT politikas. rogorc ukveaRvniSneT, SoubiznesSi momsaxurebas gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba aqvs. imisaTvis, rom warmodgena gadaiqces Soud,igi unda daidgas gemovnebiani kostiumebiT, dekoraciebiT,specefeqtebiT, raTa mayurebelma ixilos maRali xarisxiswarmodgena. rac Seexeba gemovnebas, igi unda akmayofilebdesmayurebelTa umetesobas.ucxoeli specialistebi `Sou bizness~ gansazRvraven,rogorc gasarTob industrias (Entertainment industry).Tanamedrove msoflioSi sazogadoebriv azrs gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba eniWeba SoubiznesSi. PR-is (Public Ralation -sazogadoebasTan urTierToba) teqnologiebis da reklamirebisroli kolosaluria. reklama (Reklame - niSnavs gancxadebas,plakats) klasikuri gansazRvrebiT aris im saxis saqmianoba,romelic informacias awvdis xalxs produqtis an momsaxurebisSesaxeb, zegavlenas axdens sazogadoebaze maTi realizaciismizniT. reklamad SeiZleba CaiTvalos yvela is RonisZieba,romelic xels Seuwyobs produqtisa da momsaxurebis gayidvas.maT Soris unda gamovyoT Sales promotion _ gayidvebis mxardaWera,rac gulisxmobs ufaso saCuqrebs maTTvis, vinc iyidis ama Tuim produqts an momsaxurebas.Public Relation _ sazogadoebasTan urTierToba, gulisxmobssazogadoebrivi azris Camoyalibebas ama Tu im obieqtis mimarT.Direct marketing-i warmoadgens reklamirebis iseT formas,rodesac momxmarebeli gamyidvelTan pirdapir kontaqts amyarebs,magaliTad, telefoniT an fostiT.gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba PR-s SoubiznesSi,romlis ganuyofeli nawilia reklama. PR SeiZleba iyospolitikuri, marketinguli da media-PR. PR-is gareSewarmoudgenelia warmateba SoubiznesSi. informacia xalxsunda miewodos sruli da utyuari da es yvelaferi undaiyos gasagebad da martivad miwodebuli, ar SeiZleba informaciisgazviadeba. xalxTan urTierToba ar unda iyos mosabezrebelimaTTvis, xalxis azris gasagebad ar unda daizogos dro.PR-i SoubiznesSi iyenebs masmediis yvela saSualebas,rogoricaa: radio, televizia presa, interneti, Savi PR-i, radganacSoubiznesSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba nebismier informacias.PR-i miiswrafis auditoriisaTvis mTavari mniSvnelobismatarebeli Setyobinebebis gadasacemad, rogorc verbalurad,aseve vizualurad imisaTvis, rom Soubazarze gamoCndes esaTu is ucnobi xelovani. PR-i aris harmoniulobis miRwevisxelovneba da mecniereba urTierTgagebis meSveobiT. arsebobsPR-is ramdenime meTodi pop varskvlavebis SoubiznesSi CarTvisa:presa, interviu, reportaJi, preskonferencia, aseve turneebisorganizeba albomis mxardasaWerad da yvela mniSvnelovani78 79


TaTa inaSvili Soubiznesi, reklama da Rklipis Cveneba specialur arxze. PR-is jgufi qmnis brends,romelsac elian da yiduloben.Soubiznesis mTavar figurad iTvleba prodiuseri, menejeri,promouTeri. produseri, rogor wesi, eZebs axal ideebsa dasaSualebebs maTi ganxorcielebisaTvis. produqtis Seqmnamdeis aris pasuxismgebeli SemoqmedebiT saqmianobaze. produserismier xdeba produqtis biujetis formireba, SemoqmedebiTipersonalis SerCeva-ayvana, samuSao grafikis Sedgena. Temidangamomdinare irCeva strategia da jgufebi, romlebSic moiazrebaPR direqtorebi, promouTerebi da pres ataSeebi. maTi amocanaagarkveuli imijis Seqmna, proeqtis kincefciis da ideisSemuSaveba, stilis SerCeva, romliTac msaxiobma undaiurTierTos masmediasTan, urTierTobebis damyareba sponsorebTan,albomis distributorebTan da telearxebTan. xmis CamwerstudiebTan da presasTan, romelsac didi gavlenis moxdenaSeuZlia xalxze da sazogadoebriv azrze. Tu prodiuserskargi sainformacio wyaro aqvs da kvalificiuri PR-i 50%warmatebisa TiTqmis miRweulia. amgvarad, Soubiznesis erTerTimTavari amocanaa ganumeorebeli imijis formireba _Image (pirovnebis Sejamebuli portreti, romelic iqmnebasazogadoebis sxvadasxva jgufis SexedulebebSi da formirdebasazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi, gamomdinare pirovnebissaqmianobidan). reklamasa da PR-s xandaxan miiCneven erTi daimave cnebis or sxvadasxva terminad. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT,orive warmoadgens Soubiznesis mxardaWeris, ganviTarebissaSualebas, Tumca unda aRiniSnos maT Soris gansxvavebebic,magaliTad, ganvixiloT Rirebulebisa da kontrolis sakiTxi.reklama moicavs ara marto mesijis (beWdviTi, radio Tusatelevizio) Seqmnis Rirebulebas, aramed agreTve misi mediaSigamoSvebis safasursac, maSin roca PR-i moicavs rogorckompaniis mflobelisa Tu produqtis Sesaxeb pozitiuriinformaciis gavrcelebis da ganviTarebis safasurs, aseve immesijebis Rirebulebas, romlis miwodebac xdeba sazogadoebisada bazrisTvis. rac Seexeba kontrols, reklamirebisas xdebamesijis miwodebis meTodis da drois kontroli maSin, rocaPR-is SemTxvevaSi media akontrolebs mesijs da miwodebismeTodsa da dros.saqarTveloSi `Sou biznesma~ XX saukunis bolos Caanacvlatermini `qarTuli estrada~, romelic, Tavis mxriv, aerTianebdasxvadasxva Janris xelovnebas. saestrado xelovnebisaTvisdamaxasiaTebeli iyo lakonuroba, improvizacia, sadResaswauloxasiaTi da originaloba. sadResaswaulo xasiaTi iqmnebodadekoraciebisa da ganaTebebis cvliT, aseve scenebisformacvalebiT.saqarTveloSi Soubiznesi aRmocenda: 1). sakoncertoestradis; 2). Teatraluri estradis (kameruli speqtaklebi);3). saxalxo zeimebis (festivalebi, karnavalebi, sportuli dasakoncerto nomrebi) bazaze. dResdReobiT saqarTveloSi Zalianaqtualuria satelevizio politikuri Souebi da asevesakoncerto, rogoricaa: saiubileo da Tematuri koncertebi.izrdeba satelevizio proeqtebis popularoba _ sportuliSou, moazrovneTa Sou, modebis Cveneba dabolos, religiuriSou, romelic dakavSirebulia religiur dResaswaulebTan,aseve aRsaniSnavia samxedro Sou, romelic samxedro aRlumebissaxiT aris warmodgenili.amJamad saqarTveloSi didi popularobiT sargeblobssatelevizio gadacemebi da musikaluri proeqtebi, rogoricaa:`mimRere rame~, `jeostari~, `varskvlavebis akademia~, realiTi-Sou `jeobari~, `iumorina~ da sxv. maTi reklama xorcieldebodateleviziis, radios, Jurnal-gazeTebis, broSurebis, bilbordebis,internetis da sms-is meSveobiT, agreTve proeqtebs reklamasuwevdnen Soubiznesis cnobili saxeebi, rogorc Jiuris saxiT,agreTve TviT iRebdnen monawileobas zogierT gadacemaSi Tumusikalur konkursSi. musikaluri proeqt `jeostaris~ PRjgufiTbilissa da saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSimogzaurobda SesarCevi turebisTvis, sadac uSualod xalxTanurTierTobiT reklamas uwevdnen kompania `jeosels~ damusikalur proeqt `jeostars~. `varskvlavebis akademiis~reklama da popularizacia xorcieldeboda rogorc televiziis,radios, Jurnal-gazeTebis da sms-is meSveobiT, agreTve ucxoeliTreinerebis monawileobiT proeqtSi.80 81


TaTa inaSviliSoubiznesi did finansebTan aris dakavSirebuli. Temidanda proeqtidan gamomdinare xdeba dafinanseba sponsorebismeSveobiT. didi mniSvneloba da gavlena aqvs Semosavalzeimas, Tu ramdenad did warmatebas da popularobas miaRwevsesa Tu is proeqti, musikaluri festivali, Tu raime satelevizioSou. swored warmatebuli Semosavlebis Sedegad momgebianida popularuli gaxda zemoT CamoTvlili musikaluri proeqtebida satelevizio gadacemebi. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia kompania`jeoselis~ da `magTikomis~ musikaluri proeqtebi: `jeostari~da `varskvlavebis akademia~, romlebic XXI saukunis dasawyisSiCamoyalibda da yovelwliur tradiciad damkvidrda. amSemTxvevaSi orive kompaniis monawileoba am musikalurkonkursebSi dakavSirebulia komerciul interesTan, saxeldobr,did mogebasTan, rac aisaxa sareklamo qselebis zrdaSic: smsreklamebi,radio, satelevizio, Jurnal-gazeTebi, broSurebida a. S.amgvarad, saqarTveloSi Soubiznesi aRmavlobis gziT midis.reklamisa da PR-is meSveobiT, produserebi, promouTerebi damenejerebi, agentebi Tu distributorebi qmnian axal produqtsganumeorebeli imijiT, raTa gaitanon bazarze da miiRon mogeba.Почепцов Г. Г., Паблик Рилейшенз для профессионалов, М.,: “Рефл-Бук”, “Ваклер”, 2000, gv. 624.http://www.library.cjes.ru/search/?srch=1http://referat.ru/pub/search/m?s=PR , http://pr-club.com/PR_Libelene meCiTovamagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilikulturis dafinanseba saqarTveloSidResdReobiT saxelmwifo dafinanseba or kategoriad iyofa:sabiujeto da saproeqto. kulturuli organizaciebi,romlebsac saxelmwifo ar uzrunvelyofs, finansur daxmarebascalkeuli proeqtebis safuZvelze iRebs. ukanasknel wlebSikulturis saministro saxelmwifo biujetis 10%-s iRebs,xolo 2009 wels 2008 welTan SedarebiT Tanxis moculoba9-10%-iT gaizarda. biujetis realuri ganawilebis, adekvaturigamoyenebis da realizaciis kontrolis sferoSi winsvlaaucilebelia.kulturuli obieqtebis umetesoba, saxsrebis gaflangvisda kulturuli procesebis arasworad marTvis gamo,aradamakmayofilebel mdgomareobaSia.kulturul organizaciebs saxelmwifos mier gamoyofilifinansebi ar hyofnis da amitom alternatiuli dafinansebisaucilebloba saxezea. finansebis wyaroebi, pirvel rigSi,arasabiujeto saxsrebia, romelTa mopoveba sabiujetoorganizaciebs SeuZlia. amaSi igulisxmeba warmodgenebzegayiduli bileTebi, muzeumebis, sagamofeno salonebis,biblioTekebis da a. S. fasiani momsaxureba. Semosavlis eswyaro xelovnebis sferos sabiujeto dafinansebis 1%-zenaklebs Seadgens.Semosavlis meore alternatiuli wyaro sxvadasxvasaerTaSoriso organizacia da fondebia. isini grantebis sistemisdaxmarebiT proeqtebis dafinansebas axdenen. amgvar fondebsSoris aRsaniSnavia sorosis da evraziis fondebi, romelTasaqmianobis mizania axlo da Soreuli sazRvargareTis qveynebsSoris mxatvrebis, musikosebis da xelovnebaTmcodneebis gacvla.grantebis daxmarebiT kulturis moRvaweebi ucxour seminarebs,konferenciebs, festivalebs da a. S. eswrebian.dafinansebis kidev erTi wyaro mecenatobaa, rac raimesargeblis miRebas ar iTvaliswinebs. mecenatobis kultura82 83


elene meCiTovakulturis dafinanseba saqarTveloSisaqarTveloSi jer kidev XIX saukunidan arsebobs, rodesacTbilisi kavkasiis kulturuli centri gaxldaT. TbilisSimrewvelobis ganviTarebasTan erTad viTardeboda kulturac.tiflisis finansuri elita qvelmoqmedebaze saxsrebs ariSurebda. magaliTad, Zmeb zubalaSvilebis saxsrebiT `saxalxoTeatri~ aSenda (`zubalovebis Teatri~, mogvianebiTmarjaniSvilis saxelobis Teatri). daviT sarajiSvilisaqarTveloSi kulturul da saswavlo dawesebulebebsexmareboda. isai pitoevi Teatraluri xelovnebis mfarveligaxldaT. navTobis magnati aleqsandr mantaSevi xels uwyobdaganaTlebis amaRlebas, aSenebda skolebs. al. meliq-azariancisda miqael aramiancis SekveTiT pirveli qarTuli `sinematografiapolo~ aSenda.dResdReobiT yvelaze cnobili qarTveli mecenati biznesmenibiZina ivaniSvilia, vinc sruliad uangarod exmareba kulturisyvela sferos. daxmareba gamoixateba Teatrebis da sakoncertodarbazebis restavraciaSi (biZina ivaniSvilis daxmarebiTgaremontda k. marjaniSvilis, griboedovis da SoTa rusTavelissaxelobis Teatrebi, konservatoria da a. S.). garda amisa,biZina ivaniSvili damatebiT anazRaurebas aZlevs kulturismoRvaweebs, sxvadasxva proeqts afinansebs da a. S.alternatiuli dafinansebis kidev erTi wyaro sponsorobaa.sponsoroba socialuri investiciis erT-erTi formaa, racsponsorisTvis sargeblis miRebas iTvaliswinebs. sponsorobafilantropiisgan Sors aris da finansuri mogeba aucilebladesaWiroeba. kulturis da xelovnebis sponsoroba warmatebulibiznesis mniSvnelovani komponentia.saqarTveloSi sponsorobis kultura jer kidev ganviTarebisstadiazea. kulturis sfero damoukideblad mxolod amerikaSiviTardeba da iqac giganturi nacionaluri fondi arsebobs,romlidanac kulturuli organizaciebi finansdeba. garda amisa,amerikaSi mecenatobis da sponsorobis kultura ZalianganviTarebulia da saxelmwifo amgvar organizaciebs anadamianebs sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs uwesebs. germaniaSi dasafrangeTSi kulturas ZiriTadad saxelmwifo afinansebs daes modeli CvenTvis ufro axlobelia, Tumca Cven evropuligamocdileba da Tavisufali bazari gvaklia.dResdReobiT TiTqmis yvela msxvil kulturul organizaciassponsori gaaCnia _ iqneba es generaluri Tu miznobrivi.sponsoris moZieba sakmaod rTuli procesia. am saqmiT ZiriTadadkulturuli organizaciis xelmZRvanelebi arian dakavebulnida pirad kavSirebs aqtiurad iyeneben.kulturis komerciul mogebaze orientirebul sferoSi,anu kulturis industriaSi, sponsoris moZieba SedarebiTadvilia. industria farTo samomxmareblo masebzea gaTvlilida es faqtori sponsorebs izidavs. magaliTad, `koka-kola~Tbilisis jaz-festivalis mudmivi sponsori iyo. mravalwlianiTanamSromlobis Sedegad `koka-kola~ da jaz-festivaliganuyofeli cnebebi iyo.aqtiuri sponsorebis siaSi Sedis ori wamyvani mobilurioperatori `magTi~ da `jeoseli~. isini ZiriTadad saavtoroproeqtebze arian orientirebuli, romlebsac Tavad am kompaniismenejerebi igoneben da organizebas uweven. iseTi proeqtebisdafinansebam, rogoric aris `jeostari~ da `varskvlavebisakademia~, reklamis garda kompaniebs mogebac moutana. proeqtisavtorebma SesaniSnavi Sedegi miiRes da amave dros masobriviinformaciis saSualebebSi kargi reklama gakeTda. kidev erTimobiluri operatori `bilaini~, radgan mas sakuTari proeqtebiar gaaCnia, xSirad calkeul RonisZiebebs afinansebs. aseTiRonisZiebebi samizne auditoriazea gaTvlili.aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom rac ufro soliduria kompaniada rac ufro did yuradRebas aqcevs sakuTar imijs, miTufro metad afinansebs adamianis sulieri ganviTarebisTvissaWiro kulturul sferoebs. kompaniisTvis sponsoroba igivea,rac garekani JurnalisTvis. amgvarad, kulturis arakomerciulsferoebs ZiriTadad msxvili samrewvelo kompaniebi da bankebiafinansebs, rac kompaniebis mimarT momxmareblebis loialobasamaRlebs.TiTqos, yvelaferi kargadaa, magram ar unda dagvaviwydesis sirTuleebi, rasac finansebis maZiebeli awydeba. saqarTveloSi,iseve rogorc bevr sxva qveyanaSi, sponsoris moZiebisTvismniSvnelovania piradi kavSirebi. Zalian xSirad finansdebaara RonisZieba, aramed konkretuli pirovneba. agreTve xSiriapotenciuri sponsoris gauTviTcnobierebloba. zogierTi kompania84 85


elene meCiTovasponsorobas saxsrebis flangvad Tvlis, rasac mniSvnelovanimogeba ar moaqvs. aseTi damokidebuleba ZiriTadad informaciisnaklebobiT aris ganpirobebuli.sponsoris Ziebisas mniSvnelovania sasponsoro paketi, sadacgadmocemulia informacia finansebis maZiebelze, proeqtze dakompaniis sargebelze, romelsac miiRebs kompania dafinansebisnacvlad. komerciul seqtorTan TanamSromlobis amgvari paketiTbilisis operisa da baletis Teatris veb-saitzec arisgamoqveynebuli. agreTve Zalian mniSvnelovania veb-saitis qona,rac, samwuxarod, bevri organizaciis naklia.dResdReobiT Tbilisis operisa da baletis Teatrisabiujeto saxsrebiT funqcionirebs. Teatri TanamSromlobaskerZo seqtorsac sTavazobs. Teatris veb-saitze gamoqveynebuliasasponsoro paketi, sadac administracia saopero da sabaletodadgmebis dafinansebis sanacvlod organizacias ramdenimesargebels sTavazobs: 1. `kompaniis saRamos~ gamarTva(prezentacia Teatris `wiTel darbazSi~ da speqtakli mxolodmosawvevebiT 1000 personaze), 2. sezonis bolomde Teatrisbanerebze da gamocemul bukletebSi kompaniis _ sponsorislogotipis ganTavseba, 3. benuaris loJis (8 adgili) daqiravebasezonis bolomde Teatris mier gamarTul yvela premierazeda RonisZiebaze daswrebis uflebiT.saopero Teatrs mocemul momentSi asponsorebs `saxalxobanki~, `jeoseli~ da `telekomi~. sainformacio sponsorebia:radio `ucnobi~, `Georgia Today”, `muza~, katalogi `4 sezoni~,xolo partniorebi arian: `infoTbilisi~ da `jorjian taimsi~.premierebze, sabaleto da saopero dadgmebze darbaziZiriTadad savsea. mayureblebis daaxloebiT 40% mowveuliaan darigebuli bileTebiT modis. bileTebis saSualo fasi 13laria. agreTve funqcionirebs abonementebis sistema. Teatrsar gaaCnia produqti, rac mas damatebiT mogebas moutans.operisa da baletis Teatri kapitalur remonts saWiroebs,romlis Semdegac bevri ram, albaT, ukeTesobisken Seicvleba.saopero Teatrisgan gansxvavebiT, Tbilisis saxelmwifokonservatoria SesaniSnav mdgomareobaSia. 2002 wels SeqmnilisameTvalyureo sabWos meSveobiT saremonto samuSaoebi darestavracia Catarda. am sabWoSi Sediodnen mamuka xazaraZe,kulturis dafinanseba saqarTveloSiakaki wereTeli, gogi TofaZe, qarTu jgufi, badri patarkaciSvilida sxvebi, romelTa daxmarebiT mTliani Senobis rekonstruqciada remonti Catarda (garemontda saswavlo auditoriebi,kameruli darbazi, sagundo klasi, orkestris sarepeticioauditoria, sakonferencio darbazi, folkloris da fonotekiskabinetebi). folkloris da fonotekis kabinetebi aRWurviliauaxlesi audio aparaturiT. mcire sakoncerto darbazipirveladi saxiT aRdga da a. S.2003 wels `britiS petroleumma~ saopero studiismSeneblobisTvis Tanxebi gamoyo. konservatoria agreTvesargeblobs iseTi organizaciebis mxardaWeriT, rogoric aris:iunesko, saelCoebi, holandieli megobrebis fondi da a. S.mxardaWera gamoixateba instrumentebis SesyidvaSi,restavraciaSi, saopero dadgmebSi.saerTaSoriso festivalebis Catarebisas konservatoriaaviakompaniebis da sastumroebis mxardaWeras iyenebs.aviakompaniebi da sastumroebi Sesabamisad frenebs da stumrebiscxovrebas uzrunvelyofs. sanacvlod konservatoriisadministracia sponsorebis logos afiSebze, bileTebze dakonservatoriis veb-saitze aTavsebs konservatoriismxardamWerebis ganyofilebaSi.samwuxarod, konservatoriis RonisZiebebze daswreba arcTu ise kargia, Tu RonisZieba eqskluziuri ar aris an cnobiliSemsruleblebi monawileobas ar iReben. koncertebs ZiriTadadstudentebi da pedagogebi eswrebian, romelTaTvisac garkveuliSeRavaTebi arsebobs. SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom konservatoriabileTebis gayidvidan mniSvnelovan Semosavals ar iRebs daaris sabiujeto finansebze, romlis prioriteti ganaTlebaada ara Semosavali.TbilisSi ukve ramdenime welia xalxuri Semoqmedebisfestivali `art-geni~ tardeba. festivalis programaSi Sedisrogorc xalxuri Semoqmedeba, aseve Tanamedrove musika. amproeqts potenciuri sponsorebis daintereseba masStaburobiT,farTo auditoriaze da sxvadasxva miznobriv jgufze gasvliT,agreTve masmediaSi gasuli reklamis daxmarebiT SeuZlia.ukanasknel wlebSi sul ufro meti kompania zrunavssakuTar imijze da sponsorobas eweva. kulturis sferos86 87


elene meCiTovadaxmareba lideri kompaniebisTvis saqmianobis erT-erTiprioritetia. rac ufro msxvilia kompania, miT ufro metisocialuri pasuxismgebloba ekisreba.magaliTad, TBC bankma socialuri pasuxismgeblobissferoSi sakuTari strategia SeimuSava. strategia socialurda kulturul sferoSi xangrZliv vadiani proeqtebisganxorcielebas gulisxmobs, romelTa mizania perspeqtivaSixsenebuli sferoebis ganviTareba. 2003 wels bankma yovelwliuriliteraturuli premia `saba~ daawesa. es premia sakmaodpopularuli da prestiJuli gaxda. bankis centralur ofisSiganlagebulia sagamofeno darbazi, romelic sxvadasxvakulturul organizacias prezentaciisTvis, gamofenisTvis damciremasStabiani koncertebisTvis xSirad ufasod eTmoba. 2008wels bankis saqvelmoqmedo proeqtebis biujeti 1 milionilari gaxldaT. biujetis 41% kulturas, xelovnebas dasports moxmarda.imedi gvaqvs, kulturis sfero nel-nela `maTxovris~rolidan gamova da warmatebuli biznesis ganuyofeli nawiligaxdeba. amisTvis saWiroa, kulturulma organizaciebmamarketinguli strategia SeimuSaos, romlis daxmarebiTpotenciur sponsorebs daainteresebs da saWiro dafinansebasmoipovebs.· Хейфец Кристина, `PR спонсорство как инструмент~, http://www.4p.ru· ФОМИЧЕВА Наталья, http://salespro.ru/2278· www.opera.ge· www.marjanishvili.net· http://www.rustavelitheatre.ge/· www.tbcbank.ge http://www.tbcbank.ge/ge/about/bank_overview/pr/sr/· https://www.republic.ge/ https://www.republic.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=96&info_id=176 - socialuripasuxismgebloba.· http://www.mct.gov.az/?/ru Финансирование культуры.sofo cercvaZemagistraturis II kusrixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilimenejeris imijiimiji inglisuri sityvaa da niSnavs xats. imijis SeqmniTadamiani ufro advilad wyvets Tavis sakuTar amocanebs.koncentrirebul formaSi imiji, nebismier adamians anorganizacias aZlevs arss ganurCevlad misi profesiisa dastatusisa. rac ufro zustad avirCevT da avagebT sakuTarimijs profesiidan gamomdinare, miT ufro efeqturi iqnebakomunikacia. imiji aris Setyobinebis yvelaze efeqturimiwodeba. aqedan warmoiqmneba imijis Seqmnis idea, rogorcsajaro adamianis `me~. Tqveni saxe _ Tqveni portretia, romelsacuCvenebT gare samyaros. iersaxidan aucileblad amorCeuliunda iyos is, romelic pozitiurad iqneba SefasebuligarSemomyofTa mier.Tanamedrove mecniereba gamoyofs imijis ramdenime SesaZlovariants:1.sarkisebri. es imiji damaxasiaTebelia sakuTar TavzewarmodgenisaTvis. imijis es varianti dadebiTia, radganfsiqologiurad yovelTvis pirvel adgilzea pozitivi. amitommisi minusia azrTa minimaluri aRricxva gare mxridan. amavedros am imijs SeuZlia gansazRvros liderebis da organizaciisimiji.2.mimdinare. imijis es varianti damaxasiaTebelia garedanSexedulebis formirebisTvis. am SemTxvevaSi yvelazemniSvnelovani amocana xdeba aramarto sasurveli, aramed zusti,adekvaturi tipis imijis miReba.3.sasurveli. am tipis imiji areklavs imas, riskenac CvenmiviswrafviT. is gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania SeqmnilistruqturebisaTvis. sasurveli imiji yovelTvis erTaderTia.4.korporaciuli. es aris organizaciis mTliani imijida ara calkeuli qvedanayofebis an misi muSaobis Sedegebi.es gansazRvravs organizaciis reputacias, mis warmatebebs da88 89


sofo cercvaZemenejeris imijistabilurobis xarisxs. es sfero gansakuTrebiT sainteresoamaTTvis, vinc muSaobs menejeris an PR-is sferoSi.imijs nebismier saqmianobaSi did mniSvneloba aqvs, vinaidanis aris firmis niSani da masze damokidebuli adamianisreputacia. gansakuTrebiT es exeba situacias, sadac reputaciada profesionalizmi warmatebis Semadgeneli nawili xdeba.menejerisTvis imijs didi mniSvneloba aqvs. Tu davakvirdebiTmenejeris saqmianobas, vnaxavT, rom igi monawileobas iRebsmiznis gansazRvraSi, adgens moqmedebis gegmas da misi miRwevisgzebs isaxavs, monawileobs resursebis mozidvaSi, racaucilebelia am miznis realizaciisTvis dabolos, akontrolebsmTel samuSaos. aqedan gamomdinare menejers unda hqondeskargad SemuSavebuli imiji, radgan xalxi reagirebs maszedadebiTad.gamomdinare iqidan, rom nebismier organizaciaSimniSvnelovania menejmenti, romelic im saSualebaTa erTianobaa,romlis meSveobiTac organizacia cdilobs TavisiTanamSromlebisa da sxva resursebis efeqturad gamoyenebasmiznis misaRwevad. Sesabamisad, mniSvnelovania is, Tu rogorimijs Seuqmnis menejeri organizacias. arsebobs menejerisprofesiis sami ZiriTadi dasabuTeba: funqcionaluri (`klasikuri~), rodesac menejerissaqmianoba funqciebis da movaleobebis gaerTianebiTganisazRvreba. funqciuri midgomisas menejeris saqmianoba imsibrtyeSi ganixileba, romlis ganzomilebebi menejerissxvadasxva funqciaa. istoriulad menejeris profesiis pirveliaRwera swored aseT xasiaTs atarebda da is anri faiolsekuTvnoda. 1916 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi man marTvis 5funqcia gamoyo: dagegmareba, organizeba, koordinireba,xelmZRvaneloba da kontroli. mas Semdeg am mimarTulebiTbevri naSromi gamoqveynda, romlebic erTmaneTisgan, ZiriTadad,funqciebis raodenobiT da krebulis SemadgenlobiT gansxvavdeba.zogjer koordinirebis an xelmZRvanelobis funqciis magivrad`kadrebis SerCevis~ funqcia ganixileba. qceviTi, rodesac menejeris saqmianoba warmodgenilia,rogorc gansxvavebuli rolebis Sesrulebis aucilebloba daunari. menejeris funqciebi realuri qcevis meSveobiT sruldeba,anu `qceviT sibrtyeSi~, romlis ganzomilebebs qcevis e. w.rolebi warmoadgens. rolebi nebismieri menejeris saqmianobasaxasiaTebs. amave dros menejerTa Soris gansxvaveba am rolebisSesrulebis prioritetebis Sesabamisi ganawilebiT aRiwereba.aseTi midgomis avtoria anri mincbergi, romelmac menejerissaqmianoba sam jgufad dayofili 10 gansxvavebuli rolisSesrulebis aucileblobis saxiT warmoadgina: interpersonaluri_ am rolSi Sedis menejeris mier garemosTan, TanamSromlebTanda xelqveiTebTan sainformacio arxebis Seqmnis unari.informaciuli _ am rolis SesrulebiT menejerigadawyvetilebebis miRebis process saWiro informaciiTuzrunvelyofs dabolos, gadawyvetilebebis miRebis jgufebi_ aq mniSvnelovania is, rom menejers am rolis Sesrulebadrois nebismier momentSi unda SeeZlos. dominanturi, rodesac organizaciis efeqturobisda menejeris pirovnuli Tvisebebis analizis safuZvelze,xelmZRvanelobis sxvadasxva tipi (marTvis stili) gamoiyofa.marTvis stilze orientirebuli midgoma dakavSirebulia i.adizesis saxelTan. an organizaciis efeqtianobisTvis saWiroTvisebebis (liderobis stili, menejeris Sromis maxasiaTeblebi,saqmianobis xasiaTis dominantebi (`warmatebis vitaminebi~)analizis safuZvelze menejeris Semdegi oTxi tipi gamoiyofa:Sedegis miRwevaze, marTvis procesebis organizebaze,organizaciis ganviTarebaze da korporaciuli kulturisSeqmnaze orientirebuli menejeri _ lideri.aRsaniSnavia, rom menejeris profesiis aRwerisas nebismierimidgoma eyrdnoba menejeris unars. roca adamians unda gaxdesmenejeri, igi, pirvel rigSi, unda gaerkves pirovnulTaviseburebebSi, Seadginos sakuTari Tavis fsiqologiuriportreti, gansazRvros calkeuli Tvisebebis kompleqsi, hqondesadaptaciis unari, gaaCndes inovaciuri xedva, romelic saboloodxels Seuwyobs mis, rogorc xelmZRvanelis, saqmianobas. menejersmoeTxoveba gaaCndes imis unari, rom efeqturad marTos sakuTariTavi da dro. iqidan gamomdinare, rom dResdReobiT konkurenciamaRalia da rTuldeba bazarze gamosvla, menejeri unda iyosmravalmxrivi, SemoqmedebiTi, gamWriaxi, mosazrebuli da undaSeeZlo moqnilad moaxdinos reagireba nebismier SesaZlo90 91


sofo cercvaZemenejeris imijicvlilebis mimarT. man unda Seiswavlos axali meTodebi daxerxebi, gansakuTrebiT praqtikuli midgomebi.menejerma mosaubre, mowinaaRmdege an kolega unda Seicnosara mxolod laparakiTa da sityvebiT, aramed JestebiTa damoZraobiT, saqmiani molaparakebisas didi mniSvneloba eniWebausityvo komunikacias da imijs. Zalian xSirad bevr sferoSiswored imijis saSualebiT viRebT ZiriTad informaciasobieqtis Sesaxeb.profesionalebi imijis Seqmnisas Tvlian, rom garegnobaÛ,xmam da sworad warmarTulma dialogma SesaZloa, didi roliiTamaSos menejeris karieraSi. originaluri Cacmis stili esara marto cnobili TargiT an modeliT Sekerili tanisamosia,aramed es yovelive daexmareba menejers sakuTari ideisrealizebaSi. klasikur stils irCeven isini, visac unda, romgaamtkicos Tavisi avtoriteti da pretenzia aqvs prestiJulpoziciaze. menejeri Semoqmedi unda iyos xalxis TvalSi,moZraobdes graciozulad da yovelTvis unda iyos TavisTavSi dajerebuli.menejerma aucilebelia daicvas aseve eTikis normebi. mankargi samuSao klimati unda Seqmnas organizaciaSi.TanamSromeli mxolod maSin iqneba gulaxdili dacvlilebebisaTvis ganwyobili, rodesac menejeri mis mimarTpativiscemas gamoxatavs. menejeris amocanaa SekiTxvebis dasmiT,TanamSromlebis azris mimarT interesis gamoxatviT maTarsebuli situaciis detalurad gacnobaSi daexmaros, radganmaTTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania informacia.menejeris imiji SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes, rogorczemoqmedeba TanamSromlebze. imdenad, ramdenadac adamianicxovrobs ara marto realur samyaroSi, aramed simbolurSic,amitom imiji ganixileba rogorc am simboluri samyaroserTeuli. SesaZlebelia urTierTzegavlenis sxvadasxva saxe:masobrivi Segneba imijSi iwvevs im simboluri erTeulis Tvisebas,romelic SeiZleba menejers ar hqondes. Sesabamisad, menejeriiwyebs ama Tu im saqcielis SeZenas, romelic masobrivma Segnebammiawera. amrigad, xdeba simboluri samyaros gadasva realursamyaroSi.mecnierTa kvlevebis Tanaxmad, sakmarisi ar aris, efeqturadmarTo organizacia, aramed Seni xelqveiTebi darwmunebulebiunda iyvnen, rom Sen organizacias efeqturad marTav. es isea,rogorc erTi modelis ori Semadgeneli nawili: misi realurida simboluri mxare.elizbar xabetaSvili, ekonomikisa da menejmentis konsultantTaasociacia, Tbilisi, 2007.deil kornegi, rogor SeviZinoT megobrebi, rogor movixmaroT adamianebi,Tbilisi, 1992.T. xomeriki, menejmenti, Tbilisi, 2000.Jurnali `biznesi~, nikoloz markozaSvili, menejeris profesia, #8,2007. www. venec.ulstu.ru/lib/go.php?id=97 - имидж менеджера и пути егосовершенствования.· www. venec.ulstu.ru- имидж менеджера.· www.creativeconomy.ru- Журнал Российское предпринимательство,„имидж менеджера”.92 93


leila janaSiamagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilisaqarTvelos xelnawerTaAerovnulicentris menejmentis zogierTi sakiTxixelnawerTa erovnuli centri kulturis sferos erT-erTmniSvnelovan segments warmoadgens. msoflioSi arc Tu isebevria qveyana, romelsac SeuZlia warmoadginos xelnawerTamdidari koleqcia an sacavi. saqarTvelo im erT-erTimcireTagania, romelsac Zveli xelnaweri wignebisa daistoriuli sabuTebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani sacavi gaaCnia.xelnawerTa sacavi Tavdapirvelad simon janaSias saxelobissaxelmwifo muzeumSi calke ganyofilebad daarsda, mogvianebiTigi gamoeyo muzeums da Camoyalibda calke struqturulerTeulad, rogorc xelnawerTa samecniero instituti.xelnawerTa instituti Seiqmna 1958 wlis 30 ivniss. 1962wels saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis xelnawerTainstituts mieniWa akademikos korneli kekeliZis saxeli. 2006wels Seicvala institutis iuridiuli statusi da dafuZndasajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri _ korneli kekeliZisxelnawerTa instituti. saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2007 wlis23 maisis dadgenilebiT, xelnawerTa instituts ewoda:`xelnawerTa erovnuli centri~.saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centris sacavebSiTavmoyrilia sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva wignTsacavsa TukerZo koleqciaSi daculi qarTuli kulturisa da istoriisumniSvnelovanesi saganZuri, ilustrirebuli unikalurixelnawerebi, Zveli nabeWdi da raritetuli gamocemebi,memorialuri nivTebi da sxva. aq daculi unikaluri koleqciamraval dargsa da sferos moicavs: qarTvel mweralTa dasazogado moRvaweTa piradi arqivebi (i. WavWavaZis, v. fSavelas,n. baraTaSvilis, eqv. TayaiSvilis da sxvaTa), grigol wereTlissruliad unikaluri papirusTa koleqcia. centrs mdidarisamecniero biblioTeka gaaCnia. ZvelnabeWdi wignebis Zvirfasikoleqcia, maT Soris _ pirveli qarTuli nabeWdi wigni. qarTulitaliurileqsikoni (1629) vaxtang VI-is stambaSi dabeWdilisaxareba (1709) daviTni (1711) SoTa rusTavelis`vefxistyaosnis~ pirveli gamocema (1712). gansakuTrebiTaRsaniSnavia aTonis iveronis monastris, sinas mTis wm. ekaterinesmonastrisa da ierusalimis berZnuli sapatriarqos qarTvelxelnawerTa fotoebi.centris da sazogadoebis urTierToba gansakuTrebiT bolowlebSi aqtiuria. es aris centris menejmentis damsaxureba,romelic agebulia vertikalur da horizontalur marTvismeTodebze. centri aris formaluri organizacia, romelsacgaaCnia miznebi, struqtura, amocanebi, teqnologiebi, adamianuriresursi. es aris urTierTdamokidebuli elementebi. centri,romelic did organizacias warmoadgens, aqvs ramdenime mizani,funqcia. centrs gaaCnia socialuri pasuxismgebloba. misimizani da funqcia aramarto centrSi arsebuli unikalurikoleqciebis xelnaweri wignebisa da istoriuli sabuTebismovla da restavraciaa, aramed centris mizans aucilebeliawarmoadgendes momxmareblis saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba dasajarooba.centri ar unda warmoadgendes unikaluri koleqciaTamxolod sacavs, aramed unda ganixilebodes rogorc mudmividialogis warmmarTveli sazogadoebasTan. etapobrivadsazogadoebas unda warudginos da warmodgena Seuqmnas masSidacul unikalur-koleqciebze.Ees iqneba gamofenebiT Tusxvadasxva RonisZiebiT warmodgenili. msoflioSi arsebuliam ti pis organizaciebi TavianTi gamocdilebiT mividnendaskvnamde, rom saWiroa organizaciis aqtiur sasicocxloritmSi Cabma da aqtiuri komunikacia momxmarebelTan dasazogadoebasTan. maTTvis (britaneTis biblioTekis xelnawerTaganyofileba, luis vilsonis xelnawerTa biblioTeka-muzeumi(aSS), indoeTis xelnawerTa biblioTeka, edinburgisuniversitetis xelnawerTa centri da sxvebi, romelTa SorisacaasaqarTvelos erovnuli xelnawerTa centri) prioritetuligaxda sakiTxi, Secvalon TavianTi mmarTvelobiTi formebi,94 95


leila janaSiamxolod koleqciaTa dacviTa da movla-SenaxviT vergaamarTleben Tavian saqmianobas da ver moipoveben investiciebs.saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centris mizani gaxdaaramarto daculi koleqciebis movla-Senaxva da samecnieromuSaoba, aramed sajarooba da sazogadoebis informireba daganaTleba sxvadasxva RonisZiebisa da gamofenis saxiT. erovnulcentrSi aris mudmiv moqmedi gamofena: `qarTuli xelnaweriwigni~, sadac eqsponirebulia qarTuli xelnaweri wignebissaukeTeso nimuSebi. saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centriTavis mizans da amocanebs sazogadoebasTan uSualo dialogisgziT axorcielebs sxvadasxva gamofenis Tu RonisZiebis saxiT,romelTa Sorisac mniSvnelovania sazRvargareT mowyobilgamofenebSi miRebuli monawileoba: _ 2006 wlis oqtomberSiamerikis dedaqalaq vaSingtonSi, frieris galereaSi gaixsnauZveles xelnawerTa gamofena saxelwodebiT: `dasawyisi: biblia1000 wlamde~. eqspoziciaSi warmodgenili qarTulixelnawerebis fotoebi vrceli komentarebiTurT Sesuliagamofenis maRal poligrafiul doneze gamocemul katalogSi.2006 wlis 30 maiss, xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi gaixsnagamofena saxelwodebiT: `didi avtografebi~. damTvalierebelmapirvelad ixila daviT aRmaSeneblis, giorgi brwyinvalis dasxva cnobil qarTvel mefeTa da sazogado moRvaweTaxelnawerebi maTive xelrTvebiT. eqspoziciaSi pirvelad iyowarmodgenili saqarTvelos istoriis erT-erTi yvelazemniSvnelovani dokumenti _ georgievskis traqtati. dokumentserekle mefis originaluri, xelrTvis garda, specialurisabeWdavebi amSvenebs. aseve warmodgenili iyo nikolozbaraTaSvilis, ilia WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, vaJa-fSavelasada galaktion tabiZis cnobili nawarmoebebis originalebi.2007 wlis maisSi moewyo gamofena saxelwodebiT: ,,TamarsvaqebdeT mefesa~. pirvelad saqarTveloSi xelnawerTa erovnulmacentrma gamarTa mefisadmi miZRvnili unikaluri gamofena,damTvalierebels mefe-wmindanis, Tamaris erTaderTi avtografisxilvis saSualeba hqonda, unikaluri sigeli, romelzec oristriqoni mefe-wmindanis xeliT aris Sesrulebuli, gamofenisyvelaze mniSvnelovani eqsponati iyo. eqspoziciaSisaqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnulicentris menejmentis zogierTi sakiTxiwarmodgenili iyo saqarTvelos cnobili monarqisadmi miZRvniliunikaluri xelnaweri da oqromWedlobis nimuSebi. gamofenazeaseve pirvelad iyo warmodgenili mdidrulad morTuli`vefxistyaosnis~ 14 ilustracia. saqarTvelos aRorZinebisxanis am simdidrem xelnawerTa erovnul centris sagamofenodarbazSi moiyara Tavi.xelnawerTa erovnul centrs momavlis gegmaSi sainteresosaerTaSoriso proeqtebi aqvs dawyebuli, romlisganxorcielebac mniSvnelovania, aramarto centris samecnieromniSvnelobisaTvis, aramed sazogadoebrivi saqmianobisTvisac.2007 wlis seqtemberSi xelnawerTa erovnul centrsa daadreul xelnawerTa eleqtronuli biblioTeka EMEL-iserToblivi proeqtis prezentacia gaimarTa. am proeqtis mizania,damzaddes yvela im xelnawerebis cifruli asli, romelicodesRac wm. ekaterines monasterSi inaxeboda da axlamsoflios sxvadasxva biblioTekasa Tu samecniero dargebSi,maT Soris, xelnawerTa erovnul centrSia daculi. xelnawerTaerovnul centrsa da EMEL-s Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebisTanaxmad, yvela saavtoro uflebas rogorc originalebze, isemaT cifrul aslebze flobs xelnawerTa erovnuli centri.proeqtis ganxorcieleba saSualebas miscems dainteresebulpirebs, isargeblon sinuri xelnawerebis eleqtronuli aslebiT.qarTuli proeqtis farglebSi dagegmilia grigol nazianzelisTxzulebebis Targmanebis Seswavla da mraval tomad gamocema.TanamSromlobas iwyebs saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnulicentri da msoflioSi udidesi aleqsandriis biblioTeka.egvi ptis mxare dainteresda saqarTveloSi daculi arabulixelnawerebis koleqciis SeswavliT da momdevno etapzealeqsandriis biblioTekaSi gamofenis mowyobiT. xelnawerTaerovnuli centrisa da sazogadoebis dialogi wina wlebTanSedarebiT aqtiuri da srulyofili gaxda.2004 wlidan dawyebuli sazogadoebas 40 gamofena,RonisZieba da proeqti SesTavaza, romlis irgvliv sazogadoebadid interess gamoxatavs. am RonisZiebebis Catarebis Sedegadcentrma SeZlo, sazogadoebisTvis Seeqmna warmodgenasaqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centris rolis da96 97


leila janaSiasazogadoebrivi saqmianobis arsis Sesaxeb (miuxedavad imisa,rom xelnawerTa samecniero instituti 1958 wlidan calkestruqturul erTeulad Camoyalibda, Semdeg `xelnawerTaerovnuli centri~ ewoda. am centris arsebobis Sesaxebsazogadoebis mcire nawilma icoda). centris mier koleqciebSidaculi xelnawerebis Tematurad da etapobrivad gamofenebiTsaSualeba misca sazogadoebas, gascnoboda mraval koleqciebs.xelnawerTa erovnuli centris interess mowmobs gamofenebzedamTvaliereblis simravle. gamofenaze misul damTvalierebelsgansakuTrebuli gancda eufleba, radgan maT Tvalwin iSlebaunikaluri eqsponatebi. erovnuli centri aqtiuradTanamSromlobs masmediasTan, rasac mowmobs periodikasa datelesivrceSi centris irgvliv momravlebuli sagazeTostatiebi Tu siuJetebi.xelnawerTa erovnul centrze sazogadoebis TandaTanobiT– etapobrivad daintereseba, aqtiuri menejmentis damsaxurebaa.centrs gaaCnia efeqturi menejmentis maxasiaTeblebi. centrsaqvs unari piradi mwarmoebluroba gaaCndes da Semdegrealizacias uwevdes. centris menejmentma SeZlo is, romramdenime wlis win Tu am centris arsebobis Sesaxebsazogadoebis mcire nawilma icoda da maTi umravlesobauSualod centrTan dakavSirebuli mecnierebi da studentebiiyvnen, dRes sazogadoebis umetesobas warmodgena aqvs centrisarsebobaze da mis socialur pasuxismgeblobaze. centrSidaigegma da etapobrivad ganxorcieldeba saerTaSorisoproeqtebi. am proeqtebis ganxorcieleba xels Seuwyobs centrisganviTarebas da sazogadoebas saSualebas miscems eziarossxvadasxva qveynis kulturas.kulturuli turizmismenejmentinaSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiTstatiis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ prof. malxaz Rvinjiliaix.: saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centris yovelwliuri gamocema`mravalTavi~, t.VII, 1980; t. XIII, 1983.www.manuscript.ge98 99


eka avTandilaSivlimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. malxaz RvijiliamcxeTa, rogorc kulturuliturizmis centriturizmi ekonomikis erTaderTi seqtoria, romelicsasicocxlodaa dainteresebuli kulturuli da bunebrivimemkvidreobis, rogorc turistuli nakadebis mozidvis,umniSvnelovanesi wyaros dacvasa da ganviTarebaSi. 1XX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan kulturuli turizmixasiaTdeba swrafi ganviTarebiT, rac gamowveulia, erTi mxriv,saerTaSoriso konferenciebisa da kongresebis xSiriorganizebiT, meore mxriv ki, turizmSi mecnieruli kvlevebisSedegad gakeTebuli rekomendaciebis danergviT, samogzauroTematikis daxvewiT da misi daaxloebiT momxmarebelTamoTxovnebTan. 2saqarTveloSi turizmis saxeebis ganviTarebis mxrivkulturul turizms erT-erTi mTavari adgili ukavia. Tavisiistoriul-kulturuli mniSvnelobiTa da adgilmdebareobiTmcxeTa saqarTveloSi kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebisqvakuTxedia, rogorc istoriuli abreSumis gzisumniSvnelovanesi sakvanZo komponenti, qveynisa da mTlianadkavkasiis regionis civilizaciis gzajvaredini – mcxeTasaerTaSoriso turizmis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani rezervuaria. 3mcxeTa – adgili, saidanac iwyeba qristianobis istoriasaqarTveloSi da romelsac ukavSirdeba qarTveli erissaxelmwifoebriobis Camoyalibeba. mcxeTaSia dafluliqristianul siwmnideTa Soris udidesi – eklesiis erTianobissimbolod wodebuli uflis kvarTi. saqarTvelos qristianobazemoqceva swored mcxeTasTan aris dakavSirebuli. aq moRvaweobdawminda mociqulTa swori nino ganmanaTlebeli, aq moxda yvelais mniSvnelovani movlena, ramac xeli Seuwyo SemdgomSiqarTveli eris gaqristianebas. qarTuli qristianulisarwmunoebis uZvelesi kera da qarTuli marTlmadideblurieklesiis dedaqalaqi warmoadgens sruliad saqarTvelosmarTlmadidebluri mrevlis mizidulobis epicentrs. aqedangamomdinare, gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens momlocvelTa(sapiligrimo) turebis formireba (rac saqarTvelosmarTlmadidebluri eklesiis mdidar istoriul memkvidreobasunda daefuZnos). 4saqarTvelos uZvelesi dedaqalaqi amJamad mcxeTa-mTianeTisregionis administraciuli centria. es ulamazesi, istoriuliZeglebiT gajerebuli patara dasaxleba (10 aTasamde mcxovrebi)Setanilia iuneskos msoflio memkvidreobis nusxaSi, rogorcqalaqi-muzeumi (mcxeTa iuneskos memkvidreobis nusxaSi 1994wels moxvda). mcxeTis memkvidreobis Setana iuneskos msofliomemkvidreobis siaSi, qristianuli kulturis xuroTmoZRvruliSedevrebis (jvari, sveticxoveli, samTavro) arqiteqturulRirebulebasTan erTad garemosTan harmoniuli Serwymisistoriulad damaxasiaTebeli TaviseburebiTaa ganpirobebuli. 5cxadia, rom mcxeTa, rogorc kulturuli turizmis centri,saqarTvelos erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani atraqciaa.mcxeTas gaaCnia uaRresad xelsayreli mdebareoba, igi mxolod20 kilometriTaa saqarTvelos dedaqalaq TbilisidandaSorebuli. 6mcxeTaSi arsebuli kulturuli memkvidreobidan turistTamowonebas imsaxurebs iseTi Zeglebi, rogorebicaa:sveticxovelimcxeTis sapatriarqo taZari _ sveticxoveli – qarTulikulturis, xelovnebisa da arqiteqturis umniSvnelovanesiZegli gamoirCeva ara mxolod Tavisi mxatvruli RirsebiT,didebulobiT da harmoniulobiT, aramed im gansakuTrebuliroliTac, romelic man qarTveli eris istoriaSi Seasrula.matianis cnobiT, mcxeTeli ebraeli eliozi daeswro qristesjvarcmas ierusalimSi da romael jariskacTagan SeZeniliqristes kvarTiT dabrunda mcxeTaSi, qalaqis karibWesTan masmiegeba qristiani da sidonia, romelmac macxovris kvarTigulSi Caikra da gardaicvala. vinaidan ver SeZles kvarTismisi xelebidan aReba, igi kvarTTan erTad dakrZales samefobaRSi ax. w. 30 wels. mis saflavze mefe mirianma aago xis100 101


eka avTandilaSivli mcxeTa, rogorc kulturuli turizmis centrieklesia, taZris mSeneblobis dros moxda saswauli, sidoniassaflavze amosuli libanis naZvi xuroebma ver moWres manam,sanam wminda ninom locvaSi ar gaatara mTeli Rame, mas Semdegsveti sinaTlis saxiT Camovida da daemyara Tavis baziss.svets mironi sdioda da davrdomilebs kurnavda. amitom mas,rogorc sicocxlis momniWebels, `sveti cxoveli~ uwodes. 7XI s.-is dasawyisSi (1010-1029 ww.) igi jvargumbaTovannagebobad gadakeTda qarTlis patriarqis melqisedek I-isTaosnobiT da xuroTmoZRvar arsukiZis xeliT. taZris sworedes varianti umniSvnelo cvlilebebiTaa moRweuli Cvenamde.taZris mSeneblobis periodi (XI saukunis dasawyisi) daemTxvasaqarTvelos istoriis metad rTul da saintereso epoqas. amdros feodalizmi ganviTarebis umaRles safexurze adioda.warmatebiT dasrulda brZola qveynis gaerTianebisaTvis.politikurma da ekonomikurma warmatebebma ganapirobes erovnuli,sulieri kulturis, mwerlobis, filosofiis, xelovnebisferweris, oqromWedlobis, xuroTmoZRvrebis farTod ganviTareba. 8sveticxoveli, upirveles yovlisa, warmoadgenda saqarTvelosreligiur centrs, radgan igi iyo sapatriarqo taZari,saqarTvelos eklesiis meTaurTa _ kaTolikos-patriarqTarezidencia. swored sveticxovelSi xdeboda saqarTvelosmefeTa da eklesiis meTaurTa kurTxeva, jvriswera, qarTvelufliswulTa monaTvla. aq xdeboda qarTvel mefeTa, dedofalTa,batoniSvilTa da kaTolikos-patriarqTa dakrZalva (taZarSidRemde SemorCenilia ramdenime maTganis saflavi). gareSemterTa Semosevebisas aq afarebda Tavs mcxeTisa da misiSemogarenis mosaxleoba. 9jvris monasterimcxeTis jvari qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis ganviTarebismwvervalia. miuxedavad imisa, rom es taZari mcire zomisaa,igi Tavisi grandiozulobiT da mTlianobiT gamoirCeva. igiiseT adgilzea aRmarTuli, rom SeuZlebelia, kacis TvalsSeumCneveli darCes. aqedan xelisguliviT moCans wminda qalaqimcxeTa. grZnob, ufro uaxlovdebi RmerTs da am madlianiadgilidan naTqvam vedrebas ufali ukeT Seismens. jvrismonastris mosalocad mravali adamiani midis, magram maTgancotam Tu icis misi unikaluroba da warsuli. 10taZris saxelwodebas istoriuli safuZveli aqvs:qristianobis miRebis pirveli dRidanve mcxeTis jvris taZrisadgilas wminda ninos miTiTebiTa da mirian mefis brZanebiTdidi xis jvari yofila aRmarTuli. memetianeTa gadmocemiT,qarTlis erismTavarma guaramma VI saukunis II naxevarSi xisjvris CrdiloeTiT aaSena patara eklesia, romelsac mciretaZars an mcire jvars uwodeben. eklesia, rogorc Signidan,aseve garedan morTuli yofila, xolo saukunis bolos taZrismSeneblobas ganagrZobs erismTavari stefanozi. 11turistebisaTvis sainteresoa taZris Seqmnis istoria.matianes ar Semounaxavs taZris xuroTmoZRvris saxeli, arcmisi agebis TariRia miTiTebuli sadme, magram reliefis warweraSimoxseniebul pirTa mixedviT, agreTve sxva werilobiTi wyaroebiTdgindeba, rom erismTavar stefanozs taZari 585-604 wlebSiaugia. taZris samxreTiT mTis kalTis SuaSi, im adgilas,sadac, mematianeTa cnobiT, erTxans Tavs afarebda wminda nino,aris adreqristianuli xanis patara, naxevrad dangreulidarbazuli samlocvelo. is mTlianad dafarulia xeebiT daSoridan ar Cans. jvris monasterSi kvlav grZeldeba samonastrocxovreba. 12samTavros dedaTa monasteri.mcxeTis CrdiloeTiT aRmarTulia lamazi, gumbaTovaninageboba – saepiskoposo taZari, samTavro. mematianeTagadmocemiT, qalaqis CrdiloeT mxares mTavris samyofeliyofila, saidanac warmodgeba taZris saxelwodeba – samTavro.aq ucxovria sarwmunoebis saqadageblad Camosul wminda ninos,aq aris dasaflavebuli erT-erTi asureli mama abibos nekreseli.taZris erT kuTxeSi pirveli qristiani mefis mirianisa danana dedoflis saflavebia. 13 piligrim turistTaTvis metadmniSvnelovania is, rom aq ganisvenebs Cveni drois udidesiberi qristianuli cxovrebis WeSmariti maswavlebeliarqimandriti gabrieli (urgebaZe).didi taZris gverdiT mcire gumbaTovani taZaria. gadmocemiTviciT, rom mcxeTaSi mosuli wminda nino sami wlis102 103


eka avTandilaSivli mcxeTa, rogorc kulturuli turizmis centriganmavlobaSi `ilocvida farulad adgilsa erTsa SeburvilsabrZamliTa mayualisaiTa... da adgili igi iyo zRudes garegan~.am adgilze mirian mefes augia eklesia, rasac adasturebs`wminda ninos cxovrebaSi~ moyvanili misi werilis Sinaarsi:`aRvaSene eklesia mayulovansa mas Sinai ninossa.~ zemoTmoyvanili cnobebi IV saukuneSi swored wminda ninos eklesiisaSenebis TariRs da adgilsamyofels gulisxmobs. 14kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis erovnulma saagentom,samTavros samonastro kompleqsis reabilitaciis farglebSi,samTavroSi daasrula IV saukunis wminda ninos eklesiisaRdgeniTi samuSaoebi. 15 taZris gviani Suasaukuneebis freskebspirvelad Cautarda restavracia. imeruli da kaxuri kramitiTSeicvala 60-ian wlebSi gakeTebuli saxuravi. gumbaTisTvisdamzadda axali jvari. amas garda, monastris xarjiTa dakeTilismyofelTa xelSewyobiT, taZarSi daigo axali iatakida Seicvala wmida trapezis qva. 16kulturuli memkvidreobis dacvis erovnuli saagentouaxloes momavalSi gegmavs, restavracia Cautaros samTavroSiarsebul koSks (agebulia gvian saukuneebSi) da aseve meoreumniSvnelovanes istoriul naSTs, e. w. mefe mirianis buxars. 17mcxeTis turizmis sainformacio centris monacemebiT, 2009wels turizmis sainformacio centris momsaxurebiT isargebla3778 ucxoelma vizitorma.maTi mxridan iyo Semdegi moTxovnebi:• saqarTvelos ruka moiTxova – 1937 ucxoelma vizitorma,• mcxeTa-mTianeTis regionis turistuli ruka – 1356,• Tbilisis ruka – 1098,• sxva regionebis ruka – 1139,• sainformacio bukletebi saqarTveloze – 187,• sainformacio bukletebi mcxeTaze – 1310,• sainformacio bukletebi sveticxovelze – 2367,• mcxeTis kulturis ZeglebiT (armazi, bagineTi) dainteresda– 207 vizitori,• mcxeTis muzeumiT – 304,• RamisTeva mcxeTaSi moiTxova – 246,• safosto baraTebi – 91,• kvebis obieqti mcxeTaSi – 567,• gidis momsaxureba – 151,• internet kafe mcxeTaSi – 18,• jvarze fexiT asvla – 501,• jvarze taqsiT asvla – 548,• transportis (avtobusi, samarSruto taqsi) ganrigisxvadasxva mimarTulebiT – 419,• matareblis ganrigi sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT – 138,• Tbilisis megzuri – 1014,• marketi – 254,• amindis prognozi – 14,• karvis gasaSleli adgili – 104,• banki – 12,• `parkingi~ – 2.ikiTxes informacia:• zamTris saTxilamuro kurortebis (gudauri, bakuriani)Sesaxeb – 186,• informacia turizmis sainformacio centrisa da sxvasainformacio centrebis Sesaxeb – 83,• informacia saqarTvelos muzeumebis Sesaxeb – 229,• informacia mcxeTis arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sesaxeb – 12,• gudauris sastumroebis Sesaxeb – 114,• RamisTeva axalcixeSi – 1,• goris, ufliscixis Sesaxeb – 130,• yazbegis Sesaxeb – 1494,• borjomis Sesaxeb – 19,• daviT garejis Sesaxeb – 10,• siRnaRis Sesaxeb – 15,• Satilis Sesaxeb – 71,• ananuris Sesaxeb – 8,• SiomRvimis Sesaxeb – 27,• bakurianis Sesaxeb – 12,• kaxeTis Sesaxeb – 70,• baTumis Sesaxeb – 130,104 105


eka avTandilaSivli mcxeTa, rogorc kulturuli turizmis centri• quTaisis Sesaxeb – 2,• varZiis Sesaxeb – 18.mcxeTis turizmis sainformacio centrSi Semosulivizitorebi, 2009 welimiuxedavad saqarTveloSi ZeglTa simravlisa da movlapatronobismcdelobisa, Zalian bevri Zegli jer kidev veraris saTanadod movlili, raTa SeCerdes maTi ganadgureba daisini wardgnen srulmniSvnelovani saxiT damTvalierebelTawinaSe.imisaTvis, rom kulturuli turizmi ganviTardes mcxeTaSi,iseve rogorc mTels saqarTveloSi, saWiroa farTo moculobisSemecnebiTi turebis organizeba (rac kulturuliturizmisaTvis gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia). saxelmwifoxelSewyoba kulturuli turizmis ganviTarebaSi gansakuTrebiTunda moxdes miznobrivi reklamisa da sainformaciosaSualebebis gamoyenebis gziT. am mizniT unda gafarTovdessaqarTvelos, rogorc turizmis qveynis, gacnobierebis sferoZiriTad potenciur bazrebze, rac xelmiuwvdomelia kerZoseqtorisaTvis, Semdegi saSualebebis gamoyenebiT: monawileobasaerTaSoriso turistul bazrobebze da gamofenebze, ucxoeliJurnalistebis saqarTveloSi mowveva, ucxoeTis presaSi dainternetis qselSi saqarTvelos turizmze informaciisgavrceleba, Tematuri konferenciebis organizeba da sxva.saWiroa agreTve adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis turizmTandakavSirebuli dargebis Seswavla turistuli moRvaweobidanmogebis miRebis mizniT, aseve momsaxurebis sferos ganviTareba.turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis mier gaanalizebuliiqna saqarTveloSi tradiciulad arsebuli SemecnebiTituristuli marSrutebi, romlebsac uaxloes warsulSisTavazobdnen ucxoel, maT Soris _ sabWoTa turistebs, ammarSrutebis Sedgenis principebi da turistTa mogzaurobebismotivaciebi, agreTve sadReisod saerTaSoriso turistulbazarze moTxovnileba, ris Sedegadac ganisazRvra imumniSvnelovanesi Zeglebis nusxa, romlebic programis pirveletapze unda Sevidnen turistul marSrutebSi. esumniSvnelovanesi Zeglebi Seadgenen kulturuli turizmissafuZvels da saxelmwifom unda izrunos maT garSemo Sesabamisiinfrastruqturis Seqmna-mowyobaze. 18amJamad, mcxeTaSi mimdinareobs sareabilitacio samuSaoebi.male muzeum-qalaqSi yvela saxlis saxuravi wiTeli kramitiT106 107


eka avTandilaSivli mcxeTa, rogorc kulturuli turizmis centrigadaixureba, icvleba sveticxovlis mimdebare saxlebis fasadebida Robeebi. ZeglTa dacvis saagentoSi miiCneven, rom samuSaoebi,romlebic amJamad mcxeTaSi tardeba, qalaqis mxatvrularqiteqturulsaxes gaaumjobesebs. es ki xels Seuwyobskulturuli turizmis kidev ufro ganviTarebas mcxeTaSi.saWiroa mcxeTaSi kulturuli da bunebrivi memkvidreobisinformaciul-saeqspozicio da mxatvrul-esTetikuripotencialis maqsimaluri warmoCena, rac turistuli nakadebismozidvisa da turizmis ganviTarebis mZlavri resursia.kulturuli turizmis turistuli produqtis –kulturuli turis, konkurentunarianoba pirdapirproporciuladaa damokidebuli saCvenebeli obieqtis Rirsebebzeda mis imfrastruqturaze, rac umravles SemTxvevaSi Zeglebis,rogorc mTavari saCvenebeli obieqtis, garSemo arsebobs. amdenad,saqarTveloSi kulturuli turizmis ganviTareba undadaigegmos istoriuli Zeglebis istoriul-xuroTmoZRvrulRirsebebisa da maT garSemo arsebuli imfrastruqturisgaTvaliswinebiT.11. v. mamukelaSvili, g. TaTaraSvili. `mcxeTa da misi Semogareni~,Tbilisi, 1986 w.12. iqve;13. Jurnali `karibWe~, #20, 2009 w.14. iqve;15. www.ka.wikipedia.org16. iqve;17. iqve;18. n. kvaracxelia. `kulturuli turizmi~, Tbilisi, 2009 w.1. g. SaiSmelaSvili. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, urbanistikiskaTedra, `mcxeTis memkvidreobisa da turizmis generaluri gegma~(iuneskos msoflio memkvidreobis centris saerTaSoriso proeqti).2. n. kvaracxelia. `kulturuli turizmi~, Tbilisi, 2009 w.3. g. SaiSmelaSvili, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, urbanistikiskaTedra, `mcxeTis memkvidreobisa da turizmis generaluri gegma~(iuneskos msoflio memkvidreobis centris saerTaSoriso proeqti).4. m. bulia, m. janjalia. `mcxeTa~, 2000 w5. g. SaiSmelaSvili. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, urbanistikiskaTedra, `mcxeTis memkvidreobisa da turizmis generaluri gegma~(iuneskos msoflio memkvidreobis centris saerTaSoriso proeqti).6. m. bulia, m. janjalia. `mcxeTa~, 2000 w.7. Jurnali `karibWe~. #20, 2009 w.8. qarTuli enciklopedia. `saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturisZeglTa aRweriloba~, Tbilisi, 1990 w.9. Jurnali `karibWe~, #20, 2009 w.10. iqve;108 109


eleonora gogolaSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. malxaz RvijiliaimereTSi kulturuli turizmisganviTarebis strategiulimimarTulebis analiziturizmi msoflio ekonomikis erT-erTi yvelaze didi dargia.masze modis globaluri, mTliani erovnuli produqtis 6%.unikaluria turizmis zrdis tempi. am TvalsazrisiT igisagrZnoblad aWarbebs ekonomikis zrdis temps.turizmis ganviTarebis umniSvnelovanesi winapirobaaunikaluri istoriul-kulturuli faseulobebis arseboba.qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani istoria Tavis materialurgamoxatulebas poulobs mravalricxovan istoriul ZeglebSi,romlebic Cveni samSoblos yvela raionSia Semonaxuli.qarTvelma erma saukuneebis manZilze Seqmna didi erovnuliganZi _ materialuri kulturis unikaluri Zeglebi. maTiarasruli raodenoba 35000 aWarbebs. maTgan 5000-s saxelmwifoicavs. isini agebulia saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. siZvelismiuxedavad, bevrma maTganma kargad SeinarCuna Tavisi pirvandelisaxe. maTgan oTxi (bagratis taZari, X-XI saukune), gelaTissamonastro kompleqsi (XII saukune), uSgulis arqiteqturuliansambli, saqarTvelos uZvelesi dedaqalaqi mcxeTa (rogorcqalaqi-muzeumi) Sesulia iuneskos msoflio mniSvnelobisZeglTa dacvis siaSi.Cvens mizans warmoadgens zemo imereTis regionSikulturuli turizmis ganviTareba da qveynis ekonomikissamsaxurSi misi Cayeneba, rac, dameTanxmebiT, metad mniSvnelovaniasaqarTvelosaTvis. am problemis dasaZlevad saxelmwifommravali etapi unda ganvlos. ganvixiloT es etapebi daganvsazRvroT, Tu ra rols iTamaSebs Cveni qveynis ekonomikisganviTarebaSi zemo imereTis regionSi kulturuli turizmisganviTareba.regioni mdidaria unikaluri ZeglebiTa da qristianulitaZrebiT, rac xels uwyobs religiuri turizmis ganviTarebas.turizmis ganviTarebis umniSvnelovanesi winapirobaa unikaluriistoriuli-kulturuli faseulobebis arseboba. aRsaniSnaviaWiaTuris raionSi wminda giorgis eklesia (XI-XII saukuneebis),kacxis sveti (XI saukunis monasteri), savanis wminda giorgisXI saukunis eklesia, jruWis X-XI saukuneebis eklesia, CixasXII saukunis eklesia saCxeris raionSi, macxovris eklesia(XI saukune) da maxaTauris eklesia (Sua saukuneebis) asevesaCxeris raionSi, mRvimevi _ XVIII saukunis eklesia da XVIIIsaukunis navarZevis Tiris monasteri, navarZevis cixe-simagre(XVII-XVIII saukuneebis) da sveris VII saukunis cixesimagreWiaTuris raionSi. saqaCxiis Sua saukuneebis eklesia, xevisXIX saukunis eklesia, ubisis wminda giorgis eklesia (XVII-XVIII saukuneebis), vaxanis XII-XIV saukuneebis cixesimagrexaragaulis raionSi.imisaTvis, rom kulturuli turizmi imereTSi gaxdessabazro interesebis Sesabamisi, momavalSi saWiroa: arsebuli infrastruqturisa da turizmis standartebisgaumjobeseba; axali turizmis mimarTulebebis danergva, agraruliturizmisa da urbanuli turizmis gaumjobeseba. axali marketinguli iniciativebis SemuSaveba daganxorcieleba, raTa dakavSirebul iqnes erTmaneTTan imereTisturizmis axali da gaumjobesebuli momsaxurebebi erovnul,regionalur da saerTaSoriso tur. operatorebTan dabazrebTan. imisaTvis, rom turizmi warmatebuli iyos imereTSi,saWiroa SemuSavebul iqnes gegma:a). imereTi, rogorc agraruli turizmis adgili;b). quTaisi, rogorc urbanuli turizmis adgili;imisaTvis, raTa ganviTardes axali bazari imereTiskulturuli turizmisaTvis, saWiro iqneba axali produqciisada momsaxurebebis ganviTareba ise, rom tur. operatorebs(erovnuli da saerTaSoriso) mieceT SesaZlebloba, ufroiolad gaitanon imereTis turizmi samizne bazrebze, romlebicSeiZleba iyos didi britaneTi, safrangeTi, germania, holandia,ruseTi, TurqeTi an sxva potenciuri samizne qveynebi.110 111


eleonora gogolaSviliimereTSi kulturuli turizmisganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTulebis analiziimereTis axal agrarul turizmSi SeiZleba Sediodes: saojaxo dasveneba, roca turistebs SesaZleblobaeqnebaT darCnen qarTul ojaxebSi ramdenime dRe an erTikvira da meti da gaecnon qarTuli ojaxebis cxovrebis stilsada kulturas; turistebs SeuZliaT gaeqcnen mZime da stresiT savsecxovrebas da gaataron dro bunebasTan axlos imereTis lamazibunebis janmrTel arealSi. aqtiuri dasveneba: jiriToba, velosipediT seirnoba,mTamsvleloba, Tevzaoba, sxvadasxva gasarTobi saqmianoba,dakavSirebuli wyalTan da a. S. kulturasa da memkvidreobasTan gacnoba, dasveneba,romelic sTavazobs turistebs kulturul aspeqtebs,dakavSirebuls dasvenebis gasarTob saqmianobebTan dakavSirebulregionis bunebasTan.turistTa dabinaveba imereTis regionSi momavalSi SeiZlebamoicavdes: qarTuli ojaxebis saxlebs saojaxo dasvenebisaTvis; kargi xarisxis sazafxulo agarakebs, romlis daqiravebaciqneba SesaZlebeli; turistebisaTvis aSenebul qarTul dasasvenebel sofels,romelic sTavazobs damsveneblebs mdinaris axlos da lamazbunebaSi dasvenebas. aseTi kompleqsi SesaZlebelia iyos patarada moicavdes erTmaneTTan axlos ganlagebul 8-10 qarTulistilis sazafxulo saxlebs. sastumroebs, romlebic sTavazobs damsveneblebs RamisgaTevasa da sauzmes an SesaZlebelia _ sadilsac da vaxSamsac. ka r g i xa r i s xi s s a na tor i u m e b s r egi oni sdamsveneblebisaTvis.regionis turizmi SesaZlebelia, gaxdes sasurveli ufrodidi bazrisaTvis dabinavebis sxvadasxva saxisa da saqmianobisSeTavazebiT, moqnili servisebis danergviT, romlebic sTavazobsturistebs interesebisa da saqmianobebis nairsaxeobas, raTamoxdes TiToeuli turistis interesebTan Tanxvedra.Ddabinavebissxvadasxva saxe da saqmianoba daainteresebs turistebs, ufrodidxans darCnen regionSi vidre erTi an ori dRe.agraruli turizmis ganviTarebis areali, SesaZlebelia,moicavdes mTian da dablob adgilebs baRdaTisa da sairmisgzis axlos, borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis mimdebareteritoriebs, gelaTisa da saTaflis adgilebsa da a. S.dasasvenebeli soflebi, kotejebi da imereTis saxlebi aseTadgilebSi iqneba Zalian mimzidveli saerTaSorisostumrebisaTvis.rogor mivaRwioT warmatebul menejments turizmSi, zemoimereTis regionSi, ra cvlilebebi unda gatardes? ra daxmarebaasaWiro, raTa miRweul iqnes sasurveli cvlilebebi daekonomikuri sargebeli?saxelmwifo seqtori: gzebis gaumjobeseba turizmisaTvis daniSnulebisadgilamde miRwevisaTvis; qalaqis centris turistuli sainformacio ofisisCamoyalibeba da TanamSromlebiT uzrunvelyofa; megobruli turistuli niSnebis gavrceleba quTaissada zemo imereTSi; turizmis samizne bazris gegmis SemuSaveba mcire,saSualo da xangrZlivi periodisaTvis. turizmis industriis treningis saSualebebisa dasamuSao gegmis SemuSaveba; turizmis investiciis proeqtebis xelis SewyobaquTaisisa da imereTisaTvis; efeqturi regionaluri turizmis marketinguli gegmisSemuSaveba.kerZo seqtori: axali saerTaSoriso standartebis 3-4 varskvlavianisastumroebi quTaisSi; axali dabinavebis kompleqsebis dafinanseba da SemuSaveba,romelSic Sedis qarTuli dasasvenebeli saxlebi, kotejebi; sazogado seqtorTan muSaoba, turizmis saqmianobebisreklamireba Sesabamis arealebSi. biznesisa da misi saSualebebisganviTareba: axali restornebi, barebi, maRaziebi quTaisSi.arsebuli tur. operatorebis mier dabinavebisa da momsaxurebismiwodebis xarisxisa da standartis gaumjobesebis programebisganxorcieleba.112 113


eleonora gogolaSvilira saxis daxmarebaa saWirosaganmanaTleblo reforma _ turizmis industriis seqtori.axali samuSao gegmebi mzareulis swavlebis kursebisaTvis,s a kv e b i da s a s m el i m oms a xureb eb i s a Tv i s , gi di smomsaxurebebisaTvis, sastumroebis menejerebisaTvis,zeda m xedv el obis i s ev e, r ogor c t u r i zmis a dastumarTmoyvareobis marTvis kursebisaTvis. kursebisganxorcieleba ,,treningi eqskursiamZRolebisaTvis’’ kursebi arsebuli tur. operatorebisaTvis standartisganviTarebisa da stumrebis mzrunvelobis programebis Sesaxeb.dabinavebis standartebi sastumroebisaTvis ,,saukeTesopraqtikuli’’ standartis SemuSaveba saerTaSoriso (msoflioturizmis organizacia) standartebTan kavSirSi; mcire da saSualo warmoebis ganviTareba turizmisbiznesisaTvis. biznesis dagegmvis procesi. mcire biznesisaTvisproduqciisa da momsaxureobis ganviTareba. momxmareblismomsaxurebis standartebi, finansebi, adamianuri resursebisganviTareba, marketingi. turizmis investirebis reklamirebisdaxmarebis iniciativa; turizmis marketingis mxardaWeris programebi, sazogadoda kerZo seqtoris warmomadgenlebisaTvis turizmis marketingistreningis CaTvliT. strategiuli sabazro gegmis damuSaveba.marketingis reklamirebisa da komunikaciebis strategiebisSemuSaveba. sareklamo masalebis SemuSaveba imereTis axaliturizmis produqtebisa da momsaxurebebis Sesabamisad.urTierTobis ganviTareba erovnul da saerTaSoriso samogzauroda savaWro operatorebs Soris. turizmis kvlevis, monitoringisada Sefasebis saTanado teqnika imereTisaTvis. warmatebuliregionaluri turizmis organizaciebis turebis SeswavladasavleT evropaSi, mag.: irlandia, inglisi, Sotlandia, germaniaan sxva stabiluri warmatebuli adgilmdebareobebi.T. sirbilaZe, ,,turistis gzamkvlevi’’, zenaari, 2008 w.b. CekuriSvili, ,,turizmis Semosavliani biznesi’’, gazeTi „24 saaTi~, 2008.k. WarxalaSvili, ,,turizmis sainformacio centri imereTSi’’, gazeTi,,imereTis moambe~, 2005.k. WarxalaSvili, didi dasawyisis dasawyisi, gazeTi `axali quTaisi~, 2002.lela elizbaraSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. malxaz RvijiliaqarTuli tradiciebisa da kulturisturistuli funqciadedamiwaze ar moiZebneba adgili, romelic sanaxaobrivadsaintereso da cnobismoyvareobis aRmZvreli ar iyos. Zvelicivilizacia Tu Tanamedroveobis nimuSebi, flora Tu fauna,religia Tu adaT-wesebi, bunebrivi wyaroebi TustumarmaspinZloba, musika, qoreografia, Teatri da kidev uamraviram aris is, rac nebismieri adamianisaTvis warmoadgens interesissferos, ris gamoc adamians miswrafeba aqvs gadalaxos zRvebida okeaneebi da imogzauros Soreul qveynebSi.msoflios Tanamedrove sazogadoebas gaaCnia sakmaodganviTarebuli socio-kulturuli baza. mogzaurobebSikulturuli motivaciebi kvlavindeburad mniSvnelovan rolsTamaSobs. turizmSi kvalvac aqtualuria kulturaTa dialogisprocesi, sadac maspinZelTa da stumarTa kulturisurTierTzemoqmedeba igulisxmeba. rogorc maspinZeli qveyniskulturaa mniSvnelovani turistisaTvis qveynis aRsaqmelad,ise mogzaurTa kulturasac aqvs zegavlena damxdurebzec.kulturaTa dialogi turizmisa da mogzaurobis Tanmdeviprocesia da turizmiT dainteresebuli mecnierebisaTvismniSvnelovania turizmis zegavlenis Seswavla mimRebi regionissocio-kulturaze.ucxoels Tan miaqvs STabeWdilebebi, rogorc erisTvisumniSvnelovanes kulturul Rirebulebebze, rac ganivTebuliaxelovnebis, xuroTmoZRvrebis, religiis sakralur nimuSebSi,ise momsaxurebis kulturaze da misgan gamomdinare erissayofacxovrebo kulturazec. 1animaciebis xelovneba mniSvnelovan Tematikas Seicavskulturul tur i zmSi. i gi kul turuli t u r i s`gakeTilSobilebas~ uwyobs xels. efeqturi kulturuli turiniSnavs materialuri memkvidreobis mqone istoriul-kulturuliarealebis `gacocxlebas~ adgilobrivi tradiciuli114 115


lela elizbaraSviliqarTuli tradiciebisa da kulturis turistuli funqciafolklorisa da qoreografiis TanxlebiT. aq Event-s, anuRonisZiebebis menejments, ganmsazRvreli funqcia akisria.TiToeuli calke aRebuli SemTxvevisaTvis unda iqnes SerCeuliindividualuri programebi, raTa turistebma maqsimaluradmaRali siamovneba miiRon.festivali mimzidvelia adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvs,radgan is aviTarebs maTSi siamayis grZnobas. am yvelaferTanerTad festivalebs gaaCniaT turistuli da komerciuli miznebi.es aspeqtebia ivenTebi, rogorc imijis Seqmnis erT-erTi gza,ekonomikuri zegavlenis moxdena da sxv. festivalisorganizatorebi ZiriTadad iyeneben istoriul da kulturulTematikas, raTa dagegmon wliuri ivenTebi da moizidonmayureblebi da Seqmnan kulturuli qveynis imiji rogorcsakuTari, ise ucxo qveynis sazogadoebis winaSe. festivalebisaSualebas aZlevs adgilobriv mosaxleobas, ganaviTaros dagauziaros sakuTari kulturuli Rirebulebebi da gamocdilebasxva qveynis warmomadgenlebs. festivalebis meSveobiT turistebseZlevaT saSualeba, gaecnon adgilobrivi qveynisa Tumosaxleobis kulturul Rirebulebebs da imas, Tu ra gavlenasaxdens es yvelaferi maT ganviTarebaze.msxvili da saerTaSoriso kulturuli turebisSemTxvevebisTvis rekomendebulia iseTi RonisZiebebismenejmentis kompaniis arCeva, romelsac klientebis saxiT,sakuTar portpfolioSi hyavs cnobili brendebi. mas Semdeg,rac darwmundebiT, rom Tqven mier arCeul kompanias SeuZliamogawodoT Tqveni survilis Sesabamisi momsaxureba, SegiZliaTdaisvenoT da iyoT darwmunebuli, rom isini Seasrulebenyvela mZime samuSaos maRal profesul doneze, rac saSualebasmogcemT Tqven da Tqvens stumrebs, isiamovnoT RonisZiebiT.1998 wels saqarTveloSi “qemel Trofis~ eqspediciismomsaxurebis Semdeg “jorjian ivenTia” dakavebuli RonisZiebebisindustriiT. saqarTvelo TviTmyofadi da gamorCeuli qveyanaa.swored am gamorCeulobis gamoa, rom uamravi ucxoelidauyovnebliv moeSureba saqarTvelos dasaTvaliereblad daraoden saamayoa, rom ukve Zalian bevr turists fexiT aqvsSemovlili saqarTvelos bari Tu maRalmTiani regionebi.saqarTveloSi saukuneTa manZilze Semonaxulia daxvewilizrdilobis wesebi, ufros-umcrosobis wminda adaTi,stumarTmoyvareobis da stumris daxvedris Cveuleba, mokrZalebaqalisadmi da dedis kulti, ojaxuri siwmindisa da patiosnebisdacva, qorwinebis rituali, winaparTa xsovna da micvalebulTa`gapatiosneba~ da sxv. saqarTvelos TiTqmis arcerT kuTxeSitradiciebs ar Ralatoben da xalxuri cxovrebis wessmemkvidreobiT saqmianobad aqceven.Cveuleba socialuri movlenaa da xalxis sulierikulturis nawils warmoadgens. misi warmoSoba-CamoyalibebauSualodaa dakavSirebuli sazogadoebriv yofasTan daganuwyvetliv icvleba. amasTan erTad, sazogadoebis ganviTarebisgarkveul etapze formirebuli da tradiciulad damkvidrebuliwes-Cveuleba konservatulia da masSi nela iWrebacxovrebiseuli, axali, progresuli movlenebi da Sesabamisielementebi. 2turistebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa saqarTveloskultura da tradiciebi, romlebic erTdroulad moicavsaRmosavlur da dasavlur kulturas, anu, igi warmoadgensevropisa da aziis erTgvar Serwymas. gansakuTrebul interesebsucxoelebSi iwvevs maRalmTiani regionebis wes-Cveulebebi,romlebic TiTqmis ucvleli saxiTaa Semonaxuli, radgan maTze`gavlena~ ar mouxdenia Tanamedrove civilizacias. amdenad,adgilobrivi mosaxleoba dResac misdevs uZveles wes-Cveulebebs,Semonaxuli aqvT uZvelesi xelobebi da dResaswaulebi,stumarmaspinZlobisa da sadRegrZeloebis warmoTqmis Zvelida arsebuli wesebi.folklors mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs kulturulturizmSi. eris TviTmyofadoba, Taobidan Taobas gadacemuli,xSir SemTxvevaSi zepirsityvierad folkloruli nimuSebiaZlierebs ucxoel turistebSi qveynis Secnobis gancdas. ammxriv sainteresoa qarTul kulturul turebSi animaciebisTvisobrioba, gamoxatuli folkloris meSveobiT.qarTvelma xalxma udidesi samusiko kultura Seqmna.qarTuli xalxuri sagundo simRera _ es aris uaRresadTviTmyofadi movlena; qarTulma xalxurma musikammravalsaukunovani gza ganvlo, Seqmna mravalxmianobis, Janrebis116 117


lela elizbaraSviliqarTuli tradiciebisa da kulturis turistuli funqciada sxva originaluri formebi. yoveli musikaluri kulturagarkveul yofiT tradiciebSi vlindeba. qarTul sinamdvileSimusika iyo Sromis, dasvenebis, Wiris Tu lxinis Tanmxlebi.Tumca zogierTma simReram saxe icvala. didi adgili uWiravsqarTul sufrul simRerebs Tanamedrove yofaSi. salxinosufraze, sruldeboda ama Tu im kuTxisaTvis damaxasiaTebelimravalxmiani simRerebi. arsebobda dakanonebuli TanmimdevrobasimRerebs da sadRegrZeloebs Soris.cxadia, rom turizmi uSualod da ganuyofladaadakavSirebuli garTobis industriasTan. aWara am mxrivRonisZiebaTa uzarmazar speqtrs moicavs. movlenebi, romlebicturistuli sezonis dros viTardeba, praqtikulad yvela asakisada gemovnebis momxmarebelzea gaTvlili. araCveulebrivadlamazia aWara am dros. is festivalebisa da Ria cis qveSgamarTuli warmodgenebis erT did scenad gadaiqceva xolme.cekva-simRerebi yovelwliurad sruldeba iseT tradiciulsaxalxo dResaswaulebze, rogorebicaa: ,,SuamToba~, romelicimarTeba agvistos pirvel SabaT-kviras mTiani aWaris alpurzonaSi, ,,kolxoba~, romelic aseve agvistoSi tardeba zRvispirasof. sarfSi, ,,tbeloba~, romelic seqtembris bolos imarTebasofel xixaZirSi da eZRvneba Sua saukuneebis did filosofossada astrologs _ tbel abuserisZes.`SuamToba~ uZvelesi qarTuli dResaswaulia da igi,Cveulebriv, mTis samuSaoTa sezonis Sua periods emTxveva. estradicia ukve mravali welia grZeldeba da is didi saxalxodResaswaulia. am dRes imarTeba saxalxo seirnoba, Sejibrebanisportis tradiciul-erovnul saxeobebSi: isindsa da qarTulWidaobaSi, agreTve ewyoba adgilobrivi rewvis produqtebisgamofena-gayidva. ordRiani dResaswauli sazeimo warmodgeniTmTavrdeba.xulos raionis sof. xixaZirSi laSa-giorgis mefobisperiodSi, daaxloebiT 1190-1240 wlebSi, cxovrobda damoRvaweobda xixaTa erisTavis Ze, gamoCenili moazrovne, mecnieri,astronomi, tbel abuserisZe, romelmac Seqmna istoriulfilosofiuriSromebi, vrceli qronologiur-astronomiulitraqtatebi. swored misi ZalisxmeviT aSenda xixanis cixe.tbelisadmi didi pativiscemisa da dafasebis niSnad aqaurmamcxovreblebma Sromisa da dasvenebis dResaswauls misi saxeliuwodes. zeimi ZiriTadad imarTeba sof. xixaZirSi, tbelabuserisZis mSobliur sofelSi. tbeloba agreTve aRiniSnebasxalTaSi, furtioSi, TxilvanaSi.`kolxobis~ dResaswauls gansakuTrebuli azri da SinaarsigaaCnda. rogorc viciT, argonavtebma, kolxeTis mefis mSvenieriasulis daxmarebiT mostaces uZlevel aiets oqros sawmisi,Tan waiyvanes medeac, mokles kolxeTis taxtis memkvidreafsirte da gaiqcnen. swored es miTi udevs safuZvlad didTeatralizebul sanaxaobas saxelwodebiT ,,kolxoba”, romelicadgilobriv mosaxleobaSi `qvaomxazobis~ saxelwodebiTaacnobili.baTumSi yovelwliurad imarTeba folkloris festivali,romelic Ria cis qveS dadgmul stilizebul scenaze imarTebada sanaxaobrivi grandiozulobiT atyvevebs turistebs. yvelazafxuls baTumi maspinZlobs simfoniuri musikis festivals.ramdenime dRiT patara qalaqi RvTaebrivi musikis hangebiTivseba. am dros turistebis mozRvaveba SeimCneva rogorcdedaqalaqidan da regionebidan, aseve mezobeli TurqeTidanac.turizmis ganviTarebisTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs soflebiserovnuli koloritis SenarCunebas, am saqmeSi didi rolieTnografias ekuTvnis. aucilebelia eTnografiuli Zeglebis(xalxuri arqiteqturuli nimuSebi, iaraR-WurWeli, kostiumida sxv.) Semonaxva, xalxuri gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis adgilkerebisganaxleba. aucilebelia eTnografiuli nakrZalebisSeqmna (nakrZalad SeiZleba gamocxaddes mTeli sofeli anqalaqi, nagebobaTa kompleqsi, romelsac sanaxaobiTi, istoriuleTnografiulisaxe SenarCunebuli aqvs).saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebas kidev ufro uwyobsxels turistebis interesi tradiciuli religiuri dawarmarTuli dResaswaulebis mimarT saqarTvelos sxvadasxvaraionSi. tradiciulad, agraruli dResaswaulebi: berikaobada yeenoba saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gansxvavebuladiyo warmodgenili. es tradicia dResacaa SenarCunebuli, magrampirvandeli mniSvnelobiT aRar tardeba da aqcenti sanaxaobrivmxarezea gadatanili.118 119


lela elizbaraSviliqarTuli tradiciebisa da kulturis turistuli funqciaqarTuli sufra Cveni xalxis didi tradiciaa, romelmacCveni eris kulturis, xelovnebis, xalxuri SemoqmedebisganviTarebas Seuwyo xeli da aramc Tu Semogvinaxa, aramedTavad iyo Semoqmedi im SesaniSnavi sufruli simRerebisa,xalxuri cekvebisa, zepirsityvierebisa, romelTa badali iSviaTadmoipoveba msoflio kulturis istoriaSi. qarTuli sufraodiTgan moswrebuli sityva-pasuxis, zrdilobis, rainduliTavdaWerisa da Cveni miwis madlisa da baraqis sazeimodemonstireba iyo.qarTuli sufra Cveni kulturis erT-erTi elementia,romelic waruSlel STabeWdilebas tovebs saqarTveloSiCamosul uamrav turistze. maT moswonT ara mxolod CvenikerZebis mravalferovneba, siuxve da sagemovno Tvisebebi, aramedTavad sufra, purobis wesi, sadRegrZeloebi, yovelive is, racSesaniSnavad avlens daxvewili etiketiTa da rainduliSemarTebiT gamorCeul erovnul xasiaTs.turistebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania ritualebi,romlebic qarTul sufras axlavs Tan. maTTvis xSir SemTxvevaSimoulodnelobas warmoadgens dakanonebuli wesi, rom qarTulsufraze Rvinis sma sufris wevris neba-survilze araadamokidebuli. sma mimdinareobs droTa ganmavlobaSiCamoyalibebuli garkveuli sistemiT da es sistemaa sworedqarTuli sufris Semkvreli da metad originaluri saxis mimcemi.folklors mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs kulturulturizmSi. eris TviTmyofadoba, Taobidan Taobas gadacemulixSir SemTxvevaSi zepirsityvierad fokloruli nimuSebiaZlierebs ucxoel turistebSi qveynis Secnobis gancdas. ammxriv sainteresoa qarTul kulturul turebSi animaciebisTvisobrioba, gamoxatuli folkloris meSveobiT.miuxedavad imisa, rom mdidari tradiciebiTa daqoreografiul-folkloruli elementebis mravalferovnebiTgamoirCeva qarTuli yofa, kulturuli turebis Catarebisases komponentebi Zalian iSviaTadaa gamoyenebuli. amitomackulturuli turizmis ganviTarebis mizniT mizanSewoniladmigvaCnia Semdegi RonisZiebebis gatareba:1. kulturuli turebis Catarebis procesSi qarTuliTviTmyofadobisa da aborigenuli identurobis popularizaciismizniT kargi iqneba kuTxeebis mixedviT qoreografiuli dafolkloruli nimuSebis CarTva turSi;2. kargad dagegmili ivenTis saSualebiT qarTulifolklorisa da qoreografiis miznobrivi SerwymiTSesaZlebeli gaxdeba turistebze maqsimaluri STabeWdilebismoxdena;3. saintereso iqneba qoreografiisa da folkloriselementebis gamoyeneba qarTul tradiciul sufraze, sadacturistebs qarTuli gastronomiisa da Rvinis dagemovnebasTanerTad saSualeba miecemaT eziaron tradiciul qarTulkulturas;4. dRes saqarTveloSi arsebuli saero da religiuridResaswaulebis promouSenis sawarmoeblad saWiroa ucxoeTiswamyvan tur. operatorul kompaniebTan TanamSromloba arsebuliproduqtis SesaTavazeblad.5. saxelmwifos mxridan saWiroa, sagadasaxadostimulireba gaukeTdes im adgilobriv tur. operatorulkompaniebs, romlebic qarTuli tradiciebis, folklorisa daqoreografiis meSveobiT SeZleben saerTaSoriso turistebismozidvas saqarTvelos sxvadasxva istoriul-eTnografiulprovinciaSi.qveyanaSi Sida turizmis ganviTareba Cveni samSoblos yvelakuTxes SeakavSirebs, sazogadoebas ki SeamWidrovebs saerToerovnuli interesebis garSemo.1. n. kvaracxelia, kulturuli turizmi (Teoria da praqtika), Tbilisi,2009.2. l. fruiZe, `qarTuli eTnografia da tradiciebi~, Tbilisi, 1977.a. arabuli, e. TaTaraiZe, `SendobiT momixsenieT~, Tbilisi, 2007.i. gagulaSvili, `qoreografiuli folkloris ZiriTadi motivebisistoriuli Zirebi~, quTaisi, 2002.g. gociriZe, `kvebis xalxuri kultura da sufris tradiciebisaqarTveloSi~, Tbilisi, 2007.T. ivelaSvili, `saqorwilo wes-Cveulebani saqarTveloSi~, Tbilisi,1999.120 121


n. kvaracxelia, kulturuli turizmi (Teoria da praqtika), Tbilisi,2009.m. mowerelia, `stumarmaspinZlobis tradiciebi aRmosavleT saqarTvelosmTianeTSi~, Tbilisi, 1987.m. metreveli, a. arabuli, `kaxeTi~, Tbilisi, 2007.m. metreveli, `turizmis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da misi ganviTarebisperspeqtivebi saqarTveloSi~, Tbilisi, 2007.g. sturua, `Cveni sufra qarTuli~, Tbilisi, 2006.l. fruiZe, `qarTuli eTnografia da tradiciebi~, Tbilisi, 1977.T. qurdovaniZe, `qarTuli folklori~, Tbilisi, 2001. m. SilakaZe, `qarTuli xalxuri musikaluri tradiciebi daTanamedroveoba~, Tbilisi, 1988.Georgia - `Welcome to the world of history amazing traditions unbelievablenatural sights~. Tbilisi, 1998/1999.www.tourism.gov.gewww.tbilisi.gov.gewww.georgianwinehouse.comhttp://georgianwines.blogspot.comhttp://www.advantour.com/georgia/traditions.htmhttp://www.voyagegeorgie.com/Home_fichiers/Tradition_of_Georgia_toast_hospitality.htmhttp://www.Event.gejano TiTiraSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. malxaz Rvijiliaborjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkisfunqcionaluri zonirebisturistuli aspeqtebiekologiuri turizmi turizmis saxeobebs Soris erTerTiswrafad ganviTarebadi mimarTulebaa. yovelwliuradmsoflioSi mogzaurobs daaxlovebiT 700 milioni adamiani,aqedan 12-13% upiratesobas swored rom am mimarTulebasaniWebs, ris gamoc gaerom 2002 weli ekoturizmis wladgamoacxada.saqarTveloSi ekoturizmis ganviTarebas kargi perspeqtivebigaaCnia, romlis magaliTadac gamodgeba borjom-xaragauliserovnuli parki. igi mdebareobs saqarTvelos centralurnawilSi. aWara-imereTis qedis aRmosavleT monakveTis CrdiloeTda samxreT ferdobebze. erovnuli parkis ukiduresi CrdiloeTidaboloeba geografiulad im adgils emTxveva, sadac aWaraimereTisqedi CrdiloeTiT lixis qedSi gadadis. es qedebidasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleTisagan gamoyofen.borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki veluri bunebismravalferovnebis, kerZod, xeluxlebeli tyeebis, dacvis mizniTSeiqmna. igi moicavs xeluxlebeli tyis, sub-alpuri da alpurimdeloebis 85 000 heqtars, rac saqarTvelos farTobis TiTqmis1%-s Seadgens. igi 1995 wels bunebis dacvis msoflio fondisWWF-is da germaniis mTavrobis daxmarebiT Seiqmna, xolooficialurad ki 2001 wels gaixsna. es parki erT-erTi udidesiaevropaSi, romelic saerTaSoriso standartebis Sesabamisaddaarsebuli parkebidan pirveli erovnuli parkia kavkasiisregionSi. 2007 wlis 1 Tebervals parki gawevrianda evropisdaculi teritoriebis PAN – parkebis qselSi, rac daculiteritoriis umaRles doneze dacvisa da mdgradi turizmisganviTarebis garantias warmoadgens.122 123


jano TiTiraSviliborjom-xaragaulis erovnuliparkis funqcionaluri zonirebis turistuli aspeqtebiborjom -xaragauli s erovnuli parkSi aq tiuridasvenebisaTvis moqmedebs 9 salaSqro da sacxenosnoekoturistuli marSruti, romelTa bilikebis qseli saSualebasaZlevs molaSqreebs da bunebis moyvarulebs, datkbnen misimSvenieri floriTa da fauniT, naxon mravali ulamazesadayvavebuli mcenareebi da isiamovnon gasacvifrebeli xedebiT.marSrutebis xangrZlivoba meryeobs 1 dRidan 1 kviramde, 800metridan 2642 metr simaRlemde. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT,parkSi moqmedebs sxvadasxva sirTulis 9 markirebuli biliki:3. nikoloz romanovis biliki _ likanis dasaxlebidaniwyeba da mTavrdeba sof. marelisSi, xaragaulis raioni (43km.) an, piriqiT. laSqroba sasiamovno xdeba tipiur xeluxlebeltyeebsa da sub-alpur mdeloebze. lomis mTaze ki vizitorebigansakuTrebiT panoramebiT datkbebian. bilikis umaRlesiwertili zRvis donidan 2198 metria. biliks ivnisSi ayvavebulideka amSvenebs, aqvea wm. giorgis samlocvelo. bilikis gavlassWirdeba sami dRe da misi moqmedebis dro aprilidan oqtombrisbolomdea.4. wm. andria pirvelwodebulis biliki – iwyeba dagrZeldeba awyuris reinjerTa saguSagodan, amaraTis turistTa,samecxvarios reinjerTa da saxvlaris turistTa TavSesafrebisgavliT, mareliis reinjerTa saguSagomde (an, piriqiT). bilikismTliani sigrZe 54 km.-ia da miuyveba wm. andriapirvelwodebulis istoriul gzas. igi mTlianad kveTs parkssamxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken da Sesaferisia rogorclaSqrobisaTvis, aseve sacxenosno turisaTvis. mTlianad bilikisdasalaSqrad saWiroa 4 dRe, am drois ganmavlobaSi SevxvdebiTparkis umaRles mwvervals mTa samecxvarios, romlis simaRle2642 m.-ia, aseve rkinis jvars, romelic legendis mixedviT wm.andria pirvelwodebuls swored am adgilze aRumarTavs.5. panoramebis biliki – 34 km.-ia, iwyeba awyuris reinjerTasaguSagodan da amaraTis turistTa TavSesafris gavliTmTavrdeba. biliki gadis ulamazes adgilebSi da, SesaZlebelia,mwyemsebis cxovrebis stilis gacnoba.6. xeluxlebeli tyis biliki – kveTs parkis aRmosavleTnawilidan samxreT CrdiloeTisaken da zanavis SesasvlelsakavSirebs nunisis SesasvlelTan. bilikis sigrZe 13 km.-ia dagaTvaliswinebulia molaSqreebze. misi dalaSqvrisas gvxvdebawm. elias eklesiis nangrevebi. bilikis moqmedebis vada maisidannoembramdea.7. zekaris uReltexilis biliki – wriulia misi sigrZe31 km.-ia, iwyeba abasTumnis reinjerTa saguSagodan. mismniSvnelovan RirsSesaniSnaobas warmoadgens zekarisuReltexili. biliki moqmedebs maisidan noembramde.8. nakvalevis biliki – 13 km.-ia, iwyeba #1 bilikis nawilisgavliT da #6 bilikze gasasvliT erTmaneTs akavSirebs likansada qvabisxevs. biliki vizitorebs xeluxlebeli tyeebisa,ulamazesi xedebis, wm. mariamis me-9 saukunis eklesias daxemoTis cixis nangrevebis xilvas sTavazobs. xolo, visacsurs mokle da advili laSqroba, SesaZlebelia qvabisxevidanturis dawyeba da qvabisxevSi laSqroba. biliki moqmedebsaprilidan noembramde.9. erovnuli parkis sainformacio biliki – 3 km. wriuliaiwyeba da mTavrdeba erovnuli parkis borjomis vizitorTacentrTan. bilikis daTvalierebisas gvxvdeba wm. ninos eklesiisnangrevebi da 9 sainformacio-saganmanaTleblo stendi. bilikimoqmedebs aprilidan maisamde.10. meRrukis xeoba – 5.5 km. sigrZis biliki iwyeba saxvlaristuristTa TavSesafridan da miuyveba mdinare meRrukis viwroxeobas, romlis ferdobebi dafarulia kolxuri tipis tyeebiT.bilikis dalaSqvras saWiroebs 3 saaTi – erTi mimarTulebiT.misi gavla rekomendirebulia zafxulis cxel dReebSi.11. mwyemsebis biliki – 14 km. iwyeba likanidan an awyurisreinjerTa saguSagodan da Savi seris meSveobiT #1 da #2biliks erTmaneTTan akavSirebs. biliki saWiroebs or RamisTevaslomis mTisa da amaraTis turistul TavSesafrebSi.124 125


jano TiTiraSvilibilikebis gaswvriv ganlagebulia ZiriTadi turistuliinfrastruqtura, romelic moicavs 2 administraciul Senobas,romlebic amave dros funqcionirebs rogorc vizitorTacentrebi, sastumros 5 nomers, 4 turistul TavSesafarsturistuli marSrutebis gaswvriv (lomis mTa, amaraTi, saxvlarida abasTumani), aseve sakarve da sapiknike adgilebs, romlebicmowyobilia parkis SesasvlelebSi da TavSesafrebTan (qvabisxevi,zanavi, nunisi, awyuri, abasTumani, marelisi).borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki Seqmnilia unikaluribunebis dacva-konservaciis mizniT. imisaTvis, rom turizmisganviTarebam sargebeli moutanos erovnul parks da ar moxdesmavne zemoqmedeba biomravalferovnebis konservaciaze,mniSvnelovania parkis gamtarunarianobis dadgena. turistebisis raodenoba, romelic parks stumrobs, dReisaTvis ar axdensuaryofiT zegavlenas parkze, Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom turistebisborjom-xaragaulis erovnuliparkis funqcionaluri zonirebis turistuli aspeqtebiraodenoba yovelwliurad izrdeba, rac Sesabamisad metzegavlenas iqoniebs, rogorc biomravalferovnebaze aseveinfrastruqturazec.arsebuli turistuli infrastruqturisa da adamianuriresursis gaTvaliswinebiT dRe-RameSi SesaZlebelia 120RamisTeva parkis teritoriaze. arsebobs oTxi turistuliTavSesafari, TiToeulSi aris 12 adgili _ sul 48 adgili;garda amisa RamisTeva SesaZlebelia mcvelTa TavSesafrebSic_ daaxloebiT 12 adgili, vizitorTa centrebis sastumroebSi_ 10 adgili, aseve daaxloebiT 50 sakarve adgili.rac Seexeba erTdRian turistebs, arsebuli bilikebis qselisgaTvaliswinebiT, SesaZlebelia dReSi daaxloebiT 150 turistismiReba.parkis marSrutebis qseli met-naklebadaa datvirTuli,amisaTvis turistebis raodenoba optimalurad undagadanawildes TiToeul marSrutze, aqedan gamomdinare undaxorcieldebodes parkis TiToeul marSrutze turistebisraodenobis monitoringi SemuSavebuli standartebis Sesabamisad.erTdRiani turistebis raodenoba turze ar undaaRematebodes 30, xolo RamisTevis turistebis raodenobaTiToeul turze _ 12. rac Seexeba sacxeno turs turzecxenebis raodenoba ar unda aRematebodes 10 cxens.ar SeiZleba mwuxarebiT ar aRvniSnoT 2008 wlis agvistosomis dros ruseTis samxedroebis TviTmfrinavebis mier gaCenilixanZari, romelmac borjom-xaragaulis tye-parkis da atenistyeebis 1100 heqtarze meti gaanadgura. es teritoriasaqarTvelos tyeebis mxolod 0,04%, magram is regionisekosistemisaTvis, mcenareTa da cxovelTa jiSebismravalferivnebisaTvis umniSvnelovanesia.Bborjomis raionismunicifalitetis winaswari monacemebiT regionisaTvis xanZriTmiyenebuli zarali 30 milionamde aRwevda xolo ekologiurida biomravalferovnebis TvalsazrisiT imdenad didia, romTavisuflad SeiZleba zarali Seufasebladac CaiTvalos, risgamoc saqarTvelos prezidentma gaeros generalur asambleazeam vandalur faqts ekocidi uwoda.126 127


jano TiTiraSvili2009 wels erovnul parkSi Catarebulma marketingulmakvlevebma Semdegi Sedegebi aCvena:vizitorebis borjom-xaragaulis erovnul parkSilaSqrobis motivaciaborjom-xaragaulis erovnuliparkis funqcionaluri zonirebis turistuli aspeqtebisad isurvebdnen vizitorebi Ramis gaTevas?rogor afaseben vizitorebi momsaxurebis xarisxs?ramdenad xSirad mogzauroben vizitorebi?romeli bilikebi gamoiyenes vizitorebma?ra momsaxurebebi gamoiyenes vizitorebma ?128 129


jano TiTiraSviliborjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis 2010 wlis aprilmaisisfasebi vizitorTvis ase gamoiyureba:1. turistuli TavSesafari 1 dRe 1 adamiani – 10 lari2. sastumroebi – RamisTeva 15 lari; sauzme – 5 lari;vaxSami – 10 lari.3. gidis daqiraveba _ 1 dRe 35 lari4. cxenis daqiraveba – 1 dRe 40 lari;aRWurviloba:1. saZile tomara – 1 dRe 5 lari;2. zurgCanTa – 1 dRe 5 lari3. karvis daqiraveba _ 1 dRe 7 lari;4. sakarave adgilis aReba _ 1 dRe 5 lari;5. samTo velosipedis daqiraveba _ 1 dRe 70 lari.n. beruCaSvili, borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki. 2004.m. metreveli, turizmisa da stumarmaspinZlobis safuZvlebi, 2008.borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parkis salaSqro ruka.s. cagareiSvili, ekoturizmi imereTSi, Jurnali `novacia~, #4, 2009.k. Tolordava, borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki, Jurnali `cxeliSokoladi~, #4. 2008.n. robaqiZe, `zarali, romelic fuliT ar izomeba~, Jurnali `liberali~,#1, 2009.www.Garemo.Itdc.gewww.borjomi-kharagauli-np.genino oTaraSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. malxaz RvinjiliamomlocvelobiTi turizmis resursebisaqarTveloSireligiuri turizmi kulturuli turizmis Tanamedroveindustriis Semadgenel nawils warmoadgens. msoflioturistuli organizaciis statistikuri departamentismonacemebiT msoflioSi yvelaze maRali moTxovniT xasiaTdebianSemdegi turistuli obieqtebi: salocavebi, meCeTebi, sakultomuzeumebi da sulieri centrebi. unda aRiniSnos, romkulturuli turizmi msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelazemaRalganviTarebadi dargia, romlisgan miRebuli Semosavalisakmaod soliduria.religiur turs aqvs sami forma: momlocveloba, saeklesioturebi religiuri TematikiT da specializirebuli turebi,romlebSic erTiandebian momlocvelebi da eqskursantebi.momlocvelobis saerTo safuZvels rwmena warmoadgens.mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom locva an esa Tu is ritualidakavSirebuli unda iyos RvTaebasTan, raime kavSiris mqoneama Tu im adgilTan, bunebriv an xelqmnil obieqtTan. 1.momlocvelobis mTavari miznebia: religiuri ritualis Catareba an masSi monawileobismiReba; wminda adgilis, taZris, wminda nawilebis Tayvaniscema; sulieri srulyofa; locva-kurTxevis sulieri Tu fizikuri gajansaRebisrCevis miReba; politikuri an sxva miznebis miRweva liderobis uflebismosapoveblad an religiur erTobaSi Tu seqtaSigasawevrianeblad; aRqmis an epitimiis Sesruleba codvebisagangansawmendad. 2qristianobaSi wminda miwis molocva IV saukunidan iwyeba,kerZod ki _ 325 wels, rac dakavSirebulia imperator130 131


nino oTaraSvilimomlocvelobiTi turizmis resursebi saqarTveloSikonstantine didis dedis _ elenes saxelTan. man moilocawminda miwa, aRmarTa taZari da jvari, riTac safuZveli CauyarajvarTamaRlebis dResaswauls. 3saqarTvelo kavkasionis mTis samxreTiT, Savi da kaspiiszRvebs Soris mdebareobs. misi saxelmwifoebrioba TiTqmis3500 wels iTvlis, xolo qristianobis gavrcelebis istoria_ 2000 wels. mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom saqarTvelossapatriarqoSi organizebulia momlocvelTa samsaxuri, romelicdakavebulia religiuri turizmis ganviTarebis xelSewyobiT. 4saqarTvelos sapatriarqos aqvs wminda ninos momlocvelobiTigza (turi), momlocvelebi gadian im gzas, romelic wmindaninom gaiara qarTlis gasaqristianeblad. 5wminda ninos religiuri turi. qristianobis mqadagebelida gamavrcelebeli saqarTveloSi (IV saukunis 30-iani wlebi),warmoSobiT kapadokieliberZeni; gadmocemiT, ninos mamai m p e r a tor m a q s i m i a nesmxedarTmTavari yofila. Semdegmas samsaxurisaTvis Tavidaunebebia da ierusalimSiwasula, sadac SeurTavsierusalimis patriarqisiubenalis da susana. bolosberad aRkvecila, deda kigl axakTa sa mzru nv el osm s a xu r i ga m xd a r a .ierusalimidan nino imperatorkons ta ntine I- is kar zemoxvedrila, sadac dedofalelenesa da sefe qalebsqristianobas uqadagebda. Semdeg nino saqarTveloSi wamosula.mcxeTaSi, Tavis sadgomSi, salocavad aRumarTavs vazis totisagangakeTebuli jvari. ninos qadagebiTa da samkurnalo xelovnebiTmosaxleobis yuradReba da siyvaruli daumsaxurebia. masmetsaxelad `tyvesac~ eZaxdnen, rogorc ucxoel uTvistomoadamians. ninos wyalobiT mcxeTaSi misvlidan meeqvse welsninom gaaqristiana qarTlis dedofali nana, xolo Semdegmefe miriani da samefo ojaxis sxva wevrebi. amis Semdegninos rCeviT mefem mociqulebi gaagzavna imperatorkonstantinesTan samRvdeloebis Camosayvanad, raTa xalximoenaTlaT da ekurTxebinaT axlad agebuli eklesia. ninossamisionero moRvaweoba gaugrZelebia qarTlis samefos sxvakuTxeebSic. erisTavis, samRvdeloebisa da jaris TanxlebiTnino mTianeTSi asula da wilknelebi, WarTelelebi, fxovelebida erwo-TianeTelebic gauqristianebia. ukan dabrunebisas isavad gamxdara da sofel bodinSi (axlandeli bodbe)gardaicvala. ninos, rogorc wmindanis, xsenebis dResaswauladeklesiam daawesa 14 ianvari (Zveli stili).uZveles berZnul-laTinur wyaroebSi (IV-V ss.) ninoixsenieba, rogorc `tyve qali~, somxurSi _ `nunu~, arabulkopturSi_ `Teognosta~.yovelwliurad, pirvel ivniss, javaxeTSi faravnis tbasTan,sofel fokaSi, wminda ninos saqarTveloSi SemosvlisaRsaniSnavad wirva tardeba, wirvis Semdeg ki morwmuneebifexiT iwyeben msvlelobas da gadian wminda ninos mier ganvlilgzas. am msvlelobas wminda ninos gzasac ki uwodeben. gzabolos 13 ivliss sruldeba mcxeTaSi, Tormeti mociqulisxsenebis dRes. gzis monawileebi xatebiTa da bairaRebiTdaivlian javaxeTs da Semdeg qarTlis soflebs, maTTan erTaddadis samRvdeloebac. inaTlebian adamianebi, ikurTxeba saxlebi,soflebi. 6 marTlmadidebeli eklesia wminda mociqulis andriapirvelwodebul is saqarTveloSi S emosvlis dResaRniSnavs.wminda andria pirvelwodebuli qristes Tormetimowafidan (Sio mRvimeli, ioseb alaverdeli, anton martyofeli,Tedeoz stefanwmindeli, piros breTeli, ise wilkneli, stefaneqiziyeli, isidore samTavneli, miqael ulumboeli, zenoniyalToeli da daviT garejeli) erT-erTi mowafeTagani iyoda pirvel saukuneSi qristianobis saqadageblad saqarTveloSiSemovida.gadmocemis Tanaxmad, Tavidan mociquli qadagebda iudeassamariaSi, aseve RazaSi. Razadan gadavida palestinis qalaqlidaSi, sadac SemdgomSi mowamebrivad aResrula wminda giorgi.Semdgom gadavida antioqiaSi da iqedan edesaSi (q. TurqeTi).36 wels wminda andria mociquli gadavida bizantiis berZnul132 133


nino oTaraSviliqalaqSi, romelic Semdgom gaxdakonstantinopoli. aq man daadginaepiskoposad staqo samocdaaTTagani.Semdeg iqadaga kapadokiaSi, galatiaSi,a s ev e i y o b er Znu l p on toS i(dRevandel CrdiloeT TurqeTi), xoloSemdeg gaemarTa saqarTveloSi daSemdeg somxeTSi. amiT Tavisi qadagebadaasrula da dabrunda ierusalimSi. 7saqarTvelos sapatriarqos misiisada evangelizaciis ganyofilebam,romelic piligrimuli marSrutebisSeswavlaze muSaobs, 2000 wlis 14maisidan (Tamaroba) 26 noembramdesaeklesio pirebTan da morwmunemrevlTan erTad ganvlo wminda andria pirvelwodebulis gza.svla goniodan daiwyo da miiRo Semdegi piligrimuli marSrutissaxe: gonio-xelvaCauri-qeda-Suaxevi-xulo-sxalTa-goderZisuReltexili-zarzma-adigeni-abasTumani-axalcixe-andriawmindazekari-baRdadi-Terjola-zestafoni-xaragauli-saCxere-WiaTuraoni-ambrolauri-cageri-lentexi-sasaSiu-juxaSi-zesxo-canauSguli-ifari-mulaxibeCo-eceri-xaiSi-jvari-walenjixazugdidi-Cxorowyu-martviliabaSa-senaki-xobi-foTi-ozurgeTilanCxuTi-Coxatauri-vani-samtredia-quTaisi.saeklesio pirebiasrulebdnen naTlobas, wesis agebas, jvriswerisa da sxvaritualebs. 8saqarTveloSi turizmi miCneulia ekonomikuri ganviTarebiserT-erT prioritetul mimarTulebad. aqedan gamomdinare boloperiodSi aRiniSneboda gansakuTrebuli interesi religiuriturizmisa da momlocvelobisadmi. Tumca dResdReobiT turizmiaRar viTardeba, rasac xels uSli qveyanaSi arsebulipolitikuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareoba. qveyanaSi Sidaturizmis ganviTarebis erT-erTi yvelaze didi xelSemSlelifaqtori iyo 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omi. es yvelaferistatistikur monacemebSi naTladaa asaxuli. 9saqarTvelo yvelaze saSiSi turistuli qveynebis siaSime-11 adgils ikavebs, _ amis Sesaxeb franguli gidgamocemamomlocvelobiTi turizmis resursebi saqarTveloSiPetit Fute werda. azerbaijanuli saagento `apa-ekonomiqsis~informaciiT, franguli gamocemebis mier turistebisaTvis saSiSiqveynebis siaSi saqarTvelo ruseTTan arastabiluriurTierTobis gamo moxvda. 10 yvelaze saSiSi turistuliqveynebis siaSi avRaneTi, erayi, somali, bolivia, gondurasi,kolumbia, livia, malaizia, samxreT korea da fiji. faqtia, rommsgavsi tipis gancxadebebi ramdenime wliT ukan wevs dasakmaod cud rols TamaSobs adamianebze, romelTacsaqarTveloSi Camosvla surT.saqarTvelos sapatriarqos turizmisa departamentisstatistikuri monacemebiT saqarTveloSi momlocvelTa ricxviTandaTan mcirdeba.2006 wels saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionSi molocvismizniT Sida turebiT imogzaura 1450 piligrimma. poloneTidanqveyanas ewvia 30 piligrimi. qveynidan gasulma piligrimebmamoiloces tao-klarjeTi (54 kaci), ierusalimi (307 kaci),egvi pte (22 kaci) da italia (23 kaci).2007 wels saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionSi molocvismizniT imogzaura 3000 Sida piligrimma. ruseTidan CamovidamomlocvelTa 15 kaciani jgufi. qveynidan gasulma piligrimebmamoiloces tao-klarjeTi (350 kaci), ierusalimi (639 kaci)da egvipte (45 kaci).2008 wlis maisis Tvemde monacemebiT: Sida turebSimonawileoba miiRo 350 momlocvelma, qveynidan gasulmapiligrimebma moiloces tao-klarjeTi (170 kaci), ierusalimi(448 kaci) da egvi pte (26 kaci). piligrimTa jgufebi Semovidaukrainidan da ruseTidan (daaxloebiT 34 kaci).statistikur monacemebze dayrdnobiT 2009 wels wmindaadgilebis molocvis mizniT ucxoel momlocvelTa jgufi arSemosula. qveynidan gasulma piligrimebma (daaxloebiT 100kaci) moiloces ierusalimi, aseve italia (26 kaci). 11mniSvnelovania isic, rom zemoT mocemuli statistikurimonacemebi naTlad ver asaxavs religiuri turizmis ganviTarebissuraTs, radgan Cven veyrdnobiT saqarTvelos sapatriarqosmier mowodebul monacemebs da xelT ar gvaqvs amave saqmianobiTdakavebuli turistuli kompaniebis statistikuri monacemebi.134 135


nino oTaraSvilisaqarTveloSi turizmi sabWoTa wyobis mere axla iwyebsganviTarebas da momavalSi didi potenciali aqvs Cvens qveyanasturizmis sferoSi. ubralod, am sferos didi Sroma da codnasWirdeba.saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebeliaaRdges, ganviTardes religiuri dResaswaulebi, xalxuri rewva,religiur Temebze suvenirebis warmoeba. es ZalianmniSvnelovania religiuri turizmis popularizaciisaTvis,radgan nebismieri momlocveli cdilobs, mosaloci siwmindisteritoriebze SeiZinos nivTebi, romlebic misTvis siwmindesTanaris dakavSirebuli. 12saqarTvelo gamorCeulia msoflio mniSvnelobisqristianuli siwmindeebiT. mniSvnelovania, rom qarTulireligiuri da sapiligrimo turebis safuZvelia saqarTvelosmarTlmadidebluri eklesiis mdidari istoriuli dakulturuli memkvidreoba. ucxoel piligrimTa yuradRebasipyrobs is faqti, rom aq ganisvenebs msoflio mniSvnelobissiwminde ieso qristes ukerveli kvarTi, romelic mcxeTelmaebraelebma macxovris jvarcmis Semdeg CamoabrZanes (mcxeTa).saqarTveloSia agreTve wminda mariamis kvarTi (zugdidi),wminda ninos (siRnaRi) da simon kananelis (axali aToni)saflavebi. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom saqarTveloSi Camosulturistebs, kerZod ki _ piligrimebs, SeuZliaT naxon damoilocon 12 aTasze meti istoriuli Zegli. 13piligrimuli turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis saWiroa religiurdResaswaulebze piligrimuli da religiuri marSrutebisdamkvidreba. turistuli saagentoebi turistebs ver moizidaven,Tu saqarTvelo mimzidveli qveyana ar gaxda ucxoelituristebisaTvis. turistuli saagentoebi unda gaaqtiurdnenTavisi saqmianobis doneze da mravalferovani, erTmaneTisagangamorCeuli produqti unda SesTavazon klientebs. saqarTveloSiamisaTvis gvaqvs yvelanairi resursi _ bunebrivi da istoriuli.momlocvelobiTi turizmis resursebi saqarTveloSi3. iqve;4. m. metreveli, religiuri turizmi saqarTveloSi, winaistoria daganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTulebebi, Jurn. „saqarTvelos ekonomika~,# 6, 2008.5. www.ka.wikipedia.org6. iqve;7. m. Rvinjilia, piligrimuli turizmis resursebi saqarTvelosSavizRvispireTis regionSi, J. „mecniereba da teqnologiebi~, 1-3, 2002.8. iqve;9. www.conference.ge10. iqve;11. m. metreveli, religiuri turizmi saqarTveloSi, winaistoria daganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTulebebi, Jurn. „saqarTvelos ekonomika~,# 6, 2008.12. iqve;13. iqve.1. m. metreveli, religiuri turizmi saqarTveloSi, winaistoria daganviTarebis strategiuli mimarTulebebi, Jurn. „saqarTvelos ekonomika~,#6, 2008.2. m. birJakovi, turizmis Teoria, Tb., 2004.136 137


TinaTin qristesaSvilimagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. malxaz Rvinjiliadidi abreSumis gzis turistulipotenciali`didi abreSumis gza~ Tanamedrove msoflios masStabiTyvelaze aqtualuri proeqtia, romelic masobrivi ganxilvissagania da masze msoflio organizaciebi muSaoben. XXI saukunisdasawyisSi es erTxans miviwyebuli marSruti kvlav udidesmniSvnelobas iZens, raTa misi mdidari istoriul-kulturuligamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT Seiqmnas urTierTobisa daTanamSromlobis axleburi, optimaluri forma aRmosavleTsada dasavleTs Soris, gaimarTos kulturaTa dialogi, romelicufro daakavSirebs kulturebsa da civilizaciebs da uTuodharmoniuls gaxdis sxvadasxva qveynis kulturaTaurTierTgamdidrebis, mSvidobiani Tanaarsebobis process. TuTvals gadavavlebT abreSumis gzaze arsebuli qveynebis istorias,rogoricaa: iaponia, korea, CineTi, uzbekeTi, yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi,tajikeTi, pakistani, TurqmeneTi, azerbaijani, saqarTvelo,saberZneTi, egvi pte, aSkarad aRmovaCenT kulturaTaurTierTgavlenis uamrav magaliTs, axali mimarTulebebis gaCenasfilosofiaSi, literaturasa da xelovnebaSi, romlebickulturaTa mijnaze Seiqmna. mocemuli situaciis mixedviT`abreSumis gzis~ garSemo gaerTianebuli qveynebi gansxvavdebianTavianTi istoriuli, religiuri, sakanonmdeblo Tu politikurimowyobis maCveneblebiT.XX saukunis bolodan intensiurad mimdinareobs muSaoba`abreSumis gzis~ monawile qveynebisa da, zogadad, msofliosmasStabiT qveynebs Soris urTierTobebis daregulirebissakiTxebSi. `didi abreSumis gzis~ proeqtSi monawile qveynebigaerTianebulni arian `mto~-Si, rac iTvaliswinebs `abreSumisgzis~ proeqtis ganxilvas msoflio masStabiT iseT mniSvnelovanfaqtorebs Soris, rogoricaa: saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebissakiTxebi da TanamSromloba; ekonomikuri, infrastruqturuli,politikuri da kulturuli sakiTxebis ganxilva da erToblivimisaRebi formebis SemuSaveba.mniSvnelovania `didi abreSumis gzis~ proeqtisganxorcielebis mizani, romelic iTvaliswinebs saerTaSorisodialogs msoflios qveynebs Soris. Tanamedrove `abreSumisgzis~ proeqtis ganxorcielebisaTvis saqarTvelo CarTuliamsoflios mraval sxva qveyanasTan erTad sxvadasxvaRonisZiebaSi.msoflios masStabiT imarTeba sxvadaxva saxis Sexvedrebi,konferenciebi, sxdomebi da ganixileba ~abreSumis gzis~ proeqtisganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. sxdomebisa da Sexvedrebis gardatardeba sxvadasxva rut. marSruti da samanqano Sejibrebi,romelic abreSumis gzas gaivlis. `abreSumis gzis~ proeqtisganviTarebis sakiTxSi aqtiurad aris CarTuli iunesko da`mto~-s organizacia.msoflios Tanamedrove `abreSumis gza~ es aris:`abreSumis rkinigza~;`10 + 3~ _ es gaxlavT aRmosavleT aziis SedarebiTmcire aTi qveyana, romelic karga xania SekavSirebulia, plussami ekonomikuri giganti: CineTi, iaponia da samxreT korea,romlebic maT axlaxan SeuerTdnen.`trasekas~ proeqtad wodebuli navTobsadeni, romelicsaqarTveloze gaivlis.`abreSumis gzis~ Tanamedrove proeqti umniSvnelovanesiproeqtia, romelsac msofliosTvis udidesi warmatebis motanaSeuZlia erTa Soris urTierTobis damyarebaSi.`didi abreSumis gzis~ proeqts SeiZleba mSvidobis proeqticewodos.`abreSumis gzis~, rogorc tur. produtis gamoyenebadakavSirebulia mravalricxovani moTxovnebis dakmayofilebasTan,romelTac msoflios turistuli organizacia moiTxovs imqveynebisgan, romlebic am istoriuli gzis gaswvriv mdebareoben,raTa warmatebulad iqnes misi, rogorc tur. SeTavazebisgamoyeneba.`abreSumis gzis~ regionis potenciur mgzavrTa umravlesobaaris 55 wlis da metis da maT umravlesobas aqvs saerTaSoriso138 139


TinaTin qristesaSviliturizmis didi gamocdileba. `abreSumis gzis~ monawileebsmoswonT gareT Catarebul RonisZiebebSi monawileobis miReba.garda dadebiTi mxareebisa aris uaryofiTi mxareebic, romelTakoreqtireba tur. kompaniebis ZalisxmeviT unda moxdes.`abreSumis gzis~, rogorc STambeWdavi adgilis, Sesaxebinformacia SezRudulia. barieria mosazreba, rom ~abreSumisgzis~ gavlas didi dro sWirdeba da a. S.am marSrutis monawileebs surT gaicnon ~abreSumis gzaze~arsebuli qveynebis istoria da kultura.`abreSumis gzas~ udidesi potenciali aqvs, rogorc tur.produqts. aTiaTasobiT turistis daintereseba da mozidvaaSesaZlebeli `abreSumis gzaze~ samogzaurod sworad dagegmilida Seqmnili tur. SeTavazebis safuZvelze. `abreSumis gza~,rogorc turistuli produqti, farTo istoriuli dakulturuli rakursis momcvelia, romelic exeba aramartoerTi an ori, aramed aTeulobiT qveynis warsuls.`abreSumis gzis~ proeqtis, rogorc turistuli produqtis,gansaxorcieleblad aucilebelia:upirveles yovlisa, usafrTxoebis zomebis miRebaregulireba.komunikaciebis mowesrigeba yvela im qveynebs Soris,romlebzec am gzam unda gaiaros.gamarTuli infrastruqtura, romelSic Sedis gzebi,transporti, momsaxurebis obieqtebi.`abreSumis gza~, rogorc Tanamedrove turistuli produqti,moiTxovs im ZiriTadi moTxovnebis dakmayofilebas, romelsacayeneben saerTaSoriso tur. operatorebi `abreSumis gzis~qveynebis mimarT. saqarTvelos odiTganve mWidro kavSiri hqonda`abreSumis gzasTan~, igi erT-erTi im qveyanaTagania, romelzecuZveles dros es gza gadioda.`aberSumis gzis~ Tanamedrove proeqtis ganxorcieleba,upirveles yovlisa, gazrdis saqarTvelos geopolitikur dastrategiul mniSvnelobas msoflios masStabiT, rac Cveniqveynis usafrTxoebis garanti iqneba. am proeqtSi monawileobaCveni qveynisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi iqneba aseve sxva danarCenmonawile da aramarto monawile qveynebTan mWidro savaWro,didi abreSumis gzis turistuli potencialiekonomikuri, kulturuli, politikuri da turistuli kavSirisgasaRrmaveblad. saqarTvelos didi potenciali aqvs, rogorcturistul qveyanas. `didi abreSumis~ gzis proeqtSi Cveniqveynis CarTva turistuli kuTxiT udidesi warmateba iqnebaqveynis, rogorc turistuli obieqtis, ganviTarebisaTvis.winamdebare proeqtis ganxorcieleba da masSi saqarTvelosCarTuloba maqsimalurad Seuwyobs xels Cveni qveynis, rogorctranzituli qveynis, Camoyalibebas.`abreSumis gzis~ uZvelesi marSruti saqarTveloSi mdinaremtkvris gavliT, Semdeg ki rion-yvirilas marSrutiT foTisakenmiemarTeboda, saidanac Sav zRvaze gadioda da iqedanukavSirdeboda bizantiasa da roms.Tanamedrove `abreSumis gzis~ proeqtis marSrutisaTvisaseve mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos mxridan mzaoba proeqtissafuZvliani da maRali doniT ganxorcilebaSi.`abreSumis gzis~ e. w. `trasekas~ proeqtSi monawileobisTvissaqarTvelo intensiurad muSaobs sxvadasxva qveyanasTanTanamSromlobisa da infrastruqturis mowyobis sakiTxebze.`abreSumis gza~, rogorc turistuli produqti, undaganvixiloT kulturuli turizmis kuTxiT.kulturuli turizmi msoflio turistul bazarzedRiTidRe ufro did adgils ikavebs da am segmentisumniSvnelovanesi nawili xdeba.saqarTvelos kulturuli turizmis mxriv msoflioturistuli bazris momxmareblebisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi daudidesi tur. prodqtis SeTavazebis SesaZlebloba gaaCnia.`abreSumis gzis~, rogorc turistuli marSrutis gamoyeneba,saqarTvelos SesaZleblobas miscems moaxdinos sakuTarikulturuli memkvidreobis komercializacia. kulturuliturizmi regionaluri ekonomikis ganviTarebis sawindaria.`abreSumis gzis~ proeqti saSualebas iZleva ganviTardesara mxolod kulturuli, aramed turizmis sxva saxeobebic.`abreSumis gzis~, rogorc turistuli produqtis, gamoyenebaSesaZlebelia mravalmxrivad.umTavresi tur. produqti, romelic am TematikiTSesaZlebelia SevTavazoT momxmarebels _ es aris:140 141


TinaTin qristesaSviliqarTuli abreSumis gacnoba;saqarTveloSi gamavali ~abreSumis gzis~ monakveTzeSedgenili marSruti;mogzauroba abreSumis gzaze;velo-turi;jip-turi;saqaravno turi;safexmavlo turi;turebis istoriul-kulturuli rakursiT Sevseba.`abreSumis gzis~ turistuli produqtis CamoyalibebiTSesaZlebelia msoflios masStabiT arsebuli potenciurituristebis mozidva da daintereseba. aRniSnuli turistuliproduqtis Seqmnas da Camoyalibebas SesaZlebelia mohyvesiseTi dadebiT maCveneblebi, rogoricaa:kulturuli turizmis ganviTareba;mezobel qveynebs Soris ekonomikuri, kulturuli dapolitikuri urTierTobebis gaRrmaveba;qveynis ekonomikis zrda;turistuli infrastruqturis ganviTareba;istoriul-kulturuli Zeglebis dacva da SenarCuneba;ekonomikur aRmavlobasTan erTad qveynis umniSvnelovanesiproblemis dasaqmebis mogvareba.`abreSumis gzis~ turistuli mxriv gamoyeneba qveynismravalmxrivi warmatebis momtani da upirvelesad misiganviTarebisTvis mniSvnelovani proeqtia. am tur. produqtisCamoyalibebisa da ganviTarebisaTvis saqarTvelom mWidropolitikuri da ekonomikuri TanamSromloba unda iqoniosmezobel qveynebTan, gansakuTrebiT ki im qveynebTan, romlebic`abreSumis gzis~ proeqtSi monawileoben. partnior qveynebTanTanamSromlobisa da stabiluri urTierTobis SemuSavebasTanerTad qveynis umTavresi amocanaa Sida politikuristabilurobis SenarCuneba, ekonomikis dargebis ganviTareba,sakomunikacio, infrastruqturis da usafrTxoebis pirobebisgamyareba.saqarTvelo udidesi turistuli potencialis matarebeliqveyanaa, romelsac mniSvnelovnad xelsayreli geopolitikurididi abreSumis gzis turistuli potencialimdebareoba aqvs, swored es faqtorebi unda iqnes gamoyenebuli`didi abreSumis gzis~ proeqtSi monawileobisas, raTa kidevufro mkafio gaxdes saukunis proeqtSi monawileobisaucilebloba.l. koWlamazaSvili, T. yandaSvili, „turizmi da transportisindustria~, Tb., 2008. Биржаков В. С., Никифоров Н. С., Индустрия туризма: Перевозки, М.,2007.Гереев С. А., Международное транспортное право, М., 1987. Гуляев В. Г., Туристские перевозки, М., 1998.Ильна Е. Н., Менеджмент транспортных услуг, М., 1997.Косолопов А. Е., Туристское страноведение, М., 1999.Петров С. В., Планирование и организация транспортных путешествий,М., 1986.Шаповал Е. Ф., История туризма, М., 1999.www.exotur.gewww.adventur.gewww.wikipedia.com142 143


zaqaria faliaSvilis opera`abesalom da eTeri~(marixis kanconeta, eTeris ariebi)(vokalur-teqnikur-saSemsruleblo kvleviTi analizi)vokalur-teqnikursaSemsruleblokvleviTianalizinaSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiTstatiis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ prof. Jana ToiZelia barbaqaZemagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. Jana ToiZez. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~zaqaria faliaSvili qarTuli musikis istoriaSi Sevida,rogorc gamoCenili novatori, qarTuli klasikuri operisfuZemdebeli. igi centraluri figuraa pirveli TaobiskompozitorTa Soris. man udidesi roli Seasrula erovnulisakompozitoro skolis ganviTarebaSi. kompozitorismemkvidreobaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba mis operebs,romlebic asaxavs istoriuli warsulis heroikas, xalxiscxovrebis suraTebs, qarTuli erovnuli eposis diad saxeebs.man gaamdidra qarTuli musika WeSmariti simfonizmiselementebiT. 1saopero musikis sferoSi z. faliaSvilma farToSemoqmedebiTi diapazoni gamoavlina, Seqmna operis sami arsebiTadgansxvavebuli tipi: monumenturi opera-tragedia `abesalomda eTeri~, lirikul-dramatuli opera `daisi~ da gmirulpatriotuloopera `latavra~. misi operebi damkvidrdaqarTuli saopero Teatris ZiriTad fondSi. kompozitorissaukeTeso qmnilebebis `abesalom da eTeris~ da `daisis~popularoba didi xania gascda saqarTvelos farglebs.`abesalom da eTeris~ avtors jer kidev mis sicocxleSiqarTveli `glinka~ uwodes. Tavis nawarmoebebSi z. faliaSviliuSualod iyenebs xalxuri simRerisa da cekvebis Temebs, magrames meTodi ar aris misTvis ZiriTadi. man ganazogada xalxurimusikis sxvadasxva stilisturi Tavisebureba (qarTl-kaxuridialeqtis wamyvani rolis SenarCunebiT) da amiT Tavis144 145


lia barbaqaZez. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~SemoqmedebaSi, pirvel rigSi ki, `abesalom da eTerSi~ SeqmnaerTiani, zogadqarTuli ena, romelic safuZvlad daedo qarTulmusikalur klasikas. `qarTuli erovnuli simRera-galobac...Tavisi ricxviTa da mravalxmianobiT imdenad mdidaria, romSesaZloa, axali xana Seqmnas musikis xelovnebaSio~, _ ambobdakompozitori.operas Seqmnis safuZvlad daedo xalxuri legenda abesalomda eTerze, romelic xalxSi `eTerianis~ saxeliTaa cnobili.operis libretos rac Seexeba, igi xalxuri Tqmulebis mTlianisaxiT warmodgenis saintereso cdaa. pirvelad Jurnal`faskunjSi~ daibeWda 1908 wels. p. mirianaSvilma xalxuriteqstis garda gamoiyena vaJas poemis calkeuli strofi,`vefxistyaosnisa~ da i. WavWavaZis leqsis fragmentebi. operismeore moqmedebis da teqstis nawili a. wuwunavas ekuTvnis,xolo marixis kanconetis teqsti _ TviTon p. mirianaSvils.sainteresoa operis Janrobrivi saxis dadgena. operaSigamoyenebulia TiTqmis yvela saopero Janri: lirikuli (pirveliaqti), epikuri (meore aqti) da gansakuTrebiT tragikuli(mesame da meoTxe aqtebi). operas SeiZleba vuwodoT lirikulepikuritragedia. operis dramaturgiul ganviTarebaSi oTxiZiriTadi etapia aRsaniSnavi: pirveli moqmedeba _ siyvarulisCasaxva, meore moqmedeba _ saqorwino nadimi, mesame moqmedeba_ ganSoreba, meoTxe moqmedeba _ gmirebis sikvdili.marixis kanconeta III aqtidanmarixi meorexarisxovani rolia, Tumca Zalze maxvilidaxasiaTeba gaaCnia, ar aqvs kavSiri operis dramatulganwyobasTan, erTaderTi mxiaruli da xalisiani gmiria,mTlianobiT gamorCeuli musikaluri saxe, abesalomis dis _marixis, lirikul-saxumaro kanconeta kupleturi varirebaa.moqnili, moZravi melodika, instrumentuli bunebis Tema,graciozuli, sada. sacekvao sawyisi misi struqturulielementia. xasiaTiT da ritmo-intonaciuri wyobiT hgavs gurulsacekvao simReras. erTaderTi personaJia, romlis vokaluripartia sacekvao sawyisiT xasiaTdeba. misi partiis melodikasacterciis farglebSi moZraoba axasiaTebs. yvelaze swrafi tempiswored mis gamosvlas aqvs, is ar aris komikuri personaJi,ubralod, lxinis mxiarulebas gadmoscems, rac kontrastisformaa faliaSvilisTvis. marixi operaSi meore aqtSi Semodis.yoveli misi gamoCena mxiaruli ganwyobaa, saqorwino nadimismxiaruleba. marixis kanconeta mosdevs murmanis gamoCenisscenas, Tanac _ ukve borotebis aqtis Cadenis momentis Semdeg,rodesac meored gamoCenisas igi Tavis borot Canafiqrsaxorcielebs da apkurebs eTers sawamlavs, raTa ganukurnebeliseni Sehyaros eTers da daaSoros ufliswuls. orkestrisavsea qromatiuli intonaciebiT, modifikaciebiT, gadidebulisamxmovanebebiT. marixis kanconetis lirikul-saxumaro motivigvxiblavs Tavisi graciozulobiT da sisadaviT. kompozitoriiZleva simReris ti pobriv akompaniments, romelic Congurisimitaciaa. kanconetis harmoniuli ena naTeli feradovnebiTgamoirCeva, rasac xels uwyobs erTgvari koloris Semqmnelitonaluri dapirispirebebi (a moll, C-dur, a-moll, A-mix).miuxedavad marixis, rogorc personaJis, gmiris da musikaluradmxiaruli ganwyobisa, am sazeimo da sadResaswauloatmosferoSi ar igrZnoba sruli mxiaruleba; drodadropirquSi RrubeliviT gaivlis bedisweris motivis naRvlianiintonacia da molodini tragediis. lirika yvela gmirisTanmxlebi Tvisebaa, murmanis garda. marixis kanconeta qmnisudides kontrasts da avis momaswavebel molodins ubedurebisa.mZafri kontrastuloba damaxasiaTebelia kompozitorisTvis.nawarmoebis diapazonizoma 4/4 ucvlelia. teqsti ekuTvnis p. mirianaSvils.marixis kanconetis Sesrulebisas didi mniSvneloba aqvssasimRero sunTqvas, sunTqvis kontrols, radgan saxezea Cqaritempi Allegro da sakmaod grZeli frazebi. aseve yuradRebagasamaxvilebelia teqstze, metyvelebaze. gvxvdeba bevri xmovani`a~ pirvel frazaSi. miuxedavad Cqari tempisa, yvela sametyvelobgera _ xmovani Tu Tanxmovani unda mkafiod JRerdes da ar146 147


lia barbaqaZeikargebodes simRerisas. am SemTxvevaSi metyveleba daexmarebamomRerals gmiris xasiaTis SeqmnaSi da vokalis TvalsazrisiTostaturad SesrulebaSi.z. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~sasurvelia “a”-s poziciaSi “e”-s gamomRereba.pirvelive fraza iwyeba gardamavali bgerebiT. TiTqmismTeli kanconetis melodia gardamaval bgerebzea dawerili.Sesabamisad, sakmaod rTulia es nawarmoebi. rac Seexeba amfrazas, aucilebelia muclis kunTebis (diafragmis) sunTqvisgamoyeneba, rac axloa sasceno metyvelebis sunTqvasTan.sametyvelo sunTqvis TeoriaSi gamoyenebuli iyo terminebi:mxrebiT, mkerdiT, mucliT sunTqva. mxrebiT sunTqva yovelTvissakamaTo iyo. am tipis sunTqvis dros xdeba mxrebis aweva,rasac mosdevs muclis Sua kunTebis maRla aweva, es ki xelsuSlis Sua saZgidis kunTis efeqtur moqmedebas, ris gamocver xerxdeba simRerisa da metyvelebisTvis sakmarisi haerisSesunTqva. Cveulebrivi sunTqva, TavisTavad, gamoiricxeba amSemTxvevaSi, _ es ufro SesunTqvis fazas gulisxmobs.absoluturad igivea sasimRero, vokalis sunTqvis TeoriaSi.rogorc vxedavT, maRali bgera (G) emTxveva xmovans `a~. gvaqvssaSiSroeba bgeris `Riaobis~, radgan uecrad xdeba gardamavalibgeridan maRal bgeraze gadasvla. amitom gvWirdeba Tavisufalisasa, saartikulacio aparatis viwro maRali pozicia damomrgvalebuli bgera.es yovelive teqnikuri TvalsazrisiT Zalze moqniladunda Sesruldes. gaCnda trioli xmovanze “i”. sakmaod rTuliSesasrulebelia erTdroulad gardamavali bgerebi, Cqari tempida trioli, amitom dauSvebelia yelismieri an cxvirismieribgera. aucilebelia muclis kunTebis sunTqvis CarTva, misigamoyeneba mTeli kanconetis mRerisas. aris bevri “e” xmovani,melodia meordeba bolo taqtis garda, Sesabamisad igiveasunTqvisa da bgeris sfecifika, vinaidan marixis kanconetakupleturi formaa, gvxvdeba xSirad melodiis gameoreba, Warbobssekvenciebi (erTi da imave melodiis sxvadasxva simaRlezegameoreba). am nawarmoebs axasiaTebs gardamavali bgerebissimravle. ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom kanconeta lirikulsaxumaroformaa. momReralma unda ecados, msaxiobis ostatobisxarjze gadalaxos es rTuli da uamravi gardamavali bgera,wina planze wamowios nawarmoebis xasiaTi, anu teqnikurimxare, Serwymuli iyos sulierebasTan, Sinagan ganwyobasTan.momReralma Sesrulebisas unda ecados, ar iyos daZabuli.rodesac zedmetadQWimavs kunTebs, es xels uSlis iogebsaqtiuri muSaobis procesSi da rezonatorebis sworwarmarTvaSi. es nawarmoebi ki Zalian laRad da TavisufladaaSesasrulebeli, xolo rodesac sustad muSaoben kunTebi, xmaxdeba uZluri, susti (unda davexmaroT sunTqviT). imisaTvis,rom xma JRerdes Tanabrad, rac aucilebeli niuansia amnawarmoebis simRerisas, saWiroa maqsimalurad aviTvisoT samiveregistri: mkerdis, saSualo da maRali, anu Tavis. es unda148 149


lia barbaqaZexdebodes akustikuri (mJReri) efeqtiT da ara martofiziologiuri meqanizmiT _ yeliT. gardamavali bgerebissiWarbis da ritmuli triolis gamo yvela am niuansisSesrulebisas momRerali ar unda daiZabos.italieli profesoris _ iolanda manionis azriT:gardamavali bgeris sxvadasxva JReradoba rom miviRoT daTiToeuli fraza Tanabrad JRerdes, saWiroa swori vibratoda swori Sinagani intonacia, gaTanabreba. moswavlem TumomReralma unda amuSaos is kunTebi, romelic pasuxismgebeliaama Tu im registrze.am frazaSi maRali bgera gvaqvs (Fis) da “a” xmovanze esbgera ucbad unda aviRoT, Tanac ise, rom ar moxdes bgeriswamoyvireba. italieli profesoris _ emanuel garsias TqmiT,aq SegviZlia gamoviyenoT bgeris “ataka” (Seteva) “coup deglotte” (anu, bgeris uceb aReba). Zlieri bgeris sufTad aReba,xSirad gvxvdeba da amitom aris “ataka” bgeris gamoyenebissaSualeba.z. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~didi grZliobis notebi. yuradReba gasamaxvilebelia teqstze,xasiaTis SeqmnaSi da stilisturad msubuqad SesrulebaSidaexmareba momRerals teqstis, swori warmoTqma, misi winaplanze wamoweva. frazaSi maRali bgerebisaken crescendo damTeli notis (G) win Rrma sunTqva gvesaWiroeba, rac sunTqviskontroliT unda mimdinareobdes, vinaidan xmovan “a”-ze sakmaoddidi frazaa samReri, sunTqvis ganawilebiT, crescendo da legatossaSualebiT forteTi maRal bgeraze gadasvla gaadvildeba.maRali bgeris formirebisas momRerals SegrZneba unda hqondes,bgeras ki ar miswvda, aramed bgera aiRo. (A). am frazaSiumaRlesi bgeraa, aq SesaZlebelia bgeris “ataka” (Seteva) coupde glotte-s gamoyeneba. maRal bgeras vokalis terminologiismkvlevarebi maRal sasimRero “formantas” uwodeben, romelicmoiTxovs “bgeris maRal pozicias Tavis rezonatorSi”. melodiaubrundeba gardamaval bgerebis registrs.nawarmoebSi gaCnda maRali bgerebi, frazebi, sadac momReralssWirdeba sunTqvis sxva tipi. XVII-XVIII ss.-Si italielipedagogebis mier iyo mkerdis sunTqvis SemoTavazebebi, Semdegdiafragmuli da sunTqvis Sereuli tipi (anu mkerdis dadiafragmis). Sereuli sunTqvis tipis momxreni arian maestrojiraldoni da everardi.am frazebis Sesrulebis procesSi ufro sasurvelia sworedSereuli sunTqvis tipis gamoyeneba, radgan gaCnda maRali daam nawarmoebis erT-erTi mTavari niuansirebaa emociuroba_ sasceno ostatobis floba, Sesrulebis manera, gemovneba,raTa ar iyos forsireba, gadaWarbeba.rodesac momRerali msaxioburad, ostaturad asrulebs,is ar fiqrobs bgeraze _ maRalia Tu dabali da sirTuleebsadvilad gadalaxavs.150 151


lia barbaqaZez. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~XIX saukunis bevri frangi mkvlevari yuradRebasgulmkerdis (zeda) sunTqvaze amaxvilebda. am Sexedulebasicavda, kerZod, frangi fizikosi mandli (1855 w.). amis Semdegcnobili gaxda inglisel mkvlevarTa muclis (diafragmis)sunTqvis upiratesobis Teoria. sametyvelo sunTqvaSi misaRebiamuclis sunTqva, asevea vokalSic dabali da gardamavalibgerebis formirebisas, xolo maRali bgerebis formirebisaTvisukve emateba gulmkerdis (zeda) sunTqvac. vinaidan jer gvaqvsgardamavali bgerebi, am nawilis Sesrulebisas sasurveliamomReralma gamoiyenos e. w. sasceno metyvelebis sunTqva,rasac metyvelebis pedagogi babulia nikolaiSvili eyrdnoboda.didi sifrTxiliT unda mivudgeT, raTa ar iyos cxviris,yelismieri simRera da sxva. rom gaTavisufldes xorxi, maRalibgerebis formirebisas yuradReba unda mivaqcioT, pirvel rigSiybis modunebas. rogorc sasceno metyvelebaSi, aseve undagamoviyenoT sunTqvis regulacia. amasve gvTavazobs b.nikolaiSvili Tavis miTiTebebSi. TiToeuli bgeris CamRerebaunda moxdes, ar SeiZleba mifuCeCeba. maRali bgerebisakenrodesac midis nawarmoebi, momRerals warmosaxvis saSualebiTwinaswar unda esmodes es bgera, romelic unda aiRos Semdeg,anu, winaswar unda moemzados. am SemTxvevaSi maRali bgera(G-A) didi grZliobis notebia, saWiroa Rrma sunTqva, misikontroli, rom sunTqva gveyos frazis bolomde. maRali bgerebigvaqvs “a” xmovanze, saWiroa viwro maRali pozicia sametyveloaparatis da momrgvalebuli bgera, rom ar moxdes bgerisRiaoba. “a” xmovans mosdevs “i” xmovani, sasurvelia “a”-spoziciaSi misi gamomRereba.es frazebi kanconetis dasawyisis gameorebaa. marTalia,meordeba, magram momRerali emociuri TvalsazrisiT ar undamodundes da aramed piriqiT, unda gvaCvenos ganviTareba. gvaqvspiano (p). gvesaWiroeba ufro Zlieri sunTqvebi radgan p xarjavsmet sunTqvis marags. bgera G-ze gvaqvs maxvili (>). maxvili E-dan G-ze, terciiT gadasvla gardamavali bgeridan maRalbgeraze. mTlianad CarTulia muclis kunTebi, romelic emzadebaSemdeg ukve maRali bgerisTvis. moemzados momRerali, rom armoxdes wamoyvireba. vokalisTvis mTavari elementebia: 1. ZlierisunTqva, muclis kunTebze (diafragmaze) dayrdnobili. 2.rezonatorebis muSaoba, saxmo aparati. 3. Tavisufali xorxi.(ybis gaTavisufleba). 4. Tavisufali bgeris emisia (pirvelisasimRero bgera, romelic moiTxovs swor pozicias aRebul“bgeraSi”). 5. vibrato-s xasiaTi. (haeris rxevis sixSire). vibratoswarmoqmna unda xdebodes zedmeti daZabvis gareSe da isiqneba bunebrivi da ara xelovnuri. amas gvTavazobs manioni.gardamavali bgerebi da mecoforte melodiaSi. daRmavalisvla da gamiseburi svliT maxvili D-ze. gamiseburi svlisdros bgeris pozicia ar unda Seicvalos da imave poziciaSiCamRerdes es taqtebi. sasurvelia patara crescendo (bgerisgaZliereba zomierad). nawarmoebSi gvxvdeba bevri xmovani `a~,152 153


lia barbaqaZemomRerali mudmivad mobilizebuli unda iyos, radgan vokalurteqnikuriTvalsazrisiT ar iZleva patara dasvenebissaSualebasac ki tempis gamo. es nawarmoebi Tavis stilidangamomdinare, iTxovs sasceno metyvelebis da vokaluri teqnikissinTezs, romelsac emateba samsaxiobo ostatoba, gmirissaxumaro-sacekvao ganwyoba. yvelafer amas moiTxovda udidesireJisori mixeil TumaniSvili.z. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~zemoT mdebare wiaRi, xaxis wiaRi, pirisa da cxviris Rru,agreTve cxviris damatebiTi wiaRebi. sarezonanso Rruebisregulireba sxvadasxvagvaria bgeris warmoqmnis dasawyisSi,Sualedsa da dasasrulSi.melodiis sekvenciuri formis gamo kompozitori gvTavazobsferebs Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT. frazaSi mocemulia didigrZliobis notebi. isunTqo mSvidad, ostaturad ise, rommsmenelma ar SeniSnos an amas daRliloba ar mohyves, sakmaodrTulia. amitom Seswavlisas calke unda damuSavdes rTuliadgilebi vokalizebis saxiT, rom moswavles gauadvildesSemdeg, mTlianobaSi amis daZleva. bgera E gvaqvs mTeli daori naxevriani noti “a” xmovanze. am bgeraze sasurveliapatara crescendo da Semdeg gaZliereba, bgera rezonatorebisgavliT unda mimdinareobdes. rezonansi aris bgeris gaZlierebisada gafarToebis saSualeba. movixmaroT aseve xorxSiwarmoqmnili vibracia, romelic erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesiniuansia vokalis specifikaSi. xmis warmarTva (mkerdisregistri) bageebTan, saSualo registrze gadasvlisas(gardamavali bgerebi) Txoulobs Tavisufal sasas da undaiyos, TiTqos, mTqnareba da bgeris niRabSi, anu rezonatorSi,warmoqmna. adamianis metyvelebis da sasimRero meqanizmebTandakavSirebulia Semdegi rezonatorebi: filtvebi, sasule, xorxisRru, mbgeravi iogebis qvemoT mdebare wiaRi, mbgeravi iogebiskompozitori, rogorc vxedavT, maRali bgerebisTvis gvasvenebs,dabali bgerebi da pauzebi mogvca, magram sirTule mainc aris,es taqtebi xmadabla unda Sesruldes. gvaqvs h-si maxviliT.saSiSroebaa ar gamovides imaze meti es maxvili, vidre piTvaliswinebs, xolo SedarebiT maRali bgera G forteze daaq ukve Rrma sunTqva (Sereuli sunTqva) da rezonatorebisbgera, vibraciis sixSiris xarjze misi aReba gvesaWiroeba.moemzados momRerali am bgeris asaRebad, warmosaxvis saSualebiTesmodes winaswar es bgera. Semdeg pauzebi da isev ucabedibgera maxviliT F. SegviZlia aq gamoviyenoT bgeris ataka (Seteva)“coup de glotte” da crescendo. aseTi bgerebis daZlevisaTvissasurvelia, pedagogma moswavle amuSaos vokalizebis saxiT,terciiT, kvartiT, kvintiT transportis saSualebiT. SeiZlebaiTqvas, rom saerTod kargi xmis warmoqmnisaTvis, mxrebiT sunTqvisgarda, yvelanairi tipis sunTqvis gamoyenebaa SesaZlebeli.sametyvelo Tu sasimRero sunTqvis saTanado gamomuSavebaunda xdebodes sunTqvis kontrolze dayrdnobiT.es nawili forteze grZeldeba - G da crescendo. gvaqvs C-154 155


lia barbaqaZedan H-ze gadasvla erT xmovanze. SevecadoT zustad iyosintonaciurad aRebuli meore bgera da ara gadmocurebiT.vinaidan faliaSvilis xelwera xalxurobidan momdinareobs,Tavi unda SevikavoT yovelgvari zedmeti gaformebisagan dagadaWarbebisagan. maRal G bgeraze gvaqvs “i” xmovani da masvemohyveba F “i” xmovanze. teqnikurad imave intonaciuri simaRlisSenarCunebiT aviRoT F rogorc G. miuxedavad “i” bgerisartikulaciuri mdgomareobisa, SedarebiT dabalia bageebisdaSoreba, mainc arsebobs gamosavali da unda gamoviyenoTfranguli “u”, raTa ar iyos ulamazo, moWerili es bgera, amasgvTavazoben italielebi.z. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~sami saukunis manZilze italiaSi grZeldeboda SinaganibrZola: 1). pirvel planze iyo wamoweuli bgerasa da sityvasTankavSiri, rom unda iyos maTi sinTezi da dramatizmi,gamomsaxvelobaa mTavari. 2). ambobdnen, rom teqnika undaiyos pirvel adgilze. am nawarmoebis Sesrulebisas teqnikasiseve didi mniSvneloba aqvs, rogorc sulierebas, Sesrulebismaneras, samsaxiobo ostatobas, Tumca jer teqnika unda iyosgamarTuli, rom gaadvildes misi Sesruleba da samsaxioboelementebis damateba.kanconeta dasasruls uaxlovdeba. kompozitori cdilobsdagvasvenos, ase vTqvaT, mogvces saSualeba, movemzadoT maRalibgerebis asaRebad. gvaqvs piano erTi da igive notebi da C,piano-s da legato-s saSualebiT gamovimReroT es adgili, radganerTi da imave bgerebis formirebisas saSiSroebaa danawevrebis(daCexvis), rac miuRebelia, amitom gvWirdeba gaTanabreba,diafragmis sunTqvis da legatos gamoyeneba, SeiZleba pataracrescendo H-sken, romelzec gvaqvs maxvili. kompozitorigvTavazobs mraval xerxs nawarmoebis Sesasrulebladmelodiebis msgavsebis gamo, rom ar iyos erTferovani. amitomvecadoT Sesruldes ostaturad, musikalurad mravali niuansisgamoyenebiT. dabali bgerebis miuxedavad, momReralma icis,rom win elodeba dasasruli (romelic kulminaciur bgerebzemTavrdeba), emociurad mainc momarTulia, TumcaRa p-s mReris.mTeli am kanconetis sirTule mdgomareobs gardamavali bgerebissiWarbeSi. pedagogi unda Seecados am nawarmoebze muSaobisasstudents Tu moswavles gaumyaros es registri, bgerebi, sunTqvaSeaswavlos sxvadasxva xerxiTa da savarjiSo vokaliziT.es frazebi damamTavrebeli frazebis Semzadebaa, piano-dancrescendo-s gavliT emzadeba dasasrulis formirebisaTvis.melodia stilisturad daiZaba. aq ukve aqtiurad muSaobssaxmo aparati. dauSvebelia yelis da cxvirismieri bgera,radgan gvelis maRali bgerebi da maTi aReba gaWirdeba.gavixsenoT yvela sirTulis gadalaxvis saSualebebigardamavali bgerebis. momRerali unda azrovnebdes simRerisdros, ar mReris marto yeli, mReris mTeli organizmi, romelsacazrovnebiT vexmarebiT. swori poziciaa bgeris aRebis, Tavisufalisasa, magram saQiro kunTebi aqtiuria, momarTulia sunTqvismeqanizmi. bolo taqtSi trioli “i” xmovanze davtovoT “u”-s poziciaSi da imave adgilas gavagrZeloT es taqti. D-danF-ze gadasvlisas mivmarToT crescendo-s.156 157


lia barbaqaZedasasruli gvaqvs kulminaciur bgerebze, didi grZliobisnotebi, rac sakmaod rTulia. moxsna bgeris da isev aReba,romelic gviWiravs sakmaod didxans. am frazebis asaRebadbgeris ataka coup de glotte SesaZlebelia, magram patara crescendocsasurvelia, radgan didxans grZeldeba, anu, gavaZlieroTaRebuli bgera. xmovani “a” mTeli am frazis dros. fortezemTavrdeba nawarmoebi, Tumca unda iyos zomieri forte. maRalisasimRero “formanta” swored aq gvWirdeba, romelic moiTxovsbgeris maRal pozicias Tavis rezonatorSi, bgeris siZlieresda zomier vibracias, sunTqvis zust miwodebas. aq gvWirdebaSereuli (gulmkerdis da muclis) sunTqva, rogorc vxedavT,ama Tu im ariis Sesrulebisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba sunTqviszust miwodebas, raTa bgera aRmoCndes swor poziciaSi.nawarmoebis Seswavlisas pedagogma unda ecadosgauadvilos moswavles misi daZleva. rTuli adgilebi anmaRali notebi vokalizebis saxiT calke amuSaos sunTqvazedayrdnobiT. jer nawarmoebi moasmeninos, Semdeg Seaswavlosmelodia vokaliziviT, dayos nawilebad da daumatos teqsti.amis Semdeg ukve SeiZleba msaxiobis ostatobis elementebisdamateba da mere yvelaferi amis erT konteqstSi moqceva.nawarmoebis xasiaTis monaxva, ar daikargos operis, nawarmoebisTu romansis manera, stili. pedagogi valdebulia, xelovansgauRviZos individualoba, ganuviTaros fantazia. kamiloeverardi, gamoCenili italieli maestro (momRerali), Tvlis,rom vokalis swori swavlebis saidumloeba pedagogis yurzeadamokidebuli.studentTan pedagogma unda daazustos individualuradsunTqvis tipi (rogori mouxdeba). meti yuradReba dauTmosim registrs, sadac uWirs mas. mag.:Lgardamavali bgerebi, maRalibgerebi da sxv. aucileblad misces amocanebi msaxiobisostatobis TvalsazrisiT varjiSebis dros, gamoumuSavossunTqvis kontroli, raTa didi frazebis dros ar moakldesmaragi. vokalis pedagogikaSi arsebobs swavlebis ori meTodi,romelsac iyenebs pedagogi: empiriuli meTodi da TeoriulimeTodi.empiriulia meTodi, rodesac pedagogi teqnikurad uCvenebsz. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~moswavles (mReris mocemul nawarmoebs, rac saxarbielo araamTlad studentisTvis). Teoriulia meTodi, rodesacpedagogi Teoriulad xsnis, cdilobs TviTon miaxvedrosmoswavle, unarCunebs mas praqtikulad individualobas, racmiRebulia vokalis pedagogikaSi).empiriuli meTodis gamoyeneba sazianoa im TvalsazrisiT,rom xSiri Cvenebisas studenti cdilobs mibaZos pedagogs daaRiqmeba pedagogis gavlena mis mier Sesrulebul nawarmoebSirogorc xmis tembris TvalsazrisiT, ise Sesrulebis maneraSi,studenti pedagogs hgavs, ikargeba misi individualuroba. Tustudenti iseT Secdomas uSvebs, rom Teoriuli axsniT verxvdeba, maSin dasaSvebia empiriuli meTodiT pedagogma aCvenos,ra Secdomas uSvebs da ganasxvavebinos mas. nawarmoebisSeswavlis gasaadvileblad dagvexmareba didi reJisoris _stanislavskis sqema.2. wre farTovdeba. musikalurifaqtura (ra sirTuleebiavokalur-teqnikuriTvalsazrisiT), gardamavalibgerebi, didi intervalebi.1. viwro wre(sityvebi, nawarmoebi daiyosnawilebad, ritmis (diriJorobiT)solfejireba. nawarmoebisstilis niuansireba).3. nawarmoebis Sekvra.(SevaerToT yvelaferi erTad, emocia, niuansireba,Sesrulebis manera, diapazonis gafarToeba,sirTuleebis gadalaxva).vinaidan, marixis gmiri da am kanconetis xasiaTi saxumarosacekvaoformiT gamoirCeva, gavarTuloT da SevTavazoTstudents profesor mixeil TumaniSvilis sqema, romelic eqvsipunqtisagan Sedgeba, romlis erT-erT niuanss moZraoba, fizikuri158 159


lia barbaqaZemoqmedeba warmoadgens, anu, m. TumaniSvilma qmediTi analiziSemoitana, Tumca igive iyo stanislavskisTan, magram TumaniSvilmaufro speqtraluri daxasiaTeba mogvca. imRero nawarmoebida mas ver grZnobde _ es naklia SemsruleblisTvis.1. moswavlis, studentis survili (ra unda, rom gamoxatosfrazaSi, nawarmoebSi, anu, individualoba wamovwioT wina planze).z. faliaSvili , `marixis kanconeta~ operidan: `abesalom da eTeri~gamoCenili italieli musikosi emilio vagi “abesalom daeTeris” Sesaxeb swerda “lomisis redaqcias”: “me vurCevdievropis maestroebs kargad Seiswavlon “abesalom da eTeri”da maSin mixvdebian, ra mSvenebas warmoadgens aRmosavlurimusika, xolo wminda qarTuli musika metad damoukidebelida Taviseburi nakadia aRmosavlur musikaSi”.2. moqmedeba, Sinagani gaxsna (vokalurteqnikurisiZneleebis daZleva).3. fizikuri moqmedeba. iaros, icekvos,dajdes da a. S. (laR moZraobaSisunTqvis gamomuSaveba kompleqsurimeTodis gamoyenebiT).4. moixmaros intuicia(niuansireba, samsaxioboostatobis da sulierebisgamoyenebiT).5. grZnoba, emocia (zomierivibraciis gamomuSaveba).6. maqsimalurad daixarjos(Seikras nawarmoebi, moaxerxos yvela niuansis koordinacia).rogorc vxedavT, m. TumaniSvili uflebas aZlevs xelovansmis individualurad CamoyalibebaSi, aZlevs mas Tavisuflebasyovelgvari kompleqsis gareSe, raTa is gaxados bunebrivi,rac aucilebelia momRerlisTvis.1. zaqaria faliaSvili, biografia, ix. l. donaZe, o. CijavaZe, g. CxikvaZeqarTuli musikis istoria, Tbilisi, 1990, gv. 157-173.b. nikolaiSvili, qarTuli sasceno metyveleba,gamomcemloba `ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, 1979 w., gv. 62-63, gv. 75-76-77.Стулова. Вопросы физиологии пения и Вокольный методики.Москва 1975 г.gv. 93-97-41.Чаиковский П. Н., Музыкально-критические статьти, М. Музгиз. 1953.v. gvaxaria, qarTuli musikis mSveneba, Tbilisis universitetisgamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1971, gv. 44-45-46-47.ix. Jana ToiZe, sadoqtoro disertacia Temaze: `Tanamedrove qarTulisaopero reJisura da momRerali msaxiobis aRzrdis problemebi XXsaukunis damlevs~, Tbilisi, 1999 (kompleqsuri meTodi da stanislavski-TumaniSvilis sqemebi).160 161


eka gureSiZemagistraturis I kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. Jana ToiZezaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~IV aqtidanz. faliaSvilis qmnileba, opera `abesalom da eTeri~ qarTulierovnuli kulturis erT-erTi mwvervalia. operas safuZvladudevs legenda abesalom da eTerze, romelic `eTerianis~saxeliTaa cnobili. masSi Taviseburadaa Sexamebuli socialuri,eTikuri da filosofiuri motivebi. didi mxatvruli ZaliTaagadmocemuli adamianis saukeTeso sulieri Tvisebebi: siyvaruli,erTguleba, Tavdadeba.operis libreto pirvelad daibeWda 1908 wels Jurnal`faskunjSi~. libretoSi p. mirianaSvilma, xalxuri teqstisgarda, gamoiyena vaJas poemis calkeuli strofi xalxuri`vefxistyaosnisa~ da i. WavWavaZis leqsis fragmentebi. operismeore moqmedebis teqstis nawili a. wuwunavas ekuTvnis, xolomarixis kanconetis teqsti – TviTon p. mirianaSvils.`eTerianis~ siuJetur fabulaSi mniSvnelovan rolsasrulebs socialuri motivi.am operis Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom masSigamoyenebulia TiTqmis yvela saopero Janri: lirikuli (Iaqti), epikuri (II aqti) da gansakuTrebiT tragikuli (III-IVaqtebi). tragikuli operas Janri Tavs iCens rogorc operasmonumentur struqturaSi, ise ZiriTadi ideis gadawyvetisganzogadebaSi. amave dros, operis tragediuloba Taviseburia.es aris tragedia qmediTobis garegani niSnebis gareSe, es araSeqspiruli, aramed antikuri tipis tragediaa. cxadia, garegnulistatikuroba nawarmoebis dramaturgiuli defeqti ki ar aris,aramed misi stilisturi Taviseburebaa.operas `abesalom da eTeri~ SeiZleba vuwodoT lirikulepikuritragedia. operis epikuri xasiaTi xazgasmulia sagundomasobrivi scenebis siWarbiTa da moqmedebis dinji ganviTarebiT.gmirTa tragedia epikur-TxrobiT formaSi iRebs gamoxatulebas.operis musikaluri kompozicia or sxvadasxva principsSeicavs: erTi mxriv _ dasrulebuli musikaluri nawarmoebi,meore mxriv – uwyveti, gamWoli moqmedeba.z. faliaSvilis operis ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeliTaviseburebaa xalxuroba.folkloruli wyaroebisadmi mimarTvisas, kompozitoriiswrafvis maTi Sinagani arsis gaxsnisa da ganviTarebisaken,xalxur masalas iyenebs, rogorc dramaturgiul elements.`abesalom da eTeris~ musikaluri enis mZlavri dasayrdeniqarTuli xalxuri simReraa. kompozitori umTavresad emyarebaZvel, qarTul glexkacur simReras, gansakuTrebiT qarTlkaxur,e. w. gabmul sagundo simRerebs. amasTan, operaSi vxvdebiTsvanuri simRerebidan momdinare intonaciur nakadsac. zogierTepizodSi kompozitori mimarTavs SemoqmedebiTad gadamuSavebulqarTul qalaqur simReras, agreTve _ qarTuli sagalobliselementebs.`abesalomis~ dramaturgia Tavisi fesvebiT qarTul xalxureposTan aris dakavSirebuli.nawarmoebis siuJeturi xazi oTxi moqmedebis manZilzeviTardeba, romelTaganac TiToeuli operis ZiriTadi da sakvanZomomentis gamomxatvelia. amis Sesabamisad, operis dramaturgiulganviTarebaSi oTxi ZiriTadi etapia aRsaniSnavi: pirvelimoqmedeba _ siyvarulis Casaxva, meore _ saqorwino nadimi,mesame _ ganSoreba, meoTxe _ gmirebis sikvdili. am azrobrivmaganviTarebam Tavisi gamoxatuleba pova operis Janrobriv dastruqturul TaviseburebebSi.SesavalSi sami Temaa mocemuli, romlebic dakavSirebuliaoperis mxatvrul saxeTa sxvadasxva wresTan.Sesavlis sawyisi motivi (qorali), romelic aRebuliaoperis finalidan, simebianTa dinj mdore moZraobaSia mocemuli.pirveli aqti, romelic ori suraTisagan Sedgeba, didieqspoziciaa. masSi kompozitori iZleva nawarmoebis mTavargmirTa eskizur daxasiaTebas.operis musikas pirvelive taqtebidanve Sehyavs msmenelixalxur sasimRero sferoSi. monadireTa vaJkacuri gundisSemdeg, romelic Soridan moismis, mkveTr kontrastad aRiqmebaeTeris lirikul-elegiuri aria `dedinacvali~, romelSiceTeris nazi da naRvliani saxea daxatuli.162 163


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidaneTeris arias rkalavs monadireTa gundi.Zalze romantikulia abesalomisa da eTeris Sexvedrisscena. abesalomis naTeli, rainduli saxe ixsneba mis ariozoSi,sadac igi siyvarulSi eficeba eTers: me bani-banad geZebdi~.ariozos intonaciur sawyisebs Cven vpoulobT Zveli Tbilisiscnobil qalaqur simReraSi `bundovan gulsa~.Sinaganad daZabuli reCitativebi (cis frigiuli) umalwarmogvidgens murmanis vaJkacur saxes. amave dros, misreCitatiul replikebSi igrZnoba faruli Suri da mRelvareba.xdeba faqturis sruli ganaxleba. icvleba masala, kilo,koloriti, tempi, Tanxleba. murmanis mkacri pirquSi frazebi,romlebic akordebis Tanabari moZraobis fonzea mocemuli,TandaTanobiT sul ufro mRelvare xasiaTs iZens. abesalomisSewyvetili ariozo axal ganviTarebas iRebs da mTavaripersonaJebis did dialogiur scenaSi gadaizrdeba. axali nakadiSemoaqvs aq eTeris mokle ariozos: `Sen xar didi didebuli~.safuZvlad mas udevs svanuri sufruli simReris `bubaqaquCelas~ melodia, romelic kompozitorma 1903 wels Caiwera.pirveli aqtis musikaSi ar vxvdebiT did da mkveTrkontrastebs, ZiriTadad Warbobs naTeli lirikuli tonusi.pirveli moqmedebisgan gansxvavebiT, romelSic mTavari adgilieTmoba ariozul-melodiur stils da, ZiriTadad, Warbobslirikuli tonusi, operis meore aqti, umTavresad, sagundoada epikuri zeimurobiT aris gamsWvaluli.mTeli meore aqti oratoriuli sidiadiT gamoirCeva dauZvelesi erovnuli eposis paTosiT aris gamsWvaluli.mZlavr saorkestro Sesavals umal SevyavarT meore aqtissazeimo atmosferoSi, oTxxmiani gundi adidebs da xotbasasxams mefe abios.gundi `abio mefe~ icvleba didi saorkestro Sesavlisbrwyinvale sazeimo tutti-T.iwyeba grandiozuli msvleloba xalxuri saqorwilogundis (`haralalos~) musikaze.es gundi i. WavWavaZis sityvebze: `qarTvelo, xeli xmalsikar~ qarTuli xalxuri mravalxmianobis erT-erTi SesaniSnavinimuSia.amis Semdeg moqmed pirTa xmebi (abesalomi, eTeri, abio,dedofali naTela da marixi) erTmaneTs erwymis patara ansamblkvintetSi.meore moqmedebis centrSi Tavisi ganumeorebeliTviTmyofobiT gamoirCeva qarTuli xalxuri Semoqmedebis erTerTibrwyinvale qmnileba _ sagundo simRera `Cakrulo~.improvizaciuli Tavisufleba aq mxatvruli erTianobis mkacrkanonzomierebasTan aris SeTavsebuli. faqturis mxriv simRerahomofoniur-polifoniuri tipisaa.simRera agebulia `tonalobaTa~ jaWvze. ufro sworad,`Cakrulos~ modulaciur gegmaSi Cven vxedavT miqsolidiurikiloebis mTel jaWvs: B-G-A-H-Cis-H- As-B.sadResaswaulo sazeimo ganwyobileba kulminacias aRwevs,magram murmanis gamoCenasTan erTad musika kvlav pirquS,naRvlian kolorits iZens. es igrZnoba ukve patara saorkestroSesavalSi, romelic win uswrebs murmanis gamoCenas. TavisinaRvliani koloritiT da nawilobriv intonaciuradac igiukavSirdeba (gvagonebs) abesalomis tragikul frazas: `visgindaT qali eTeri~ me-3 moqmedebidan.cekvebs, romlebic amTavrebs meore aqts, didimravalferovneba Seaqvs sazeimo-sadResaswaulo ganwyobilebaSi.cincxal, mCqefare `qarTuls~ kontrastulad upirispirdebaneli `mirzaia~_ qalTa natifi cekva qalaqur stilSi. moqmedebaski kvlav `qarTuli~ amTavrebs.mesame aqti operis dramatuli moqmedebis centria. aqxdeba saboloo gardatexa dramaturgiul ganviTarebaSi _bednierebidan ubedurebisaken.am moqmedebaSi gmirebi ganicdian uRrmes sulier dramas,romelic xalxTan organul erTianobaSi ixsneba. tragikulilirika aq tragikul eposSi gadaizrdeba. aq kompozitoriiZleva saxalxo rekviemis nimuSs.dramatuli daZabuloba miRweulia wminda musikalurisaSualebebiT: Teatralur-scenuri xerxebis gareSe.`abesalomis~ mesame aqtSic Sinagani daZabuloba gamoxatvisgaregnul simSvidesTan da sisadavesTan aris SeTavsebuli.meoTxe aqtSi mocemulia operis tragikuli kvanZis gaxsna.kompozitori aq uars ambobs wina moqmedebis monumenturobasa164 165


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidanda monoliTurobaze. meoTxe aqti mTel operaSi TavisimoculobiT, mravalferovania da diferencirebuli musikaluriSinaarsiTa da musikalur-dramatuli formebiT. melodiurimomxibvlelobiTa da gamomsaxvelobiT aris aRbeWdili TiTqmisyvela furceli da gansakuTrebiT ki _ ansamblebi. sazogadod,mas SeiZleba vuwodoT `ansamblebis aqti~. es ansamblebi z.faliaSvilis umaRles mxatvrul miRwevebs ganekuTvneba. aseTiaabesalomisa da murmanis grandiozuli dueti, misi momdevno_ eTerisa da naTelas dueti, agreTve ansambli gundiT `wamwamsada wamwams Sua~ _ operis tragikuli gaxsnis win.moqmedeba iwyeba eTeris ariiT, romelSic kvlav SeigrZnobamisi nazi lirikuli saxis adre gamokveTili niSnebi. sxvaxasiaTisaa sakuTriv aria. Tavisi intonaciuri wyobiT igiZalian axlosaa qalaquri ti pis romansul-sasimRerolirikasTan.meoTxe moqmedebis yvelaze mRelvare da STamagonebeli,warmtaci momentia abesalomisa da murmanis popularuli dueti,romelsac centraluri adgili uWiravs. saxelwodeba duetipirobiTad unda vixmaroT, ramdenadac ori xmis simReras aqumniSvnelo adgili uWiravs; ufro swori iqneboda, misTvisvokaluri dialogi gvewodebina. duetis es nawili mTlianadmelodiur reCitativzea agebuli da SeiZleba CaiTvaloseqspresiuli dialogis klasikur nimuSad. abesalomisa damurmanis reCitatiuli frazebi, romlebic erTmaneTs cvlis,mkafiod gamoxatavs, erTi mxriv, sasowarkveTili abesalomisada, meore mxriv, gulzviadi murmanis ganwyobilebaTa kontrasts.Piu mosso-Ti dawyebuli duetis musika sul ufro swrafviTi,intensiuri xdeba. momakvdav abesaloms satrfos naxva swyuria.misi es swrafva musikalur gamoxatulebas iRebs or momdevnosaansamblo scenaSi _ duetsa da kvartetSi. ukve duetissaorkestro Sesavali _ klarnetis saocrad gamomsaxvelimkvnesare motivi simebianTa fonze, romlebic svanuri Wunirisimitirebas axdens, gvxiblavs Tavisi iSviaTi gamomsaxvelobiT.operis erT-erTi yvelaze amaRelvebeli dramatuli epizodiagmirTa Sexvedris scena. eTeris dabruneba momakvdavabesalomTan. mokle, Zalze mkafio da gamomsaxveli duetinio:`Cemo imedo, wylulis malamo~ aRiqmeba, rogorc Taviseburigamosalmeba sicocxlesTan.duetinios mosdevs didi ansambli (`wamwamsa da wamwamsSua~), romelsac Semdgom gundi uerTdeba. me-4 aqtis finaluriscena, ZiriTadad Sesavlis motivebzea agebuli, ris wyalobiTacerTiandeba operis dasawyisi da dasasruli. igi TiTqmisucvlelad warmogvidgens Sesavlis musikas _ sawyis `sagundo~motivs (qorals), lirikul reCitativsa da laitmotivs.`abesalom da eTeri~ _ uaRresad mTliani nawarmoebia,rogorc Tavisi formiT, ise stiliT. operis Rrmad emociuriSinaarsi plastikurad gamokveTil musikalur saxeebSiagadmocemuli.eTeris ankara, wminda saxe siyvarulisa da erTgulebisgansaxierebaa. mas axasiaTebs iSviaTi zneobrivi sispetake dakdemamosileba. eTeris musikalur daxasiaTebaSi mTavariaabesalomisadmi siyvarulisa da erTgulebis grZnobis gaxsna,magram amave dros xazgasmulia misi pasiuri TviTganwirva,morCilebisa da bedTan Serigebis grZnoba.solo nomrebi mravlad aris warmodgenili operaSi. amavedros udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba dialogur scenebs _ duetebs,romlebic sasimRero reCitativebzea agebuli. sagundo daerTxmiani (calfa) xalxuri simRerebis safuZvelze z.faliaSvili `abesalomis~ qarTuli melodiuri reCitativisklasikur nimuSebs qmnis.operis harmoniuli ena simdidriTa da iSviaTiTviTmyofadobiT gamoirCeva, rasac safuZvlad udevs xalxurerovnuliklasikuri harmoniis xerxTa organuli sinTezi.rac Seexeba operis instrumentul nawils, igi mTlianadeqvemdebareba vokalurs.aseTia, ZiriTadad, `abesalom da eTeris~ is Tvisebebi,romlebic safuZvels iZleva es nawarmoebi saopero xelovnebisklasikur, srulyofil nimuSad CavTvaloT.166 167


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidanvokalur-teqnikuri saSemsruleblo kvleviTianalizieTeris ariis IV aqtidanzaqaria faliaSvilis opera `abesalom da eTeri~,scena #16, eTeris ariaes aria moicavs sul 96 taqts, dawerilia sopranosaTvis.tonaloba si-bemol maJori_B durdiapazoni ariis samnawiliani forma, repriziT da saorkestrokodiT. ariaSi aris zomebis cvalebadoba vxvdebiT 3/4, 4/4, 3/2zomebs. iwyeba 8 taqtiani saorkestro SesavliT da me-9taqtSi orkestris gaCerebul akordze Semodis soprano(vokaluri) partia rTuli ritmiT, rTuli punqtirebuli ritmiT:ocdameTormetedebiT, trioliT, kvintoliT, seqstoliT,Tavisufali tempiT (andante).xolo Semdegi procesis, anu Sesrulebis dros, prof. mixeilTumaniSvilis sqemas.am sqemis meSveobiT Cven unda SevecadoT gavaanalizoT z.faliaSvilis opera `abesalom da eTeridan~ eTeris erT-erTiaria.pirvelive aRebul bgeras `emisias~ didi daniSnuleba aqvsam nawarmoebis xasiaTis warmarTvaSi. amitom maqsimaluradunda iyos gamoyenebuli swori sunTqva, raTa intonaciuradzusti bgera miviRoT. am SemTxvevaSi `emisia~, anu pirveli168 169


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidansasimRero bgera, gvaqvs C2, romliTac momRerali iwyebs simRerases bgera moiTxovs diafragmul sunTqvas da xangrZliv sunTqvas,radgan legato daculi iyos. amave dros am bgeraze gvaqvsmarcvali de ris Sedegadac yba unda iyos Tavisufali daCamoweuli, radgan ar daiWimos an ar miviRoT Ria bgera.gvaqvs bgeraTa viwro ganlageba.me-16 taqtidan iwyeba Tavdapirveli tempiT allegro moderato-Ti pirveli nawili am ariis.am nawilSi gvxvdeba iseTi intonaciuri svlebi, romelsacviyenebT vokalis gakveTilebze savarjiSoebis saxiT.qarTuli enis specifikas didi yuradReba unda mivaqcioT,daculi unda iyos xmovnebis Tu Tanxmovnebis artikulaciada sunTqvis regulaciiT sworad warvmarToT fraza.ama Tu im nawarmoebSi gvxvdeba sirTuleebi, rasac calkeulnawilebad vamuSavebT, TiToeuli fraza moiTxovs damuSavebasteqnikuri, intonaciuri da ritmuli TvalsazrisiT.pirvel nawilSi vokaluri partia mTavrdeba daRmavalimelodiuri svliT fermatos Semdeg.pirveli nawili, rogorc ZiriTadi xasiaTi am ariis, Zalianliriuklia, teqstic da musikac erTmaneTTan organuladaaSerwymuli.eTeris am ariaSi is pirvelad gadmogvcems Tavis emociasabesalomTan daSorebis sevdas. ariis ZiriTadi tonaloba Bdur, rac TavisTavad sayuradRebo faqtia, sevdis gadmocemamaJoruli tonalobiT. faliaSvils surs, xazi gaesva amsiyvarulisTvis, romelic sevdis pirobebSic amaRlebulia.am ariisTvis da, zogadad, am moqmedebisTvis ti puriaorkestris rolis gazrda, Tavad eTeris aria, naz lirikultonebSia gadawyvetili da wminda intonaciuri TvalsazrisiTxasiaTdeba ori tipis melodikiT, pirvel monakveTSi es arismelodiuri reCitativi, romelic Tavisi mxatvruli RirsebebiTam operis saukeTeso nawils Seadgens. amasTan es lirikulireCitativi momdinareobs Sesavlis reCitatividan, risi Tqmissababsac gvaZlevs misi improvizaciuli ornamenturi xasiaTi.saorkestro faqturac gamarTlebulia. eTeris pirvel ariasTanSedarebiT ar xasiaTdeba erTgvarovani melodikiT. pirvelireCitatiuli monakveTi mTavrdeba TviT saorkestro partiaSiTviT reCitativiT. me-40 taqtidan iwyeba aT taqtianiSemakavSirebeli nawili, romelic mTavrdeba dominanturakordze.am daRmavali svlis dros SenarCunebuli unda iyos bgerissiZliere da TiToeuli bgeris swori pozicia.meore nawili zomieri da mReradi tembriT iwyeba.gamokveTili ritmuli naxaziTa da tempis cvalebadobiT.meore monakveTi Zalian Camohgavs qalaqur saromanso lirikas.aqac SenarCunebulia WvretiTi lirikis foni. miuxedavad aseTimravalferovani daxasiaTebisa, mainc Sinaganad am ariaSi eTerissaxe ar Rrmavdeba da ar mdidrdeba axali StrixebiT, miuxedavad,rom mis bedSi didi gardatexa moxda. Zalian xSirad dadgmebSies monakveTi gamotovebulia, rac vfiqrobT, rom arasworia,radgan es aris erTaderTi momenti, romelic afiqsirebs amganSorebiT gamowveul grZnobebs.170 171


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidanmeore nawilsa da reprizas akavSirebs oTxtaqtianisaorkestro fraza, reprizaSi gamoyenebulia meore nawilisTema (ZiriTadi melodia), romelic warmoadgens gafarToebulreprizas (+4).am nawilSi gvaqvs monacvleoba tesituris _ dablidanmaRla an, piriqiT, rac cvlis agreTve sunTqvasac. dabaltesituraSi simReris dros viyenebT muclis Sua kunTebs,xolo maRal tesituraSi muclis qveda kunTebs. am nawilSimelodia TandaTan amaRelvebel xasiaTs iZens da TandaTanamave amaRlebuli xasiaTiT vuaxlovdebiT finals, sadacmelodia mocemulia maRal tesituraSi da agreTve gvxvdebagardamaval bgerebze moZraoba.rogorc melodia, aseve sametyvelo teqstic am frazaSimetad amaRelvebelia, rac momRerals exmareba am vokalurifrazis Sesrulebisas, aseve esaWiroeba kargi da swori sunTqva.radgan ganlageba maRal tesituraSia, sunTqvis dros CarTuliamuclis qveda kunTebi. aseve mkveTri artikulacia da, racmTavaria, kidev niuansirebac. fermatos dros unda SenarCundesbgeris siZliere da SenarCundes misi JReradobac imxangrZlivobiT, rasac moiTxovs nawarmoebi. bgeris poziciaunda iyos maRali, Tavis rezonatorSi, amave dros am frazaSimoZraoba xdeba gardamaval bgerebze.kodas warmoadgens ZiriTadad saorkestro varianti, romeliciwyeba 87-e taqtidan, Cqari, magram sevdiani nawili, 93-e taqtSigvaqvs generaluri pauza da bolo sam taqtSi or pianozepirvandel tempSi gafarToebuli bolo akordebiT, romelsaczed erTvis sopranos mokle fraza, anu bolo amoZaxili.am frazaSi vxvdebiT yvelaze maRal bgeras, meore oqtavisB (si bemoli), anu maRal sasimRero `formantas~, romelicmoiTxovs maRal pozicias _ Tavis rezonatorSi, siZlieres,vibracias, rxevis sixSires, zomier momrgvalebas piris aparatis,Sinaarsidan gamomdinare intonaciur sizuztes, sunTqvis zustmowodebas kunTebis muSaobis Sedegad, mis siRrmes damoculobas.ukiduresad maRal bgeraze aucilebelia filireba, radganam bgeriT mTavrdeba nawarmoebi.am ariaSi aris musikisa da teqstis Tanxvedra, racgamoixateba emociisa da Sinaarsis zust gadmocemaSi.Sesavali nawili warmoadgens TxrobiT nawils, sadac eTerimogviTxrobs Tavis bedze, meore nawilSi ki umReris abesalomissiyvaruls, ariis Tema romelic reprizaSi gamZafrebuliamusikalurad, teqstobrivi Sinaarsi ki aseTia: eTeri eficebaTavis mijnurs, rom mzadaa masTan erTad Tavi gawirossiyvarulisaTvis.eTeris Sinagani samyaros, bunebis, misi arsis musikaluridaxasiaTeba saucxood gadmoicema teCitatiul monakveTebSi.swored reCitativebSi vlindeba yvelaze reliefurad eTerissaxe da yvelaze miaxloebulia intonaciuri bunebiT sevdasTan,godebasTan, CivilTan.EeTeri _ gansaxierebaa erTgulebisa da siyvarulis wmindadSenaxvisa. moraluri sisufTave, sibrZne, mis musikalur saxeSixazgasmulia pasiuri TviT Sewirva, bedis morCileba,ganwiruloba. TviT yvelaze dramatul momentSic igi araaqmediTi, pasiuri rCeba da es saxe yvelaze srulyofilad,mTeli Tavisi sisavsiT da yvela TvisebiT swored am ariaSigamovlinda. is idealuri portretia, mxolod erTgan aReldebaeTeri (IV moq.-Si, eTerisa da abesalomis duetSi). is eTikurisawyisis matarebelia.172 173


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidanariis Sesrulebisas aucilebelia gamoyenebul iqnassamsaxiobo elementebi, rasac moiTxovs ariis xasiaTi daSesruleba.qarTvel momRerals, romelic kargad flobs qarTulfolklors gauadvildeba nebismieri partiis Sesruleba.`eTeriani~, qarTuli xalxuri samijnuro-romantikuli eposi,abesalomisa da eTeris siyvarulis ambavi. gavrcelebuliasaqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi qarTul, megrul da svanur enebze.`eTerianis ZiriTadi forma prozaulia, gvxvdeba leqsad daleqsnarevi prozis saxiTac. cnobilia misi 70-mde varianti.Tqmuleba gamoaqveyna p. umikaSvilma 1875 wels. wminda xalxuriteqsti pirvelad daibeWda 1858 wels gazeT `iveriaSi~ (#274).Cvenamde moRweuli `eTeriani~ X-XI saukuneebiT TariRdeba.`eTeriani~ farTo epikuri tiloa. masSi maRali xelovnebiTaris asaxuli maradiuli siyvaruliT gamsWvaluli qal-vaJistra gikul i bedi . xal xis esTeti kuri i deali damsoflmxedveloba; gadmocemulia batonymuri urTierToba,socialuri antagonizmi (mefe winaaRmdegia Tavisi vaJis _abesalomis, glexis qalze daqorwinebisa). demonur ZalTaWidili adamianebTan; abesalomis yma murmani eSmaks sulsmihyidis, jadosnobiT CaSlis qal-vaJis qorwils. eTersganSorebuli abesalomi sneuldeba da kvdeba. eTeri Tavsiklavs satrfos sarecelTan. murmani cocxlad CaimarxavsTavs maT Soris. abesalomisa da eTeris saflavze ia da vardierTmaneTisken ixrebian, murmanis saflavze amosuli nar-ekaliki qal-vaJis simbolur SeerTebasac abrkolebs. `eTerianis~siuJeturi analogiebi moipoveba Sua saukuneebis msoflioliteraturaSi (`tristan da izolda~, `virsamiani~ da sxva).mZafrma siuJetma, daxvewilma epikurma saxeebma, mdidarmapoeturma enam ganapiroba `eTerianis~ udidesi popularoba.mis safuZvelze Seiqmna vaJa-fSavelas poema `eTeri~, z.faliaSvilis opera `abesalom da eTeri~ da sxva.174 175* * *1919 wels z. faliaSvils gadauxades moRvaweobis 25wlis iubile. amave wlis 5 Tebervals daidga d. arayiSvilis`Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~, xolo 21 Tebervals _ qarTulisaopero Semoqmedebis siamaye `abesalom da eTeri~. operamoicavda xuT moqmedebasa da eqvs suraTs, rolebs asruleben:abio _ qurxuli, abesalomi _ zalipski, naTela _ morozova,marix varskvlavi _ garneli, eTeri _ Sulgina-baxutaSvili.dedinacvali _ gurji, murmani _ inaSvili, naana _ mandenova,beliar-eSmaki _ lorTqifaniZe, Tandaruxi _ WumburiZe, stumari_ kurbatova, moZaxili _ orliuki, diriJorobda z. faliaSvili.baleti dadga vakarecma. cekvavdnen: bau-zaki da vakareci.dekoracia ekuTvnoda al. zalcmans. gunds xelmZRvanelobdakorSoni. speqtakli, romelic 7 saaTsa da 30 wuTze daiwyo,damTavrda 12 saaTze. darbazi xalxiT iyo gaWedili; meoremoqmedebis Semdeg kompozitors didi ovaciebi gaumarTes. presamxurvaled gamoexmaura operas. gazeT ..Ãðóçèÿ`- Si d.arayiSvilisa da z. faliaSvilis nawarmoebebis SesaxebvkiTxulobT: «Аракчиев и Палиев дали чисто грузинскуюнародную музыку со всеми своеобразными отливами, характероми образностью чисто грузинских мелодии, но облекли ее в высшиесовершенные формы европейского исскуства.Оперы Аракчиева и Палиева – несомненный вклад в мировуюмузыку и не уступают многим известным европейским орерам».imave wlis 25 aprils kvlav daidga `abesalom da eTeri~Semdegi SemadgenlobiT: abio _ qurxuli, abesalomi _sarajiSvili, naTela _ morozova, marix varskvlavi _viSemirskaia, eTeri _ Sulgina-baxutaSvili, dedinacvali _gurji, murmani _ inaSvili, nana _ cinki, Tandaruxi _ fxalaZe,stumari _ kurbatovi, moZaxili _ orliuki, diriJori z.faliaSvili, dadgma a. wuwunavasi. am speqtakliT Tbilisissaopero Teatris scenaze damkvidrda qarTuli vokalurixelovneba. v. sarajiSvilis, s. inaSvilisa da Sulginaba xu ta S v i l i s kv a l ze a R i za r dnen r ol eb i sRirseuliESemsruleblebi: abesalomisa: n. qumsiaSvili, z.anjafariZe, n. andRulaZe; eTerisa: e. soxaZe, e. gostenina;


eka gureSiZe zaqaria faliaSvili, `eTeris aria~ IV aqtidanmurmanisa: p. amiranasvili, d. gamrekeli, b. kraveiSvili, S.kiknaZe, T. zeinkliSvili. am operaSi sxvadasxva dros mRerodnen:n. xaraZe, m. nakaSiZe, a. isecki, b. grigoraSvili, v. xamaSuriZe.axalgazrda Taobidan: m. TomaZe, p. amiranaSvili, T. TaqTaqiSvili,n. tuRuSi, v. glunCiZe da sxvebi. am speqtakliT daiwyoTavisi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba Tbilisis operis scenazegamoCenilma mocekvavem v. Wabukianma, cekvebSi sxvadasxva drosmonawileobdnen: v. gvaramaZe, i. suxiSvili, n. ramiSvili, T.Wabukiani, m. baueri. aRsaniSnavia cekvebi d. javriSvilis dadgmiT.gasaocari sinoyivrisa da evropis gasaocarive ostatobisa _TviT arsebaSi amynobs am or kulturas da odesme miscemsqveynierebas impulss xelovnebis aRorZinebis axli epoqisSeqmnisaTvis, axli formebisa da maTi axalive azriTaRvsilobisaTvis~.aleqsandre wuwunava `abesalom da eTeris~meased dadgmis Sesaxeb:`[1923] `abesalom da eTeri~ saxelmwifo operis scenazemeased idgmeba.zogierTebisaTvis SeiZleba es tiraJi gasakvirveli iyos,magram am movlenis sidiades iseTis gamaxvilebulis grZnobiTvervin ganicdis, rogorc me.ramdeni mwuxareba iyo nagrZnobi, ramdeni gadaulaxavidabrkoleba daiZlia, vidre es udidesi kulturuli ganZiqarTveli xalxisa gamoCndeboda scenaze da qarTvel msmenelssiamayis Rimils mohgvrida.1923 wlis 21 Tebervals `abesalom da eTeris~ measespeqtaklze Tbilisis operis Teatris direqciam specialurisamkerde niSnebi daariga.`abesalomis~ mSvenierebam STaagona did qarTvel reJisorkote marjaniSvils es sityvebi:`didi dResaswaulia!dResaswauli namdvili xelovnebisa!dResaswauli kulturuli gamarjvebisa!sarkmelia evropisaken.gasaocari legendaa, samSoblo qveynis hangebiTmosevdianebuli, evropuli ostatobiT SemuSavebuli.melandeba da mgonia, xorcs isxams Cveni mesianobaxelovnebaSi _ msoflio xelovnebaSi. mrwams, saqarTvelo, orididi damoukidebeli kulturis sazRvarze mdgari, aRmosavleTis1. zaqaria faliaSvili, biografia, ix.: l. donaZe, o. CijavaZe. g. CxikvaZe.Tbilisi, 1990.v. gvaxaria, qarTuli musikis mSveneba, Tbilisis universitetisgamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1971. gv. 24.g. toraZe, qarTuli musika saukinis gadasaxedidan, Tbilisi, `mecniereba`,1998 wБ. А. Багадуров, Очерки по истории вокальной методологии, Москва, 1937.b. nikolaiSvili, qarTuli sasceno metyveleba, Tbilisi, 1979.J. ToiZe, avtoreferati, Tanamedrove qarTuli saopero momRerali _msaxiobis aRzrdis problemebi XX saukunis damlevs., Tbilisi 1997 w.klaviri, op. `abesalom da eTeri.176 177


nino sakandeliZemagistraturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. Jana ToiZe`eTeris aria~ operidan`abesalom da eTeri~I aqtidan`eTerianis~ siuJetur fabulaSi mniSvnelovan rolsasrulebs socialuri motivi _ ufliswul abesalomisa daubralo glexi qalis eTeris dapirispireba. magram operissaerTo koncefciaSi misi ZiriTadi Tema _ siyvaruli,warmosaxulia rogorc diadi, uZleveli Zala, romelicgadalaxavs ara marto socialuri uTanasworobis zRudes,aramed _ TviT sikvdilsac ki. siyvarulisa da sikvdilisamaRlebuli poema kompozitorma musikaluri tragediis martiv,sada da amave dros monumentur formebSi gadawyvita. msofliosaopero literaturaSi bevri rodi moipoveba nawarmoebi,romelic iseTi maRali zneobrivi paTosiT iyos gamsWvaluli,rogorc z. faliaSvilis `abesalom da eTeri~.operaSi aqcentirebulia ara marto siyvarulis eTikuriZala, aramed siyvarulis ganwirulebis tragikuli idea.siyvarulis ganwirulebis musikaluri gansaxierebisaTviskompozitori gamoyofs damoukidebel Temas, esaa _ bediswerisTema. igi warmodgenilia rogorc simbolo im fataluri,sabediswero Zalisa, romelic xels uSlis adamianis bednierebas.mTel nawarmoebSi ver SexvdebiT Janrul da peizaJur scenebs.kompozitors, pirvel rigSi, Tavisi gmirebis Sinagani samyaroda sulieri gancdebi ainteresebs.Zalze mniSvnelovania operis Janrobrivi saxis dadgena.`abesalom da eTers~, Cveulebriv, ganixilaven rogorc epikurnawarmoebs, xandaxan _ rogorc lirikuls. iyo cda, igidramatul operad gamoecxadebinaT, magram arcerTi es gansazRvraar moicavs operis Canafiqrs mTeli sisruliT da amdenad,araa sakmarisad zusti da amomwuravi. am operis Taviseburebaisaa, rom masSi gamoyenebulia TiTqmis yvela saopero Janri:lirikuli (I aqti), epikuri (II aqti) da gansakuTrebiTtragikuli (III-IV aqtebi). tragediuloba Tavs iCens rogorcoperis monumentur struqturaSi, ise ZiriTadi ideisgadawyvetis ganzogadebulobaSi. amave dros operistragediuloba Taviseburia. es aris tragedia qmediTobisgaregani niSnebis gareSe, e. i., ara Seqspiruli, aramed antikuritipis tragedia. cxadia, garegnuli statikuroba nawarmoebisdramaturgiuli defeqti ki ar aris, aramed misi stilisturiTaviseburebaa.operas `abesalom da eTeri~ SeiZleba vuwodoT lirikulepikuritragedia. operis epikuri xasiaTi xazgasmulia sagundomasobriviscenebis siWarbiTa da moqmedebis dinji ganviTarebiT,gmirTa tragedia epikur-TxrobiT formaSi iRebs gamoxatulebas.rogorc Tavisi dramaturgiuli formiT, ise ramdenadmemusikis xasiaTiTac `abesalom da eTeri~ opera-oratoriasuaxlovdeba. garegnuli moqmedebis siZunwe, Txrobis dinji,epikuri toni, xalxis, gundis udidesi roli, tragediisganviTarebaSi _ yovelive es cxadad metyvelebs `abesalom daeTeris~ oratoriul ganxraze. magram garegnuli dramatulimoqmedebis uqonloba rodi gamoricxavs dramatizms. epikurisidiade da oratoriuloba xels ar uSlis `abesalom daeTeris~ dinamikurobasa da Sinagan dramatizms. magram esdramatizmi Taviseburi, gansakuTrebuli ti pisaa. igi daZabulsulier gancdebSi vlindeba da ara moqmedebaSi _ zedmetmoZraobaSi.z. faliaSvilis operis ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeliTaviseburebaa xalxuroba am sityvis farTo gagebiT. operisxalxuri arsi mdgomareobs ara marto musikaluri enis erovnulwarmomavlobaSi, aramed mxatvrul saxeTaA mkvidr qarTulerovnul bunebaSi.folkloruli wyaroebisadmi mimarTvisas, kompozitoriiswrafvis maTi Sinagani arsis gaxsnisa da ganviTarebisaken,xalxur masalas iyenebs, rogorc dramaturgiul elements.`abesalom da eTeris~ musikaluri enis mZlavri dasayrdeniqarTuli xalxuri simReraa. operis Sinaarsis, misi epikurlegendarulixasiaTisa da wyobis Sesabamisad, kompozitori,178 179


nino sakandeliZeumTavresad emyareba Zvel qarTul glexkacur simReras,gansakuTrebiT qarTl-kaxur, e. w. gabmul sagundo simRerebs.amasTan, operaSi vxvdebiT svanuri simReridan momdinareintonaciur nakadsac. zogierT epizodSi kompozitori mimarTavsSemoqmedebiTad gadamuSavebul qarTul qalaqur simReras,agreTve qarTuli sagaloblis elementebs.`abesalom da eTeris~ xalxuri arsi dakavSirebulia agreTvegundis _ xalxis udides rolTan nawarmoebSi. swored gundigansazRvravs operis xalxur-epikur da monumentur stils.nawarmoebis siuJeturi xazi oTxi moqmedebis manZilzeviTardeba, romelTagan TiToeuli operis ZiriTadi da sakvanZomomentis gamomxatvelia. amis Sesabamisad, operis dramaturgiulganviTarebaSi oTxi ZiriTadi etapia aRsaniSnavi: pirvelimoqmedeba _ siyvarulis Casaxva, meore _ saqorwino nadimi,mesame _ ganSoreba, meoTxe _gmirebis sikvdili. am azrobrivmaganviTarebam Tavisi gamoxatuleba pova operis Janrobriv dastruqturul TaviseburebebSi.I aqtSi, romelic, ZiriTadad, lirikulia, solo nomrebi dadialoguri scenebi sWarbobs, II aqti grandiozuli epikuritiloa da, Sesabamisad, misi musika TiTqmis mTlad gunduria,III aqtSi dramatuli simZafre tragizmamde aRwevs. aq xdebamkveTri Semobruneba opera tragediis koncefciisaken, racsaboloo gamoxatulebas finalur _ IV aqtSi iRebs.amgvarad, operis dramaturgiuli xazi miemarTeba lirikidaneposisa da dramatizmis gziT tragediisaken.~ 2gulbaT toraZe aRniSnavs: `abesalom da eTeris~ mniSvnelobada kuTri wona qarTul musikaSi sruliad gansakuTrebulia.vfiqrob, rom sveticxovlisa da `vefxistyaosnis~ Semdgomiepoqis qarTul kulturaSi aRar Seqmnila aseTi rangisnawarmoebi. wminda musikaluri, zogadmxatvruli, eTikuri dadramaturgiuli sawyisebis araCveulebrivi mTlianobiT,harmoniuli SerwymiT `abesalom da eTeri~ msoflio musikisudides SedevrTa doneze dgas.1919 wlis 21 Tebervali _ `abesalom da eTeris~ premierisdRe, samudamod darCa ubrwyinvales TariRad qarTuli musikisistoriaSi. amis Semdeg `abesalomma~ ixila saqarTvelos dam`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidanmsoflios sxvadasxva qveynis saopero Teatrebis scena da,SeiZleba iTqvas, rom misi gza ukvdavebisaken dResac grZeldeba.~ 3aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom: `1919 wels z. faliaSvilsgadauxades moRvaweobis 25 wlis iubile. amave wlis 21Tebervals daidga qarTuli saopero Semoqmedebis siamaye`abesalom da eTeri~. opera moicavda xuT moqmedebasa da eqvssuraTs. rolebs asrulebdnen: abio _ qurxuli, abesalomi _zali pski, naTela _ morozova, marix varskvlavi _ garneli,eTeri _ Sulgina-baxutaSvili, dedinacvali _ gurji, murmani_ inaSvili, nana _ mandenova, beliar- eSmaki _ lorTqifaniZe,Tandaruxi _ WumburiZe, stumari _ kurbatova, moZaxili _orliuki. diriJorobda z. faliaSvili. baleti dadga vakarecma,cekvavdnen: baur-zaki da vakareci. dekoracia ekuTvnoda al.zalcmans, gunds xelmZRvanelobda korSoni.~ 4mixeil TumaniSvilis dadgmas z. faliaSvilis operisa`abesalom da eTeri~ diriJorobda jansuR kaxiZe, eTeri _maia TomaZe, abesalomi _ aleko xomeriki, murmani _ eldargewaZe.rogorc vokalistis, Cemi mizania warvadgino eTeris ariisvokalur-teqnikur-saSemsruleblo kvleviTi analizi:1. tonaloba _ si bemol maJori, zoma _ 6/8. iwyebamSvidad, auRelveblad (Andante con dolore).2. `operis musikas pirvelive taqtebidan Sehyavs msmenelixalxur-sasimRero sferoSi. monadireTa vaJkacuri gundisSemdeg, romelic Soridan moismis, mkveTr kontrastad aRiqmebaeTeris lirikul-elegiuri aria `dedinacvali~, romelSiceTeris nazi da naRvliani saxea daxatuli.xalxuri sasimRero wyobis am sada da lakoniuri melodiisintonireba Tanaxmieri akompanimentis fonze xdeba. Tavisimelodiuri aRnagobiTa da xasiaTiT igi xalxur nanasuaxlovdeba.sagulisxmoa, rom mwyemsi qaliSvilis saxes kompozitorigvixatavs ara tradiciuli ti pis saopero ariiT, aramedxalxuri wyobis ubralo strofuli simReriT.~ 5aRsaniSnavia erovnuli nanebis gansakuTrebuli tragizmi.ratom umReroda deda Tavis pirmSos aseT tonSi?! radgan180 181


nino sakandeliZemisi Svili rom gaizrdeboda, omSi, sabrZolvelad unda wasuliyoda swored amitom aris qarTuli nanebi aseTi sevdiani.melodikac maRlidan dabla moiwevs da ara piriqiT, racsevdis da tkivilis gamomxatvelia, magaliTad, eTeris aria,sadac yoveli fraza daRmavali svliT mTavrdeba, rogorcmorCilebis simbolo.m`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidankilouri koloriti (eoliuri g-dan) qarTuli kadansiT VII-I da tonikuri pedliT bgera solis, romelic permanentuladJRers. faqturis erTianoba da koloritis erTianoba(simebianebi)P monadireTa gundebiT garSemortymuli _ esnomeri sami nomris gaerTianebas qmnis da kidev ufrokontrastulad JRers, rac ti puria am operisaTvis(kontrastebi). melodikas, rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, axasiaTebsdaRmavali mimarTulebiT svla, rogorc morCilebis simbolo.eTeris partiaSi devs sevdis is ganwyoba, romelic zogadadqarTul literaturasa da poeziaSi permanentulad vlindeba(SuSaniki, tarieli), aseve sevdis motivebi qarTveli mefeebispoeziaSi. swored es igulisxmeba lado donaZis SefasebaSi:`prof. l. donaZis moxdenili TqmiT, `abesalomis~ musikaSigamoixata qarTveli xalxis Semoqmedi geniac da misi saukunovanisevdac. dRes ki Cven mas aRviqvamT, rogorc Cveni eris ukvdavebisada maradiulobis simbolosac~. 6eTeri _ gansaxiereba erTgulebisa da siyvarulis grZnobiswmindad Senaxvisa. moraluri sisufTave, sibrZne. mis mus.saxeSi xazgasmulia pasiuri TviTSewirva, bedis morCileba,ganwiruloba. TviT yvelaze dramatul momentebSic igi araaqmediTi, pasiuri rCeba da es saxe yvelaze srulyofilad,mTeli Tavisi sisavsiT da yvela TvisebiT swored am ariaSigamovlinda. is idealuri portretia, mxolod erTgan aReldebaeTeri (IV moqmedebaSi - eTeris da abesalomis duetSi). iseTikuri sawyisis matarebelia, masSi araa mrisxaneba.eTeris aria _ es aris lirikul-elegiuri aria, nazi,sevdiani, wynari mus. faqtura, martivi xalxuri melodia `nanas~hgavs, Tumca zusti citirebis gareSe, rac 6/8 ritmiTaaxazgasmuli. ara saopero aria (rogorc akademiuri), aramedxalxuri kupleturi simRera, romelic mis xalxurwarmomavlobas usvams xazs, Tumc, soc. motivi aq araa. erTianiaqve unda aRiniSnos, rom reJ. m. TumaniSvilis dadgmaSicnobilma soprano maia TomaZem mniSvnelovani gardatexamoaxdina da eTeris sruliad gansxvavebuli saxe gviCvena,eTeri _ mebrZolo sulis da ara pasiuri, bedis morCili. manukanasknel scenaSi Tmebi gaiSala glovis niSnad, rac arcerTmomRerals (eTers) ar gaukeTebia.`maia petres asuli TomaZe (1954-1994), (soprano), saq.sax. artisti (1987), barselonis f. viniasis sax. saerTaSorisokonkursis laureati (1987, granpri da oqros medali). 1976w. daamTavra Tb. konservatoria, amave wlidan iyo Tb. operisada baletis Teatris solisti. 1980-83 wlebSi staJirebagaiara ssrk-is did TeatrSi. 1983 wlidan kvlav Tb. saoperoTeatris solisti iyo. warmatebiT asrulebda sopranos yvelawamyvan partias qarTul da sazRvargareTul operebSi,romelTaganac gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia eTeris partia (z.faliaSvilis `abesalom da eTeri~), igi aRiarebul iqna wlissaukeTeso rolad. mas hqonda iSviaTi silamazis, rbili tembrisxma. 1992 wlidan samuSaod gadavida fineTSi, q. helsinkSi.gastrolebs marTavda msoflios mraval qveyanaSi,TanamSromlobda msoflios wamyvan diriJorebTan. `gedissimRerad~ iqca TomaZis mier Sesrulebuli eTeris partiabaTumis saopero Teatris scenaze (1994).~ 7182 183


nino sakandeliZemaia TomaZe yovelnair mizanscenebze mihyveboda mixeilTumaniSvils, yvelafers akeTebda, rasac reJisori moiTxovdamisgan, igi dawolilic ki mReroda, misTvis sirTules aranairifizikuri mdgomareoba ar warmoadgenda.`mixeil TumaniSvili iyo CvenSi qmediTi analizis meTodismimdevari. msaxiobis aqtivobis efeqtze ki bevrad arisdamokidebuli WeSmaritad aqtioruli sasceno qmedebiswarmoqmna. mixeil TumaniSvilis cxovreba Teatralur samyaroSiara marto saintereso, nayofieri da araordinaluri aRmoCnda,aramed man XX saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli TeatrisganviTareba, misi momavali gansazRvra kidec. reJisoris mierwarmoebuli Ziebebi fasdaudebelia, radgan maT qarTuli TeatrisganaxlebaSi lomis wili miuZRviT.mas brwyinvaled esmoda da warmatebiT iyenebdastanislavskis moZRvrebas. me mgoni, am meTodiT, misi avtorisgarda, mxolod g. tovstonogovi, a. efrosi da m. TumaniSvilimuSaobdnen. yovel SemTxvevaSi, maTze ukeT aravis esmodastanislavskis moZRvrebis arsi, misi saidumloebani.aqtiorisagan TumaniSvili iTxovda sulis moZraobis asaxvas,scenaze cocxal urTierTobas partniorTan. misTvis mTavariiyo msaxiobis aRzrda, mocemul scenur pirobebSi misiorganuli `Cajena~.man Tavad brwyinvale skola gaiara, radgan g. tovstonogovismowafe gaxldaT~. 8aqve aRsaniSnavia m. TumaniSvilis sqema, romelic migviTiTebsim etapebs, ra etapebic unda gaiaros msaxiobma speqtaklzemuSaobis procesSi, xolo Cemma pedagogma, prof. Jana ToiZemes sqema da meTodi gamoiyena vokalSi _ xmis dayenebisprocesSi. 9m`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidanm. TumaniSvilis sqema:1. magistrantis survili(ra unda, rom gamoxatos frazaSi,nawarmoebSi).2. moqmedeba, Sinagani gaxsna(vokalur-teqnikuri siZneleebisdaZleva)3. fizikuri moqmedeba (iaros, icekvos,dajdes da a. S.)(laR moZraobaSisunTqvis gamomuSaveba kompleqsurimeTodis gamoyenebiT).4. moixmaros intuicia(niuansireba, samsaxiobo ostatobis dasulierebis gamoyenebiT).5. grZnoba, emocia(kompleqsuri meTodis gamoyenebiTzomieri vibraciis gamomuSaveba).6. maqsimalurad daixarjos (Seikrasnawarmoebi _ romansi, aria, arieta).stanislavskis da TumaniSvilis skolas aerTianebs e. w.`warmosaxvis~, `dialogis~, aseve moqmedebis analizis meTodi.mimaCnia, rom momRerlisTvis erT-erTi umTavresi faqtoriasamsaxiobo ostatobis floba. Tu gsurs, msmenelSi emociaaRZra, maSin Tavad unda ganicado, raTa msmenelsac gadasdoSeni ganwyoba da masac ganacdevino SenTan erTad. amas sWirdebamaRali profesionalizmi, rac axasiaTebda maia TomaZes. amasewodeba: `Обратная связь~.aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTul musikas axasiaTebs Caxvevebi,rac maiam maRal wertilze aiyvana. eTeris ariaSi `dedinacvali~,Zalian xSirad gvxvdeba aseTi musikaluri frazebi:184 185


nino sakandeliZem`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidan`aq tyeSi vgdivarze~ Tanxmovani Zlieri unda iyos, emociurimomentia. `tyeSi vgdivar~, _ kargad unda Tqvas momReralma,Tanxmovani `r~ ar unda daikargos. aq ukve TvalnaTliv Cans,rom movlenebi tragikulad viTardeba. Tavidan, dasawyiss ZalianmSvidad iwyebs: `dedinacvali, TvalSi nacari~ magram _ `aqtyeSi vgdivar~ ukve gansxvavdeba I nawilisagan, momReralsmsmeneli dawyevlis momentamde mihyavs, unda gamoCndes, rommovlenebi tragikulad viTardeba, risxvis momentia `aq tyeSivgdivar~, ufro meti ferebia saWiro d maia TomaZe saocradkontrastulad cvlida am ferebs, iseT niuansirebas akeTebda,uceb feTqdeboda emociurad (rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, maiamebrZoli sulis eTers TamaSobda).gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eqceva sunTqvas. `aq tyeSivgdivar~ _ mTeli es fraza erT sunTqvazea gasatani da TusunTqvis elementebi ar iqna gaTvaliswinebuli, sxvagvaradSeuZlebelia am teqnikurad rTuli adgilebis _ fiariturebis(Caxvevebis), daZleva. aqve Cndeba e. w. `gardamavali~ bgerebi,mus. fraza gadadis maRal registrSi da emociuraddatvirTulia. TomaZesTan yvela gardamavali bgera JRerda,gaTanabrebuli hqonda yvela registri da ar iyo Cavardnili.momRerals bunebrivad dayenebuli xma da ori oqtava hqonda_ aseTi xmebi hqondaT meri nakaSiZes da daviT gamrekels.maia TomaZe bavSvobidan ukravda violinoze.maS ase, rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, gaCnda e. w. `gardamavali~bgerebi, sakmaod rTuli niuansireba _ e. w. `Caxvevebi~, teqnikuradrTuli adgilebi _ `aq tyeSi vgdivar~ erT sunTqvazea, sakmaodrTuli frazaa am ariaSi da moiTxovs sunTqvis sworganawilebas _ warmarTvas, rac erT-erTi umTavresi faqtoriamomRerlisaTvis. gasaTvaliswinebelia is, Tu ra tipis sunTqvaasaWiro aseT SemTxvevaSi. vokalSi viyenebT sametyvelo sunTqvas,e. w. `diafragmatul sunTqvas~, sadac aqtiurad CarTuliamuclis kunTebi, mTeli diafragma. sametyvelo da sasimRerosunTqva erTmaneTTan mWidro kavSirSia, ris SesaxebacvkiTxulobT prof. b. nikolaiSvilis wignSi: `qarTuli sascenometyveleba~: `XIX saukunis bevri frangi mkvlevari yuradRebasgulmkerdis (zeda) sunTqvaze amaxvilebda. amis Semdeg cnobiligaxda inglisel mkvlevarTa muclis sunTqvis upiratesobisTeoria. icavdnen agreTve gulmkerdisa da muclis sunTqvistipebs Soris mdebare sunTqvis saxeobasac. am tipis sunTqvisupiratesoba imas emyareba, rom sametyvelo sunTqvis drosdidi mniSvneloba aqvs haeris didi raodenobiT SesunTqvas,rac Zalas hmatebs xmis `warmoqmnas~. am mizniT rekomendebuliiyo e. w. `Rrma sunTqvis~ gamosamuSavebeli savarjiSoebi.sametyvelo sunTqvis TeoriaSi gamoyenebuli iyo terminebi:mxrebiT, mkerdiT, mucliT sunTqva. mxrebiT sunTqva yovelTvissakamaTo iyo, vinaidan, rogorc SeniSnavdnen, am ti pis sunTqvisdros xdeba mxrebis aweva, rasac mosdevs muclis kunTebismaRla aweva, es ki xels uSlis SuasaZgidis kunTis efeqturmoqmedebas, ris gamoc ver xerxdeba simRerisa dametyvelebisaTvis sakmao haeris SesunTqva. gulmkerdiT sunTqvaTavisTavad ar arsebobs, igi ufro sunTqvis ciklis dasawyiss,SesunTqvis fazas gulisxmobs. muclis sunTqva yuradRebasamaxvilebs amosunTqvis dros muclis kunTebis aqtiurmoqmedebaze. sadaoa agreTve am ti pis sunTqvis izolirebuladarseboba.gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom mniSvnelovania damokidebulebaSesunTquli haeris moculobasa da tonis JReradobas Soris.es ki gulisxmobs imas, rom Cveulebriv metyvelebas ar esaWiroebaRrmad sunTqva. tonis sisuste Sepirobebulia ara imiT, TiTqos,mis CamoyalibebaSi monawileobdes arasakmarisi raodenoba, aramedimiT, rom xmis warmoqmnis dros SesunTquli haeris raodenobasworad ar aris gamoyenebuli (ganawilebuli). haeris wnevada moculoba gamudmebuli kontroliT unda mimdinareobdesbgeraTa warmoTqmis dros. es aris swored sametyvelo sunTqvismeqanizmis daniSnuleba. igivea vokalSi.186 187


nino sakandeliZesunTqvis kontroli mTeli rigi pirobebis dacviTxorcieldeba, sunTqvis kontroli niSnavs imis unars, romfiltvebi swrafad an nela mTlianad Seivsos haeriT; isunTqoswrafad an nela mocemuli mdgomareobis kvalobaze; SeaCerosunTqva da ganaaxlo sunTqvis procesi adre SesunTqulihaeris daukargavad; xmis warmoqmnisaTvis gamoiyeno CveulebrivisunTqva; isunTqo mSvidad da iseTi sixSiriT, rogorc teqstsan frazas Seefereba; isunTqo imgvarad, rom Rrma sunTqvasdaRliloba ar mohyves; ise gamoizogo sunTqva, rom misimaragi ar mogakldes; isunTqo ise bunebrivad dadaubrkoleblad, rom msmenelma ver SeniSnos sunTqva da misinakleboba.~ 10aseve, sainteresod aris gaSuqebuli sunTqvis mniSvnelobav. a. bagadurovis wignSi. rogorc igi aRniSnavs, damwyebmomRerals unda hqondes xma, musikaluri smena, maxsovroba,ritmis SegrZneba da aseve artistuli niWi, bunebisaganminiWebuli. xmaze muSaoba moiTxovs did moTminebas dagamZleobas, anu nebisyofas. Tu es yovelive gaaCnia momRerals,mxolod am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba misgan dadges artistimomRerali.avtori aseve xazs usvams da eyrdnoba ital. prof. sonkisTeoriul principebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovanida umTavresia xmis dayenebis procesSi sunTqvis elementebi(swori sunTqva). igi aRniSnavs, rom: `simReris xelovneba esaris sunTqvis skola~. saboloo jamSi, avtori Cerdebadiafragmatuli tipis sunTqvaze _ `Косто-абдоминальиый типдыхания~.m`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidannawarmoebis Seswavlis procesSi, sityvis problema winunda iyos wamoweuli, Tanxmovnebi ar unda `Cavardes~,gansakuTrebiT yuradRebis misaqcevia `r~, `l~, `n~ Tanxmovnebi.`netavi, vinme gamoCndebodes, gadamarCendes~... , ,netavi, vinme~ _saSualo registria. aqedan gamomdinare, ukve iZabeba musikalurifaqtura, gadadis maRal registrSi, Cndeba `gardamavali~ bgerebisityvaSi: `gadamarCendes~, mus. frazaSi igrZnoba dramatizmi,kompozitori Txoulobs fermatos, grZlioba _ pauzas dakulminacias boloSi, sadac iwyeba `wyevlis~ scena.`da dedinacvlis~... aqac gvxvdeba e. w. `gardamavali~ bgerebi,rasac didi yuradReba eqceoda jer kidev Zveli italielimaestroebis mier. mxolod maSin gardamavali bgerebi odnavdabal registrSi iTvleboda (amas vkiTxulobT bagaduroviswignSi vokalur-meTodur sakiTxebze).Semdgom wlebSi Seicvala sakompozicio skola XIX, XXsaukuneebSi da masTan erTad vokaluri skola, romelicmoiTxovda ufro maRal tesituras _ verdis, puCinis, rosinismusika. amitom gardamavali bgera gaxda ukve mi bemoli, mi,fa, fa diez, magram gaaCnia sopranos da tenors. zogi soprano188 189


nino sakandeliZeufro maRalia da msubuqi, zogi ufro kompaqturi, aseve tenoric.bgeris pozicias didi yuradRebiT da didi sifrTxiliT undamivudgeT, raTa ar iyos cxviris, yelis da sxva. xorxi undaiyos gaTavisuflebuli, unda mieqces yuradReba, pirvel rigSi_ ybas, mis Camowevas, gaTavisuflebas _ rogorc sascenometyvelebaSi. aseve gamoyenebul unda iqnes sunTqvis regulacia.sasurvelia e. w. Sereuli sunTqva, amas gvTavazoben rogorcitalieli pedagogebi, aseve b. nikolaiSvili Tavis miTiTebaSi:`gul-mkerdis da muclis kunTebis Serwyma~. TumaniSvilimoiTxovda Tavisufal mxrebs, laR korpuss siarulis dajdomis dros.dabolos, nawarmoebis damagvirgvinebeli momenti, boloakordi mTavrdeba bgera sol-ze, romlisTvisac momzadebasWirdeba momRerals, vinaidan es bgera moiTxovs filirebas _es aris metad rTuli niuansireba, romelic SesrulebisasmoiTxovs vokalur-teqnikur codnas:zusti intonacia ara marto intonaciuri, aramed poziciuri.swori artikulacia _ miaxlovebuli italiur momrgvalebulbgerebTan. Tu xmovan `i~-zea, am SemTxvevaSi italielebigvTavazoben frangul `u~-s, raTa ar iyos ulamazo, anu`moWerili~, bgera.1. ybis gaTavisufleba.2. sunTqvis swori ganawileba.3. pianodan imave poziciiT mRera. vinaidan yvela verasrulebs am niuansirebas, am SemTxvevaSi studenti sargeblobsmezzo-voche-Ti, e. i., odnav umatebs siZlieres rogorcteqnikurad sunTqviT, aseve `amaRlebuli sulieri~ SesrulebiT,samsaxiobo monacemebis da ostatobis codniT forteze,fortisimoze (forte-fortissimo) da Semdgom kvlav imavepoziciiT, imave intonaciuri simaRlis SenarCunebiT, sunTqvisganawilebis da udidesi musikalobis gamoyenebiT, sulierebiT,pianosimoze unda daamTavros fraza (piano, pianissimo-ze),rogorc moiTxovs kompozitori.m`eTeris aria~ operidan `abesalom da eTeri~ I aqtidanam SemTxvevaSi, ar SeiZleba ar visaubro oriod sityviTmaRal sasimRero `formantaze~.maRali sasimRero `formanta~ aris vokalur-teqnikurierT-erTi urTulesi Sesasrulebeli ukiduresad maRali `bgera~ariis Tu romansis. xSirad recenzentebi am bgeras `kaSkaSas~,`mooqrovebuls~ da sxv. uwodeben, romelic Seicavs:1. `bgeris~ maRal pozicias Tavis rezonatorSi;2. `bgeris~ siZlieres;3. `bgeris~ vibracias-rxevas-sixSires;4. `bgeris~ fonetikur, zomier momrgvalebas _ Sinaarsidangamomdinare;5. intonaciur sizustes;6. sunTqvis zust mowodebas kunTebis muSaobis Sedegad;7. `bgeris~ siRrmes;8. moculobas;9. emociurobas _ sasceno ostatobis flobas, SesrulebismaRal kulturas, gemovnebas, raTa ar iyos forsireba, gadaWarbeba.maRali sasimRero `formanta~ Bel-canto-s erT-erTi mTavarida urTulesi niuansirebaa, romelsac moiTxovs rogorcsaSualo, aseve dabali registri.maRali `formanta~ mogvismenia karuzos, jilis, pavarotisSesrulebiT, saqarTveloSi _ z. sotkilava, z. anjafariZe, n.andRulaZe, c. tatiSvili, m. TomaZe, a. xomeriki, T. guguSvilida sxv.maRali sasimRero `formanta~ miRebulia rogorcsaerTaSoriso bgera, romelic moiTxovs momRerlis maRalkulturas, gemovnebas, codnas. am bgeriT da sxva komponentebiTganisazRvreba momRerlis Sesrulebis da zogadi donecsaerTaSoriso konkursebze.190 191


nino sakandeliZemaia xaWapuriZemagistrtaturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. Jana ToiZe1. l. donaZe, `qarTuli musikis istoria~, wigni I, gamomcemloba `ganTleba~,Tbilisi, 1990 w., gv. 161.2. l. donaZe, `qarTuli musikis istoria~, wigni I, gamomcemloba`ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, 1990 w., gv. 168.3. g. toraZe, `qarTuli musika saukunis gadasaxedidan~, Tbilisi,`mecniereba~, 1998 w., gv. 13.4. v. gvaxaria, `qarTuli musikis mSveneba~ (Tbilisis universitetisgamomcemloba), Tbilisi, 1971 w., gv. 25.5. l. donaZe, `qarTuli musikis istoria~, wigni I, gamomcemloba`ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, 1990 w., gv. 176.6. g. toraZe, `qarTuli musika saukunis gadasaxedidan~, Tbilisi`mecniereba~ 1998 w., gv. 13.7. g. toraZe, `musikis enciklopediuri leqsikoni~, Tbilisi, 2007 w.,gv. 113.8. eTer guguSvili, naTela arvelaZe, Jurnali `Teatri da kino~ (27marti, 1997 w.), mixeil TumaniSvili.9. J. ToiZe, `avtoreferati~, Tbilisi, 1997 w. gv. 9, `TanamedroveqarTuli saopero reJisura da momRerali-msaxiobis aRzrdis problemebiXX saukunis damlevs~.10. b. nikolaiSvili, `qarTuli sasceno metyveleba~, gamomcemloba`ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, 1979 w., `sunTqvis tipebi~, gv. 62.eTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilisoperidan `abesalom da eTeri~(`dedinacvlis~ saSemsruleblo kvleviTi analizi)z. faliaSvili Tavis `avtobiografiul~ cnobebSi werda;`Cemi Tavi da Tavi mizani da miswrafeba yovel Cems muSaobaSiyofila da mudamac iqneba, rom qarTuli hangebis`harmonizatorma~ Tu SemTxzvelma aras gziT ar undauRalatos im princips, romelic Tavdapirvel ganZs warmoadgensxalxuri hangebis damuSaveba-SeTxzvaSi. es principi gaxlavTmTlianad da sufTad dacva qarTulis koloritisa, aRmonacenTviT xalxis gulidan... me am principis momxre var da mudamacviqnebi, radaganac es erTaderTi gza aris, romelsac SeuZlia,musikaluri xelovneba CvenSi aayvaos da ganviTareba misces~.aqedan gamomdinare, unda iTqvas rom, SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobispirvelive dRidanve z. faliaSvilis upirveles sazrunavadqarTuli xalxuri musikis Sekreba, Seswavla da damuSavebaiqca. mas Cawerili qonda 300-mde qarTuli xalxuri simRera,romelTaganac zaqariam gamosca 2 krebuli: `qarTuli xalxurisimRerebi~ (42 simRera, 1910 w.) da `8 qarTuli xalxurisimRera~. aqedan mravali simRera kompozitorma gamoiyenaSemdgom Tavis operebSi.1910 wels kompozitori iwyebs muSaobas umaRlesi donisnawarmoebze _ operaze `abesalom da eTeri~. am siuJetzeoperis daweris idea z. faliaSvils miawoda cnobilma pedagogmada literetorma petre mirianaSvilma (1860-1940 ww.), romelsacdidi wvlili miuZRvis `abesalomis~ saxis SeqmnaSi, igi mxarSiedga mTeli es wlebi kompozitors operaze muSaobisas.`abesalom da eTeri~ z. faliaSvilma daasrula 1918 wels,xolo pirveli warmodgena gaimarTa 1919 wlis 21 Tebervalsavtoris diriJorobiT, rac iyo qarTuli kulturis udidesizeimi, qarTuli klasikuri operis dabadebis dRe. opera192 193


maia xaWapuriZeaRfrTovanebiT miiRo qarTulma sazogadoebam. `abesalom daeTeris~ dadgma faliaSvilis moRvaweobis kulminaciuri momenti iyo .1kompozitori siyvarulis ganwirulebis musikalurigansaxierebisaTvis gamoyofs `bedisweris~ Temas. igi arissimbolo sabediswero Zalisa, romelic xels uSlis adamianisbednierebas. metad saintereso da mniSvnelovania operisJanrobrivi saxis dadgena. operis Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs,rom gamoyenebulia TiTqmis yvela saopero Janri: I moqm. _lirikuli, II moqm. _ epikuri, III-IV moqm. _ tragikuli. amoperas SeiZleba ewodos lirikul-epikuri tragedia. operistragediuloba Taviseburia, radgan es aris tragedia qmediTobisgaregani niSnebis gareSe, anu, igi araSeqspirulia. garegnulimoqmedebis siZunwe, Txrobis dinji epikuri toni, xalxis gundisudidesi roli tragediis ganviTarebaSi _ yovelive es naTladgviCvenebs `abesalom da eTeris~ oratorul ganxras.oratoruloba vlindeba sulier gancdebSi da ara moqmedebaSi.`abesalom da eTeri~ simfonizmis makfio gamovlinebaasaopero musikaSi, amis Sesaxeb metyvelebs mZafri dinamikuriganviTarebis unari. es aramarto udides scenaSi, rogoricaa,me-3 moqmedeba, aramed mcire moculobis scenebSic gvxvdeba.z. faliaSvilis operis ZiriTadi damaxasiTebeliTaviseburoba aris xalxuroba. xalxur masalas iyenebs rogorcdramaturgiul elements. `abesalom da eTeris~ musikalurienis ZiriTadi dasayrdeni qarTuli xalxuri simReraa. asevekompozitori emyareba Zvel qarTul glexkacur simReras. arissvanuri simReris, qalaquris da aseve qarTuli sagalobliselementebi.`abesalom da eTeris~ xalxuri arsi dakavSirebulia gundis,xalxis udides rolTan nawarmoebSi, romelic qmediT Zaladiqceva operaSi. nawarmoebis siuJeturi xazi oTxi moqmedebismanZilze viTardeba, anu, dramaturgiul ganviTarebaSi oTxiZiriTadi etapia:1. moqm. _ siyvarulis Casaxva.2. moqm. _ saqorwino nadimi.3. moqm. _ ganSoreba.4. moqm. _ gmirebis sikvdili.eTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~amgvarad, operis daramaturgiuli xazi miemarTeba lirikidanda daramatizmis gziT _ tragediamde.1919 wels z. faliaSvils gadauxades moRvaweobis 25wlis iubile. amave wels, 5 Tebervals, daidga d. arayiSvilis`Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~, xolo 21 Tebervals _ qarTulisaopero Semoqmedebis siamaye `abesalom eTeri~. opera moicavdaxuT moqmedebasa da eqvs suraTs. rolebs asrulebdnen: abio _qurxuli, abesalomi _ zali pski, naTela _ morozova, marixvarskvlavi_ garneli, eTeri _ Sulgina-baxutaSvili,dedinacvali _ gurji, murmani _ inaSvili, nana _ mandenova,beliar-eSmaki _ lorTqifaniZe, Tandaruxi _ WumburiZe, stumari_ kurbatova, moZaxili _ orliuki. diriJorobda z. faliaSvili,baleti dadga vakarecma. cekvavdnen: baur-zaki da bakareci.dekoracia ekuTvnoda al. zalcmans. gunds xelmZRvanelobdakorSoni. speqtakli, romelic 7-saaTsa da 30-wuTze daiwyoda damTavrda 12.00 sT.-ze. darbazi xalxiT iyo gaWedili: me-2 moqmedebis bolos kompozitors didi ovaciebi gaumarTes.imave wels, 25 aprils, kvlav daidga `abesalom da eTeri~Semdegi SemadgenlobiT: abio _ qurxuli, abesalomi _sarajiSvili, naTela – morozova, marix-varskvlavi _viSemirskaia, eTeri _ Sulgina-baxutaSvili, dedinacvali _gurji, murmani _ inaSvili, naana _ cinki, Tandaruxi _ fxalaZe,stumari _ kurbatovi, moZaxili _orliuki, diriJpri _ z.faliaSvili, dadgma a. wuwunavasi. am speqtakliT Tbilisissaopero scenaze damkvidrda qarTuli vokaluri xelovneba.`dedinacvlis~ saSemsruleblo kvleviTi analizieTeris lirikul-elegiuri aria, nazi, sevdiani, martivixalxuri melodiaa, romlis akompanimenti tipur nanas hgavszusti citirebis gareSe, rasac xazs usvams 6/8 zoma. es ariaaris xalxuri kupleturi simRera (da ara rogorc saoperoakademiuri aria), Tumca socialuri motivi aq araa.eTeri emorCileba Tavis beds, mas ar gaaCnia mrisxaneba,TviT dramatul momentSic ki igi araa qmediTi, rCeba pasiuri,romelic mTeli Tavisi sisavsiT gamovlindeba am ariaSi. me-4194 195


maia xaWapuriZemoqmedebaSi eTerisa da abesalomis duetSi igi mxolodaReldeba. eTeri aris xalxuri eTeris prototipi.pirvel moqmedebaSi, romelic oris suraTisagan Sedgeba,kompozitori iZleva mTavar gmirTa daxasiaTebas. operis musikaspirvelive taqtebidan Sehyavs msmeneli xalxur sasimRerosivrceSi. monadireTa vaJkacuri gundis Semdeg, romelic Soridanmoismis aRiqmeba mkveTr kontrastad eTeris lirikul-elegiuripirveli aria `dedinacvali~.k. stanislavskis sqemanawarmoebis Seswavlis procesSi viyenebT k. stanislavskissqemas, romelsac didi saopero reJisori iyenebda speqtaklebzemuSaobisas. zemoT aRniSnuli sqemiT Cven SegviZlia vaCvenoTstudents, Tu rogor unda Seiswavlos esa Tu is nawarmoebi.fragmentebiT daiwyos Seswavla rogorc vokalizi, sadacgaTvaliswinebuli iqneba e. w. gardamavali bgerebi nawarmoebisdiapazoni, maRali bgerebis calke gamomuSaveba, taqtebi, sadacuWirs moswavles.diapazonieTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~kompozitori mwyemsi qaliSvilis saxes arasaopero ariiT,aramed xalxuri wyobis ubralo strofuli simReriT iwyebs,romlis melodiuroba da xasiaTi uaxlovdeba qarTul nanas.amitom qarTvel momRerals (nebismier xmas), romelic kargadflobs qarTul xalxur folklors, gauadvildeba `abesalomda eTeris~ partiebis Sesruleba.tonaloba nawarmoebSi aris sol minori. igi ar gadadissxva tonalobaSi da mTeli simReris ganmavlobaSi tonalobaucvlelia.zoma: 6/8tempi: andante con dolore _ zomieri, auCqareblad.marTalia, aria iwyeba p-ze auCqareblad, TumcaSinagani mdgomareoba daZabulia. gvxvdeba uamravigardamavali bgera. misi ganviTareba xdeba prawtikuladg a r d a m a v a l b g e r e b z e , r o m l i s S e s r u l e b aSemsruleblisaTvis sakmaod rTulia. me-2 nawilSi ufrometi forSlagebia, vidre pirvelSi.pirveli oqtavis solidan dawyebuli me-2 oqtavissolamde ZiriTadad sruldeba legato. legatoebi,Crescendo da decrescendo u m T a v r e s i n i u a n s e b i aariisaTvis.gardamavali bgerebi: d, e, f, fis. sistematurad gvxvdeba,romelic moiTxovs rTul vokalur-teqnikur Sesrulebas(faqtobrivad, gvaqvs gamiseburi svlebi).am partiaSi ar gvevlineba intervalebiT daSorebebi, piriqiT,gvxvdeba erTmaneTze legatirebuli mdore frazebi.imis gamo, rom oTxi taqti Seadgens erT sasimRero frazas,aucilebelia da moiTxovs did sunTqvas da mis swor,gaazrebulad ganawilebas, raTa bolomde eyos sunTqva da ariyos misustebuli.pirveli frazebi iwyeba pianoTi, melodia iZleva minorul,sevdian xasiaTs romelic Sua nawilidan ukve mZafrdeba damoZraobs nel-nela mf-ze, xolo Semdgom ki _ f-ze.196 197


maia xaWapuriZepirvelive fraza moiTxovs Sesrulebis maneras, rac gasdevsarias bolomde, vinaidan masSi xalxuri intonacia Warbobs(Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT, gadaWarbeba, anu zedmeti forsireba,dauSvebelia).yovel sityvaSi bgerebi, forSlagebis miuxedavad, mkafiodunda iqnes warmoTqmuli (r, m, n, S...) Tanxmovnebi. sityvidansityvaze gadasvla unda iyos gaazrebuli, Sinaarsiani damayureblisaTvis gasagebi, misTvis damainteresebeli.gardamavali bgerebi am monakveTSidac gvxvdeba: re, mi, fa.rogorc vxedavT, am or frazaSi (aramarto am frazebSi)aucilebelia sunTqvis kontroli. aria iwyeba `e~ xmovanzeda mas moyveba `i~ xmovani. am bgerebze simReris dawyebaaraswori poziciiT dauSvebelia da arasasurveli. imisaTvis,rom ar iyos Ria `e~ da `i~ bgerebi, viyenebT frangul `e~-s`i~-s, raTa iyos momrgvalebuli bgera, magram ar unda daikargosqarTuloba.arias viwyebT sunTqvaze dayrdnobiT (diafragmatul-mucliskunTebi), vinaidan gvaqvs sametyvelo registri. sascenometyvelebaSi b. nikolaiSvili iyenebda am sunTqvas da SegviZliagadmovitanoT vokalSi. `i~ xmovanze gvaqvs forSlagi.forSlagebis simRerisas dauSvebelia yelismieri ancxvirismieri bgerebi, imisaTvis, rom es ar moxdes, gvexmarebasunTqvis swori ganawileba. frazas viwyebT p-ze, Semdeg kivaZlierebT, e. i., gvWirdeba, rom gamoviyenoT Crescendo.eTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~Tumca gmiri Sinaganad aris sakmaod daZabuli, aqedan gamomdinare,aucilebl gamoyenebas moiTxovs msaxiobis ostatobiselementebis floba, rasac yovelTvis iTxovda m. TumaniSvili.aseve amas gvTavazobs italiuri skola (simRerisTvalsazrisiT).am ariis Sesasruleblad gvWirdeba da aseve Rrma sunTqvisgamomuSavebisaTvis savarjiSoebi. Tu adamians aqvs sakmaosiZlieris xma, ar aris aucilebeli Cveulebrivi sunTqvisSecvla im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Cveulebrivi sunTqvis drosSesunTquli haeri sakmarisia xmis warmoqmnisaTvis, Tumcagamonaklisi arsebobs registrebis cvalebadobis dros sasimRerosunTqvaSi.am frazaSi gvWirdeba sunTqvis mkacri kontroli, radganforSlagebi moiTxovs sunTqvis met marags. pirveli frazisagangansxvavebiT es fraza sruldeba xmis meti siZlieriT.nawarmoebi grZeldeba afsoluturad gardamaval bgerebze.gvaqvs bevri forSlagi, amitom saWiroa Tavisufali bgerebi,nawarmoebis Seswavlis Semdeg unda iqnes daZleulivokalur-teqnikuri siZneleebi. es niSnavs, rom yba unda iyosCamoweuli, aparati Tavisufali da ar iyos yelismieri dacxvirismieri bgera, xorxi Tavisufali, rasac aucilebladmelodia meordeba da igivea moTxovnebi, rac dasawyisSi,kompozitori gvTavazobs or pianos mravalferovnebisTvis. amariisaTvis bgeris sifaqize da silamaze umTavresi kriteriumebia,(XVII-XIX saukuneSi ganviTarda belkantos stili _ `lamazi198 199


maia xaWapuriZesimRera), romelic iTvaliswinebs bgeris `emisiis~ aucileblobas.bgeris emisia hqvia nawarmoebis pirvel aRebul bgeras, romlisresursSi Sedis sunTqva, metyveleba, diqcia, maRali gemovnebada orToepia (maxvilis siswore).m. agadurovi sunTqvis specifikas ase axasiaTebs: igiyuradRebas amaxvilebs diafragmatuli ti pis sunTqvaze,romelic Zlier sunTqvasTan erTad Serwymulia bgeris tipebTan(maRali, dabali...). igi mivida daskvnamde, rom sunTqvis SeCerebassimReris dros didi mniSvneloba aqvs, rac dasturdeba amfraziT. anu, igi ambobs, rom diafragmatuli da gulmkerdiskunTebi ise unda hqondes momRerals daxvewili, rogorcsportsmens. igi ayalibebs Semdgom meTodur wesebs: 1. simRerisdros ar unda iyos sunTqvis miwodeba wyvetili, sistematuradunda mimdinareobdes sunTqvis ganaxleba. 2. didi raodenobiThaeris SesunTqva da warmoqmna sxvadasxva bgeris, gansakuTrebiTgardamaval bgerebze. 3. mimarTuleba misce haerovan bgerasmagar sasasTan (zemoT). 4. msubuqad, rbilad bgeris aReba,amis misaRwevad saWiroa intensiuri muSaoba vokalizebiT.am nawilSi gvaqvs mf _ maqsimalurad xmis meti siZlierisxarjze vimReroT es fraza. musikaluri Sesruleba, gamomdinareSinaarsidan, kerZod sityvebidan, daculi unda iyos niuansireba,mocemuli TviTon avtoris mier, aseve _ tempo-ritmi.eTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~unda vTqvaT aucileblad, rom e. w. `gardamaval~ bgerebsdidi yuradReba eqceoda jer kidev Zveli italieli maestroebismier, magram maSin gardamavali bgerebi odnav dabla iTvleboda.Semdgom Seicvala sakompozicio skola XIX-XX saukuneebSida masTan erTad _ vokaluri skola, romelic moiTxovdaufro maRal tesituras _ verdis, puCinis, rosinis musika.amitom gardamavali bgera gaxda:E, f, fis, ra Tqma unda, gaaCniasopranos da tenors.gardamavali bgeris gadasalaxad da asaRebad saWiroa:a). gaTanabrebuli registri;b). ganviTarebuli sunTqva (sunTqvis ganawilebis procesi);g). vokaluri metyveleba (Tanxmovnebi).gardamavali bgerebis dasaxvewad, aucilebelia, rom pedagogiavarjiSebdes students mudmivad, xolo ariis rTul adgilebiunda damuSavdes mcire fragmentebad, rogorc vokalizi. pedagogmaunda SeZlos Seiswavlos speqtralurad studentis xma.nawarmoebs nel-nela mivyavarT dasasrulisken. miuxedavadamisa gvaqvs p. melodia Camodis, piriqiT, dabal bgerebze daamitom momReralma unda ecados, rom ar iqnes uferuli daarasaintereso. Cados meti sevda da gamoiyenos samsaxioboostatobis elementebi. am ariaSi, iseve rogorc am frazaSi,200 201


maia xaWapuriZeaucilebeli niuansi aris legato, romlis Sesruleba moiTxovsRrma sunTqvebs. amisaTvis gamogvadgeba pietro franCesko tozisrekomendaciebi (cota mcire sunTqva aiRos studentma anmomReralma da gaanawilos, TiTqos, uberavs minaze. am drosZlierad muSaobs sasunTqi kunTebi, romelic Zalian exmarebamomRerals).am ariis advilad daZlevaSi da swori poziciiTSesrulebisaTvis erT sunTqvaze unda avarjiSos studentipedagogma vokalizebiT: qromatiuli gama, arpejio, TviTon ariisrTuli adgilebi. vokalizebiT muSaoba aZlevs xmas usazRvroganviTarebis saSualebas, razec italiaSi wlebis manZilzemuSaoben.eTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~aria pirvandel xasiaTs ibrunebs TandaTan da mTavrdebap-ze. oqtavur intervalze naxtomiT.safinalo frazaSi kompozitori, faqtobrivad, oqtavurintervals gvaZlevs - ori p, dabali bgerebi h, g, f-dan ucebmeore oqtavis safinalo noti G, romelic aris Zalian didigrZliobis, am kulminaciur notas kompozitori iTxovs pp-ze,rac, teqnikuri TvalsazrisiT, urTulesia. amiT mivdivarT imdaskvnamde, rom dayrdnobili sunTqvis gamoyeneba aucilebelia.bolosken Cndeba dabali bgerebi g, a, f, amisaTvis unda ecadosmomReralma, ar daikargos xmis siZliere da JRerdes ise,rogorc sxva bgerebi. amisaTvis saWiroa Tavisufali xorxi,xolo maRali bgera, romelic aris meore oqtavis g, moiTxovsgul-mkerdis sunTqvas.mixeil TumaniSvilis es sqema kide ufro exmareba studentsan damwyeb momRerals imaSi rom, Seiswavlos esa Tu isnawarmoebi da gamoiyenos simReris dros sqemaSi aRniSnulimiTiTebani.`abesalom da eTeris~ wina dadgmebSi eTeris saxe lirikulad,xolo TumaniSvilis dadgmaSi brZolisunarian gmirad arisinterpretirebuli (swored es saxe Seqmna araCveulebriviostatobiT maia TomaZem).Cvenamde moRweuli `eTeriani~ saukuneebiT TariRdeba.`eTeriani~ farTo epikuri tiloa.MmasSi maRali xelovnebiTaris asaxuli maradiuli siyvaruliT gamsWvaluli qal-vaJistragikuli b edi, xa lxis es Tetikur i ideal i damsoflmxedveloba. `eTerians~ siuJeturi analogiebi moepovebaSua saukuneebis msoflio literaturaSi (`tristan da izolda~,`visramiani~Lda sxva...). mZafrma siuJetma, daxvewilma epikurmasaxeebma, mdidarma poeturma enam ganapiroba eTerianis ideispopularoba. mis safuZvelze Seiqmna vaJa fSavelas poema`eTeri~202 203


maia xaWapuriZez. faliaSvilis opera `abesalom da eTeri~ da sxva.erTi cnobili Tanamedrove qarTveli kompozitorisgancxadebaa, rom Turme `faliaSvilma 50 wliT ukan daswiaqarTveli musikis ganviTareba. motivi? _ `abesalom da eTeri~araa dawerili gamoCenili Tanamedroveebis _ rihard StrausisaTu alban bergis operebis musikaluri eniTa da sakompozitoroteqnikiTo! ar vici, saWiroa Tu ara aq vrceli komentari?`abesalom da eTeris~ (iseve, rogorc yvela klasikur genialurqmnilebas), ukvdaveba uweria saukuneebSi da aba, mibrZaneT, raprincipuli mniSvneloba eqneba maSin imas, Tu saxeldobr,rogori musikaluri eniT an teqnikiT iyo igi Tavis drozedawerili? maradiuli Semoqmedi xom mudam ufro Tanadroulida aqtualuria, vidre yvela drois da epoqis mokvdavi`Tanamedroveni~.eTeris aria zaqaria faliaSvilis operidan `abesalom da eTeri~am studenturi aRfrTovanebiT daweril werilSi moCanssiTbo, siyvaruli axalgazrda Taobisa, romelsacxelmZRvanelobda gamoCenili pedagogi. ara erTi da ori niWierimowafe aRzarda man, romelTagan mravali gaxda SemdgomsayovelTaod aRiarebuli musikosi da sazogado moRvawe.Rrmad pativcemul zaqarias!sayuradReboa studentTa erTi adresi: `sazogado xmebsmilocvisas, romelnic dRes mimarTulni arian Tqvendami, Cvenc,I saxelmwifo konservatoriis mowafeni, vuerTebT Cvens xmas.CvenTvis am dRes, garda misi erovnuli mniSvnelobisa, aqvsgansakuTrebuli specifikuri mniSvneloba. Cven vamayobT, romim dawesebulebis saTaveSi, sadac veziarebiT wminda musikalurxelovnebas, sdgexarT Tqven, pirveli erovnuli kompozitorisaqarTvelosi, romelmac Tavis SemoqmedebiT moRvaweobaSiSeaerTa evropis musikis saukeTeso tradiciebi erovnulimusikis simdidresTan. Cven bednieri varT aRvniSnoT, rom`abesalom da eTerSi~ gamosaxuli musikaluri tendenciebida evropuli erovnuli xasiaTis tendenciebi, romelnicSeadgenen Tqvens sulier simdidres, gixelmZRvaneleben Tqvenpedagogiur moRvaweobaSi. amiT Cvens konservatorias eZlevaorgvari mniSvneloba, rogorc msoflio da erovnuli kulturiscentrs. gisurvebT xangrZlivi yofiliyos Tqveni musikalurida pedagogiuri moRvaweoba Cveni xalxis, axalgazrda mowafeTda musikalur kulturis sasixarulod (1923 wlis 2Tebervali).1. zaqaria faliaSvili, biografia. ix.: l. donaZe, o. CijavaZe, g. CxikvaZe,gamomcemloba `ganaTleba, Tbilisi, 1990.2. v. gvaxaria, qarTuli musikis mSveneba, `Tbilisis universitetisgamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 1971, gv. 24.3. g. toraZe, qarTuli musika saukinis gadasaxedidan, Tbilisi,`mecniereba~, 1998 w. 4. Багадуров Б. А. Очерки по истории вокальной методологии г. Муз.Изучтельства, Москва, 1937.b. nikolaiSvili, qarTuli sasceno metyveleba, `ganaTleba~, Tbilisi,1979.Jana ToiZe, sadoqtoro disertacia Temaze: Tanamedrove qarTulisaopero reJisura da momRerali msaxiobis aRzrdis problemebi XXsaukunis damlevs~, Tbilisi, 1999.204 205


universitetissadoqtoro programakulturis menejmentikulturis politikanaSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelebisrekomendaciiTstatiis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvanelebi _ prof. iuri mRebriSvili,prof. levan xeTaguri206 207


nino azmaifaraSvilidoqturanturis II kursixelmZRvaneli: iuri mRebriSvilisaerTaSoriso organizaciebismniSvneloba globalizaciisprocesebSigaerTianebis ideadRes teqnologiur miRwevebs, politikuri Tu ekonomikurisakiTxebis gadawyvetas integrirebisaken mihyavs msoflio.qveynebisa da msoflios xalxTa usafrTxoebis problemaTanamSromlobis aucileblobas ganapirobebs, bunebis stiqiuriSemotevebi da katastrofebi erTi saSiSroebis winaSe ayenebsplanetis nebismier mkvidrs da maSin, roca apokalipturiwarmodgenebi mZafrdeba, ibadeba gaerTianebis idea erTisaSiSroebis winaaRmdeg da isev da isev dgeba civilizaciisgadarCenis problema.es SeiZleba yvelaze mZafri ganaCenia dRevandelimsofliosaTvis, romelic dauRalavad asrulebs Tavis funqciasda cdilobs sicocxlisunarianobis gaxangrZlivebas. radganacaris periodebi, rodesac misi mkvidri adamianebi dapirispirebisSedegad xSirad damdgaran erTmaneTis ganadgurebis winaSeda roca dedamiwis wonasworoba irRveva, isaxeba gzebic, romelicSesaZleblobebs iZleva daicvas demokratiuli ideis qveSgaerTianebuli adamianebi. iqmneba globaluri gaerTianebebimTavari sakiTxebis gadaWris mizniT.Tomas l. fridmanma, rodesac msoflioze globalizaciisgavlena `gaTanabrebad~ ganixila, ganacxada, rom politikurmaZalebma rogorc dadebiTad, ise uaryofiTad, msoflio samudamodSecvales da rom globalizaciis tempebi izrdeba da ufromet gavlenas axdens biznes organizaciebze. politikaSiglobalizacia gamoixateba nacionaluri SesustebiT. rac, erTimxriv, ganpirobebulia Tanamedrove saxelmwifoebis didiuflebamosilebis delegirebiT gavlenian saerTaSorisoorganizaciebze, iseTebze, rogoricaa: gaero, msoflio savaWroorganizacia, evropis sabWo, nato, msoflio banki.XXI saukuneSi globalizaciis procesTan erTad daiwyoregionalizaciis procesi, anu, regionma ufro da meti gavlenismoxdena daiwyo saerTaSoriso urTierTobebze. moxda msofliopolitikis Semadgeneli _ globaluris da regionalurisdamokidebulebis Secvla, romlis magaliTia evropis kavSiri,sadac regionalizaciis procesis bunebrivma ganviTarebam mogvcakoncefcia _ `evropis regionebi~ evrokavSirSi adgilisdamkvidrebiT.globalizaciis procesis erT-erTi ganmapirobebeli faqtorisaerTaSoriso organizaciebis Seqmnaa.winapirobebi:msoflio sul ufro urTierTdamokidebuli xdebaglobalizaciasTan konteqstSi, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebiswinaSe wamoWrili problemis gadaWrisas ufro meti moTxovnaormxriv TanamSromlobas eniWeba. arsebobs aseve mosazreba,rom saerTaSoriso stabilurobis saqmeSi kulturasa daganaTlebas SeuZlia iTamaSos dadebiTi roli.kulturuli kontaqtebis mniSvnelovani nawili, romelsacadgili hqonda xalxebsa da qveynebs Soris, yovelTvis iyo`mravalmxrivi~ da organizebul saxes iRebda aseuli wliswin. romis kaTolikuri eklesia mSvenieri adreuli magaliTia.religiuri niSnis qveS gaerTianebuli teritoriebis da qveynebismarTva ufro advili iyo. naTelia, rom gasul saukuneebSiSeqmnili gaerTianebebi mimarTuli iyo kontrolis damyarebisada sakuTari Zalauflebis gasamtkiceblad. dRes Seicvalarealoba da wina planze ara adamianTa damorCilebis damarTvis, aramed maTi dacvis idea wamovida. amitomac dResdidia gaeros da globaluri gaerTianebebis roli saerTaSorisokulturul urTierTobebSi da is aaSkaravebs momavaliaTwleulebSi humanuri ideis hegemoniis amaRlebas saerTaSorisogaerTianebebSi.208 209


nino azmaifaraSvilisaerTaSoriso organizaciebis inteleqtualuri ganviTarebaXIX saukuneSi iqna Semotanili imanuil kantis mier, romelicmiiCnevda, rom mxolod liberaluri, damokratiuli,uerTierTdamokidebuli da kanonieri respublikebis gaerTianebas_ `wynari okeanis federacias~, SeeZlo gadaelaxa saerTaSorisosistemis mtruli anarqia. omis gaCenis mudmivi saSiSroebiswinaaRmdeg Zlier da avtoritarul saxelmwifoebs da msofliosyvelaze didi SesaZleblobis Zalebs SeeZloT wasvla da amsituaciis gamosworeba, raTa uzrunveleyoT saerTaSorisousafrTxoeba. didi xnis manZilze es Tvalsazrisebi viTardebodaTanamedrove gaazrebebamde, rom urTierTdamokidebulidemokratiuli qveynebi TiTqmis arasdros gamoiyeneben samxedroZalebs erTmaneTis sazianod. saerTaSoriso organizaciebi Caebnenam maraTonSi, rogorc saukeTeso garantebi mSvidobianimsoflios SeqmnisaTvis.saerTaSoriso organizaciebis Seqmnis mTavari faqtoriswored saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebaa.Tanamedrove globalizaciaII msoflio omis Semdeg kacobriobis winaSe Tavidan dadgausafrTxoebis problema da wamyvanma saxelmwifoebma gadawyvitesSeeqmnaT mega gaerTianebebi, romelic adamianTa, msofliokapitalis politikuri da ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis garantiebsSeqmnida. omis Semdeg globalizacia ganaxlda swrafi tempiT.mas Tan sdevda gaumjobesebebi teqnologiur dargSi, romelmacganapiroba swrafi sazRvao, sarkinigzo da sahaerogadaadgilebebi. globalizacia daaCqara aseve saerTaSorisosatelefono xazis gayvanam. 1947 wlidan saerTaSorisovaWrobaSi barierebis gauqmebiT dakavda tarifebisa da vaWrobisgeneraluri SeTanxmeba GATT _ es iyo seria kapitalisturida ganviTarebad qveynebs Soris SeTanxmebis. 1995 wels GATTis75 wevrma Camoayaliba msoflio savaWro organizacia WTO,mas mere kidev 21 qveyana SeuerTda WTO-s. aseTi instituciaaaseve rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso banki(World Bank) da saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi (InternationalMonetary Fund).saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mniSvneloba globalizaciis procesebSisaerTaSoriso organizaciebi XX saukuneSisaerTaSoriso saxelmwifoTSorisi organizaciebis (IGO)saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebis safuZvelze Seqmnili saxelmwifoTamudmivi gaerTianebebia, Seqmnili saerTaSoriso problemebisgadawyvetis mizniT. aseTi saerTaSoriso organizaciebia gaero,evropis sabWo, msoflio savaWro organizacia.saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis (INGO) _nacionaluri gaerTianebebis, asociaciebis, arasamTavroboxasiaTis sazogadoebebis mudmivi gaerTianebebia saerTomiznebisaTvis – jandacvis, kulturis, ganaTlebis, mecnierebisada teqnikis. saqvelmoqmedo da sxva sferoebSi. organizaciasaerTaSoriso statusis miniWebisaTvis unda pasuxobdesmoTxovnebs:• organizaciis mizani _ saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobisarakomerciuli saqmianoba.• organizaciis daarseba xorcieldeba saxelmwifos Sidakanonis Sesabamisad da ara saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebissafuZvelze.• organizaciis rezultatiuri saqmianoba xorcieldebaminimum or qveyanaSi.aSS Tavdapirvelad mciredad iRebda monawileobassaerTaSoriso organizaciebis SeqmnaSi, xolo mogvianebiT ukvesaerTaSoriso organizaciebis mxardaWeris mTavari iniciatorigaxda. vaSingtoni xels uwyobda or yvelaze mTavarsaerTaSoriso organizaciis I msoflio omis Semdeg, 1919wels, erTa ligis da ukve II msoflio omis Semdeg, 1945 wels,gaeros Seqmnis ideas.saerTaSoriso sistemebis moqmedebis uunarobam 1930-ianwlebSi globalurma sisxlisRvrebma, gamofitulobam, siRaribem,romelic Tan mohyva or msoflio oms, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebadaarwmuna, Seqmniliyo axali tipis globaluri organizacia.msoflioSi civi omis periodma isev axali saSiSroebiswinaSe daayena msoflio da ocneba politikisa da kulturiserTianobis Sesaxeb momavlisTvis gadado. moxda polarizebakulturis da politikis, am pariodSi saerTaSoriso210 211


nino azmaifaraSviliorganizaciebi da gaero ZiriTadad forumis da azrTa gacvlagamocvlis xasiaTs atarebda.90-iani wlebis dasawyisidan civi omis dasrulebis Semdegekonomikuri da finansuri globalizaciis fonze, ramdenadparadoqsulic ar unda iyos, politikurad da kulturuladdanawevrebulma msofliom kvlav daakisra saerTaSorisoorganizaciebs kritikuli funqcia da sakonsultacio forumebsSuamavlobis da arbitraJis roli mianiWa, gasuli saukunisbolos da XXI s-is dasawyisSi ara mxolod globalizaciamda fragmentaciam, aseve transportirebis da komunikaciissaSualebebis da transnacionalri xasiaTis omebma, politikurmada ekonomikurma konfliqtebma axali gamowvevebi wamoWres.aRmosavleT-dasavleTis konfliqtis amowurvisa dadasavleT da aRmosavleT evropis TandaTanobiTi gardaqmnisSemdeg, rasac axali saerTaSoriso gaerTianebebisformirebebisaken mihyavda axali problemebi wamoWra. civiomis Semdgom periodSi aSS-is politika saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis mimarT araerTmniSvnelovani rCeboda; 2001wlis 11 seqtembers msoflio savaWro centris uprecedentoteroristulma Tavdasxmam Statebis politikur strategiazefundamenturi gavlena moaxdina, rac gaxda globalurterorizmTan brZolis axali wamowyebebis dasawyisisaerTaSoriso organizaciebis meSveobiT.saerTaSorisoorganizaciebigaero (UN) sayovelTao mSvidobis uzrunvelyofis dasaxelmwifoTa TanamSromlobis organizaciaa, Seiqmna 1945 wels.roca san-franciskos konferenciaze mis wesdebas 50saxelmwifom moawera xeli.gaeros Seqmnis safuZveli gaxda hitleruli germaniisada misi blokis winaaRmdeg mebrZol saxelmwifoTa gaerTianebamZlavr koaliciad. manmade, 1942 wels, xeli moewera`gaerTianebuli erebis deklaracias~. axali organizaciisSeqmnis Taobaze gadawyvetileba miiRo samma mega saxelmwifom:ssrk, aSS da didi britaneTi, rac gamowveuli iyo faqtiT, rom`erTa ligis~ arsebuli organizacia politikuri dasaerTaSoriso organizaciebis mniSvneloba globalizaciis procesebSiorganizaciuli mankierebebis gamo uZluri aRmoCnda, Tavidanaecilebina II msoflio omi. gaeros wesdebaSi TanamedrovesaerTaSoriso samarTlis ZiriTadi demokratiuli principebiaasaxuli.EU _ evropis kavSiri _ gaerTianebuli Tavisufalisivrcea, dafuZnda 1993 wels maastrixtis xelSekrulebissafuZvelze. evrokavSiri _ es aris unikaluri, mravalerovanigaerTianeba, romelic Sedgeba 27 qveynisagan, isini gaerTiandnen,sakuTari moqalaqeebis usafrTxoebisa da gabednierebis mizniT.evrokavSiri _ sivrce Sida sazRvrebis gareSe, uzrunvelyofsoTx Tavisuflebas: adamianTa, saqonlis, momsaxurebis dakapitalis Tavisuflad gadaadgilebas.mas mere, rac 2004 wlis Semdeg evrokavSiri gafarTovda,miiRo Tavis rigebSi 10 axali wevri, daamtkica evropissamezoblo politika, rac gankuTvnilia im mezobeliqveynebisaTvis, romlebic evrokavSiris pirdapir integraciaSiar iReben monawileobas. ENP – evropis samezoblo politikamimarTulia ekonomikuri integraciis gaZlierebisa dapolitikuri partniorobisaken da masSi Sedis 16 qveyana, maTSoris aris saqarTvelo.1963 wels Camoyalibebuli EUROPA NOSTRA, rogorcorganizaciebis qolga aerTianebs 200-ze met arasamTavroboorganizacias, prioritetuli sfero evropis bunebrivi daarqiteqturuli memkvidreobis dacva.The COUNCIL OF EUROPE-s (evropis sabWo) devizia:adamianis uflebebi _ demokratia _ kanonis uzenaesoba. 47qveyana – erTi evropa. saxelmwifoTaSorisi organizaciamdebareobs strasburgSi (safrangeTi), daarsebulia 1949 wels,raTa miRweul iqnes mis wevrTa Soris principebisa da idealebisSenarCunebis da dacvisaTvis erTianoba, rac maT saerTomemkvidreobas warmoadgens da maTi ekonomikuri da socialurisferos SemsubuqebisaTvisaa Seqmnili. evropis sabWoSi,kulturul SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, evropis kulturulmemkvidreobis dacvasa da mTeli misi mravalferovnebisSenarCunebaze pasuxismgebelia kulturuli TanamSromlobissabWo (CDCC).212 213


nino azmaifaraSvilisaerTaSoriso organizaciebi globalizaciis periodSiikvleven, Tu globalizaciis ulmobeli procesi rogor efeqtsaxdens msoflio saerTaSoriso organizaciebze. paul grahamteilori wignSi: `saerTaSoriso organizaciebi globalizaciisperiodSi~ fokusirebas axdens gaeroze da mis ufro farTosistemaze da aseve sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebze. amprocesebSi misi farTo speqtris kvlevebi koncentrirebasaxdens sam sakvanZo sakiTxze: mSvidobis da usafrTxoebisxelis Sewyoba, ekonomikisa da socialuri aqtivobis marTvada individualuri keTildReobis dacva, romelic uzrunvelyofscvalebad urTierTobebs saerTaSoriso organizaciebsa dasaxelmwifoebs Soris. globalizaciam gazarda saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis aucilebloba, radganac maTi aqtivoba saWiroebsmet globalur marTvas. globalizaciis mzardi procesiganapirobebs saerTaSoriso organizaciebis arsebobas.gaerTianebul erebis organizaciaze dafuZnebulispecializebuli uwyeba UNESCO daarsda im ideiT, rom mSvidobadamyarebuli unda iyos kacobriobis inteleqtualur damoralur solidarobaze. Tavisi daarsebidan organizaciamSvidobis gamtkicebisaTvis ibrZoda saerTaSorisoTanamSromlobis gziT ganaTlebis, kulturis da mecnierebissferoebSi. UNESCO-Si gaerTianebulia 193 wevri qveyana da7 asocirebuli wevri, UNESCO xuTi ZiriTadi programiTaxorcielebs Tavis daniSnulebas: ganaTleba, sabunebismetyvelomecnierebebi, socialuri da humanitaruli mecnierebebi, kulturada komunikaciebi da aseve informacia. afinansebs wera-kiTxvisgavrcelebas, teqnikur proeqtebs, saerTaSoriso mecnierebaTaproeqtebs, regionaluri da kulturis istoriis proeqtebs.1972 wels miRebuli xelSekrulebiT dgindeba universalurikulturis faseulobebis msoflio memkvidreebi. iunesko asevepasuxismgebelia haagis xelSekrulebiT kulturis sakuTrebisdacvaze samxedro Setakebis SemTxvevaSi.dRes iunesko funqcionirebs, rogorc ideebis universalurilaboratoria, eTikuri problemebis mosagvareblad SeTanxmebis gziT.iuneskos miznebia: 2015 wlisaTvis ganviTarebad qveynebSiukidures siRaribeSi myofi adamianebis cxovrebis donis aweva,2015 wlisaTvis yvela qveynebSi pirveldawyebiTi ganaTebissaerTaSoriso organizaciebis mniSvneloba globalizaciis procesebSimiReba da 2015 wlisaTvis ekologiuri balansisSenarCunebisaTvis brZola.ICOMOS – Zeglebisa da teritoriebis saerTaSoriso sabWoarasamTavrobo organizacia, romelic Tavis saqmianobasukavSirebs msoflios istoriuli monumentebis da Zeglebiskonservacias, qalaqebis, arqeologiuri memkvidreobis dacvas.globaluri interesebiglobalizacia ar aris calmxrivi, homogenuri, misi sazRvrebidaudgenelia, misi damaxasiaTebeli elementebi da mravalmxrivixasiaTi jer saTanadod ar aris gamokvleuli. magram ueWvelia,rom racionaluri SerCevis dros konteqstis struqturisSecvlisas, globalizacia Secvlis im gzebs, riTac TamaSisZiriTadi wesebi imarTeba politikasa da saerTaSorisourTierTobebSi.saerTaSoriso sistema ukve aRar aris mxolodsaxelmwifoebis sistema, is xdeba ufro mravalmxrivi darTuli. es gardaqmna arsebiT Sedegebs avlens koleqtiuriqmedebis politikaze, sanam saxelmwifoebis roli arism ni Sv nel ov ani globa l i za c i is m owesr i geb a Si dasicocxlisunarian ganviTarebaSi, aSkaraa saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis roli am procesebSi.erT-erTi mniSvnelovani aspeqti sicocxlisunarianiganviTarebis da globalizaciis mogvarebis aris is, Tu rogorunda moxdes saerTaSoriso da regionaluri organizaciebisda Sesabamisi programebis saSualebiT saukeTeso gzebisgamonaxva. miznis miRwevis TvalsazrisiT, saerTaSorisosazogadoeba unda iyos aucileblad Tanamedrove dasicocxlisunariani globalizaciasTan mimarTebaSi, rasacsakvanZo mniSvneloba aqvs.pirveli saerTaSoriso organizaciebi unda gamoxatavdnenmaTi wevrebis mravalferovan survilebs. dainaxaven ra, romglobalizacia gardauvali Zalaa da misi buneba da zemoqmedebasaerTaSoriso sazogadoebis kontrolis gareSe ar ganixileba.saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba unda miiswrafvodes gamoiyenoskorporatiuli meqanizmebi globalizaciis gzaze, romlebic214 215


nino azmaifaraSviligamoxatavs saxelmwifoTa, gansakuTrebiT ganviTarebuli qveynebis,miswrafebebsa da interesebs. saerTaSoriso organizaciebisaTvisracionaluria is, rom saerTo problemebisTvis uzrunvelyofenforumebs, romlebic ganixileba da mas Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebamoeZebneba. saerTaSoriso organizaciebi awinaureben anabrkoleben globalizacias.romeli organizaciebi aRweven imas, rasac misi wevrebimoiTxoven maTgan? saerTaSoriso organizaciebi unda iyvnenaqtiurni, globaluri movlenebis moTamaSeebi da sakuTariwevrebis interesebis gamomxatvelni. saerTaSorosoorganizaciebi ZiriTadi saSualebebia, romlis meSveobiTaciZebneba kompromisebi. ar SeiZleba ar daveTanxmoT filipalots, romelic miiCnevs, rom `am cvalebad samyaroSi, raTagaerTiandes mTeli kacobriobis interesebi da ara saxelmwifosdamoukidebeli interesebi, umecreba iqneboda saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis rolis araRiareba~. saerTaSoriso sazogadoebaagrZelebs sazogadoebrivi marTvis mxardaWeras.ufro Zlieri gaero ukeTesi momavlisaTvis _ ase citirebengaerTianebuli erebis organizaciaSi, anu _ ufroyovlismomcveli da qmediTunariani. globaluri usafrTxoeba,stabiluroba, kanonis uzenaesoba, TanamSromloba mSvidobisaTvismsoflio xalxebis Tanasworuflebianoba _ yvela am faseulobisuzrunvelyofa aris saerTaSoriso organizaciebis ZiriTadimizani. msoflio moiTxovs globalur xedvas. globalizaciasaerTaSoriso sazogadoebisaTvis aucilebeli progresia.saerTaSoriso organizaciebSi gaerTianeba da maTTanTanamSromloba ara TviTmizani, aramed saSualeba da stimuliamsoflios xalxebisaTvis, maTi usafrTxoebisa dabednierebisaTvis. gaerTianebebis wevroba saerTaSorisogarantiebis mopovebaa da sruli mzaoba qveynebis siZlierisaTvisda yvelaferi es Tavisi arsiT mimarTuli unda iyos adamianTakeTildReobisaken.saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mniSvneloba globalizaciis procesebSi DUNCAN A. FRENCH, The Role of the State and InternationalOrganizations in Reconciling Sustainable Development and Globalization,University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.“Autonomous Institutional Arrangements in Multilateral Agreements: ALittle-Noticed Phenomenon in International Law”, 94 American Journal ofInternational Law, pg. 623-659.P. Allott, “The Concept of International Law” in Byers (ed.), The Role of Lawpg. 88.http://www.answers.com/topic/international-organization-1#http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/orgs/orgs.htmhttp://www.un.org/en/http://europa.eu/index_en.htmhttp://www.coe.int/ http://www.european-heritage.net/sdx/herein/european_heritage_program/showcontent.xsp?id=2http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3328&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlhttp://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/cerny.htmDrury, Paul, The Role of International Organisations, Taylor, Paul Graham,International Organization In The Age Of Globalization. Philip G. Cerny,“Globalization and the Changing Logic of Collective Action,” InternationalOrganization, Vol. 49, no. 4 (Autumn, 1995).216 217


elene babakiSvilidoqturanturis I kursixelmZRvaneli: iuri mRebriSvilisponsoroba da kulturis politikasasponsoro saqmianobas sakmaod xangrZlivi istoria aqvsevropaSi. am ukanasknelisaTvis kulturis politikisa dakanonmdeblobis safuZvelze Seqmnilia mZlavri makontrolebelida amasTan wamaxalisebeli meqanizmi. kulturis kanonmdeblobaSiCadebulia punqti, romelic iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxvasagadasaxado SeRavaTs sasponsoro da saqvelmoqmedo saqmianobiTdakavebuli biznes organizaciebisaTvis. msgavsi komfortuligaremo da sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi dRiTidRe zrdis amsaqmianobiT dakavebuli firmebis raodenobas. amgvarad,saxelmwifo kulturis mxardaWeris mizniT uars ambobspirdapir Semosavalze firmebidan da cdilobs, iribi gziTdaubrunos is kulturul dawesebulebebs, am SemTxvevaSi Tavadbiznes organizaciebic am SesaZleblobas Zalzed pozitiuraduyureben; mzardma TavSekavebam tradiciul sareklamosainformaciosaSualebebze, korporaciuli sponsoroba,marketinguli instrumentebis danaxarjis mxriv gacilebiTufro efeqturi gaxada:1. damatebiTi SesaZlebloba, sxvadasxva auditoriazemizanmimarTulad zemoqmedebis.2. dasponsorebuli RonisZiebis farTo gaSuqeba masobriviinformaciis saSualebebis mier, sponsors saSualebasaZlevs, imave danaxarjiT miiRos ufro meti kontaqtimomxmarebelTan. sponsoroba aris mdumare, araverbalurimediasivrce, ramdenadac Setyobineba gadaicemamoqmedebasTan asociaciiT, romelic flobs sakuTarindividualobas (auditoriis azriT).3. sponsorobis gamocdili efeqturoba; sponsorobasdagegmils da ganxorcielebuls Sesabamisi saxiTaucilebeli marketinguli kontaqtebis uzrunvelyofaSeuZlia. sponsoroba agreTve aris sakmaod kargialternativa, reklamasa da safosto gzavnilebTanSedarebiT.4. globaluri marketologebi sponsorobas miiCnevensaerTaSoriso auditoriasTan muSaobis efeqtursaSualebad.sponsorobis SemTxvevaSi xdeba imijis gamyareba rogorcsazogadoebis, aseve Tavad saxelmwifos da wamyvani politikuriwreebis TvalSi. 1arc Tu ise axlo warsulSi sponsoroba da dafinansebisarasabiujeto wyaroebi TamaSobda marginalur rols avstriiskulturul seqtorSi. kulturisa da xelovnebis erovnulibiujeti (TiTqmis 1 miliardi evro) cotaTi aRematebakomerciuli seqtoris sasponsoro mxardaWeris moculobas,romelic daaxloebiT Seadgens 32,45-36,05 milion evros(TiTqmis 3%-s). avstriaSi ar aris fandreizingis tradiciada dRevandelobamde misi saWiroebis aucilebloba dRiswesrigSi arc idga. Tumca, bolodroindelma politikurmacvlilebebma da saxelmwifo biujetis Semcirebam kulturuliorganizaciebi aiZula moeZebnaT arsebobis alternatiuliwyaroebi. arasabiujeto saxsrebis mozidva gaxda aqtualurimmarTvelobiTi amocana. zogierT (magram ara yvela) saxelmwifoorganizaciaSi gaCnda profesiuli fandreizinguliqvedanayofebi. avstriis kulturisa da xelovnebisorganizaciebis sicocxlisunarianoba damokidebulia maTsakuTar Semosavalsa da dafinansebis arasabiujeto wyaroebze.zogierTi maTgani sponsorebTan TanamSromlobis gasaocariunar-Cvevebisa da SesaZleblobebis demonstrirebas axdens.saSuamavlo organizaciebi, romelTac avstriaSi ewodebaT`mediatorebi~, xels uwyoben kulturis sferos TanamSromlobasbiznesTan. es kidev erTxel amtkicebs sponsorobis mniSvnelobiszrdas kulturuli organizaciebis saqmianobaSi. finansuridamoukideblobis aucileblobas acnobierebs sul ufro didiraodenoba organizaciebisa _ TviT iseT konservatorul qveyanaSi,rogoricaa, avstria.kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtori, rac asevegasaTvaliswinebelia saqarTvelosTvisac aris is, rom kanonisponsorobis Sesaxeb adgens pirobebs, romlis mixedviTac218 219


elene babakiSvilisponsoroba fasdeba rogorc kompaniis mxardaWera da areqvemdebareba dabegvras.mTlianobaSi avstriis kompaniebis umravlesoba kulturissponsorobis potencials sakmaod maRal Sefasebas aZleven dawinaswarmetyveleben misi masStabebis zrdas uaxloesiaTaswleulis.avstria klasikuri `evropuli modelia~, romlisTvisacdamaxasiaTebelia kulturis seriozuli mxardaWerasaxelmwifos mier. avstriis xelisufleba kulturasa dakulturul memkvidreobas ganixilavs, rogorc ekonomikis daganviTarebis mniSvnelovan resurss. avstriis saxelmwifodafinanseba xorcieldeba sam doneze: federaluri, regionalurida municipaluri. federaluri da municipaluri subsidiakulturuli organizaciebis biujetis 75%-dan 100%-mdeSeadgens, es kidev erTxel usvams xazs saxelmwifos ZlierTanadgomas kulturis sferos mimarT. saxelmwifo asevemiesalmeba kulturis arasabiujeto dafinansebas da xelsuwyobs misi fandreizinguli saqmianobis ganviTarebas.samomavlod varaudoben, rom arasabiujeto dafinanseba gaxdebakidev ufro aqtualuri mcire kulturuli organizaciebisada proeqtebisaTvis. 2safrangeTSi, kulturis sferoSi sponsorobas safuZveliCaeyara 1970-iani wlebis dasasruls amerikuli kompaniebiszegavleniT, romlebsac hyavdaT Tavisi warmomadgenloba amqveyanaSi. sponsoroba ganixileboda, rogorc institucionalurikomunikaciisa da sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis instrumenti.Ta vdapi rv ela d safra ngeTi s b iznes -orga ni zac iebiSemoifarglebodnen sakuTari mxatvruli koleqciebis SeqmniT,magram TandaTanobiT maT daiwyes am saqmianobis gafarToeba,kulturis tradiciuli sferoebis (gamomsaxvelobiTi xelovneba_ gamofenebi da koleqciebi, kulturuli memkvidreobisrestavracia, klasikuri musika da Teatri _ ZiriTadad, cnobiliTeatraluri jgufebisa da simfoniuri orkestrebis mxardaWera)dasponsorebisaTvis upiratesobis miniWebiT, xolo Semdegsponsorobis rolis gaZlierebiT sagareo da Sida komunikaciebSi_ individualuri da korporatiuli sponsorobiT. Sereulisponsoroba da kulturis politikasponsorobis ganviTarebis Sedegad, romelic aerTianebssocialur-kulturul amocanebs, kompaniebma riskis fasaddaiwyes kulturis sferosTan TanamSrom loba daTanamSromlobis axali formebis ganviTareba.oci wlis win arc saxelmwifo da arc SemoqmedebiTiorganizaciebi ar iyvnen dainteresebuli biznesis mxridankulturis mxardaWeriT. saxelmwifos pozicia iyo aseTi, romkomerciuli seqtori dakavebuli unda iyos Tavisi amocanebisganxorcielebiT _ Semosavlis generirebiT da gadasaxadebisgadaxdiT, romelsac saxelmwifo gankargavs TavisiSexedulebisda mixedviT, maT Soris _ kulturis sferoSic.meore mxriv, mravali SemoqmedebiTi organizacia konservatorulpoziciaze idga, vinaidan miaCnda, rom biznesis Careva maTsaqmianobaSi gamoiwvevda SemoqmedebiTi iniciativebis SezRudvas.1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi kulturaze saxelmwifobiujetis Semcirebam gamoiwvia dafinansebis alternatiuliwyaroebis Zieba mis dasafinanseblad, msgavs alternativadTviT saxelmwifos mier aRiarebul iqna biznesis mxardaWera.amasTan, saxelmwifo cdilobda ekontrolebina biznesidankulturis sferoSi mimdinare saSualebebi da ekarnaxasponsorobis prioritetuli mimarTulebebi.2003 wels miRebul iqna axali kanoni, romelic kulturismxardamWer kompaniebs sTavazobda unikalur sagadasaxadoupiratesobebs da amave dros kulturul organizaciebsSemoqmedebiTi damoukideblobis garantiebs aZlevda. am kanonisZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg safrangeTSi ori wlis manZilzekulturis mxardaWeris 33 axali korporatiuli fondi gaixsna(2003 wlamde msgavsi fondi iyo sul 120).sponsoroba franguli sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiTganisazRvreba, rogorc wminda komerciuli saqmianoba,momsaxurebebis gacvla or mxares Soris, rasac gaaCniakomerciuli efeqti (magaliTad, kompania-sponsoris sareklamoteqstis ganTavseba Teatralur bukletSi an kulturuliRonisZiebis farglebSi axali produqtis dawinaurebis kampania).aseTi saxis interpretaciiT, sponsoroba gaTanabrebuliakompaniis mxardaWerasTan da amitom, ar eqvemdebareba dabegvras.220 221


elene babakiSvilisafrangeTSi kulturisa da biznesis sferos TanamSromlobismaxasiaTebelia korporatiuli firmebis arseboba. kompaniebismier sponsoroba xorcieldeba uSualod da aseve korporatiulifondebis mier, romlebic iqmnebian zustad am mizniT.faqtobrivad, yovel frangul kompanias, romelic aqtiuradaxorcielebs kulturisa da socialuri sferos mxardaWerasaqvs sakuTari fondi.dResdReobiT, frangul kulturas realurad aqvsmravalarxiani dafinanseba. am ukanasknelis ZiriTadi wyaroebia:1. kulturisa da komunikaciis saministro.2. regionaluri da municipaluri xelisufleba.3. saxelmwifo da arakorporatiuli fondebi.4. korporatiuli filantropia.5. sponsoroba.6. sakuTari Semosavali.safrangeTSi, arsebobs mZafri konkurencia prestiJuliSemoqmedebiTi organizaciebisa da RonisZiebebismxardasaWerad. es, TavisTavad amaRlebs sponsorobissferoSi kompaniebis profesionalizms da ubiZgebs maTaqtiuri moqmedebisaken. mravali kompania gacilebiT ufroxangrZlivi Sedegis miRebis mizniT TanamSromlobs Tavismudmiv partniorebTan. maTi umravlesoba sasponsoroSeTanxmebas xels awers minimum 3 wlis vadiT. 3safrangeTSi, kulturisa da biznesis warmatebuliTanamSromlobis ara erTi magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba. es isevda isev gamowveulia saxelmwifos mxridan am sakiTxzexangrZlivi muSaobiT da aseve orive mxaris didi ZalisxmeviTTanamSromlobis formebis srulyofis sakiTxSi.aqve aucilebelia SevexoT, sasponsoro procesebismimdinareobasa da misi regulirebis sakiTxebs did britaneTSi,romelSic Tavidanve Cadebulia kulturis mravalarxiani,Sereuli dafinanseba. kulturis dafinanseba xdeba oriumTavresi wyarodan, esaa: saxelmwifo da biznesi.sponsorobasa da qvelmoqmedebas did britaneTSi sakmaodmdidari warsuli aqvs. qvelmoqmedeba ganmartebul iqna jerkidev dedofal elisabed pirvelis dros da exeboda ganaTlebas:sponsoroba da kulturis politikaisini, vinc xsnidnen skolebs RaribebisaTvis, ixdidnen gacilebiTnakleb gadasaxads. arsebiTi gardatexa moxda viqtorianulepoqaSi, rodesac miRebuli Semosavlis nawili undadabruneboda ara saxelmwifos, aramed sazogadoebas. 1940wlamde, saerTod, ar arsebobda kulturis saxelmwifodafinansebis tradicia. 1945 wels, saxelmwifo gaxda kulturissferos mTavari mepatrone. Tumca, meore msoflio omis SemdegbritaneTis saxelmwifo gaRatakda da kulturis patronobadaevala biznes-seqtors. Seiqmna kulturis mrCevelTasakonsuloebi. 1970-ian wlebSi ZiriTadi argumentibiznesmenebisaTvis JRerda ase: kulturisa da xelovnebismxardaWera aucilebelia, vinaidan amiT is gaxdeba mdidari.1979 wels, xelisuflebaSi margaret tetCeris mosvlam,kulturis politikaSi moaxdina sagrZnobi cvlilebebi. isiTvaliswinebda, kulturaze saxelmwifo xarjebis Semcirebas.aseT viTarebaSi, SemoTavazebul iqna ramdenime gamosavali:1. mmarTvelobis srulyofa (menejerTa kompetenciisganviTareba);2. organizaciis mier, sakuTari Semosavlis miRebisakenmimarTuli saqmianobis ganviTareba;3. kerZo seqtoridan resursebis mozidva.amgvarad, saxelmwifo biujetis Semcirebam kulturuliorganizaciebi aiZula moexdinaT sakuTari organizaciebisreorganizacia: daexvewaT menejmenti, ewarmoebinaT aqtiurimarketinguli saqmianoba, ezrunaT saxsrebis moZiebaze, aqtiuradganeviTarebinaT sasponsoro da fandreizinguli saqmianoba.es movlena Cveni qveynisaTvisac kargad nacnobia, rodesacsabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, moxda mTeli rigisaxelmwifoebrivi da struqturuli cvlilebebi. kulturissfero, romelic manamde sargeblobda saxelmwifos aSkaramxardaWeriT, cvlilebebisa da saxelmwifos finansuri krizisisfonze aRmoCnda usaxsro mdgomareobaSi da am krizisidangamosvla Tavad kulturis organizaciebis mcdelobisa daaqtiurobis Sedegad moxerxda. britaneTisgan gansxvavebiTqarTul saxelmwifos aranairi alternativa ar SeuTavazebiakulturis organizaciebisaTvis da dRemde saxelmwifos ar222 223


elene babakiSviligaaCnia srulyofili kulturis politika, romelicdaaregulirebs kulturisa da saxelmwifos TanamSromlobissakiTxebs.1993 wels kolin tvidma daarsa saSuamavlo saagento“Arts and Business”, romelmac TavisTavze aiRo kulturas,saxelmwifosa da bizness Soris Suamavlis roli, samivemxarisaTvis damajerebeli argumentebis warmodgeniT.argumenti saxelmwifosaTvis: Cven dagexmarebiTkulturisaTvis biznesis seqtoridan Tanxebis moZiebaSiTqvengan garkveuli Tanxis sanacvlod. (`Cven viRebT fuls davSoulobT fuls~).argumenti biznesisaTvis: fulis kulturaSi dabandebiT,Tqven iRebT sargebels da sakuTari saqmianobis ganviTarebissaSualebas. argumenti SemoqmedebiTi organizaciebisaTvis:biznesis mxridan mxardaWera ar uSlis, aramed avsebssaxelmwifo dafinansebas. Sedegad, SemuSavebul iqna erToblivigrantebis programa, romlis CarCoSic kerZo seqtorissaSualebebi erTiandeboda saxelmwifo saxsrebTan.am periodis ZiriTadi, fandreizinguli strategia iyourTierTsargebliani TanamSromloba, romelic sruliadgansxvavdeba gulkeTilobisagan da misi principuli argumentiJRerda ase: `kulturis mxardaWera SeiZleba iyos momgebiani.~1990-ian wlebSi did britaneTSi kvlav daiwyo axaliekonomikuri krizisi. misi erT-erTi Sedegi iyo kompaniebisgakotreba da maT nacvlad biznesmenebis axali Taobis mosvla,romelTaTvisac kultura ar warmoadgenda umaRlesRirebulebasa da aqsiomas. am periodSi biznesmenebisaTviswarmodgenil iqna axali argumentebi kulturis mxardasaWerad:kreatiuloba (kultura ganixileboda, rogorc kreativispirvelwyaro);kulturis mniSvneloba socialur konteqstSi (kulturismxarda Wer a, rogorc `kor por atiu li soc ialu ripasuxismgeblobis~ politikis nawili).kulturis dafinansebis britanuli modeli warmoadgensamerikuli da evropuli modelebis Sualedur safexurs.dafinansebis britanuli modelis Semqmnelebi, aqcentirebassponsoroba da kulturis politikaa keT eb en ku l turis or ga ni z a c i i s a da b i zn es i surTierTqmedebaze. korporatiuli sponsoroba kulturisdafinansebis mniSvnelovani meqanizmi xdeba.did britaneTSi biznesisa da kulturis TanamSromlobissami tipi Camoyalibda:1. TanamSromloba msxvili biznesis doneze _ seriozulida ZviradRirebuli proeqtebis mxardaWera;2. TanamSromloba saSualo biznesTan regionis masStabiT_ esaa partnioroba teritoriuli ganviTarebis mizniT;3. TanamSromloba mcire biznesis doneze. britaneTisaTvisesaa kulturuli proeqtebis realizaciis axali forma,romelmac SemoqmedebiTi industriis wodeba miiRo. 4amerika iTvleba sponsorobisa da fandreizingis samSoblod.msoflios sxva qveynebma gamoiyenes amerikis gamocdileba damoaxdines misi teqnologiebis adaptireba Tavis pirobebsa daSesaZleblobebTan. amerikaSi kultura da biznesi viTardebaara cal-calke, aramed maTi arseboba urTierTgamomdinarea,rogorc wesi, ideologiuri zewolis gareSe. amerikaSi kulturamda biznesma erTmaneTTan misasvleli gzebi gamonaxes, xolosaxelmwifom am nayofieri TanamSromlobisaTvis Seqmna Sesabamisipirobebi.amerikuli modeli korporatiul da individualurfilantropias efuZneba, anu, kulturis organizaciebs gadascemssaSualebebs raime saxis sargeblis miRebis molodinis gareSe.es modeli mxardaWeras ganicdis ganviTarebuli sagadasaxadosistemis privilegiebiT. aseve arsebobs mosazreba, rom kulturaunda iyos saxelmwifos zegavlenisagan Tavisufali. amerikaSifilantropiis umTavresi devizia: kulturis mxardaWeriT,Tqven exmarebiT sazogadoebas~. marTvisa da kontrolis ZiriTadiorganoa konkretuli kulturuli organizaciis mzrunvelTasabWo.zemoT moyvanili magaliTebi kidev erTxel adasturebs, Turaoden mniSvnelovania saxelmwifos mier swori damizanmimarTuli sasponsoro politikis gatareba sasponsorosaqmianobis ganviTarebisa da daxvewisaTvis. es ukanaskneli kimWidrodaa dakavSirebuli kulturis politikasTan, romelic224 225


elene babakiSvilisaqarTveloSi srulyofili saxiT jer kidev araaCamoyalibebuli. mas mxolod garkveuli Tezisebis saxe gaaCnia.sasponsoro politikis SemuSaveba xels Seuwyobssasponsoro saqmianobis aqtivobis zrdas _ evropa da amerikaamis saukeTeso magaliTia, sadac sasponsoro politikiTgansazRvrulia rogorc kompaniebisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuliSeRavaTebi, aseve sponsorebisa da kulturuli organizaciebisuflebebi da TanamSromlobis kanonzomierebebi. saxelmwifomudmivad cdilobs sponsoroba kidev ufro mimzidveli dasargebliani gaxados kompaniebisaTvis, amisaTvis igi sxvadasxvaxerxs mimarTavs; iqneba es sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi, Tu sponsorikompaniebis aRiareba da popularizacia sazogadoebis farTiwreebSi.dasasruls unda iTqvas, rom sponsorobis momavalimniSvnelovnad aris damokidebuli saxelmwifos mier gatarebulpolitikaze, romelsac ZaluZs am sferoSi mravali damatebiTiiniciativis ganxorcieleba. saxelmwifos mxridansponsorebisaTvis damatebiTi prioritetebis miniWeba kidevufro gaamZafrebs kulturisa da biznesis TanamSromlobasda xels Seuwyobs xangrZlivi, partnioruli urTierTobebisgaRvivebas.1. Бун Л., Куртц Д., “ Современный Маркетинг”, 11 издание, Юнити ,Москва , 2005; http://www.reclame.ru2.http://model 21.org.ua/files/models-practics-fundreising.doc Модели иПрактики Спонсорство и Фондрейзинга в Австрии3. http://model 21.org.ua/files/models-France.doc, Модели и ПрактикиСпонсорство и Фондрейзинга во Франции4. http://model 21.org.ua/files/models-British.doc, Модели и ПрактикиСпонсорство и Фондрейзинга в Великобританииsofio komlaZedoqturanturis I kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilisagamomcemlo organizaciisstruqturis analiziTanamedrove marTvis TeoriaSi organizaciis upirvelesiamocanaa, uzrunvelyos organizaciuli miznebis miRweva. amisTviski upirvelesia sworad SerCeuli saorganizacio struqtura_ logikur urTierTdamokidebulebaTa da uflebamosilebapasuxismgeblobisiseTnairad gadanawileba, rac kompaniismiznebis efeqtian realizebas uzrunvelyofs. struqturisproeqtireba yvela organizaciaSi individualuria dagamomdinareobs organizaciis gegmebis, strategiebis, miznebis,Sida da gare faqtorebis mravalferovnebidan. TeoriuliganmartebiT organizaciis struqtura asaxavs logikurkavSirebs marTvis doneebsa da funqcionalur sferoebs Soris.misi mTavari amocanaa, yvela qvedanayofi da menejeri naTladxedavdes Tavis Tavze dakisrebul movaleobas da moqmedebisZiriTad mimarTulebas. organizaciis struqtura aucilebladunda Seicavdes TviTkontrolisa da motivaciis Tvisebebs. manunda uzrunvelyos TanamSromelTa da maTi pasuxismgeblobisxarisxi. amasTanave ar unda iyos xisti. aseTi struqturebiarastabilurni arian da ver iTvaliswineben garemoSi mimdinarecvlilebebs. organizaciuli struqturis mTavari amocanaa,yvela qvedanayofi da yvela menejeri naTlad xedavdes TavisTavze dakisrebul movaleobas, ZiriTad mimarTulebas, Tumcaes `TvalsaCino sicxade~ ar unda gavaTanabroT SinaarsobrivsimartivesTan.kulturis an xelovnebis sferos organizaciebi mniSvnelovanrols ikaveben sazogadoebaSi. isini SesaZloa warmogvidgnenrogorc saxelmwifo, municipalur an kerZo organizaciebad.maTi miznebi gamomdinareobs konkretuli xelovnebisproduqtisgan an im momsaxureobisgan, rasac kompania sTavazobsmomxmarebels. kulturis sferoSi arseboben iseTi saerTaSoriso226 227


sofio komlaZesagamomcemlo organizaciis struqturis analizifirmebi, romlebic TavianTi masStaburobiT gamoirCevian daaseve arseboben patara zomis saxelovnebo kompaniebi. miuxedavadmaTi moculobisa, struqturis proeqtireba nebismier SemTxvevaSiaucilebelia, aucilebelia Seiqmnas garkveuli modeli, racgaiwereba oficialurad da TviTganviTarebasa da mdgradobasmoemsaxureba.sagamomcemlo saqmis organizaciuli struqtura imspecifikidan unda gamomdinareobdes da im safexurebs undamoicavdes, rac damaxasiaTebelia Tavad wignis gamocemisorganizaciisTvis. am mimarTulebis mqone kompaniaga r k v eu l wi l a d ga ns xv a v deb a s xv a s a xel ov neb oorganizaciebisgan, pirvel rigSi _ Tavisi mravalferovnebiT.sagamomcemlo organizaciaSi erTdroulad Tavs iyris Semoqmedis(wignis avtoris), sawarmo personalis (damkabadoneblis,teqnikuri TanamSromlis), saredaqcio sabWos (dizaineris,koreqtoris, stilistis), marketingis ganyofilebis,sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis, distribuciis, finansuriuzrunvelyofis samsaxuris garkveuli wre. aqedan gamomdinare,sagamomcemlo organizaciis menejments sakmaod didi yuradRebasWirdeba struqturis proeqtirebisas.organizaciuli struqturis Camoyalibeba, pirvel rigSi,gamomdinareobs Tavad organizaciis Sinaarsisgan. saerTaSorisoorganizaciuli struqturis standarti, rogorc ukve vTqviT,ar arsebobs. Tumca arseboben warmatebuli organizaciebi,sadac marTvis Teoriis es mniSvnelovani mxare sakmaod kargadaqvT mogvarebuli. magaliTad, sagamomcemlo saqmianobisTvalsazrisiT lideri qveyanaa CineTi, am ukanasknels taivanTanda hong-kongTan erTad sagamomcemlo industriis struqturaaqvs Camoyalibebuli, rac SesaZloa, Zalian kargi magaliTiaRmoCndes qarTveli gamomcemlobisTvis:228 229


sofio komlaZesagamomcemlo organizaciis struqturis analiziarsebuli struqtura mimoixilavs wignis gavrcelebisindustriis mikro models. es kargi magaliTia qarTulisagamomcemlo saxlebisTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia,gamomcemlobisTvis daisaxos erTi romelime konkretuli mizanida miznidan gamomdinare dadgindes struqturuli erTeulebi.anu, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu organizaciis mTavari orientirimaRalmxatvruli produqciis (wignis) gamocemaa, aucilebelia,struqturaSi gamoiyos saredaqcio ganyofileba (an sabWo),romlis mravalferovan funqciebSi Seva produqtis irgvlivmuSaoba wminda SemoqmedebiTi kuTxiT, mxatvruli gaformebiTda a. S. saredaqcio sabWo aucilebelia, dakompleqtebuliiyos literaturaTmcodneebis, xelovnebaTmcodneebis,filologebisa da dizainerebis jgufiT. amas garda,aucilebelia sawarmoo ganyofilebis calke daqvemdebarebulsaStato erTeulad gamokveTa. erTia, roca ideis doneze ayalibebproduqtis saxes, xolo meore _ roca uSualod, sagnobrivadqmni mas.meore varianti sagamomcemlo saqmis orientirebulobisTvalsazrisiT SesaZloa iyos industria (mogeba, swrafirealizeba). am SemTxvevaSi organizaciam yuradReba undagaamaxvilos, pirvel rigSi, potenciur momxmarebelze,marketinguli kvlevis meSveobiT moaxdinos bazris gamokvlevada analizi da Semdeg miawodos mkiTxvels is produqti, racmas surs, miawodos maqsimalurad moxerxebuli formiT. ammoqmedebisTvis saWiroa marketingis ganyofilebisa dasadistribucio arxebis wina planze wamoweva da maTi mimarTvaorganizaciis saerTo miznebis efeqtianad miRwevisaken.anu, aziis qveynebis sagamomcemlo industriis modelismagaliTze, SesaZlebeli davsaxoT organizaciis mizani damiznidan gamomdinare davaxarisxoT struqturuli erTeulebi.ruseTis federaciaSi sagamomcemlo organizaciisstruqturuli proeqtireba xdeba ara miznobrivi, aramedSemdegnairi dayofiT: universaluri da specializirebuli.specializirebuli gamomcemloba uSvebs mxolod erTidasaxelebis produqts _ wigns (da masac konkretulimimarTulebisas _ mxatvruls, saskolo-sauniversitetos,specializebul literaturas), xolo universalurisagamomcemlo saxli _ ramdenime saxis nawarms: Jurnals,plakats, alboms, wigns da a. S. amzadebs. qarTul sagamomcemlosivrceSic daaxloebiT aseTi diferencirebaa. aqedan gamomdinare,organizaciis struqtura am tipologiuri gansxvavebiTacSegviZlia CamovayaliboT. universalur gamomcemlobas,mniSvneloba ara aqvs, Tu ramdeni TanamSromeli muSaobs iq,SedarebiT ufro mravalmxrivad ganStoebuli struqturaesaWiroeba, yvela mTavari, saWiro da fuqcionaluriganyofileba-doneebiT. rusul sagamomcemlo biznesSi aseTnairadstruqturirebuli organizaciebia: `ЭКСМО”, `ТЕРРА”, `АСТ”,“ИНФРА-М” da a. S. specializebuli gamomcemloba, ZiriTadSemTxvevaSi, orientirebulia profesionali mkiTxvelisTvisda gansazRvravs mxolod am mkiTxvelis irgvlivgansaxorcielebel gegmebs. am tipis gamomcemlobebia: `Финансыи статистика”, `Юристъ”, `ЮНИТИ”. aseTi organizaciebisstruqturis funqcionaluri doneebi ufro metad produqtisirgvliv ikribebian da mimarTulni arian am ukanasknelis`gamosaxvisken~.rogorc xedavT, rusuli sagamomcemlo biznesis praqtika,faqtobrivad, imeorebs aziuri modelis principebs da orimimarTulebiT warmarTavs organizaciuli struqturisproeqtirebas: produqtis an momxmareblis mimarT.organizaciuli struqturis proeqtirebisas gaaCniaramdenime mniSvnelovani wesi, romelic aucileblad undagaiTvaliswinos umaRlesma menejmentma. pirvel rigSi, undamoxdes organizaciis msxvili qvedanayofebis horizontalurigadanawileba. qvedanayofebi unda Seesabamebodnen erTmaneTissapasuxismgeblo doneebs da erToblivad emsaxurebodnenromelime konkretuli strategiis an saorganizacio miznebismiRwevas. sagamomcemlo organizaciaSi, Cveulebriv, gamoyofiliaramdenime iseTi ganyofileba, romlis arseboba organizaciaSiaucilebeli da upiroboa. esenia: redaqcia, sawarmoo ganyofileba,mxatvruli gaformebis samsaxuri, romlebic uzrunvelyofenmxolod da mxolod wignis gamocemas, xolo gavrcelebamarketingis, sadistribucio, finansuri ganyofilebebisprerogativaa.230 231


sofio komlaZemsxvili qvedanayofebis gadanawilebis Semdeg organizaciismenejmenti irCevs marTvis ganawilebis erT princips: xazobrivs,xazobriv-masStaburs, xazobriv-funqcionalur, matricul,divizionalur, mobilur, konglomeraciul an funqcionaluristruqturis tips. TiToeuli maTgani sxvadasxva niSan-TvisebiTxasiaTdeba da igi maqsimalurad unda iyos organizaciisSinaarsTan SesabamisobaSi.garda amisa, gamomcemlobis struqtura unda SeicavdesTviTkontrolisa da motivaciis Tvisebebs, unda uzrunvelyosTanamSromelTa uflebebis dacva da maTi pasuxismgeblobisxarisxi, radganac menejmentisTvis iseve rogorc struqturaamniSvnelovani, aseve _ Tavad adamianic.qarTul sagamomcemlo sivrceSi da zogadad kulturissferoSi, struqturirebis kultura, faqtobrivad, ar arsebobs,Tu ar CavTvliT komerciul msxvil korporaciebs. marTalia,kulturis sfero tradiciuli marTvis TeoriisgangansxvavebebiT xasiaTdeba, magram es sulac ar gulisxmobsimas, rom saxelovnebo sferos marTvisas aucilebeli araastruqturis gawera. piriqiT, warmoudgenelia organizaciism ar Tva im si c xa dis ga r eSe, r oca ga u rkv ev eli aTanadaqvemdebarobisa da pasuxismgeblobis ganawilebis saxeebi.bunebrivia, organizaciis wevrma icis Tavisi Tanamdeboba, adgili,saqmianobis sfero, isic, Tu visi xelmZRvanelobis qveSaa davis winaSea pasuxismgebeli, magram am yvelafers undadokumenturi dasabuTeba da naTlad Camoyalibeba. es informacianebismieri dainteresebuli pirisTvis unda iyos xelmisawvdomida gamoqveyndes organizaciis veb-gverdze iseve, rogorcgamoqveynebuli aqvT msoflios sxvadasxva warmatebulorganizacias: “Penguin”, “Iop”, “Sanoma”, “Ps” da a. S.o. ejibaZe, `strategiuli marTva~, Tsu gamomcemloba, 2000.m. tuRuSi, n. yirimliSvili, ~menejmentis safuZvlebi~, Tbilisi, 2005.www.hi-edu.ruwww.gumfak.ruwww.emeraldinsight.comwww.penguin.co.ukana kotrikaZedoqturanturis I kursixelmZRvaneli: prof. iuri mRebriSvilikinoindustriis dafinansebiszogierTi sakiTxisaqarTveloSi, ukve didi xania midis msjeloba,kinoindustriis ganviTarebisa Tu misi xelis SemSlelifaqtorebis Sesaxeb. problemebis daZleva SeuZlebeli ar aris,magram cxadia, garkveuli dro da saxsrebia saWiro.wlebis ganmavlobaSi qarTuli kino saxelmwifo dafinansebiTarsebobda, dRes ki es sikeTe aRar gavaqvs, albaT saWiroarCeva vkiTxoT im qveynebs, sadac kinos maRal doneze afinanseben,rogor da ra gzebiT xdeba es.dRes Zalian xSiria, roca filmis scenaris Sinaarssac ki,gamoyofili Tanxis raodenobas argeben; scenari da filmi,bolomde biujetis raodenobazea damokidebuli, rogorc wesiis mcirea rac pirdapir aisaxeba xarisxze. yovelive amisfonze, evropul qveynebis kinoindustriasTan paralelis gavlebada Sedareba jerjerobiT Zalian rTulia da SeiZleba,warmoudgenladac mogveCvenos. Tumca, evropuli kinoindustriis,modelis analizis safuZvelze, albaT SesaZlebelia,kinoindustriis, menejmentis, zogadi qarTuli modelis Seqmna.am etapze Zalze mniSvnelovania ganvixiloT dafinansebis sakiTxi.cxadia, me ar var pirveli, vinc qarTuli kinoindustriisdafinansebis sakiTxs mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs.britanul kinowarmoebaSi ar aris qronikuli siZneleebimwvave krizisebi, amaSi axali araferia, Tumca, mainc undaaRiniSnos, rom britaneTSi, saxelmwifo politikis roliindustriis gaZlierebisaTvis, mniSvnelovnad iTvleba, rogorcmdgradi ekonomikuri warmatebis aseve, kulturuli sargeblismiRebis TvalsazrisiTac.italiaSi profesionaluri da teqnikuri resursebis udidesinawili (80%) romSi iyris Tavs, xolo rac Seexbakinoproeqtebis dafinansebis sakiTxs, gadawyvetulebas iRebs232 233


ana kotrikaZekinoindustriis dafinansebis zogierTi sakiTxiadamianTa garkveuli jgufi, romelic amavdrouladTanamSromloben sazogadoebriv da kerZo televiziebTan. esukananasknelni ki mzad arian (amave dros valdebulni), romsatelevizio reklamebidan Semosuli finansebis garkveulinawili kinowarmoebas moaxmaron.Ddidi xnis win daaxloebiT1998 wels reklamidan Semosuli mogeba warmoadgenda, 500milion evros, aqedan 10 procenti ki kinoindustriisganviTarebas moxmarda.Aarsebobs periodebi, rodesac italielikinoprodiuserebi reklamidan Semosuli Tanxidan, yovel welsdaaxloebiT 50 milion evros iReben.avstriis kinoindustrias metad mRelvare warsuli hqonda,bolo dros ki, sakmaod didi mniSvneloba SeiZina.Yyoveliveamas veneciisa da kanis festivalze miRebuli jildoebiadasturebs. `Sinaarsiani da radikaluri~, _ ase axasiaTebentipur, avstriul filmebs. rac Seexeba realizacias, SekveTisganacxadidan gaqiravebamde, iqmneba Rirebulebis erTi didijaWvi, romelic asobiT milion evros Seadgens da amasTanaveuamrav samuSao adgils uzrunvelyofs avstriaSi;kinoindustriisaTvis gamoyofil saxsrebs, daaxloebiT 40 milionevros Seadgens. am xarjebs, avstriis kineematografiisuniversiteti gankargavs. damatebiT xarjebs ki, kulturisfederaluri ganyofileba, saxelmwifos biujetidan gamoyofs.mxolod dedaqalaqisaTvis ki am mizniT 8 milioni evrogamoiyofa. rogorc Cans sxva RirsebebTan erTad, amavdroulad,avstriis kinematografiis aseTi didi warmateba, xelisuflebismxridanac didi mxardaWeris Sedegia.unda aRiniSnos, rom avstriis kinobazarze, ucxouri filmebisraodenoba 90 procentia. Ffilmebis umetesi nawili, maincamerikis SeerTebuli Statebis warmoebaa, magram bolo xanebSi,adgilobrivma kino produqciam, saSualod 8-10 procents miaRwia,xolo premierebze adgilobrivi produqciis, mayurebelTaricxvma, mTel avstriaSi, raodenobrivad 100. 000 gadaaWarba.es situacia, sabazro gaqiravebis struqturas asaxavs.adgilobrivi kino warmoebebis, meore damaxasiaTebeli niSania,intensiuri TanamSromloba, reklamis industriasTan damultimediis sferosTan. kavSiri, xelovnebasa da produqciasSoris, sakmaod mniSvnelovania. avstriaSi, am kuTxiT sakmaodsainteresod da nayofierad muSaoben, amas adasturebs,bolodroindeli, mravlis momcveli warmatebebi. isini TiTqmisyovel wels, avtoritetul kino prizebs iReben.Ees TavisufladSeiZleba, kino prodiuserebis potencials mivaweroT da calkemiRwevadac CavTvaloT. Tavis droze erT-erT warmatebulfilmad mixaela hanekes, `pianisti qali~ CaiTvala, filmma 25milioni mayureblis mozidva SeZlo.italiis magaliTze dayrdnobiT albaT SesaZlebelia, qarTulteleviziebTan TanamSromloba, Tuki reklamidan Sesuli Tanxis,garkveuli procenti, yovel wels kinos dafinansebas, TundacerTi filmis warmoebas moxmardeba. es mniSvnelovani mxardaWeraiqneba qarTuli kino industriisaTvis.,miuxedavad imisa kinokomerciulad momgebiani iqneba Tu ara. sasurvelia romteleviziebma iTanamSromlon prodiuserebTan da kinocentrTan.raTqmaunda, sazogadoebriv televizias am SemTxvevaSi,mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba, telemauwyeblobebis aqtiurobiT(vgulisxmob materialur daxmarebas), SesaZlebeli gaxdebakinos, materialuri da teqnikuri bazis ganviTarebisnawilobrivi uzrunvelyofa.kinocentri aris am etapze erTaderTi romelsac, erovnulikinoindustriis ganviTarebisaTvis, mciredi saxsrebis moZiebaSeuZlia, arc ise saxarbielo sagadasaxado sistema winsvlaskidev ufro aferxebs, Tumca nelnela SeiniSnebba gadasaxadebisSerbilebis tendencia. saxelmwifom, garkveul etapze undaSeZlos, kinowarmoebisaTvis daxmarebis aRmoCena, radganac kinosSeuZlia Cveni qveynis Rirebulebebis warmoCena saerTaSorisodoneze.gasagebia, rom saqarTveloSi, msgavsi politikis gatareba,uzarmazar sirTuleebTan da drosTan aris dakavSirebuli,Tumca, droTa ganmavlobaSi, evropuli kinoindustriis modelzedayrdnobiTa da SeswavliT, amave dros, qarTuli kinoindustriissamomavlo SesaZleblobebis gaanalizebis SemTxvevaSi,SesaZlebeli gaxdeba, etapobrivad, qarTuli zogadi modelisgamomuSavebac.http://advantageaustria.org/http://www.artmanager.ru/234 235


daviT gujabiZedoqturanturis III kursixelmZRvaneli _ prof. zviad doliZesatelevizio xelovnebanaSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiTstatiis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ prof. zviad doliZemixeil TumaniSvili da TeatriteleekranzeqarTuli Teatraluri xelovnebis ekranul formebs SorismniSvnelovani adgili ukavia `satelevizio Teatrs~. am unikalursatelevizio redaqciaSi, romelic sabWoTa kavSiristeritoriaze pirvelad saqarTvelos televiziaSi Seiqmna,araerTi mniSvnelovani nawarmoebi Seiqmna, romlebmac axleburadwarmoaCines rogorc Teatris, ise televiziis mxatvruliSesaZleblobebi. sayuradReboa, rom kino da gansakuTrebiTTeatris reJisorebis im nawilma, romlebic warmatebiTmoRvaweobdnen TavianT sferoSi, `satelevizio TeatrSi~muSaobis SesaZleblobac ar gauSves xelidan. mniSvnelovaninamuSevrebi Seqmnes Salva gawereliam, nugzar bagrationma,aleqsandre qanTariam, karlo Rlontma, andro enuqiZem... da,upirveles yovlisa _ mixeil TumaniSvilma, romelsac gardaimisa, rom qarTuli Teatris winaSe sxva uamravi dididamsaxureba aqvs, `satelevizio Teatris~ praqtikulSemqmneladac SeiZleba moiazrebodes. es erTgvari paradoqsickia, ramdenadac specialistebs Soris, vinc did maestros piradadicnobda, da TviT mis moswavleebs Soris gavrcelebulia azri,rom mixeil TumaniSvili televizias _ rogorc SemoqmedebiTxelovnebas _ seriozulad ar ekideboda. vfiqrobT, faqtebisapirispiros laparakoben, xolo arsebuli `legenda~ televiziismimarT misi damokidebulebis Sesaxeb mxolod SedarebiTiaTeatrTan SedarebiT.`Teatris bednierebac da ubedurebac isaa, rom misi xelovnebarawams ibadeba, maSinve qreba, arasodes meordeba. masze mxolodmogoneba rCeba~, 1 – wers mixeil TumaniSvili. bedis Tusxvadasxva movlenis erTmaneTTan damTxvevis gamo ise moxda,swored am sityvebis avtors miuZRvis udidesi wvlili qarTulmedia-sivrceSi Teatraluri xelovnebis axali ekranuli formis236 237


daviT gujabiZemixeil TumaniSvili da Teatri teleekranzedamkvidrebaSi, romlis wyalobiTac Teatraluri xelovnebisnimuSis dafiqsireba da Senaxva SesaZlebelia.mixeil TumaniSvilis televiziaSi misvlis mizezi misrusTavelis Teatridan wamosvlas ukavSirdeba. aq ar SevudgebiTam qarTuli kulturis istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze skandalurimovlenis analizs. CvenTvis mTavari isaa, rom mas Semdeg, racmixeil TumaniSvils rusTavelis Teatris datoveba mouxda,saqarTvelos televiziis maSindelma xelmZRvanelma, batonmakarlo gardafxaZem SesTavaza mas televiziis samxatvroxelmZRvaneloba, magram ramdenadac batoni mixeili araTuarasodes ar iswrafvoda Tanamdebobisken, aramed amgvarsaqmianobas SemoqmedisaTvis xelisSemSleladac ki Tvlida,uari ganacxada am postze da e. w. `ferad gadacemaTa mTavarredaqciaSi~ daiwyo muSaoba satelevizio dadgmebze. amiT mankvlav SeZlo, reJisuriT dakavebuliyo, radgan, rogorc TviTonaRniSnavda: `reJisori is ki araa, vinc speqtakls dgams, aramedis – visac ar SeuZlia, rom ar dadgas speqtakli~.rogorc cnobilia, jer kidev qarTuli televiziis arsebobispirvelsave dReebSi mixeil TumaniSvilma e. w. `funikulioris~studiaSi dadga puSkinis `mocarti da salieri~ _ ramazCxikvaZis da erosi manjgalaZis monawileobiT. mogvianebiTmisive reJisuriT daidga kidev ramdenime speqtakli, maT Soris_ daviT kldiaSvilis `soloman morbelaZis~ satelevizioinscenireba, romelSic, rogorc TviTmxilvelebi werdnen, saocarisaxe Seuqmnia sergo zaqariaZes. im dros satelevizio programebimxolod pirdapir eTerSi arsebobda da amdenad, am dadgmisCanaweri ar arsebobs.ase rom, televiziaSi `misvlis~ droisaTvis baton mixeilsukve hqonda mniSvnelovani praqtikuli Sexeba teledadgmebTan.Tavis statiaSi `#92~ igi wers:`Cven cxovrebaSi, gvinda es Tu ara, myarad damkvidrdatelevizia. cisferi ekrani, rogorc uZlieresi magniti, uamravigansxvavebuli adamianis yuradRebas izidavs. studiuri RilakiserTi daWeriT, TiTqos, jadoqris xelis erTi aqneviT, milionobiTadamiani Cerdeba anTebuli ekranis win, tovebs wigns, gazeTs,Tanamosaubres. mayureblis grandiozuli, masobrivi hipnozisefeqti iqmneba. aTasobiT piradi da sazogado saqmiT dakavebuliadamiani, televiziis pirobiTi saxmobis gagonebaze ikribebaerTad yvela Tavis pirad televizorTan imisaTvis, romuzarmazar auditoriad gaerTiandnen da amave dros, erTierTze darCnen raRac intimurTan, siRrmivTan, auCqarebelTan...~ 2`feradi gadacemebis mTavar redaqciaSi~ im dros sulsami adamiani muSaobda: TviT batoni mixeili da im dros misistudentebi Teatraluri institutidan: giorgi kaxabriSvilida dali gurgeniZe. am jgufma daiwyo jer mcire, Semdeg kiufro didi moculobis satelevizio dadgmebis warmoeba.redaqciaSi keTdeboda Teatralizebuli sanaxaobebi saaxalwloda sxva sazeimo TariRebTan dakavSirebiT, Tumca konkretuladspecialurad satelevizio CvenebisTvis Seqmnili speqtaklebicidgmeboda. am gadacemas erqva `rampa~.am periodSi daidga daviT kldiaSvilis `ubedureba~, nodardumbaZis `ras gvekiTxeba amocana?~, Jan koktos `adamianisxma~. am nawarmoebebma, romlebsac maSin erTaderTi satelevizioarxis arsebobis pirobebSi mTelma respublikam uyura, didimowoneba daimsaxura aramarto mxatvruli xarisxis, aramedJanruli TavisTavadobis gamoc.satelevizio specifikisa da TeatrisTvis saerTo xedviTiplatformis TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebonamuSevari gamodga Jan koktos `adamianis xma~. esmonospeqtaklia mcire scenisaTvis, sadac praqtikulad ardgas dekoracia; moqmedeba xdeba oTaxSi, moqmedi gmirierTaderTi qalia, romelic telefonze saubrobs.piesis teqsti dialogis is naxevaria, romelic mayurebelsesmis. telefonis aparatis meore mxares mdgari mosaubristeqsti ar ismis, magram igrZnoba, rom qali (telespeqtaklSiam rols sofiko Wiaureli TamaSobda) Tavis sayvarel mamakacselaparakeba, amasTan igrZnoba isic, rom es satelefono saubarimaT Soris ukanaskneli saubaria, maTi urTierToba dasrulda.speqtakli sul naxevari saaTi grZeldeboda. `...naxevarisaaTis ganmavlobaSi laparakobda igi (sofiko Wiaurelis gmiri,d. g.) telefoniT, darwmunebuli var, arcerTi mayureblisyuradReba maSin teleekrans ar moswyvetia.raSi iyo ekranze gacocxlebuli qalis Cvenze zemoqmedebisaseTi Zala? imaSi, rom Cven mxolod mis sityvebs ki ar238 239


daviT gujabiZemixeil TumaniSvili da Teatri teleekranzevismendiT, amave dros vxedavdiT, ra xdeba im mSvenieri arsebissulSi, romelsac axla ukanasknelad esmoda Zvirfasi adamianis xma.~ 3konkretulad am piesis satelevizio dadgmisaTvis arCeviTmixeil TumaniSvilma gamoavlina satelevizio xelovnebis (!)specifikis gageba da gancda, teqnikisa da teqnologiisxelovnebis instrumentad qcevis unari. piesa saSualebasaZlevda reJisors, rom mayureblis yuradReba teleekranissaSualebiT daekoncentrirebina umTavresze – msaxiobis saxeze....am dadgmaSi kidev erTxel gamoCnda m. TumaniSvilismsaxiobTan muSaobis gasaocari unari. masTan erTobliviSemoqmedebiT adamianis sulieri cxovrebis rTuli procesiswarmoCenisa ise sadad da damarwmuneblad, rom SeiZlebamogCveneboda, TiTqos, amnairad dadgmac da amnairad TamaSicadvilia. amaSi iyo saidumlo J. koktos piesis sateleviziodadgmis warmatebisa da kidev imaSi, rom frangi qalisganmasaxierebeli qarTveli msaxiobi qalis gancdebi ufroZlieri iyo, vidre es piesaSi ikiTxeba da misi sulis Wrilobacufro Rrmaa...~recenzia mayureblis gancdebs gadmogvcems, romelic masSimsaxiobis TamaSis televiziis saSualebiT gadmocemis`teqnologiam~ aRZra. erTi mxriv, sityva `teqnologia~ SeiZlebauadgilod mogveCvenos, magram, dRevandeli gagebiT, swored esspecifikuri teqnikuri sivrce da xerxebis erToblioba iyois saSualeba, riTac mayurebeli aaRelva da Tanagancda aRuZramsaxiobis TamaSma.`ramdeni mayurebeli dafiqrda maSin siyvarulze? amRvTaebriv, saidumlo grZnobaze, romlis bednierebac yvelasar xvdeba wilad cxovrebaSi, magram yvelasTvis, ukleblivyvelasTvis sanatrelia...vin icis, vin ras ixsenebda am mSvenier arsebasTannaxevarsaaTiani Sexvedris Semdeg, roca masTan erTad didmasiyvarulma Cvens saxlSiac SemoanaTa?~ 4da kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqti, romelicTeatrmcodneobiT literaturaSi aqamde araa aRwerili (yovelSemTxvevaSi, Cven versad moviZieT, d. g.), genialurad ubraloreJisoruli xerxi, romelmac sofiko Wiaurels saSualebamisca, maqsimalurad zustad eTamaSa, rac Zalze mniSvnelovania,roca msaxiobis saxes satelevizio ekranis sivrce TiTqmismTlianad uWiravs da yoveli niuansi, TiTqos, gamadidebelilinzis qveS Cans. aq xom umciresi gadacdoma, saxis kunTisodnavi Setokebac ki gaasmagebuli simkveTriT warmoCindeba;samagierod, aseve izrdeba mxatvruli simarTliT gamowveuliemocia.monospeqtaklis Cawera e. w. me-5 studiaSi mimdinareobda– yvelaze mcire farTobis pavilionSi, romelsac sareJisoropultisagan ormag miniani kedeli yofda. sareJisoro pultTan,Caweris reJisorTan erTad imyofeboda reJisoris asistenti,romelic telefoniT realurad esaubreboda sofiko Wiaurels.es asistenti gaxldaT amJamad cnobili reJisori, qalbatoninana kvasxvaZe.teqsti, romliTac nana kvasxvaZe esaubreboda sofikoW ia ur el s, s peci al ur ad SeiTxza da dai wera a mtelespeqtaklisaTvis. es is savaraudo teqsti unda yofiliyo,romelic Jan koktom gamotova Tavis piesaSi da mixeilTumaniSvilma da misma asistentebma `gamoiTvales~, aRadgines`qalis~ teqstidan gamomdinare. cxadia, es reJisoruli xerximniSvnelovnad exmareboda ekranze myof msaxiobs, raTaSeenarCunebina satelefono dialogis ritmi, muxti da intonacia.mixeil TumaniSvilisaTvis amgvari xerxebis mogoneba dagamoyeneba profesiis Semadgeneli aucilebeli nawili iyo.mogvianebiT feradi gadacemebis redaqciaSi daidga molieris`Zalad eqimi~ da samseriiani telespeqtakli `gzajvaredini~.am speqtaklze mixeil TumaniSvils ukve gverdiT edga misistudenti giorgi kaxabriSvili, romelmac maleve dadga agreTve3-seriiani `me Sen miyvarxar~. CamoTvlilma speqtaklebma imdenaddidi popularoba moixveWa, rom dadga sakiTxad da Seiqmnajer `satelevizio dadgmebis ganyofileba~, Semdeg ki`satelevizio Teatris mTavari redaqcia~, romelic satelevizioTeatralur dadgmebze specializebuli pirveli mTavari redaqciaiyo sabWoTa kavSiris satelevizio sivrceSi.male mixeil TumaniSvilma satelevizio ekranze gadmoitanarusTavelis TeatrSi `aprobirebuli~ speqtakli _ aleqsandreCxaiZis `xidi~ _ erosi manjgalaZisa da iza gigoSvilismonawileobiT.240 241


daviT gujabiZemixeil TumaniSvili da Teatri teleekranzekritikosi iuri kagarlicki scenaze dadgmuli speqtaklebissatelevizio ekranze atanis praqtikas upiratesobebis logikasase xedavs: `... am movlenaSi araferi gasakviri ar aris. yoveliTeatraluri namuSevari WeSmariti mxatvrisaTvis aramartoganxorcielebuli, aramed ganuxorcielebeli Canafiqrebicaa.im SemTxvevebSic ki, roca namuSevari sayovelTao qebas msaxurebs,aris erTi adamiani, romelmac icis, Tu ra ar gamovida da esadamiani _ reJisoria. cxadia, karg speqtakls aqvs imisperspeqtiva, rom publikis winaSe TamaSisas `momwifdes~ (daes, albaT, misi umTavresi niSania), magram raRaca yovelTvisaris iseTi, rac ukvalodaa dakarguli da am danakargiskompensireba xdeba sxva masalaze, sxva speqtaklis Seqmnisas.aseTi gakveTili ukvalod ar Caivlis, igi moitans Tavis nayofsreJisoris SemoqmedebiT biografiaSi, magram ver uSveliskonkretuli scenuri xelovnebis namuSevars. xolo TukiTeatraluri speqtaklis dadgmas imave speqtaklis sateleviziovariantis gakeTebis SesaZlebloba mohyveba, igi reJisors aZlevsganumeorebel Sanss, rom daubrundes Zvel da nacnob masalasdagrovili gamocdilebiT da ukve miRweulze dayrdnobiTaxal gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis gamoyenebiT aiwios ukvearsebul Sedegze ufro maRla.~ 5i. kagarlickis pozicias srulad iziarebs dramaturgiTamaz goderZiSvili: `reJisorma mixeil TumaniSvilma(`satelevizio TeatrSi~) ... dadga ... a. CxaiZis `xidi~.rusTavelis TeatrSi reJisorma, TiTqos, amowura saTqmeli,magram satelevizio versiaSi mixeil TumaniSvilma kvlav miagnodetalebs, romelTa gamokveTis Semdeg telespeqtaklma ufrometi mamxilebeli Zliereba da feradovneba SeiZina.~ 6 mixeilTumaniSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT daidga agreTve speqtaklebi`jer daixocnen, mere iqorwines~ da `uCinmaCinis qudi~.satelevizio TeatrSi dadgmuli es speqtaklebi dResac didauditorias krefen, roca maT eTeri eTmobaT.mogvianebiT, mixeil TumaniSvilma kinostudia „qarTulifilmis~ bazaze Seqmna `kinomsaxiobTa Teatri~, romelic swrafadiqca erT-erT yvelaze popularul centrad TbilisisTeatralur sivrceSi. Teatrma kvlav daikava misi mTeli droda mixeil TumaniSvils satelevizio dadgmebisTvis aRar ecala,magram, rogorc didma Semoqmedma, mcirexniani moRvaweobisdroSic ki moaxerxa da Seqmna aramarto sayuradRebospeqtaklebi, aramed safuZveli daudo Janrobrivad axleburiTeatraluri da ekranuli xelovnebis sinTezis SemoqmedebiTilaboratoriis _ `satelevizio Teatris~ Seqmnas.1. mixeil TumaniSvili fiqrobs, gv. 24, `axla ki farda~, gv. 21.2. iqve, mixeil TumaniSvili fiqrobs, gv. 207.3. iqve, gv. 26.4. iqve, gv. 30.5. Кагарлицкий Ю., Обман хорош, когда в него верят (Театральныйспектакль на телеэкране), ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЕ вчера, сегодня, завтра 89, М.,1989. gv. 43.6. Tamaz goderZiSvili, `Cveni satelevizio Teatri~, `Teatralurimoambe~, #6, 1980, gv. 60-62.242 243


lali gelaSvilidoqturanturis II kursixelmZRvaneli _ prof. qeTevan kinwuraSviliCacmuloba XIX saukunis saqarTveloSikinofilm `qeTo da kotes~ mixedviTscenografiis istoria daTeorianaSromebi ibeWdeba programis xelmZRvanelis rekomendaciiTstatiis stili daculiaprogramis xelmZRvaneli _ prof. qeTevan kinwuraSviliXIX saukuneSi, saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdeg,evropuli gavlena Cacma-daxurvis sferoSic SeiWra. es imiTaixsneba, rom rusul-evropuli tansacmeli ufro sada daadvilad saxmari iyo, Tan qarTuli Cacmuloba Tavisi rTuliSemadgenlobiT Zviri jdeboda. am periodidan Zalian aWreldaqarTveli qalis Cacmuloba. mkvidrdeba ucxo saxelebic. amperiodSi gaCndnen moduri tansacmlis mkeravebi, e. w. `modistebi~.qalis Cacmulobam cvlileba qvemodan, fexsacmlidan daiwyo.qoSebi, waRebi da Zveleburi fexsacmelebi `baSmakebma~ da`tuflebma~ Secvala. mandilosnebma Sevros, laikis, atlasisfrangul qusliani inglisur qusliani fexsacmeli dafabrikuli wesiT damzadebuli feradi windebi Caicves.XIX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi evropuli da qarTuli kabisqveS mavTulebiT damuSavebuli Cixora-krinolini Caicves.agreTve atarebdnen iseT krinolinian kabebs, rogoriTacgermaniaSi da safrangeTSi imosebodnen.XIX saukunis bolos Tbilisi gaevropulda. marTalia,qarTulma Cacmulobam dakarga praqtikuli Rirebulebebi, magramqalis qarTuli tansacmeli iseT calkeul elementebs Seicavs(kabis Sexsnili saxeloebi, yurTmajebi, gulispiri, sartyeli,Cixtis magvari qudi da sxva), rom maTi gamoyeneba sxvagvaritansacmlis dasamzadebladac SeiZleboda. amasTan erTad axalitipis samosSi iyenebdnen qarTul qargulebebs.miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli tansacmeli gamodiodaxmarebidan XX saukunis 20-ian wlebamde Suaxnisa da zogierTiaxalgazrda qalebi mainc xmarobdnen qarTul tanisamoss. esyovelive mianiSnebs axalgazrdebis swrafvas moduriCacmulobisaken. amis amsaxveli TvalsaCinoeba da didi ganZi244 245


lali gelaSvilidautova qarTul kinoxelovnebas vaxtang tabliaSvilmakinofilmiT `qeTo da kote~.qeTo da kotes~ personaJebis kostiumebis eskizebi Seqmniliafarnaoz lapiaSvilis mier. personaJebis CacmulobaSi arisqarTul-evropuli sinTezi; aseve ferTa siWrele, rac imperiodisaTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli. aRsaniSnavia, rom personaJebsacviaT evropuli yaidis kostumebi qarTuli detalebiT.TiToeuli personaJis CacmulobaSi bevr saintereso detalsda siaxles SevxvdebiT, agreTve bevr kostiumSi aris qarTulis,evropulis da aziuri samosis sinTezi.am personaJebis samosSi Cans sazRvari TavSekavebulobasada fufunebas Soris. arcerT kostiums ara aqvs zedmetidetali da arc araferi aklia. kostumebi ti puri qarTuliTu evropuli, yvelaferi harmoniulad aris SerwymulierTmaneTTan. am kostiumebiT Cans ara marto fufuneba da imdrois miswrafebebi, aramed personaJis xasiaTic. vaxtangtabliaSvilis kinofilm `qeTo da koteSi~ mandilosnebiskostiumebi ZiriTadad Sekerilia krinoliniT. im droisaTviskrinoliniani kabebi siaxle iyo. viwro weliTa da momjdarilifiT. kostumebi ZiriTadad Sekerilia abreSumis qsovilisagan,kabebi aris Rrmad dekoltirebuli da misi guli gaformebuliaZvirfasi qvebiT. yvela qvedatans amSvenebs qarTuli sartyeli,romelic aris daqarguli. kabebi ZiriTadad aris Wreli, racim droisTvis modurad iTvleboda da aseve aris TeTri.personaJebis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, TeTri sazeimo feradiTvleboda da maT aformebdnen haerovani bafTebiT da lentebiT,aseve filmSi `qeTo da kote~ gamoyenebulia Savi da muqiSindisferi xaverdis qaTibi. qaTibi muxlebamdea, saxeloebiidayvebTan Sexsnili da daqargulia, aseve gaformebulia ZvirfasiqvebiT. Tavsaburavi aris rogorc qarTuli Cixtikopi, aseveevropuli Slapebi da sxvadasxva mosarTavi.XIX saukunis bolos moda qmnis tansacmlis axal ti ps –kabas iribad aWrili qvedataniT da `viCiniseburi~ saxeloebiT.es xels uwyobs axali stilis Camoyalibebas, rogorc sportul,ise saRamos samosSi. es aris moderni, romelic figuras `S~isformas aZlevs. es aris erTiani stili, romelsac harmoniaSiCacmuloba XIX saukunissaqarTveloSi kinofilm `qeTo da kotes~ mixedviTmohyavs ori sxvadasxva stili. axali stilis ZiebaSi, rogorcyovelTvis, inglisi pirvelobda, mas SeuerTdnen amerikisSeerTebuli Statebi, belgia, safrangeTi, bolos _ vena dapraRa. axali moda yvelaze logikurad praRaSi viTardeboda.es moda etapobrivad SemoiWra ruseTsa da saqarTveloSi.swored iribad aWrili da naoWasxmuli kostiumi acvia qeTos.kaba aris muqi feris, welSi gadaWrili, mklavebi idayvisqvemodan dawyebuli bolomde aris Sexsnili. mkerdisa dabeWebis gaswvriv kabas aqvs bewvis ormagi kanti, romelicgamoyenebulia dekoratiuli TvalsazrisiT. kinofilm `qeToda koteSi~ gamoyenebulia xaverdis, abreSumis, Salis da bambisqsovilebi daWimuli an daserili vorsiT. es yvelaferi saTavesiRebs italiaSi. 1247 wels venecielma mqsovelebma uflebamiiRes CamoeyalibebinaT sakuTari gildia. es gadawyvetilebamaT miiRes imitom, rom ufro gaefarTovebinaT abreSumis dasxva SesaniSnavi qsovilebis warmoeba. renesansis epoqaSiqsovilebisTvis naxatebs qmnida polaiulo. barokos epoqaSixaverdi xdeba feradi. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, qarTvelebiqsovilebs yidulobdnen ZiriTadad daRestneli lekebisagan.kinofilm `qeTo da koteSi~ mamakacebis samosadgamoyenebulia tipuri evropuli smokingi. smokingis saxeloebida sayelo aris Savi xaverdiT gaformebuli, agreTve mamakacebiSemosili arian TeTri axaluxebiT, romlis sayelo gaxamebulia.acviaT mokle Jiletebi feradi abreSumis, rac Seexeba Sarvlebs,acviaT kubokruli welze momdgari Sarvlebi jibeebiT. asevefilmSi gamoyenebulia qarTuli nacionaluri Coxa-axaluxi,romlebic gaformebulia araqarTuli elementebiT, magramqarguloba da mTlianad kostiumis morTuloba qarTulia.mamakacebi agreTve Semosili arian yabalaxiT da morTulniqamar-xanjliT. filmSi aseve aris gamoyenebuli fraki. iswelzea momdgari, tipur frakTan SedarebiT aq gansxvavebasqmnis lackanis forma, gulze Wrilis sidide. im periodSimodaSi iyo grZeli Sarvlebi, win iribad aWrili, romfexsacmelze ar miWmuWvniliyo. aseTi Sarvlebi vizualuradboloSi viwrovdeboda. fraki kinofilmSi aris Savi feris,frakTan erTad acviaT TeTri `piJes~ Jileti.246 247


lali gelaSvilikinofilm `qeTo da koteSi~ erT-erT scenaSi bavSvispersonaJs vxvdebiT, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs vimsjeloTim drois bavSvis Cacmulobaze. bavSvs acvia tyavis qurTuki,romelsac `qeTirs~ uwodebdnen. aseTi qurTuki centralurkavkasiaSi farTod iyo gavrcelebuli. mas keravdnen cxvristyavisgan, romelsac bewviani mxare Signidan hqonda moqceuli.igi welSi iyo gadaWrili. qurTukis qveda nawili odnavinaoWiT iyo mikerebuli zeda nawilTan. saxeloebi hqondagrZeli, welSi ki Sekruli ori dedal-mamali dugmiT. qurTukissigrZe muxlamdea. sayelos irgvliv majaze, wina kalTaze daboloSi Semovlebuli aqvs bewvamobrunebuli tyavi. gulzedekoratiuli TvalsazrisiT mikerebuli aqvs saqileebi, aseveaxuravs qalaquri tipis qudi.kinofilm `qeTo da koteSi~ asaxulia yaraCoRelTaaraCveulebrivi kadrebi, isini iyvnen xelosanTa feniswarmomadgenlebi. maT ecvaT axaluxi, ganieri Sarvlebi, Coxada qarTuli Ceqma. welze ekeTaT vercxlis ornamentirebuliqamrebi, romelzedac damagrebuli iyo jaWvebi. qamarSi Cakecilida dakidebuli hqondaT wiTeli abreSumis haerovani qsovili.maT ecvaT doSluliani axaluxi. doSluliani axaluxi gverdzeikvreboda yaiTnis RilebiT. rac meti Rilebi hqonda, miTufro lazaTianad iTvleoda. axaluxisaTvis iyenebdnen satinasda dimikitons. mas sami jibe hqonda _ ori garedan da erTiSignidan. Coxa ecvaT ori saxis: naoWiani da unaoWo. gulze,marjvniv da marcxniv, gakeTebuli hqonda sakvesebi. am sakvesebSiqalis naxevari TiTi Tu Caeteoda. mas ar xmarobdnen, esgasaformeblad iyo gakeTebuli. Coxa arasdros ikvreboda, isise iyo Sekerili, rom misi piri pirs ar unda misdeboda daCoxis qveS axaluxi unda gamoCeniliyo. ecvaT ganieri Sarvlebi.Sarvlis totebi Catanebuli iyo CeqmebSi. saSarvle qsovilebsdaRestneli lekebisagan iZendnen. Sarvals samubiani erqva.misi ube sami nawilisagan ikereboda. sityva `yaraCoReli~SavCoxians niSnavs, rasac isini TavianTi CacmulobiTadasturebdnen. maT exuraT maRali qudebi, romelsac `buxrisquds~ uwodebdnen. yvela yaraCoReli atarebda ulvaSs.Cacmuloba XIX saukunissaqarTveloSi kinofilm `qeTo da kotes~ mixedviTkinofilm `qeTo da kotes~ kostiumebis mxatvarma farnaozlapiaSvilma araCveulebrivad kargad gamoxata Tavisi eskizebiTimdroindeli Tbilisis yofa-cxovreba, samoseli da maSindelimaRali fenis miswrafebebi cvlilebebisken, Tundac samoselSirom qarTuli nacionaluri kostiumi arc silamaziT, arcpraqtikulobiT da arc ferTa siuxviT tols ar udebs sxvatipis samosels da itans modernistul gadawyvetilebebs,Tundac imisTvis, rom is yofiliyo gamoyenebuli iseT ukvdavmusikalur kinokomediaSi, rogoricaa, vaxtang tabliaSviliskinofilmi `qeTo da kote~.• nino brailaSvili, eTnografiuli Canaxatebi, `xelovneba~, Tbilisi,1990.• lali gelaSvili, msoflio modis ilustrirebuli enciklopedia,gamomcemloba `imperia~, Tbilisi, 2006.• n. CofikaSvili, qarTuli kostiumi, Tbilisi, 1998.• l. molodini, g. CaCaSvili, qarTuli kostiumebis katalogi, Tbilisi,1989.• c. bezaraSvili, g jalabaZe, qarTuli xalxuri tansacmeli, Tbilisi,1986.248 249


avtorTa Sesaxebmaia goSaZe _ xelovnebaTmcodnebis doqtori.saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos saxelmwifouniversitetis asocirebuli prifesori.daamTavra SoTa rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetisTeatrmcodneobis fakulteti.sxvadasxva dros, gamoqveynebuli aqvs publikaciebi amerikuli, antikurida renesansis dramaturgiis Sesaxeb. amJamad muSaobs Temaze `variaciebimiTosur motivebze~.tel: + 995 (32) 99 65 64marine (maka) vasaZe _ Teatrmcodne.1986 w. daamTavra S. rusTavelis sax. Teatrisa da kinos saxelmw.institutis TeatrmcodneobiTi fakulteti.xelmZRvanelobs SoTa rusTavelis Taetrisa da kinos universitetissauniversiteto gamomcemlobas `kentavri~. aris amave universitetisgazeT `durujis” redaqtori, damaarsebeli da redaqtori gazeTisa`kultura~.muSaobda: 1986 _ 1992 wlebSi `saqarTvelos Teatris, musikisa dakinos saxelmwifo muzeum~-Si mecner-TanamSromlad;1992 _ 2000 wlebSi `saqarTvelos samauwyeblo telekompania~- Si, Iarxze sabavSvo, Teatraluri da gasarTobi gadacemis `Wor_News~-isredaqtorad;1998 _ 2000 wlebSi `saerTaSoriso kulturis fondi kavkasia~-Simenejerad;2000 _ 2004 webSi `klubi sardafi~-s erT-erTi damfuZnebelia,kulturuli progremebis xelmZRvanelad: `literaturuli saRamoebi~da `Sexvedrebi saintereso adamianebTan~ prog.xelmZRvanelad;2003, 2005, 2007 wlebSi `saerTaSoriso kulturis fondi kavkasia~smier daarsebuli kulturis saerTaSoriso bazrobis erT-erTkordinatorad, Teatris da kinos saCvenebeli programis xelmZ-lad.2005, 2006 wlebSi _ `Tbilisis saerTaSoriso kinofestivalze~ erTerTkoordinatorad.sistematurad aqveynebda da aqveynebs statiebs, werilebs, recenziebsTanamedrove Teatralur procesebze da problemebze Jurn. `sabWoTaxelovneba~, `Teatraluri moambe~. `Театр~ `Teatri da cxovreba~,gazeTebSi `kultura”, `duruji”. aris ramdenime wignis redaqtorida Semdgenel-redaqtori.1986 w. miRebuli aqvs I premia TemaSi _ «Б. Брехт в творчестве Р.Стуруа» _ `sabWoTa kavSiris axalgazrda mkvlevarTa saerTaSorisokonferencia~ (Catarda q. leningradSi ax.peterburgi).mopovebuli grantebi: 2003-04-05 wleb. `fondi Ria sazogadoebasaqarTvelo~, `saq. kulturis, ZeglTa dacvisa da sportis saminsistro~,`saq. erovnuli kinocentri~.tel: +995 (77) 28 87 68el. fosta: vasilisa@yahoo.comzviad doliZe _ kinoistorikosi, xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori.saqarTvelos SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinossaxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, msoflio kinos istoriismimarTulebis xelmZRvanelidaamTavra Tbilisis a. s. puSkinis sax. pedagogiuri institutisistoriis fakulteti (1980 w.)kiTxulobs leqciebs msoflio kinos istoriaSi (bakalavriatissafexurze), amasTanave aris amave disciplinaSi doqturanturis programisxelmZRvaneligamoqveynebuli aqvs 3 wigni (2 saxelmZRvanelo da 1 monografia) da30 samecniero statiatel: +995 (55) 30 70 40el-fosta: dolz@internet.geirakli maxaraZe _ kinoreJisori, mkvlevari.ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetishumanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis amerikismcodneobismimarTulebis doqtoranti.dokumenturi, animaciuri da mxatvruli filmebis avtori, reJisori(maT Soris ,,uaild uesTis mxedrebi”, ,,lelos Semobruneba”, ,,gurulifiralebi”, ,,vinc movida gaumarjos!”, ,,dimitri SevardnaZeE” da sxva).daamTavra Tbilisis SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatraluriinstituti, kinosareJisoro fakulteti (guram Jvanias saxelosno).1990-2006 kompania „qarTuli telefilmi”-s reJisori, musikisa dakinos Sesaxeb gadacemebis avtori da wamyvani sxvadasxva satelevizioarxebze: pirveli arxi, ibervizia, imedi („msoflio estradis varskvlavebi”;250 251


„rvanaxevari”; „mravalsaxeoba”; „erTxel holivudSi”). aris araerTisaJurnalo publikaciisa da wignis avtori (guruli mxedrebi amerikaSi,guruli firalebi da sxva). agreTve sxvadasxva saerTaSorisofestivalis monawile da mravali jildos mflobeli.tel: +995 (32) 23 27 75 ; mob: + 995 (99) 97 00 11el.fosta: iraklimakharadze@gmail.com; makharadze@myhome.ge;veb-gverdi: www.georgians.gedinara maRlakeliZe _ doqtori, kino da mediaTmecnieri.SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatris,kinos, mediis, menejmentis da tradiciuli xelovnebis saswavlosamecnierokvleviTi institutis wamyvani specialisti.damTavrebuli aqvs ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifoda berlinis humboldtis saxelobis universitetebi. aseve saqarTvelosmecnierebaTa akademiis aspirantura da fraiburgis albert ludvigissaxelobis universitetisa da berlinis humboldtis universitetisdoqtorantura.berlinis humboldtis universitetSi daicva sadoqtoro disertaciaTemaze: erovnuli identuroba dasavleT germanul da qarTul saavtorokinoSi /SedarebiTi analizi/.samecniero moRvaweobas eweva saqarTvelosa da germaniis federaciulrespublikaSi. monawileobs saerTaSoriso kinosimpoziumebsa daseminarebSi, rogorc Jiuris wevri muSaobda saerTaSorisokinofestivalebze GgoEast da Prix-Europa.Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis universitetSi ekava ufrosi mecnier-TanamSromelis Tanamdeboba. sxvadasxva dros kiTxulobda leqciebsmsoflio kinos istoriasa da TeoriaSi ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobisTbilisis saxelmwifo universitetsa da Tbilisis samxatvro akademiaSi.gamoqveynebuli aqvs monografia (germanul enaze) da samecniero statiebikinos istoriasa da TeoriaSi germanul da qarTul enebze.misi samecniero kvlevis ZiriTadi sferoa saavtoro kino da TanamedroveTeoriebi kinematografSi.amJamad muSaobs samecniero proeqtz: Tanamedrove germanuli kinosganviTarebis tendenciebi 1990iani wlebidan (germanul enaze) dawignis proeqtze: Sesavali kinos TeoriaSi, kinos klasikuri daTanamedrove teqstebi (qarTul enaze).tel: + 995 (32) 22 02 21; mob: + 995 (99) 36 78 73el.fosta: dmaglakeli@yahoo.deveb-gverdi: www.dinara maglakelidse.deeTer okujava _ xelovnebaTmcodneobis doqtori, kinomcodne.SoTaA rusTavelis Teatrisa da kinos universitetis Teatris, kinos,mediis, menejmentis da tradiciuli xelovnebis saswavlo-samecnierokvleviTi institutis mTavari mecnier TanamSromeli.daamTavra Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, istoriis fakulteti,xelovnebaTmcodneobis ganxriT. staJireba gaiara kinomcodnisspecialobiT moskovis sax. kinoinstitutSi (ВГИК, e.surkovis jgufSi).misi samecniero kvlevebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia: qarTuli kinosSemoqmedebiTi tendenciebi, filmis saxviTi gadawyvetis problemebi,zogadad gamomsaxvelobiTi struqturebi, qarTuli filmis esTetika,Janrebi, calkeul xelovanTa SemoqmedebaTa kvleva drois faqtorisgaTvaliswinebiT (xelovani da dro), Tematuri Ziebani da filmis,sazogadod kinoTeoriis sakiTxebi da a.S.gamoqveynebuli aqvs 50-ze meti statia, aqedan umetesi referirebulJurnalebSi _ qarTul da ramdenime _ ucxo enebze. avtoria wignebisa:`imeda kaxiani~, `aqtiori~ (1990), `kultura _ gza gadarCenisa~(1997,piveli gamocema; 2000, meore gamocema), `daviT kakabaZe kinosa daTeatrSi~ (2008).aris: internet-gamocema `qarTuli kino eTer okujavasagan~ _ mTavariredaqtori.nato vaCnaZis saxelobis qarTuli kinos akademiis erT-erTidamfuZnebeli fizikuri piri da kulturuli iniciativebis fondis`nato~ damfuZnebeli da prezidenti.tel.: + 995 (32) 37 06 29; mob. +995 (99) 92 11 92el fosta: eterokujava@yandex.ruveb-gverdi: www.ethmo.narod.ru252 253


THEATRE STUDIESMaia GoshadzeVARIATION ON THE THEME TO BE OR NOT TO BESummeryThe article “Variation about to be or not to be” discusses to run offfrom the present motives in the Ernest Hophman, Patrick Zueskind,Anton Chekhov and Giorgi Margvelashvili’s play “Cherries Garden.”Article’s author’s idea is that the dilemma of to be or not to be,between life and death (by view Existential) choose between “un dead”results and “dead’ process is clear in to the chosen, - by hope or ask ofthe prized undead. Without praise less and without judge all being onthe present, given, realization. It must be arise all its whole life withitself ability again to try discovered unsuccessfully in the same row.It became hated physical tendency prized with “un dead” future,un received the motive without all giving rules life, always birth new ofthe creative physical agent, hopefuls, refused of the activates, afraidand hatred of the life.Not wish to arise from the sleeping from the future morning; wecan see Chehkov’s hero, in the play “Cherry garden” made by directorGiorgi Margvelashvili. It may be really wishes to come back in the bestinertial before the birth.Right towards the present, such as humans’ leader physicstendency, - to love life or hate creative motive is realized in the differentepochs being madden work.ABOUT AUTHORArt History PhDAssociate Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film GeorgianState University.Graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film Georgian StateUniversity’s Faculty of Theatre Studies. She has had her articles onAmerican, Ancient and Renaissance Drama published at various times.Currently she works on paper “Variations on mythical motives”Tel: + 995 (32) 99 65 64Marine (Maka) VasadzeCONVERSATIONS ABOUT ROBERT STURUA’S“THEATRICAL LANGUAGE”(Formation of Robert Sturua’s Theatrical Language)Robert Sturua (Theatre Director, Art Director of Rustaveli Theatre) andLevan Khetaguri Professor, Theatre Scholar, Head of World Theatre Direction.Georgian as well as European professional theater of theaterdirectors is more than one century old. I mean that theater of directorswas established in the eighties of XIXth century – C. Kean, A. Antoine,O. Brahm, M. Reinhardt, K. Stanislavski, V. Meyerhold, later B. Brechtand etc. Only in the XXth century Georgia, a small but culturally vastcountry, managed to give birth to three world-rank directors – KoteMarjanishvili, Sandro Akhmeteli and Robert Sturua (not meaning theirdates of birth of course). I think this is not such a small number. Throughtheir individual approach all three directors managed to create differenteras in the world of theatre; they said a new word in the formation ofthe language of directors.Every new cultural occurrence, direction, etc. has its ownpreconditions. This is also true about Kote Marjanishvili and SandroAkhmeteli. However, at this point the subject of my research is RoberSturua, and the formation of his theatrical language. Where can wefind the foundation for his unique theatrical approach - in Georgia andoutside it. How did his theatrical and directorial language develop andcan he be affiliated with any specific movement.For discussing these topics I chose the form of a dialogue or aconversation, which I think should be interesting for the readers.ABOUT AUTHORTheatre HistorianShe graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film Georgian StateUniversity’s Faculty of Theatre Studies. She is the head of Shota254 255


Rustaveli Theatre and Film Georgian State University’s PublishingHouse “Kentavri”. She is the editor of the newspaper “Duruji” of theabove mentioned University as well as the founder and editor of thenewspaper “Kultura”.From 1980 – 1992 she worked as a scholar at Georgian State Museumof Theatre, Music and Film;From 1992 – 2000 she worked as an editor for children’s theatre andentertainment program “Gossip News” on Georgian State BroadcastingCompany.From 1998 – 2000 she worked as a manager of Stichting CaucasusFoundation.In 2003, 2005, 2007 she worked as one of the coordinators of“International Culture Fair” organized by Stichting Caucasus Foundationand as the head of Theatre and Film Showcase Program.In 2005, 2006 she worked as one of the coordinators of “TbilisiInternational Film Festival”.She has her articles, letters, reviews on contemporary theatre processesand problems published in magazines “Soviet Art”, “Teatraluri Moambe”,“Òåàòð“, Theatre and Life”, newspapers “Kultura”, “Duruji” on aregular basis.She is the editor of several books.In 1986 she was awarded 1 Price at the “International Conference ofYoung Soviet Researchers” in St. Petersburg for the paper “B. Brechtin the work of Robert Sturua”.Acquired grants: 2003, 2004, 2005 years: “Open Society Institute”,Georgian State Ministry of Culture, Monument Protection and Sport”,“Georgian National Film Center”.Tel.: +995 (77) 28 87 68E-mail.: vasilisa@yahoo.comFILM STUDIESJAPANESE EMPEROR OF FILMSummaryZviad DolidzeThis article is devoted to the 100 years’ anniversary of the greatestJapanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa, who created his own originalfilm world, proved himself as a true creator, who had not been engagedpolitically. He sincerely wanted that his films’ heroes were the real andhonest persons, who know the life as it is. In his homeland Kurosawaoften was criticized by local specialists of cinema that he worked forWestern audience, but in reality nobody from his colleagues did notshow Japan and the Japanese society so much clearly that Kurosawa.He had not the selected and solely style, never discussed this withsomeone, but from his side he helped to many cinematographers to“open” the “film doors”, taught them the film alphabet. And those peoplewere always proud of work with him and declared that they are themembers of Kurosawa’s team.ABOUT AUTHORFilm Historian, Art History PhD.Full Professor of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film Georgian StateUniversity. Head of the History of World Film direction. In 1980 hegraduated from A.S. Pushkin Institute of Pedagogy, Faculty ofHistory. He lectures on history of world film on a BA level. At thesame time he is the head of a doctorate program in the samediscipline. He is the author of 3 books (2 textbooks and 1monograph) and 30 scientific articles.Contact Info: +995 (55) 30 70 40E-mail: dolz@internet.ge256 257


IMAGE OF AMERICAN INDIAN INAMERICAN WESTERNSummaryIrakli MakharadzeHollywood”). He is the author of several magazine and book publications(Knights of Guria in the US, Robbers of Guria and etc). He is theparticipant of various international festivals and owner of many awards.Tel: +995 (32) 23 2775 ; + 995 (99) 97 00 11E-mail: iraklimakharadze@gmail.com; makharadze@myhome.ge;Web www.georgians.geAlthough the Native Americans have appeared in westerns fromthe beginning, they were badly treated in films. On the whole Indiansusually appeared as a swarm of colorfully clad figures on horseback,attacking pioneers in their covered wagons or ambushing unwary riders.The view of Indians as savage and uncivilized was repeated in earlyfilms and crystallized the image of “Indians” as dangerous andunacceptable to the normative lives of White men whose lives appearedin films to be more valuable than those of the indigenous people theywere colonizing. This trend dimmed in the late ’30s and ’40s, butresumed in the 1950s and took root in the ’60s, permanently changingthe way films depicted Native Americans. Several 1960-70’s films infact suggested a parallel between genocide in the days of the old westand the age of Vietnam.ABOUT AUTHORFilm director, researcher.Doctorate student at the Faculty of Humanitarian Sciences (AmericanStudies) of Ivane Javakhishvili State University of Tbilisi.He is the author of documentary, animated and feature films. He is thedirector of films among them “Wild West Knights, “The Turn Aroundof Lelo”, “Robbers of Guria”, “Hello and Welcome”, “DimitriShevardnadze” and others.He graduated from Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film Georgian StateUniversity’s Faculty of Film Directing (Class of Guram Jvania).From 1990 to 2006 he was director of “Kartuli Telepilmi”.He was the author and anchor of music and film programs at varioustelevision channels: First Channel, Ibervizia, Imedi (Stars of WorldStage”; “Eight and a Half”, “Miscellenious”; “Once upon a time inDinara MaglakelidzeDEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS OF CINEMA THEORYSummaryThe article concerns development trends of theoreticalconsiderations of cinematography and attempts to discuss thedevelopment history of cinema theory in the context of spiritual(humanitarian) sciences.Discussing all the important orientations, an author and world outlookseparately, the author is showing the viewpoint of each orientationstudying cinematography, is describing an aesthetic branch of cinematheory which is studying expressive ways characteristic forcinematography, as a field of art. The author is discussing classical andmodern cinema theories oriented to sociology and psychology.In accordance with development of theoretical thinking about cinemathere have been analyzed the so called classical theories of cinema,such as theoretical considerations of Hugo Münsternberg, Bela Balaz,Rudolf Arnheim, Walter Benjamin about cinematography, the role andthe importance of representatives of the Russian formalistic school inthe theoretical study of cinematography, theoretical considerations ofSergey Eisenstein and Russian Avant guard cinematographs.In the article there have been analyzed: theoretical considerationsof Andre Bazin and the history of development of author’scinematography, the realistic theory of cinema of Siegfrid Kracauer,the theoretical thoughts of Jean Mitry about the transition period betweenthe theories of classical and modern cinema, the role and the importanceof semiotic research oriented to linguistic models of Christian Metz inthe development of cinema modern theories, Neo Formalistic and Post258 259


Structuralist perspectives of the theoretical research of cinematography.In the article there have been analyzed the place and the importance ofthe works of David Bordwell and Gilles Deleuze in the development oftheoretical thinking about cinema.The author is also discussing Apparatus theories oriented topsychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Marxisttheories of Louis Althussel, the main research object of which is anidentification of a spectator-subject, spectator-interpreter to the filmand studying the influence of the film on spectators, analyzingpsychoanalitic and feministic cinema theories.In the article there have been emphasized differences betweenclassical and modern theoretical researches of cinema. There has beendeveloped the point of view according to which while classical theoryof cinema, whose main goal was cultural legacy of cinematography, asa new field of art, and studying of expressive features and visualaesthetics of a film, modern theoretical researches of cinematographyprefer studying of medial, economic, socio-cultural determinants of afilm.She published a monograph (in German) and scholarly articles on historyand theory of film in Georgian and German languages.Main field of her scholarly research is feature film and contemporarytheories in cinematography.Currently she is working on a scientific project: Tendencies ofcontemporary German Film development from 1990s (in German) andon a book project: Introduction to film theory, classical and contemporarytexts in film (in Georgian)Tel: + 995 (32) 22 02 21; + 995 (99) 36 78 73E-mail: dmaglakeli@yahoo.deEter OkudjavaREMARKABLE ANALOGIES IN GEORGIAN-AMERICANCINEMA OF THE 20 S AND 30 S OF XX TH CENTURYSummaryABOUT AUTHORPhD, Film and Media Scholar.Leading specialist of Theatre, Film, Media, Management and TraditionalArts Research Institute of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film GeorgianState University.She is a graduate of Ivane Javakhishvili State University of Tbilisi andHumbolt University of Berlin. She is also an MA graduate of GeorgianAcademy of Sciences as well as a PhD graduate of Albert LuedwigUniversity of Freiburg and Humbolt University of Berlin.Her PhD thesis at Humbolt University of Berlin was on: National Identityin West German and Georgian Film/Comparative Analysis/.She works in Georgia and Germany. She takes part in internationalsymposiums and seminars. She was a jury member of internationalfestivals goEast and Prix-Europa.She worked as a senior specialist at Ivane Javakhishvili State Universityof Tbilisi. At various times she lectured on history and theory of worldfilm in Ivane Javakhishvili State University of Tbilisi and Tbilisi StateAcademy of the Arts.XX century’s 20 th years exactly that period, when clearly appeared,that cinematography could to make such works, where mainly subjectwould be not only to fixed reality, but to show reality to relies by subject.Robert Flaherty is an important and is distinguished figure in theUSA’s cinema, which made film serials by example of the ethnographicalmaterial, where described human opposite at the nature (here meansnatural calamity; rules of the life and other. In 1931 year German director,who worked in America, Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau together RobertFlaherty made, more right, finished a film “Taboo”, on the base of theromantically story about the inmate one of the island of the South Seas.Murnau’s work, such as choose of the theme, as a manner changedexpressional style by the show of the reality pictures. He has skills toshow reality, vital pictures to give rise unholy feeling and other emotionalimpulse.Georgian cinema director M. Kalatozov “Jim Shvante” (marilisvanetis) one of the important film between the films by the 20-30 thyears, which sign abandoned by the view of the film language. “Jim260 261


Shvante” included similar mute film’s terseness meanings, not only bythat, he equally shown Soviet and Euro-American films’ achievementof the 20 th years. “Jim Shvante” is a absolutely original work, it equallyused such as montage theory and practice by world achievement, asfoundation by D. Kakabadze’s own experience – composition of thecadre, multiform palette of the light, plastic of inside cadre, such as oneof the mainly means of the mouthpieceIn that way, 20-30 s Georgian film could make image fiction screen,and in the direction it became component part of the Euro-American.UNIVERSITY’ MA PROGRAMCULTURAL MANAGEMENTHead of the Program: Prof. Iuri MgebrishviliNatia GrdzelishviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliABOUT AUTHORArt History PhD, Film HistorianChief specialist of Theatre, Film, Media, Management and TraditionalArts Research Institute of Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film GeorgianState University.She graduated from Tbilisi State University, Faculty of History withmajor in Art History. She made her internship as a film scholar at MoscowFilm Institute (ÂÃÈÊ, class of E. Surkov).Main directions of her scholarly research are: Artistic tendencies ofGeorgian Film, problems of artistic interpretations in film, generalexpressive structures, aesthetic of Georgian film, genres, research ofcertain Georgian artists’ work with consideration of time (artist andtime), thematic findings and issues of film and film theories in general.She has more than 50 articles published: Most of them in referencemagazines in Georgian and some of them in foreign languages. She isthe author of books: “Imeda Kakhiani”, “An Actor” (1990), “Culture –way of salvation” (1997 first edition; 2000 second edition), “DavitKakabadze in Film and Theatre” (2008).She is the chief editor of an internet edition “Georgian Film from EterOkujava”.She is one of the founders of Nato Vachnadze Georgian Film Academyand founder and President of Cultural Initiatives Foundation “Nato”.Tel: + 995 (32) 37 06 29;Mob. +995 (99) 92 11 92E-mail: eterokujava@yandex.ruWeb: www.ethmo.narod.ruSTRUCTURE AND VARIETIES OF ADVERTISEMENTSummaryIn the developed modern world advertisement is necessary, butonly when it serves interest of consumer.Advertisement should assist formation of social requirements anddevelopment social-economic attitudes and culture within young people.Advertisement should express public interest, create rules andfashion. Advertisement should only be used to promote goods for notonly physical but spiritual development of the society.The advertisement should emphasize good quality of goods but onthe same time should tell us what the weakness is!Tatia ElbakidzeSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliTHE ROLE OF A MUSEUM IN PRESENT SOCIETYSummaryThe summary of the article is about the role of the museum for today’ssociety. The role of the today-in “open” and multicultural society impliesthe broad participation of the society in the processes of “globalization”and “modern Technologies”. Museum should have to answer the question262 263


how he understands the concept “open” museum and for which classof the society does it serve, control the implementation of its tasks andevaluate the implementation of its functions. Heavy burden in socialpoliticaland cultural environment of the museum demands the newforms of planned changes; accordingly, in response of the effectivemanagement they will satisfy the external as well as internal needs.Implementation of changes for future is as much essential for museumas implementation of changes to today’s needs.Tata InashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliSHOW BUSINESS, ADVERTISING AND PRSummaryShow business applies to all aspects of the entertainment industryfrom the business side (managers, agents, producers, distributors) tothe creative theatre, music. Advertising and PR are of major importancein Show Business.PR (public relation) deals with the work of persuading people tohave a good opinion of an organization, company etc. Advertising- tellspeople publicly about a product (singer, band) or service in order topersuade them to buy it.The term show business has been in common usage in Georgiasince the end of 20 century.At present the most popular TV project and show programs are:“MIMGERE RAME,””HUMORINA”, “GEOBARI”. Etc.The most successful projects established by “Geocell “and“Magticom” Companies are “GEOSTAR” and “VARSKVALEBISAKADEMIA”. They are not only popular but also profitable.Elene MechitovaSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliFINANCING OF CULTURE IN GEORGIASummaryFor the time being the cultural market is playing important role isworld economy. However, with all its importance there are problemspresent with financing of cultural organizations. In Georgia the bigamount of cultural organizations are financing by the government, butbesides they often need to find alternative ways of financing.This article generally describes the state of cultural market of theRepublic of Georgia, the main sources of their financing, collaborationwith business sector and current sponsorship activities of Georgiancompanies; By the examples of Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theater andTbilisi State Conservatory we can draw a conclusion about the culturalcondition as a whole. More and more companies nowadays are usingsponsorships as promotional means and it’s up to cultural organizationsthat have to think through and develop its marketing plans to becomeattractive for investments.Sopo TsertsvadzeSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliTHE IMAGE OF A MANAGERSummaryIn the article briefly is examined essence of attitude and iscollaborated its different variations by modern scientist’s. Unofficially,smooth, current, desired and corporative. The role of attitude inmanager’s professional work and relations between colleagues: withverbal communication, but also with gesticulation and motion, becauseit’s very important to use nonverbal communication and the manager’s264 265


image itself during business negotiations. Here is also describedmanager’s psychological characteristics, ethical norms and its visualside. Also how important is to check manager’s dependence withenvironment and quick respond to the changed condiotns. As well, thefunctions of manager, which is upon goal settings, realize these goals inorganizations, researches, to control the whole work and at least tomanage and lead the organi-zation in the right way.Leila JanashiaSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliMANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL TOURISMHead of the Program: Prof. Malkhaz GvinjiliaEka AvtandilashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Malkhaz GvinjiliaMTSKHETA AS A CENTER OF TOURISMSummaryROLE AND PUBLIC ACTIVITY OF GEORGIANNATIONAL CENTER OF MANUSCRIPTSSummaryNational Center of Manuscripts or as it is accepted in the worldpractice Institute of Manuscripts is one of the significant segments ofthe scientific center cultural sphere. There are not so many countriesin the world which can present a rich collection or depository ofmanuscripts. Georgia is one of those few ones which have the mostsignificant depository of old manuscript books and historical documents.The aim and function of the National Center of Manuscripts is not onlytaking care and restoration of the center unique collections - manuscriptbooks and historical documents, the point is that the aim of the centershould consist in consumer’s educative activities and publicity. The centershould not be only a depository of unique collections; it should beconsidered a constant dialogue leader with the society. Suchorganizations existing in the world through their experience have arrivedat a conclusion that it is necessary to involve the organization in activelife rhythm and to communicate actively with consumers and the society.In the article there is given consideration to the active dialogue of theGeorgian National Center of Manuscripts and the society and there ispresented an overview of the projects implemented as a result of thisdialogue.Material and soul treasures represent a bright monument of theformation of cultural tourism. Towns with its’ rich historical heritageand wealthy cultural recourses carries the status of museum towns.Mtskheta town as a Georgian orthodox abbey is famous withenormous interesting objects among the priers and pilgrims. The museumtowns are joined under the umbrella of UNESCO and within theframework of modern projects undertaken by UNESCO old andhistorical countenances of many towns have been returning.According to the marketing researches and statistic analyses it isobvious that the number of tourists is increased tremendously. Forsupporting of its promotion and attracting orthodox tourists it’s necessary tocollaborate with orthodox organizations and invite them to the pilgrim tours.Eleonora GogolashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Malkhaz GvinjiliaANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS OF CULTURALTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN IMERETISummaryAmong Georgia’s other regions Imereti has the huge potential ofdeveloping cultural tourism. The most attractive in this region is its richhistorical background, which is obvious considering its variousmonuments of material inheritance.266 267


The most strategic part of developing tourism in this region is culturaltourism. Attracting tourists with cultural-ethnographical recourses isan important factor of developing local tourism.For further improving of tourism in this region, it is essential forgovernment to stimulate taxing conditions, including business sectorsand foreseeing marketing planning.Lela ElizbarashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Malkhaz GvinjiliaTOURIST FUNCTION OF GEORGIANTRADITIONS AND CULTURESummaryArt of animations includes the basic thematic in tourism.Accompanied by the local traditional folk-lore and choreography,organization of the effective cultural tour arranges “recalling” ofhistorical-cultural centers having material heritage.Arrangements’ management have the basic function. Organizersof Georgian festival mainly uses the historical and cultural thematic inorder to plan annual events and attract spectators and create the imageof cultural country as before own as foreign society.While organizing of cultural tours, the elements of choreographyand folk-lore is less used, including of which would make the touristproduct more interesting and impressive.Jano TitirashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Malkhaz GvinjiliaTOURING ASPECTS OF BORJOMI- KHARAGAULINATIONAL PARK FUNCTIONAL ZONESummaryThe Development of Ecotourism has good perspectives in Georgia.Following Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park example, which wascreated for the aim of wild nature variety and inviolable woodsprotection.At present in the park Acts 9 Eco touring routes. By the foresee oftouring infrastructures and human resources 120 persons will have notslept all night on the territory of Park. In 2008 August war has destroyedmore than 1100 hectare unique wood of Borjom -Kharagauli Nationalpark.In 2009 the results of marketing research showed that the work ofNational Park is satisfy and the tourists select asylums for active touringcampaign place.Nino OtarashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Malkhaz GvinjiliaPILGRIMAGE TOURISM RESOURCES IN GEORGIASummaryPilgrimage tourism is profoundly a particular wing (branch) ofcultural tourism which aims at retracing the tracks of saints, apostlesand missionary by implementing the itineraries according to thepredefined services.Already mentioned multiple resources exist in Georgia. Especiallyattracts attention the the way gone by twelve Assyrian fathers and ST.268 269


Nino equal to the apostles and enlightener of Georgia. Department ofevangelicalism and Georgian Orthodox church mission offers a widerange of pilgrimage tours. The aim of cultural tourism is popularizationof pilgrim tours and complying pilgrims with all their requirements.Tinatin KristesashviliSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Malkhaz GvinjiliaTOURIST POTENTIAL OF “THE GREAT SILK ROAD”SummaryCultural tourism has an important role on the international touristmarket and appears to be a successful direction of this segment.According to the Georgia’s cultural tourist potential, it has an opportunityto offer an interesting and unique tour-product to the world touristmarket.A new life of: ”The Great Silk Road” is the very real internationaltourist product, which one’s realization will promote as a foreign transittourist income in Georgia, as well as invests in tourist business onGeorgian market.R E S E A R C H A N A L I S Y S O FP E R F O R M A N C E F R O M AT E C H N I C A L V I E W P O I N TLia BarbakadzeSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Jana ToidzeARIA OF MAREKHI FROM THE OPERA “ABESALOMAND ETERI” BY Z. PALIASHVILI(Vocal, technical and performance analysis)SummaryProposed vocal and technical analysis presents the performing, aswell as vocal and technical study of Aria of Marekhi from the Opera“Abesalom and Eteri” by Z. Paliashvili.The significant portion of the analysis is given to the distinctiveperformance style, the process of vocal breathing through the use ofperforming speech and phonetics. The study also focuses on the middleregister, specifics of the transition sounds, particularities of pronouncingvowel and consonant sounds and the role of performing speech.The proposed work also presents a descriptive analysis ofperforming schemes of Stansilavsky and Tumanishvili used by greatdirectors. The work also offers methods of great Italian teachers fromperspective of vocal and technical performance as well as a shortbiography of the composer, about the time the opera was written and ashort synopsis of the opera.EkaGureshidzeSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Jana ToidzeARIA OF ETERI FROM THE OPERA “ABESALOM ANDETERI” BY Z. PALIASHVILI(Vocal, technical and performance analysis)SummaryProposed vocal and technical analysis of the opera “Abesalom andEteri” by Zachary Paliashvili presents the performing, as well as vocaland technical study of Aria of Eteri from the Act IV, scene 16.270 271


The significant portion of the analysis is given to the distinctiveperformance style, the process of vocal breathing through the use ofperforming speech and phonetics. The study also focuses on the middleregister, specifics of the transition sounds, particularities of pronouncingvowel and consonant sounds and the role of performing speech.The proposed work also presents a descriptive analysis ofperforming schemes of Stansilavsky and Tumanishvili to be used in theworking process. The study also provides biographical details from thelife of the composer, which is a valuable source of information forstudents to learn about the time and settings when the opera was written.It also helps us maintain and sustain the unique style of ZacharyPaliashvili.The present work uses following bibliographical sources:Nino SakandelidzeSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Jana ToidzeARIA OF ETERI FROM THE OPERA “ABESALOM ANDETERI” BY Z. PALIASHVILI(Vocal, technical and performance analysis)SummaryThis vocal-technical performance research analysis is about Eteri’sAria from Z. Phaliashvili’s Opera ,,Abesalom and Eteri’’.Before Maia Tomadze’s performance the ,,Eteri’s’’ heroine was acalm, and could not fight against her destiny.However, Tomadze changed ,,Eteri’s’’ personality. Eteri becamestrong woman and she could stand up for herself.This is the main topic that I discuss in my work.In this work the musical and pure vocal-technical methods areanalyzed. The nuances and emotionally rich musical invoice areemphasized.In this work published Russian and Georgian literature is used. Also,the work includes M. Tumanishvili’s scheme. In this scheme, the specificmethods are added. This methods are about ,,Making voice’’ and aboutthe performance of a musical work.Furthermore, the work talks about consonants, and how topronounce them correctly. Also it talks about the synthesis of scenicand vocal techniques. This work also emphasizes the importance ofactor’s talent. It also talks about transitional sounds, which are veryimportant and also about the types of breathing, which is one of themost important things in the song.Maiko KhachapuridzeSecond Year MA StudentSupervisor: Jana Toidze(VOCAL, TECHNICAL AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS)SummaryHigh level vocal Pedagogy cannot evade two most prominent operasby Z. Paliashvili- “Abesalom and Eteri” and “Daisi”. It is essential fora student of vocal to know the major stage of Z. Paliashvili’s life andwork. To empower vocal development it is essential for a sopranosinger to learn and perform Eteri’s part.Z. Paliashvili was born in 1871 in Kutaisi, Georgia. He had twobrothers - Ivane Paliashvili – a conductor and Levan Paliashvili. Someof Paliashvili’s operas include “Abesalom and Eteri”, “Daisi”, “Latavra”,“Solemn Cantata”, as well as romantic songs and they are all includedin a teaching repertoire. Z. Paliashvili died in 1933 and was buried inthe garden of the theater which now bears his name.272 273


UNIVERSITY’ Ph.D PROGRAMCULTURAL MANAGEMENTCULTURAL POLICYHead of the Program: Prof. Iuri Mgebrishvili andProf. Levan KhetaguriNino AzmaiparashviliSecond Year PhD StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliSIGNIFICANCE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONSIN THE PROCESSES OF GLOBALIZATIONSummaryOne factor and conditions of globalization is establishmentinternational organizations. Global security, stability, rule of law, cooperationfor freedom, world people equality – to ensure all of thisvalue is the aim of international organizations.After the World War II before the mankind has come to securityproblems and leaders of States decided to found mega unions whatwould be give security guarantee to human, world capital, politic andeconomic. International organizations were engaged in marathon asbest guarantee for peaceful world.After war the globalization faster renovated as a result of innovationsin technique sphere conditions maritime, railway and air movements.World becomes to be more dependable on globalizationThe globalization in politics is observed as a weakening of nationalforces. On the one side stipulate delegate of influential authorities onthe international organizations such as UN, WTO, Council of Europe,NATO, World Bank, European Union.In age of globalization International organizations research howimplacable process of globalization are influenced on internationalorganizations.The international community must seek to utilize the corporate drivetowards globalization in a way that reflects the concerns and interestsof States, particularly developing States. The rationale for internationalorganizations is that they provide a forum for common issues to bedebated and appropriate solutions.International organizations must reflect the will and diversity oftheir membership. Whether one sees globalization as an inevitable forceor not, the nature and extent of its impact is not beyond the control ofthe international community.One of the most important aspects of reconciling sustainabledevelopment and globalization is the issue as to how best to ensure thatthe concept is appropriately incorporated within international and regionalorganizations and programs. Organizations should achieve what theirmembers seek from it.Whilst the role of States is vital in reconciling globalization andsustainable development, what is less clear – and something that hasnot been as readily discussed is the important role of internationalorganizations within this process.Co-operation with international organizations is a stimulus forpeople for their security and happiness. Organizations membership wouldbe directed for countries strengthening and human gladness.Elene BabakishviliFirst Year PhD StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliSPONSORSHIP AND CULTURAL POLICYSummarySponsorship has a quite long history in Europe. As securing grantaid from public sources is generally becoming more difficult, culturalorganizations in Europe need to look harder for alternative ways tosupplement their own earned income. This would include the following:1. Corporate sponsorship2. Corporate Trusts and Foundations3. Individual tax-efficient giving274 275


4. Lotteries and loansIn order to support cultural organizations in finding for other sourcesgovernment created a powerful instrument such as cultural policy andSponsorship legislation for regulating and encouraging sponsorshipactivity and funding of non-profitable sectors. There is an article in thelegislation of culture giving some payment advantages to those businessorganizations that support sponsorship and charity activities. Taxprivileges and comfortable collaborative environment day by dayincreases the number of companies that are eager to support culturaland art organizations. This way government refuses to get direct incomefrom business organizations and tries to return money indirect way tocultural organizations. Companies also find this possibility very positively- supporting different events, festivals, theatres and etc. the companywill expect to gain some quantifiable advantage – for example, incorporate image, publicity, credibility or public approval, entertainment,employee and/or community relations. Companies now take their “socialresponsibilities” seriously, with local development, the environment andgood employer practice as factors.In this case the object of interest isn’t advantages of sponsorshipbut here is given and discussed experience of European countries:Austria, France, England, USA, in making cultural policy according toSponsorship and all those regulations that are made for developing nongovernmentalco-financing.Sofio KomladzeFirst Year PhD StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE OF AN EDITORIALORGANIZATION(organizational chart)SummaryOrganizational structure – presumes such diversification of thelogical interrelations and rights/responsibilities that is to provide effectiverealization of the company goals. Main task of the organizational structure(chart) is to enable all sub divisions and managers to comprehend maintrends of responsibilities and activities undertaken. Structure of theorganization involved in editorial activity shall be based on such specificsand spread over such steps that are specified for the editorial organizationitself. Organization having those particular characteristics shall bedifferent from other art organizations, foremost with its multi colorfulparticularity. There are some different divisions associated in the editorialhouse, like: creator (author of a book), editorial staff (filler, technicalstaff), editorial council (designer, corrector, stylist), marketing, publicrelations, distribution and financial services in the editorial organization.Thus, management of the editorial organization shall pay serious attentionto the process of drafting its own structure. Besides, editorial structureshall obtain the characteristics of self control and motivation, protectthe staff rights and quality of their responsibilities. In this respect, aperson like its organizational structure is very important for themanagement.Drafting process of the editorial organizational structure happensnot according to its goal but by the following diversification: universaland specific. Specific editorial house provides only one product – abook (and it is of one, specific trend – art, school-university, specificliterature), and universal editorial house provides several type ofproducts (magazine, banner, album, book and etc. The Georgian editorialarea has the almost same differentiation. Based on the above,organizational structure shall be defined by the typological differences.The Universal Editorial House (occupied staff number does not matter)is in need of more spread organizational structure with all main, necessaryand functional divisions and/or levels. Such structured editorialorganizations operating in Russia are as follows: “EKSMO”, “TERRA”,“AST”, “INFRA-M” and etc. In particular, Specific Editorial Housesare oriented to the professional readers and defines the goals aroundsuch readers. The editorial houses of this type are: “Finances andStatistics”, “Lawyer”, “UNITY”. Functional levels of suchorganizational structures are garthered more around to the product andare aimed to “express” the least.276 277


Ana KotrikadzeFirst Year PhD StudentSupervisor: Professor Iuri MgebrishviliISSUES RELATED TO FINANCING OF FILM INDUSTRYSummaryDiscussions regarding development of film industry or challengeshindering to that started in Georgia long time ago.Based on analyses of European film industry, development ofGeorgian model for management film industry seems possible.In Britain role of state in development of industry is considered asimportant, for sustainable economic success as well as getting culturalbenefit.In Italy majority of professional and technical resources (80%) areaccumulated in Rome, as for financing film projects decision is madeby the group of particular people which cooperate with public and privateTV companies. These latter are ready to use money obtained fromadvertisement for development of film industry.In Austria funds allocated for film industry compile about 40 millionEuros; these expenses are managed by Austrian Institute ofCinematography; while additional expenses are allocated from statebudget by Federal Division of Culture. Eight million Euros are allocatedfor this purpose just for Capital City.Based on example of Italy it is probably possible to cooperate withGeorgian TV companies; if every year part of money obtained fromadvertisement is used for financing cinema that will be great supportfor Georgian film industry.At this stage Film Center is the only agency that can find at leastfew resources for financing national film industry. State should supportfilm production at this stage, since cinema can present values of ourcountry on international level.TELEVISION ARTHead of the Program: Prof. Zviad DolidzeDavit GujabidzeThird Year PhD StudentSupervisor: Professor Zviad DolidzeMIKHAIL TUMANISHVILI – AND TV-THEATRESummaryMikhail Tumanishvili - well-known Georgian theatrical director forseveral years worked as the head of Theatrical PerformancesDepartment at the Georgian TV in 1971-75. During this period numberof innovations of the theatre program genre for TV were done: Theplays and adapted stories of Davit Kldiashvili („Darispan’s Trouble“and „Catastropa“), Jean Cocteau („The Human Voice“), NodarDumbadze („The Sum“) etc. were done. Mr. Mikhail Tumanishvili stagednumber of theatrical performances for TV („Crossroads“ – by VictorRozov, „Cap of Invisibility“ by Giorgi Eristavi, „The Bridge“ by AlexandreChkhaidze, „The Doctor in Spite of Himself“ by Molière, „Have atFirst Died, Have then Got Married“ by Raphiel Eristavi...) were veryinteresting by their mode of genre, combining two kinds of arts – theatreand television. These VT-theatrical performances became very popularespecially for their manner of staging. Creation of the „TelevisionThatre“ in Georgia is linked with Mikhail Tumanishvili`s person.The article describes one technological tool, which was used byMikheil Tumanishvili when he was filming Jean Cocteau’s “voice of ahuman”. This film later became TV theatre. Since the performanceonly consists of one character’s (woman) telephone conversation, inorder to ease the actress’s (Sopiko Chiaureli) task, the text of “virtualman” – the second character of the dialogue was created which wasactually the assistant from the backstage and which spectators couldn’thear. Using this tool enabled the performance to become very impressive.278 279


HISTORY AND THEORY OF SCENOGRAPHYHead of the Program: Prof. Ketevan KintsurashviliLali GelashviliSecond Year PhD StudentSupervisor: Professor Ketevan KintsurashviliXIX CENTURY GEORGIAN FASHION STYLEACCORDING TO THE DRAFT SAMPLES FROMMUSICAL “KETO AND KOTE”SummaryIn the draft samples of Georgian musical comedy “Keto and Kote”is brightly shown the tendency towards modernism. What attracts theattention is the synthesis of Georgian national costume with Asian andRussian styles that demonstrate Georgian way of dressing in the veryperiod. The film is being watched with joy and excitement not only byGeorgian people.Motion picture “Keto and Kote” has been created by the mosttalented directors, brilliant actors and young gifted people with specialappearances, who at the same time sang and dance remarkably. Thecostumes and decoration of the movie are so attractive, that they stilldeserve great impression upon the audience. Joy and happiness pourfrom the screen. It is an everlasting triumph, which was delivered toGeorgian Nation by the create-team, that’s why the motion-picture “Ketoand Kote” was awarded with the title “The film of the century”.280 281


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