Untitled - 电子图书馆

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Untitled - 电子图书馆

共 同 走 向 科 学百 名 院 士 科 技 系 列 报 告 集 ( 上 )


1952 1959 2450 10471960 1966 3760 17731970 1979 3767 11581980 1989 4155 203812


NO 3286 6. 51


1 X 64


M1/ M2 = V2V1 M1/ M2 352 / 349 = 1.004372


ϕ 74


1 1994 151.53 66.39 2.17 215.75 18.46 38.52 2.38 54.60 20.18 5.27 0.53 24.92 9.93 0.25 0.003 10.18DMT 22.57 1.31 0.05 23.8338.99 12.90 0.55 51.3419.11 5.10 0.002 24.21PTA 71.88 23.93 0.70 95.11 2.40 11.54 0.002 13.94 66 3.89 2.73 0.006 6.6185


2 1995 DMT 23.7 23.7 42.5 20.5 0.5 62.5 23 6.6 0.2 29.4PTA 90.3 40.1 1.3 129.16.6 12.4 0.1 18.9 66 4.4 2.3 0.1 6.63 2000 251 63 35 23 5 106 81PTA 219DMT 30 29 66 17 86


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l 1950-1980 3.66 1.301930-198O 4.86-6.13 1.42-1.781902-1977 l.25 0.701910-1980 0.47-0.69 0.741958-1980 0.83 0.74110


2 111


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p /Mb 1.8 10 6 1727 960 1995 4.2 10 6 4000 650 1997 1.5 10 7 6000 400 1996 1.0 10 8 25000 250 1.0 10 8 13000 130 1998 1.2 10 8 10000 83 3 10 9 80000 27 3 10 9 80000 27 2005 126


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1 SPOT5B 2004 5 10 4 EOSAM 2/L 8 2004 10 30 SPOT5A 1999 5 10 4 IRS 1D 1999 10 20 4 Space lmaging 1998 1 4 4 KOMSAT 1998 10 10 3 EOSAM l LANDSAT 7 ENVISAT 1998 15 15 14 1998 15 30 7 1998 30 0 Space lmaging 1997 1 4 4 OrbitalSciences 1997 1 8 4 SPOT 4 1997 10 20 4 Earth Watch 1997 1 4 4 Earch Watch 1996 3 15 3 CTA Clark 1996 3 15 3 TRWLewis 1996 5 30 384 ALMA22 1996 5 ADEOS 1996 8 16 4 CBERS l 1996 20 20 7 Radarsat 1995 9 IRS 1C 1995 Resours 02 1995 27 3151


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1 73.2.6 m 7.6 74.5.11 m 7.1 75.2.4 m 7.3 76.5.29 m 7.4 76.7.28 m 7.8 76.8.16 m 7.2 88.11.6 m 7.4 90.4.26 m 7.0 94.9.16 m=7.3 164


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1995 20151 26.8 2 16.4 3 16.3 4 15.8 5 15.1 6 14.1 7 12.5 8 12.4 9 11.7 10 11.6 1 28.7 2 27.4 3 24.4 4 23.4 5 21.2 6 20.8 7 20.6 8 19.4 9 19.0 10 18.8 170


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1 6.9 32.8 15.2 72.7 50.1 239 6.0 28.7 182


2 39.4 18.5 92.4 21.6 183


3 * m 3 28 470 165 27 5 5700 4 67% 24% 4% 0.5% 0.5% 550 450 100550 700*2000 150 m 3 184


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1 g/cm 3 g/cm 3 Al 2O 31 30 2.58 3.75Al 2O 32 5.7 3.23 3.47Cr 2O 3 4.7 4.52 4.72ZrO 2 8.7 5.52 5.73TiO 2 6.0 4.01 4.2680 Al 2O 320%TiO 2 6.0 3.48 3.7180 WC 20%Co 10.8 13.87 15.5675 Cr 3C 225%NiCr 10.8 6.16 6.8980 Ni 20%Al 5.7 6.42W 12.0 15.19 18.20Mo 13.5 7.85 9.1553 NiAl 47%ZrO 2 7.1 6.27 6.3250 W 50%ZrO 2 12.2 9.3250 Mo 50%ZrO 2 9.8 6.8199


2 MPa Al 2O 31 49.0Al 2O 32 55.6Cr 2O 3 74.7ZrO 2 49.0TiO 2 82.180 Al 2O 320%TiO 2 89.480 WC 20%Co 112.775 Cr 3C 225%NiC 274.480 Ni 20%Al 348.9W 117.6Mo 127.753 NiAl 47%ZrO 2 169.550 W 50%ZrO 2 66.650 Mo 50%ZrO 2 112.7 3 GPa Al 2O 3 9.2 0.12 0.20Cr 2O 3 10.0 0.14 0.15TiO 2 8.2 0.10 0.1580 Al 2O 320%TiO 2 10.4 0.10 0.1180 WC 20%Co 12.1 0.11 0.1375 Cr 3C 225%NiCr 10.5 0.13 0.15 200


4 W WC Al 2O 3 Mo Al 2O 3TiO 2Cr 2O 3WC Cr 3C 2Cr 2O 3WC Al 2O 3Al 2O 3TiO 2Cr 2O 3 Al 2O 3NiAl Mo Al 2O 3Al 2O 3TiO 2 201


5 Al 2 O 3 1 Al 2 O 3 2 ZrO 2 30 5.7 8.7 0 13.2 12.3g/cm 3 2.58 3.23 5.52 2.90 2.78 3.0049.0 55.6 49.0 46.7 45.3MPa 19.3 23.2 21.0 21.2 20.8MPa 202


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1 1995 43 378 433 1 614 798 162 851 169 768 631 898 055 90 514 538 181 327 178 063 LCD658 771 66 587 283 39 843 31 646 524 598 53 330 636 140 876 53 086 147 908 15 23 994 75 057 48 857 2 OIDA Optoelectronics Industry Development Association 1994 1993 750 2003 2300 OIDA recommendations 206


207


3 1991 1993 1995 LCD 3 5 10LED 2 4 5 2 5 302 3 5 4 10 151 4 15 1 4 5 15 35 954 1993 2003 LCD 60 150 AMLCD 75 LED+ 15150 60 25%CRT 200 2000300 CD DA 70 150 20%VCD 10% 40% 100 35 150 12 3070 1500% 50%30070 50%10% 40%500 2300700 +CRT 4000 +CRT 208


5 1994 1995 12.00 4.73 0.86 3.07 7.67 230.00 70 209


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1 1989 1994 1999 2004` * 2000 4000 10000 20000* 216


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2 1986 1989 1991 1993 1994 19952 15 41 50 80 120 130 200 1500 3500 4000 7000 10000 3 lm/w Ra13 100 18 10021 100 55 4060 80 70 90 75 100 65 95 218


ϕ 219


4 1993 882 808 91.6 72 8.2 1.8 0.2 1994 987 775 76.6 206 20.8 26 2.6 1995 1106 719 65.0 332 30.0 55 5.0 1996 1239 706 57.0 434 35.0 99 8.0 1997 1387 694 50.0 27 38.0 166 12.0 1998 1554 684 44.0 621 40.0 249 16.0 1999 1740 679 39.0 748 43.0 313 18.0 2000 1949 663 34.0 877 45.0 409 21.0 220


5 1989 1990 1991 19921302 1349 1324 12345518 5687 5273 4898505 59 527 89 597 78 452 25 221


6 kg ha 100mg kg 500ppm 34 42 8 13 19 420 400MG 0.05 10 450 0.2 45g/15kg 400 35 9 465 0.08 0.03 50kg 2 9 6 10 6000 8 14.4 5g/kg 6.9300 9.9 8.6 500ppm11 48 6.235.4 3.2 1920 80 0.52 5.6 13.3 2050 350 9.4 750 30040 /22.5 1.3 123 9 5.3 12 50 150ppm9.4 6.4 4000 80 /9.5 20 13 /9 15 10 6 29 40mg10 222


223


7 1985 2000 6008 17830 1060 2570 580 4220 595 1770 322 10070 12 4910 8577 41370224


8 1982 1991Y Eu Ce 1216.2 1344Y Eu Ce 2198.5 2151Ce 406.5 Ce Y Eu 340.7 1488Y Tb Eu 2.56 4.02Y Eb 4.4 8.6Eu Tb 142 254.2La Nd 236.47 957.96La Ce 88.5 1174.135MM La Ce 1381.9 1764.7 Sm Nd Ce 108 1698La Gd Y 7755 11340* La Ce 4016 5248 * MM 74.5 141.3*1991 225


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1 1995 1998 2001DRAM Mbit 64 256 1 10 3 m 0.35 0.25 0.18 mm 200 200 300 300nm 0.5 0.3 0.2101 1 m 0.12 0.05 0.03 /cm 2 10 10 10 9 10 8 at 0.0029 4 0.0026 2 0.0023 2 234


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2 W/kg Fe 81B 13 5Si 3 5C 2 0.31Fe 80B 15 9Si 2 4C 0.9 0.15Fe 3 2Si 1.00 239


3 Argonne Whkg 1 WhL 1 Wkg 1 n Na S 81 83 152 91 502Li 66 133 64 81 103Zn Br 79 56 40 75 34Ni Zn 67 142 105 77 114Ni MH 54 186 158 80 333Ni Fe 51 118 99 58 9184 m 3 10 28 4.2MgH 2 5.9TiH 2 9.2VH 2 10.4PdH 0.8 4.7LaHi 5H 6.7 6.1Mg 2NiH 4 5.6240


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1 1 2 2 3 1 3 20%4 ISO10004 ISO1005 20 10 6 pixel/frame 5 1.0 10 6 pixel/frame6 6 276


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