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Water is an important

Water is an important input for agriculture also. Agriculture is key sector for poor. Hussain et. al. (2004) argue that there are five interrelated dimensions of agricultural water and poverty reduction: production, income/consumption, employment, vulnerability/food security and overall welfare. Adequate irrigation will allow poor people to increase their production, income and enhance income diversification opportunities, reducing vulnerability caused by seasonality and other factors. In the poverty-water interrelationship, water for agriculture has a special place. Irrigation is a powerful tool for providing food security, protection against adverse drought conditions, increased employment and stable income and greater opportunity for multiple cropping and crop diversification. Access to reliable irrigation can enable farmers to adopt new technologies, and intensify cultivation leading to increased productivity and greater return from farming. This in turn opens up new employment opportunities both on-farm and off-farm, which can increase farm income, livelihood and quality of life in rural areas. Overall like land, irrigation can have a wealth generating effect in agriculture specifically and in rural settings in general. Like water, land is also an important productive resource and asset for both rural and urban poor. For the poor, land is the primary means for generating a livelihood and the main vehicle for investing, accumulating wealth and transferring it between generations. Land ownership makes people less reliant on wage labour thereby reducing their vulnerability to shocks. Access to even small plots of lands to grow crops can greatly improve food security. Land holding size also matters. Small holdings prevent subsistence farms in adopting new technologies and modern inputs. Degradation of soils affect both productivity and overall production, thereby farm income and consumption. Forest degradation and deforestation severely affects not only the environment but also the livelihood of many poor who dependent on forest resources. Thus, water, land and agriculture have strong linkages with poverty reduction. Meeting MDGs will depend in large part on how Tamil Nadu manages its scarce water resources and how it develops effective water governance and improved service delivery mechanisms. Appropriate land policy and registration, redistribution or transfers are also important for realizing the MDGs. 102

5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu is a water scarce state. 12 Per capita (annual) water availability is only about 900 cubic meters as against the all-India average of 2200 cubic meters. Geographically, most of Tamil Nadu is a dry plain, with river valleys surrounded by low hills. The normal (annual) rainfall is 925 millimeters (mm) as against the average rainfall of 1100 mm of the country. Two major monsoon seasons are: northeast (October-December) with normal rainfall of 439 mm and southwest monsoons (June-September) with average rainfall of 308 mm. 13 Apart from these two monsoons, the state receives little rain during the winter: January and February, and summer: March to May (Table 5.1). The northeast monsoons are more reliable and on an average, they account for about 50 percent of annual rainfall in the state. The historical data on rainfall reveals that rainfall received by the state is highly variable and drought conditions prevail in three out of 10 years. Table 5.1: Rainfall in Tamil Nadu (Millimetres) Period Southwest Northeast Winter Summer Total Rainfall 1970s (Avg.) 329.4 475.0 13.4 115.6 933.4 1980s (Avg.) 319.9 371.3 44.4 117.2 852.9 1990s (Avg.) 304.1 519.7 23.7 103.8 951.4 2000-01 314.5 335.5 16.8 118.4 785.2 2001-02 260.0 379.4 70.0 85.8 795.2 2002-03 185.4 407.1 8.7 129.8 731.0 2003-04 336.5 403.1 11.6 283.4 1034.6 2004-05 360.7 472.1 14.3 231.7 1078.8 2005-06 308.4 830.2 15.6 150.9 1305.1 2006-07 250.9 497.5 10.9 100.4 859.7 2007-08 341.6 515.4 46.2 261.2 1164.4 Last 8 Years Average 294.8 480.0 24.3 170.2 969.3 Source: Government of Tamil Nadu (2007), Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012, State Planning Commission; and Tamil Nadu- An Economic Appraisal (2006-07 and 2007-08). Further, large perennial rivers do not flow through its territories. The state has 17 river basins (including groups of minor basins) of which the Cauvery basin is the 12 The population and area of Tamil Nadu account for 7 and 4 percent, respectively of that of India but the available water resources of the state account for only 3 percent of total water available in the country. 13 Most of the rains from the southwest monsoon are blocked by the Western Ghats and southwest monsoon rains are highly variable. 103

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau