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largest. 14 Cauvery

largest. 14 Cauvery water irrigates nearly 20 million hectares of land. But Tamil Nadu is lower riparian state. The total water resources of the state comprise surface water of 24.1 billion cubic meters and groundwater of 23.1 billion cubic meters (Table 5.2). Utilization rate of surface water is estimated to be 93 percent and that of groundwater 60 percent. Evidence indicates that the rate of extraction of groundwater has exceeded recharge rates in many parts of the state. Table 5.2: Water Resources Details MCM Percent TMC Surface 16769 35.5 592 Shares from Other States 7391 15.6 261 Groundwater 23070 48.8 815 Total 47230 100.0 1668 Source: Government of Tamil Nadu (2007), Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012, State Planning Commission. Note: MCM – Million Cubic Meters; TMC - Thousand Million Cubic Feet Major water supply sources in Tamil Nadu are (i) canals with 9786 kms length, (ii) 41260 tanks, and (iii) 18.47 lakh wells (Table 5.3). Irrigation is a high volume user of water accounting for about 90 percent of total water uses. The sources of irrigation are major, medium (surface irrigation) and minor irrigation schemes including pump sets, tube wells and lift irrigation. 15 Surface irrigation schemes are generally funded from public sector outlays while ground water development is done largely through individual and cooperative efforts with the help of institutional finance mobilized through land development banks, nationalized commercial banks, state cooperative banks with refinance from National Bank for Agriculture and Development (NABARD) and government subsidy in certain cases. 14 All are flowing eastwards from the Western Ghats and Deccan plateau. Cauvery, Palar, Vellar, Vaigai, and Tambaraparani are major rivers. The Cauvery delta has been the rice bowl of the state for over 1500 years since the construction of the Grand Anicut. 15 In 1950-51, irrigation projects were divided into three categories: major projects costing more than Rs. 50 million each; medium projects costing between Rs. 1 million and Rs. 50 million each; and minor works costing less than Rs. 1 million each. In 1978, the Indian government adopted a new classification, depending on cultivable areas that the project commands. Projects that have a cultivable command area of more than 10, 000 ha are considered as major while projects having command area between 2000-10000 ha are considered as medium projects. Minor schemes have a cultivable command area of less than 2000 ha. 104

Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply in Tamil Nadu (2006-07) Details Nos. Length of Government Canals (kms.) 9786 Length of Private Canals (kms.) 11 Total Length of Canals 9797 Number of Tanks having Ayacut 40 ha 7982 Number of Tanks having Ayacut less than 40 ha 33278 Total Number of Tanks 41260 Number of Tube wells used for Irrigation 293097 Number of ordinary wells used for Irrigation 1554039 Total Number of Wells used for Irrigation 1847136 Source: Tamil Nadu - An Economic Appraisal (various issues). Note: ha – hectares, kms – kilometers. a. Water Use in Agriculture Most farmers own either irrigated land or non-irrigated land or both. According to the 55 th round of the NSS, approximately 25 percent of farms used little or no irrigation while in 65 percent of farms 80-100 percent of their lands were irrigated (Table 5.4). These data indicate that programmes that focus on irrigated crops will not directly benefit 25 percent of farm households and programmes that focus on non-irrigated crops will not directly benefit 65 percent of farms in the state. Percent of Cultivated Area Irrigated Table 5.4: Access to Irrigation by Farms Average Share of Irrigated Land per Farm (percent) Distribution of Farm (percent) 0 – 20 0.43 24.80 0.69 20 – 40 30.75 2.27 1.70 40 – 60 51.19 4.09 1.34 60 – 80 67.99 4.15 1.53 80 – 100 99.23 64.69 0.85 Total 71.69 100.00 0.88 Source: Dorosh and Sur (2004). Average Farm Size (hectares) The state has a net irrigated area of 2.889 million hectares (in 2006-07). The State’s irrigation intensity of 118 percent is relatively low as compared to the all-India average irrigation intensity of about 130 percent. About 56 percent of net sown areas are irrigated (Table 5.5). 105

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
Nammakal - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau