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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

Year Table 5.5: Net

Year Table 5.5: Net Sown, Gross Area and Irrigation Intensity in Tamil Nadu (‘000 hectares) Net Area Irrigated (NAI) Gross Area Irrigated (GAI) Net Area Sown (NAS) Gross Cropped Area (GCA) Irrigation Intensity (percent) Cropping Intensity (percent) NAI as Percent of NAS GAI as Percent of GCA 1970-71 2592 3410 6169 7384 131.56 119.7 42.02 46.18 1980-81 2570 3294 5360 6469 128.17 120.69 47.95 50.92 1990-91 2373 2894 5578 6632 121.96 118.90 42.54 43.64 2000-01 2887 3490 5303 6338 120.89 119.52 54.44 55.06 2001-02 2801 3412 5172 6226 121.81 120.38 54.15 54.80 2002-03 2310 2622 4590 5191 113.51 113.10 50.30 50.50 2003-04 2148 2479 4689 5316 115.40 113.40 45.81 46.63 2004-05 2637 3087 5097 5889 117.06 115.54 51.74 52.42 2005-06 2919 3397 5244 6033 116.37 115.05 55.66 56.31 2006-07 2889 3416 5126 5843 118.24 113.98 56.36 58.46 Source: Tamil Nadu - An Economic Appraisal (various issues). Approximately 55 percent of the net irrigated area is irrigated by well water and the remaining by canals, tanks and other sources such as streams and springs. The net irrigated area increased by about 11.5 percent during 1970-71 to 2006-07 mainly due to increase in area irrigated by wells (Table 5.6). Table 5.6: Net Irrigated Area by Source of Irrigation (‘000 hectares) Year Canal Tank Wells Others Total 1970-71 862 902 787 41 2592 1980-81 889 590 1067 24 2570 1990-91 769 531 1059 14 2373 2002-03 614 422 1263 11 2310 2003-04 449 385 1299 15 2148 2004-05 754 465 1400 18 2637 2005-06 800 575 1537 7 2919 2006-07 782 531 1566 9 2889 Source: Tamil Nadu - An Economic Appraisal (various issues). More than 85 large and medium dams have been constructed since independence. As the surface irrigation potential has been virtually exhausted, modernizing/rehabilitating existing systems is crucial to improve the efficiency of surface irrigation in the state. Most of the canals in the state are old and have very poor efficiency as a result of seepage and silting in the canals. In recent years, the state has undertaken some major canal modernization projects with the aide of World Bank 106

funding under the Water Resources Consolidation Project. Appendix Table 5.1 shows the major and medium irrigation projects in Tamil Nadu. Although tank irrigation accounted for about 35 percent of net irrigated area in the state in 1970-71, its share declined steadily over time because of siltation in tank beds and supply channels, encroachments in the tank bund, foreshore and supply channels and damaged sluices, weirs and bunds. Currently, tanks irrigate about 0.6 million hectares of lands. Due to water shortages a large number of tanks are defunct. Groundwater irrigation increased due to rural electrification, the availability of affordable irrigation pump sets and cheap or free electricity for agriculture. The number of wells and the area irrigated by them had increased significantly over the years. During 1981-82 to 2006-07, the number of wells increased from 1.68 million to 1.85 million and the area irrigated by wells increased from 1.7 million hectares to 15.7 million hectares. The problem now facing groundwater irrigation is that the depth of bore wells in hard rock area has increased to as much as 600 feet to 1000 feet. Dug well irrigation is only possible now in canal and tank command areas. Spacing norms have been prescribed based on the guidelines issued by NABARD. Dug wells must be at least 150 meters apart, and deep tube wells must be at least 600 meters apart (Dorosh and Sur, 2004). Agriculture faces increasing competition for water from industry and domestic users. According to Eleventh Plan prepared by the State Planning Commission (2007), about 93 percent of present use of water is for agriculture (Table 5.7). But the demand for water is continuously on the rise with the growth of population, industry and agriculture while the availability of water remains almost constant. The total surface water potential (excluding Cauvery) is 13,117 million cubic meters (MCM) while the groundwater potential is 15,346 MCM. 16 Table 5.7: Water Demand in Tamil Nadu Details TMC Drinking (domestic) 51.4 (2.71%) Irrigation 1766 .0 (93.2 %) Industry, Hydro power, Live stock 77.4 (4.08 %) Total Demand 1894.8 (100 %) Water Resource 1587.0 Deficit 307.8 Source: Government of Tamil Nadu (2007), Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012, State Planning Commission. 16 Data for the Cauvery basin are not available due to the inter-state dispute. 107

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau