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A specific unit was

A specific unit was established in PWD to study the environmental aspects of water resources. The Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Programmes are proposed to commence during 2009-10 funded by Government of India with World Bank assistance in order to strengthen and maintain the dams in view of ageing and maintenance requirements. The state has also approached the centre to provide funds for the interlinking of rivers within the state under the Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme. Initiatives have been made initially to link the rivers to primarily serve as flood carriers and a measure of flood mitigation and to prevent water wastage and for the flood flows to reach the drought prone areas of the state. So far three links have been explored by the state: (i) Cauvery – Agniar - South Vellar – Manimuthar – Vagai - Gundar, (ii) Tambiraparani – Karumeriar - Nambiar, and (iii) Pennaiyar - Cheyyar. 19 f. Resource Requirement for Safe Drinking Water In a recent study by Sen et. al (2008), estimated, using information from Census 2001, the resource requirements for providing access to safe drinking water to all households in Tamil Nadu. For rural areas, households that got water from a tap, hand pump or tube well located within a premise or nearby were considered, as having access to safe drinking water. As per information from the Department of Drinking Water Supply, Government of India, per capita cost of covering rural population with safe drinking water was taken at Rs. 1200 per capita for providing piped water supply. At this rate, for the rural areas, Sen et. al estimate the requirement of capital investment at about Rs. 993 crore. For urban areas, information from Census 2001 on the coverage of population by safe drinking water was combined with per capita cost of water supply schemes in urban areas provided by the Planning Commission, Government of India, 1983 (updated to 2003-04 prices, amounting to Rs. 1780 per capita). On this basis, the resources required for providing water supply to the entire population in urban areas was estimated to be Rs. 939 crore. Together, the total requirement of resources for providing water supply to the entire population was estimated to be about Rs. 1932 crore. These resources can only ensure coverage and not adequate supply of water in the state. As per the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board, on average, only 19 Policy Note for the year 2008-09, PWD, Irrigation. 112

about 30 litre per capita per day (lpcd) of water is supplied in the rural areas as compared to the norm of 40 lpcd that needs to be supplied. In the urban areas also, the average quantity of water supplied in the urban areas of the state is about 70 lpcd is less than the norm of 110 lpcd for corporations. In the city of Chennai where the quantity of water that needs to be supplied as per the national norm is about 135 lpcd, only about 90 lpcd is supplied. Resources required for supplying water as per norm would be considerably higher than estimated here. 5.3 Land: Key Issues Current land distribution and use in much of Tamil Nadu reflect centuries old patterns of settlement and cultivation. In pre-colonial society, river valley villages where agriculture centered on rice were divided in to (i) the land owning Brahman and Vellala (nobles), and (ii) the outcaste laborers (usually Pallan or Paraiyan). The economy of the drier plains with generally poor soils outside the valleys was based on livestock hunting, cultivation of millet and non-agricultural activities (Dorosh and Sur, 2004). Net sown area and fallow lands add up to total land available with farmers. It was 76.08 lakh hectares in 1980-81 and it declined to about 67 lakh hectares in 1999-00 and to about 62 lakh hectares in 2005-06. Due to the policies of land ceiling and the land to tiller, very large farms disappeared and the distribution of land holdings (in Table 5.12) shows the dominance of marginal and small farmers. The average farm size in 1970-71 was only 1.45 hectares (with more than 50 percent of farms having less than 1 ha.). It further declined to 0.89 ha in 2000-01. Table 5.12: Land Distribution in Tamil Nadu Land Holding Size (hectares) 1970- 71 1976- 77 1985- 86 1995- 96 2000- 01 Less than 1 0.42 0.41 0.37 0.38 0.37 1.0 – 2.0 1.42 1.41 1.41 1.40 1.39 2.0 – 4.0 2.75 2.75 2.74 2.73 2.72 4.0 – 10.0 5.83 5.77 5.78 5.60 5.68 Above 10 16.94 17.28 18.78 21.68 19.48 All Sizes: Total 1.45 1.25 1.01 0.95 0.89 Source: Government of Tamil Nadu (2007), Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012, State Planning Commission. About 97 percent of land holdings are smaller than 4 hectares each. The small holding size sets the limit for investment in farm assets and modern inputs that are 113

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
Nammakal - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau