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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

Table 5.20 also shows

Table 5.20 also shows that Tamil Nadu ranks first in terms of productivity of groundnut and second in the productivity of sugarcane. However, it compares poorly with many states and all India in cotton productivity. This could be one of the reasons why area under this crop declined over the years. Evidence indicates considerable yield gap between on-farm trials and actual farm practices. Table 5.21 shows that the yield gap is substantially high in almost all important crops. Table 5.21: Yield Gap: Major Crops (Kg/ha) Crop Yield Gap Paddy 725 Cholam 2992 Ragi 2223 Red gram 833 Black gram 881 Groundnut 369 Sugarcane 37000 Cotton 304 Source: Government of Tamil Nadu (2007), Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012, State Planning Commission. c. Irrigated Crop Area Area under crops irrigated and percentage of it to the sown area are shown in Tables 5.22 and 5.23. Table 5.22: Crop-wise Area Irrigated (in ‘000 hectare) Crop 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Paddy 1937 1921 1375 1262 1732 1906 1796 Jowar 40 32 27 20 30 30 19 Bajra 16 15 10 7 7 7 5 Other Cereals 73 65 63 69 73 74 80 Total: Cereals 2066 2033 1475 1358 1842 2017 1900 Pulses 60 51 37 42 32 29 22 Sugarcane 315 321 261 192 222 335 391 Other food crops 317 317 257 265 297 331 342 Total Food Crops 2792 2751 2055 1887 2419 2732 2679 Groundnut 241 218 157 172 198 190 157 Cotton 65 59 26 44 58 44 38 Others 392 385 384 375 412 430 435 Total: Non-food 698 662 567 591 668 664 630 Total Area Irrigated 3490 3413 2622 2479 3087 3397 3309 Source: Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal (2005-06). 122

Only rice and sugarcane received irrigation in more than 90 percent of area sown. These are wet land crops raised with assured irrigation. These crops registered high yields, indicating that irrigation is a decisive factor for the adoption of fertilizer based technology. Pulses, cotton and groundnut dry land crops are receiving irrigation only in less than 30 percent of their areas. Table 5.23: Percentage of Area Irrigated under Crops (Percent) Crops 2000- 01 2001- 02 2002- 03 2003- 04 2004- 05 2005- 06 2006- 07 Paddy 93.13 93.25 90.64 90.34 92.47 92.98 93.01 Pulses 8.72 7.45 6.57 7.82 5.42 5.52 4.10 Sugarcane 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Total Food Crops 61.55 61.23 55.54 50.75 55.57 61.12 61.81 Cotton 38.24 35.98 34.21 44.90 44.96 40.00 38.00 Groundnut 34.48 32.88 31.27 29.05 32.14 30.69 30.91 Total: Non-food 30.32 38.20 38.03 36.98 43.49 42.48 41.75 Gross Cropped area 51.04 54.82 50.51 46.63 52.42 56.31 56.63 Source (Basic Data): Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal 2005-06. d. Fertilizer Consumption in Tamil Nadu Tables 5.24 and 5.25 provide a comparison of consumption of fertiliser in per hectare terms in Tamil Nadu over time and in comparison to other major states. Looking at the figures for 2005-06, it is clear that per hectare consumption of fertilisers is relatively high in Tamil Nadu as compared to other states. Only Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab show higher consumption in per hectare terms. Comparison over time indicates that per hectare consumption of fertilisers in Tamil Nadu has varied considerably from year to year. During the period 1998-99 to 2006-07, it has varied in the range of 118 kg per hectare to 187 kg per hectare. Table 5.24: Fertilizer Consumption in Tamil Nadu Years 1998- 99 1999- 00 2000- 01 2001- 02 2002- 03 2003- 04 2004- 05 2005- 06 2006- 07 Consumption 9.50 10.52 9.63 9.38 7.43 7.03 11.39 10.99 11.25 (Lakh Tonnes) Per hectare Consumption (Kilograms) 145 160 145 148 118 115 159 184 187 Source: Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal 2006-07. 123

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