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Table 5.25: Estimated

Table 5.25: Estimated Per Hectare Consumption of Fertilizers in Major States States 2003- 04 2004- 05 2005- 06 States 2003- 04 2004- 05 2005- 06 Andhra Pradesh 145.26 158.57 203.61 Haryana 161.74 155.10 166.72 Karnataka 78.82 99.51 117.34 Punjab 190.13 194.56 210.06 Kerala 64.20 56.74 57.00 Uttar Pradesh 126.69 134.13 140.37 Tamil Nadu 114.54 159.07 183.67 Uttaranchal 104.75 88.93 94.24 Gujarat 94.68 99.49 111.07 Bihar 88.02 99.78 125.32 Madhya Pradesh 51.64 53.42 47.13 Jharkhand 54.46 62.10 67.61 Chhattisgarh 44.23 65.19 67.36 Orissa 37.07 51.59 57.33 Maharashtra 64.27 74.68 84.52 West Bengal 114.14 129.73 127.50 Rajasthan 37.44 31.33 36.29 Assam 47.54 41.25 49.26 Source: Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal 2005-06. 5.5 Summary Water, land and agriculture have strong linkages with poverty reduction. Most poor particularly in the rural areas, rely heavily on natural resources-land, and water and agriculture for their livelihood. Therefore, meeting MDGs will depend in large part as to how the State manages its scare water resources and how it develops effective water governance and improved water supply services. Policies relating to land redistribution and transfers will also play a crucial role. The key issues and challenges relating to water, land and agriculture may be highlighted as follows: i. Tamil Nadu is a water scare state with per capita water availability of 900 cubic meter (cm) as against the all India average of 2200 cm. The total water resource of the state is 42.23 billion cm (surface water 24.1 bcm and groundwater 23.1 bcm) and the total water demand already exceeds the availability and the deficiency is 307.8 thousand million cubic feet. Agriculture is the largest user (above 90 percent) of water. ii. Most of the water canals are old and have poor efficiency due to seepage, silting in the canals, and poor maintenance. Roughly 2 percent of revenue expenditure of the State is spent on irrigation and only 10 percent of it is spent on maintenance works. The maintenance expenditure is below the norm recommend by the Ministry of Water Resources leading to rapid deterioration of surface irrigation. iii. The share of tank irrigation has declined due to siltation and encroachments in tank beds, damaged sluices, weirs and bunds. Further, the rate of extraction of groundwater exceeds recharge rate in many parts of the state. 124

iv. There are severe water quality problems in several basins due to industrial pollution and agricultural waste (fertilizer and pesticides). In recent years, the State has passed the Ground water Regulation and Management Act and also enacted an important legislation to require rainwater harvesting system in all buildings to recharge the groundwater and arresting sea water intrusion. v. Nearly 66 percent of rural habitants are fully covered by rural water supply. Of 718 urban towns, only in 19 municipal towns the water supply is poor (less than 50 litre per capita per day) and in 10 towns it is poor (less than 40 litre per capita per day). It is estimated that a capital investment of Rs. 1932 crore is required to provide access to safe drinking water to all households in the state. vi. Current land distribution and use in Tamil Nadu reflects centuries old policies of settlement and cultivation. Due to land ceiling policy and land to tiller, very large farms disappeared and the average farm size is 0.89 hectare. About 97 percent holdings are smaller than 4 hectates each. The small holding size sets the limit for investment in farm assets/modern inputs. vii. Of the total land area of 13 million hectares, forest accounts for 16 percent (as against the environmentally desirable norm of 33 percent). Area under current fallow and other fallow is increasing. About 13 percent of area is designated as wasteland. Reclamation of cultivable waste/fallow land will be essential to increase the area under cultivation. viii. Paddy is still the dominant crop accounting for 32 percent of gross cropped area. Sugarcane and groundnut are important commercial crops. Horticulture is raised in 16 percent of gross area. Although the State compares well in term of productivity of many crops with other major states, the productivity of many of these has declined over time. Evidences indicate the presence of yield gap in many major crops. ix. Agriculture is still a dominant private sector providing livelihood for more than 50 percent of people. About 3 million are landless agriculture labourers. The labour productivity in this sector is about 5 times as low as that in tertiary sector. The Government implements a scheme of distributing two acres of Wasteland to Landless Poor Agricultural Laborers. 125

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau