3 weeks ago


fixed at 700 calories

fixed at 700 calories and 20 grams of protein. Adequate quantities of micro-nutrients like iron, folic acid and vitamin-A are also recommended under the programme. To meet the nutritional norm, the Central Government provides foodgrain at 100 grams per primary school child/school day and 150 grams per upper primary school child/school day. In 2007-08, Central Government also approved the inclusion of Inflation Adjusted Index (Consumer Price Index) for calculation of Central assistance towards cooking cost once in every two years. This will be applicable from 2008-09 for primary and upper primary stages. The midday meal feeding program in schools has expanded rapidly in the past decade. Tamil Nadu was the first state to launch such a scheme. A major expansion came after 1995. It was strengthened further in 2001. While cooked mid-day meals were mandated from 1995 (with two years given to put the system in place), they remained the responsibility of states until 2001. In 2001, following a Supreme Court order, states were mandated to provide the meal with minimum calorific content in all government and aided primary schools. The scheme receives budgetary support from the central government as a CSS. The central government bears the cost of the grain and its transportation. States are responsible for implementation, cooking infrastructure, and provision of cooks. a2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is being implemented in partnership with States to address the needs of children in age group of 6-14 years. The overall objective of SSA is to support the resource needs of the states in ensuring universal access, enrolment and retention, and improving the quality of elementary education. India-wide, the achievements under SSA up to September 30, 2007, include construction of 170320 school buildings, construction of 713179 additional classrooms, 172381 drinking water facilities, construction of 218075 toilets, supply of free textbooks to 6.64 crore children and appointment of 8.10 lakh teachers besides opening of 186985 (till 31.3.07) new schools. About 35 lakh teachers receive in-service training each year. SSA is implemented by the state education department machinery to execute the district-level plans. The resources allocated under the SSA programme are additionality to the budgetary expenditure on elementary education by the state government. The funds for the SSA programme are channeled through the District Implementation Societies, under a 75:25 central and state sharing arrangement. Apart from the state's contribution, the rest of the SSA funds are not captured in the state budget. 136

Tamil Nadu is close to achieving universal elementary education in terms of both enrolment and completion. It has to focus on putting all out-of-school children into formal education and reduce the dropout rate in primary and upper primary education. Construction and upgrading of existing school facilities in terms of classrooms, drinking water, and toilets are needed to provide adequate infrastructural support. This would also require appointment of teachers as per norms. There is a wide variation in the number of dropout children as well as in completion rates in elementary education across districts. For better targeting, the SSA outlay for backward districts should be enhanced and indexed to the index of deficiency. As the major civil works (a component of SSA - additional classrooms, school facilities, BRCs, CRCs) are completed, additional expenditure should focus on the relatively more deficient districts. Additional expenditure for universalisation may be calculated keeping in mind the deficiencies. In terms of allocative efficiency of funds aimed at education, at least those coming from the state budget should be allocated to the districts to ensure that the share of expenditure going to educationally less developed districts bears a high correlation with their needs. The difference in completion rate, for example, between the highest achieving districts (Dindigul) to the lowest (Nagapattinam) is nearly 35 percent. Although the magnitudes might be different, similar variation is seen in dropout and attendance rates as well. a3. Access to Secondary Education According to the child census of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), there were 831532 children out of school in Tamil Nadu as of January, 2003. By 2006-07, this figure had come down to just over one lakh. This means a net addition of nearly three-quarters of a million children into elementary education stream over the last three years. While SSA commitment is to provide opportunities for elementary education until the age of 14, there has to be a long-term strategy to absorb the students completing elementary education into secondary and later higher education. Sen et. al (2008) note that the ratio of enrolment in secondary to elementary education is only about 0.27 in Tamil Nadu, which means that the secondary level at the current capacity can only cater to about 27 percent of the current primary level enrolment. Assuming there is no excess capacity in secondary schools, universal elementary completion and secondary transition rate, Sen et. al. show that in Tamil Nadu, an extra 2.3 million students will be in the secondary cohort (IX - XII) in 2009 -10. The current capacity can cater only to half of the age 7 to 11 cohort, which was in 137

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau