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It is suggested that

It is suggested that geographic targeting, leading to identification of districts, blocks/urban agglomerations, villages/zones/slums, and finally households/individuals would be the most effective strategy of targeting. Allocation of funds should take into account the share of targeted beneficiary population in the concerned unit and the extent of relative deficiency. Allocations should be with reference to specific goals relating to income deficiency, health, education and gender, rather than on the basis of aggregate and weighted indices. For improving implementation and allocation efficiency, extensive use of information and communication technologies should be made. 7.2 Poverty Reduction: Main Challenges in Tamil Nadu In developing a suitable strategy of poverty reduction in the context of achieving the MDGs, some of the main challenges and considerations for Tamil Nadu may be summarised as below. First, Poverty reduction has to aim at a sustained increase in incomes. Otherwise, as elsewhere in India, even with a successful implementation of a number of poverty alleviation programmes, there will only be a bunching of people just above the official poverty line. These people will remain vulnerable to a variety of exogenous shocks. Further, poverty reduction has to be strategised in a multidimensional framework covering education, health, access to public services and safe drinking water. Therefore, fiscal reforms will have to play a key role. Secondly, in Tamil Nadu, poverty is becoming progressively urbanized. A clearcut strategy for reducing urban poverty needs to be in place. There are some significant differences in rural and urban poverty. The rural poverty reduction programmes cannot be fully replicated in the urban areas. Different strategies need to be developed for the poor living in the slum and non-slum areas. Apart from income poverty, education of the children, health and hygiene, and safe drinking water are more significant problems for the urban poor. Migration of the rural poor to urban areas is likely to continue unabated as the share of agriculture is expected to progressively fall while the share of the nonagricultural sectors, particularly the services sector, will progressively increase. New job opportunities in the services sectors can be availed of only if the population is suitably trained and educated. The overall demographic structure is also changing such that the share of working age population will be increasing in the medium term and the share of older people will increase in the longer run. These changes require massive investment in education first and health in the longer run. 166

There are considerable inter-district and intra-district differences in the poverty profile as well as education, health, and gender related deficiencies and the relative positions of districts are quite different in terms of different indicators. As such, considerable efficiency gains will occur by increasing the correlation of inter-district allocation of resources being spent by the Government under various programmes with indicators of inter-district deficiency for different services having a bearing on the MDGs. A proper district wise targeting and realignment of various programmes will considerably increase the impact of these programmes. The same strategy can be followed for intradistrict allocations. 7.3 Tamil Nadu Poverty Reduction Strategy: A Suggested Framework With these considerations in mind, a MDGs-based poverty reduction strategy can be spelt out consisting of six steps abbreviated as MASTER. This is detailed below. a. Macro Drivers: Managing macro drivers, particularly growth, and improving its ‘inclusiveness’ by increasing the connectivity of the poor to the growth processes. b. Augmenting Fiscal Space to increase primary expenditures relative to GSDP. c. Structuring government expenditure towards MDGs (increasing the share of expenditure on public goods like law and security and merit goods like health and education, and capital outlay for infrastructure and away from excessively subsidized private goods). d. Targeting of programmes towards specific areas and sections of poor; a fourtier targeting strategy with additional focus on urban areas will be effective in Tamil Nadu. e. Efficiency enhancement by exploring scope for design, allocation, and implementation efficiencies. f. Reforming Poverty Reduction Programmes: reforming state schemes and taking maximum advantage of central and centrally sponsored schemes and developing specialized programmes for the urban poor. These components are further discussed below in the context of state level rural poverty reduction strategy, district level poverty reduction strategy for rural areas, and state and district level urban poverty reduction strategy. 7.4 State Level Poverty Reduction Strategy First we consider the state level poverty reduction strategy (SPRS) especially focusing on the rural areas (SPRS-R). It may be noted that rural and urban poverty are linked because of the dynamics of structural changes in the economy and pattern of migration. 167

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau