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deficiencies. State

deficiencies. State governments have however more control on their own schemes. f. Reforming Poverty Reduction Programmes Reforming programmes includes introduction of new programmes also. This is the last step in the suggested poverty reduction strategy. For Tamil Nadu, the best strategy is use to the maximum extent possible, funds flowing from the central and centrally sponsored schemes, and improve allocation and implementation efficiency to the extent it is under the control of the state government. This flexibility increases if funds under the centrally sponsored schemes are transferred to or administered through the state budgets in all cases. In addition, critical gaps should be filled up by state’s own schemes. Here, two additional programmes are suggested relating to an income-transfer scheme for the extremely poor in rural areas and an asset-provision scheme for all poor in rural areas. (i) Direct Cash Transfer Schemes Many economists argue that it is more efficient to introduce direct cash transfers to poor. Such schemes have been introduced in Mexico and Brazil. These schemes can be made conditional on the families satisfying certain criteria like children going to school or receiving basic immunization vaccinations. There are mixed views about the role of conditionalties in direct cash transfer schemes as they require follow-ups and monitoring, and as such additional administrative costs. One argument against cash transfer has been that they induce dependence. However, income supplements are very effective in the case of the extremely poor. These schemes can be implemented for the poorest and the most disadvantaged sections of the society. It is suggested here that for the extremely poor, direct cash transfer in the form of ‘social income’ may be administered to the first two deciles of the BPL population in the rural areas. It is important that the extremely poor have some minimum income to start with because of the need for meeting access cost and overcoming participation barriers to avail the benefit of other services provided by the government for health and education As noted in Table 6.4, the extent of leakage is nil up to the first two deciles of the BPL population. As a second check, the identified beneficiary may be endorsed by the village Panchayat. The amount of income may be determined by the number of male members including children multiplied by half the state-specific price adjusted poverty line (per person per month) and number of female members multiplied by the full amount of this poverty line (this is illustrative only). The money should be transferred on- 172

line to post-office saving banks or rural banks or as a last resort through money orders direct to the household head. (ii) Scheme for Providing Income Generating Assets One income generating asset capable of producing income in the dwelling itself may be provided to any BPL family that asks for it. Such as asset can be operated by any member of the family in spare time and can provide valuable supplementary income for the family. Such an asset should require minimum maintenance. Recently in Rajasthan a scheme of providing electricity generating charkha (e-charkha) has been introduced successfully. The e-charkha is an improvised version of Ambar Charkha designed by Ekambarnath who hailed from Tamil Nadu. The e-charkha is used for making yarn as well as for lighting a bulb or producing moderate amount of electricity. The charkha has equipment to store electricity in its attachment to light up a room for 8 hours. Using the charkha Rs. 30- 45 can be earned by spinning the yarn. The e-charkha costs only Rs. 8500 and the attachment for producing electricity cost Rs. 1500. A good part of these can be subsidised by the state government. 7.5 District Level Poverty Reduction Strategy The district level poverty reduction strategy (DPRS) for rural areas needs to follow the same framework as the state level PRS and it needs to be dovetailed to the national and state level initiatives. At the district level both rural and urban PRS need to be formulated. Here, we focus on rural-DPRS a. Managing Macro Drivers District with high income deficiency are generally dependent on agricultural activities. Some basic industrial and service sector activity is needed to generate employment and multiplier effects. Location of an SEZ/Export oriented zone or attracting industry with special tax concessions will initiate the necessary stimulus. Availability of good road connectivity and power are also important ingredients. In these respects, state interventions are critical. District authorities need to involve private companies, NGOs, and local schools in ‘bottom of the pyramid’ initiatives suitable for their respective areas in production well as marketing activities. Such activities may relate to marketing of agricultural outputs and milk and fisheries products (e.g. ‘e-choupal’,) as well as chemical products that can be made in small to medium enterprises. 173

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau