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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

fundamental goals,

fundamental goals, divided into 18 specific targets, designed to serve as a blueprint and plan of action. Achievement of the MDGs will end extreme poverty worldwide by 2015. The World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa in September 2002 endorsed the MDGs as a basic pillar of the global sustainable development agenda. Table 1.1: Millennium Development Goals: Goals One to Six Goals and Targets Indicators Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1: Halve the proportion of 1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day people whose income is less than 1 2. Poverty Gap Ratio (=incidence x depth of poverty) dollar a day 3. Share of poorest quintile in National income or consumption Target 2: Halve the proportion of 4. Prevalence of underweight children (under 5 years of age) people who suffer from hunger 5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 3: Ensure that all boys and girls will complete a full course of primary schooling Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels by 2015 Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health Target 6: reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the mortality ratio 6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education 7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 8. Literacy rate of 15-24 years old 9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education 10. Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24 year olds 11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 13. Under-five mortality rate Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases Target 7: Have halted by 2015, and begun to reverse, the spread of HIV/ AIDS Target 8: Have halted by 2015, and begun to reverse, the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 14. Infant mortality rate 15. Proportion of 1 year old children immunized against measles 16. Maternal mortality ratio 17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel 18. HIV prevalence among 15-24 year old pregnant women 19. Contraceptive prevalence rate 20. Number of children orphaned by HIV/ AIDS 21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria 22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using affective malaria prevention and treatment measures 23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis 24. Proportion of TB cases detected and cured under DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course) Source: United Nations Development Programme. 2

The first three goals relate to eradication of poverty and hunger, education, and gender equality. Goals four to six relate to health focusing on reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating HIV Aids, Malaria and other diseases. These goals are then converted into eight targets for which alternative indicators have been proposed. Goals seven and eight relate to environmental sustainability and partnership for global development. These are converted into ten additional targets. The first six goals and related targets alongwith their relevant indicators are summarized in Table 1.1. The complete set of the MDGs are given in Appendix Table 1.1. In this study, the focus will be on poverty reduction in a multidimensional perspective covering health, gender, and education issues for which the first eight targets are relevant. In the context of analysis of water, land, and soil in Tamil Nadu, we will discuss some critical issues relating to environmental sustainability. Subject to data constraints, we will examine the progress in the respect of the suggested indicators. 1.3 Poverty in Tamil Nadu Poverty as a multidimensional concept refers to lack of access to the basic needs of food, shelter, security, education, health services, safe drinking water, sanitation for a decent, normal and effective existence. Conventional measures of poverty, however, are narrowly defined making reference to a poverty line based on income thresholds consistent with a certain level of consumption of food. Given the poverty line, various indicators are used to measure the incidence of poverty such as head count or poverty ratio, poverty gap index, squared poverty gap, Sen index, Kakwani index, Takayama index, Foster, Greer, and Thorbecke (FGT) index. The head count ratio, giving the number of poor as percent of the total population is the most frequently used summary measure of poverty. The ‘poverty-gap ratio’, indicates the average depth of poverty, incorporating not only the number of poor as proportion of the total population but also the difference between the poverty line and the mean income of the poor on average. Other measures of poverty take into account distributional considerations within the population of poor with alternative weighting schemes. Annexure 1.1 provides axiomatic framework relating to definitions of poverty measures and Annexure 1.2 summarizes a list of selected measures of poverty mathematically. These measures of poverty are absolute measures of poverty. In addition, several relative and ‘hybrid’ measures of poverty have also been proposed. a. Poverty Line In measuring the incidence of poverty, estimating a poverty line is critical. A person is defined as poor if his/her average income/consumption is less than a pre determined 3

  • Page 1: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 MDGs-BASED POVERTY
  • Page 5 and 6: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 March 2010 Price:
  • Page 7 and 8: CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents
  • Page 9 and 10: List of Tables Table 1.1 Millennium
  • Page 11 and 12: Table 5.10 Status of Urban Water Su
  • Page 13 and 14: Appendix 1.12 Maternal Mortality an
  • Page 15 and 16: MDGs-Based Poverty Reduction: Main
  • Page 17 and 18: . In terms of share of below povert
  • Page 19 and 20: of expenditure on public goods like
  • Page 21 and 22: households or individuals. For each
  • Page 23: Chapter 1 ISSUES AND INITIAL CONDIT
  • Page 27 and 28: . Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Inter-stat
  • Page 29 and 30: and the urban poverty ratio was sli
  • Page 31 and 32: the total poor accounted for a prog
  • Page 33 and 34: physical development of people. Mor
  • Page 35 and 36: Table 1.11: Millennium Development
  • Page 37 and 38: indicates that Tamil Nadu will achi
  • Page 39 and 40: However, there is a scope for meeti
  • Page 41 and 42: status of malnutrition. The accepte
  • Page 43 and 44: The under-five mortality rate-U5MR
  • Page 45 and 46: (iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Di
  • Page 47 and 48: 3. While Tami Nadu has done compara
  • Page 49 and 50: Chapter 2 REDUCING POVERTY: THE MAC
  • Page 51 and 52: est of the economy indicates the ex
  • Page 53 and 54: share of the tertiary sector in Tam
  • Page 55 and 56: Chart 2.1: Sectoral Growth in Tamil
  • Page 57 and 58: policies are in place to absorb lar
  • Page 59 and 60: In the context of interface between
  • Page 61 and 62: Table 2.7: Decomposition of the Hea
  • Page 63 and 64: Dutt are not so relevant for predic
  • Page 65 and 66: The SDE estimates vary across the s
  • Page 67 and 68: Chart 2.3 highlights that agricultu
  • Page 69 and 70: 2.6 Summary In summary the followin
  • Page 71 and 72: Chapter 3 FISCAL REFORMS FOR POVERT
  • Page 73 and 74: Bardhan (1996) emphasizes that ofte
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    atio of government employees to pop

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    Table 3.2: Tamil Nadu in Inter-stat

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    Chart 3.4: Own Tax Revenues Relativ

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    collected by state-owned enterprise

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    Chart 3.5: Capital Outlay as percen

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    The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statemen

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    f. Pension and Salary Expenditures

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    10 it is kept at 40 percent to acco

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    Government of Tamil Nadu has to sub

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    Chapter 4 COPING WITH SPATIAL IMBAL

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    In order to focus on the deficient

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    Chart 4.2 indicates the arrangement

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    Chart 4.5: Human Development Index:

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    Table 4.4: Index of Gender Deficien

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    Districts Table 4.7: Health Facilit

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    Regarding access costs in availing

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    4.6 Incidence of Poverty: District

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    district followed by Villupuram and

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    household willing to do public work

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    Districts Table 4.13: Implementatio

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    Table 4.14: Share of BPL Population

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    Table 4.16: Block -wise Gross Acces

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    Table 4.18: Block-wise IMR in Thiru

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    8. For provision of safe drinking w

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    Chapter 5 WATER, LAND AND AGRICULTU

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    5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu

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    Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply

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    funding under the Water Resources C

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    In 2006-7, 65.83 percent of habitat

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    the major cause for poor maintenanc

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    about 30 litre per capita per day (

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    2006-07). However, total area under

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    nearly 3.5 times as high as the pri

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    5.4 Agriculture: Key Issues Agricul

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    Table 5.19: Productivity (Yield) of

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    Only rice and sugarcane received ir

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    iv. There are severe water quality

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    Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIE

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    targeting as a device to improve ef

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    eneficiaries and of delivering prog

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    In the nighbourhood of the poverty

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    inefficiencies. Some of the major c

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    Tamil Nadu is close to achieving un

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    programmes. It is the only Self Emp

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    districts in Tamil Nadu. Namadhu Gr

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    6.5 Reaching Households and Individ

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    proposition more insurable, a group

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    each the urban poor who live in slu

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    Eleventh Plan (2007) observes: “O

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    i. provide financial assistance for

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    unemployed or underemployed poor by

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    Services Prepare detailed water sup

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    Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND FORMULATION O

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    positive and relatively high. The b

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    3. In terms of composition of BPL p

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    holdings are smaller than 4 hectare

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    There are considerable inter-distri

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    Table 7.1: Adjustment during 2007-0

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    R i =(I a +I max -I i )/(I a +I max

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    d. Targeting As far as rural areas

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    7.6 Urban Poverty Reduction Strateg

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    Fund, GoTN has created Tamil Nadu I

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    Some initiative by Government of Ta

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    • Addressing urban poverty allevi

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    land. There is need to develop a sc

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    REFERENCES Agarwal, S.P. (2005),

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    Deaton, Angus and Alessandro Tarozz

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    Himmelfarb, G. (1984), The Idea of

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    Report of the Working Group on Urba

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    APPENDIX TABLES Appendix Table 1.1:

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    Appendix Table 1.1 (contd.): Millen

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    Appendix Table 1.2 (a): Poverty Lin

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    Appendix Table 1.3: Poverty Gap Est

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    Appendix Table 1.5: Head Count Rati

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    Appendix Table 1.6 (contd.): Progre

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    Appendix Table 1.8: Women’s Malnu

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    Appendix Table 1.10: Child Mortalit

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    Appendix Table 1.11 (contd.): State

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    Appendix Table1.12 (contd.): Matern

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    Appendix Table 2.3: Decomposition o

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    and Publicity Relief from Natural C

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    Appendix Table 4.3: Demography Rela

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    Appendix Table 4.5: Health Faciliti

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    Sl. No Appendix Table 4.7: Efficien

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    Appendix Table 4.9: Employment unde

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    Appendix Table 5.1: Major and Mediu

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    Appendix Table 7.1: Indices for Dis

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    ANNEXURES 231

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    Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom Mono

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    component of the poverty line is th

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    Fuchs (1969), while advocating the

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    H = m/n (2) The head count ratio ig

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    Annexure 1.3 UNIFORM RECALL PERIOD

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    ‣ Periyar became Erode; ‣ Tirun

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    Women Receiving 3 Or More ANC Visit

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    In Sivagangai, as per 2001 census,

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    Table 4.3: Block wise Gender Wise G

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    Block Table 4.6: Trained Teachers a

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    Annexure 5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUE

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    Annexure 6.1 NOTES ON SELECTED CENT

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    10. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay

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    MSE Working Papers Recent Issues *

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