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# POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

## Annexure 1.1

Annexure 1.1 POVERTY MEASURES: AXIOMATIC FRAMEWORK: DEFINITIONS Focus Axiom Focus Axiom: P (x; z) – P (y; z) whenever x ε D is obtained from у ε D by an increment to a nonpoor person. Replication Invariance Axiom Replication Invariance Axiom: P (x; z) = P (y; z) whenever x is obtained from y by a (k-) replication. Continuity and Restricted Continuity Axioms Continuity Axiom: P (x; z) is continuous as a function of x on D for any given z. Restricted Continuity Axiom: P (x; z) is left continuous as a function of x i on D (z). This can also be phrased as requiring P (x; z) to be continuous in x,; in the neighborhood of x. Symmetry Axiom Symmetry Axiom: P (x; z) = P (y; z) whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a permutation. Weak and Strong Monotonicity Axiom Weak Monotonicity Axiom: P (x; z) > P (y; z) whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a simple decrement to a poor person. Strong Monotonicity Axiom: P (x; z) < P (y; z) whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a simple increment to a poor person. Minimal and Weak Transfer Axioms Minimal Transfer Axiom: P (x; z) < P (y; z) [P (x; z) > P (y; z)] whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a progressive (regressive) transfer between two poor persons with no one crossing the poverty line as a consequence of the transfer. Weak Transfer Axiom: P (x; z) < P (y; z) [P (x; z) > P (y; z)] whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a progressive (regressive) transfer with at least the recipient (donor) being poor with no one crossing the poverty line as a consequence of the transfer. Regressive and Progressive Transfer Axioms Regressive Transfer Axiom: P (x; z) > P (y; z) whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a regressive transfer with at least the donor being poor. Progressive Transfer Axiom: P (x; z) < P (y; z) whenever x ε D is obtained from y ε D by a progressive transfer with at least the recipient being poor. 232

Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom: P (x∪; z) – P (x; z) > P (x∪; z) – P (x; z) whenever x and x ε D are obtained from y ε D by the same amount of decrement to poor incomes y i and y j , respectively, where y i < y j . Transfer Sensitivity Axiom Transfer Sensitivity Axiom: P (x; z) < P (y; z) whenever y ε D is obtained from y ε D by a favourable composite transfer (FACT): a progressive transfer of income δ (> 0) from y 1 , i.e., x = y + δ (e i - e j ) + ρ (e 1 - r k ) with σ 2 (y; z), = σ 2 (y; z) y i < y j ≤ y k ≤ y 1 z, and x i ≤ x j ≤ x k < k 1 < z. 233

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MONOGRAPH 6/2010 MDGs-BASED POVERTY

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MONOGRAPH 6/2010 March 2010 Price:

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CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents

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List of Tables Table 1.1 Millennium

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Table 5.10 Status of Urban Water Su

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Appendix 1.12 Maternal Mortality an

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MDGs-Based Poverty Reduction: Main

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. In terms of share of below povert

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of expenditure on public goods like

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households or individuals. For each

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Chapter 1 ISSUES AND INITIAL CONDIT

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The first three goals relate to era

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. Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Inter-stat

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and the urban poverty ratio was sli

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the total poor accounted for a prog

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physical development of people. Mor

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Table 1.11: Millennium Development

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indicates that Tamil Nadu will achi

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However, there is a scope for meeti

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status of malnutrition. The accepte

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The under-five mortality rate-U5MR

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(iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Di

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3. While Tami Nadu has done compara

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Chapter 2 REDUCING POVERTY: THE MAC

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est of the economy indicates the ex

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share of the tertiary sector in Tam

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Chart 2.1: Sectoral Growth in Tamil

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policies are in place to absorb lar

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In the context of interface between

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Table 2.7: Decomposition of the Hea

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Dutt are not so relevant for predic

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The SDE estimates vary across the s

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Chart 2.3 highlights that agricultu

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2.6 Summary In summary the followin

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Chapter 3 FISCAL REFORMS FOR POVERT

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Bardhan (1996) emphasizes that ofte

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atio of government employees to pop

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Table 3.2: Tamil Nadu in Inter-stat

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Chart 3.4: Own Tax Revenues Relativ

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collected by state-owned enterprise

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Chart 3.5: Capital Outlay as percen

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The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statemen

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f. Pension and Salary Expenditures

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10 it is kept at 40 percent to acco

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Government of Tamil Nadu has to sub

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Chapter 4 COPING WITH SPATIAL IMBAL

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In order to focus on the deficient

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Chart 4.2 indicates the arrangement

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Chart 4.5: Human Development Index:

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Table 4.4: Index of Gender Deficien

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Districts Table 4.7: Health Facilit

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Regarding access costs in availing

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4.6 Incidence of Poverty: District

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district followed by Villupuram and

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household willing to do public work

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Districts Table 4.13: Implementatio

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Table 4.14: Share of BPL Population

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Table 4.16: Block -wise Gross Acces

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Table 4.18: Block-wise IMR in Thiru

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8. For provision of safe drinking w

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Chapter 5 WATER, LAND AND AGRICULTU

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5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu

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Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply

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funding under the Water Resources C

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In 2006-7, 65.83 percent of habitat

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the major cause for poor maintenanc

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about 30 litre per capita per day (

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2006-07). However, total area under

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nearly 3.5 times as high as the pri

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5.4 Agriculture: Key Issues Agricul

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Table 5.19: Productivity (Yield) of

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Only rice and sugarcane received ir

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iv. There are severe water quality

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Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIE

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targeting as a device to improve ef

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eneficiaries and of delivering prog

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In the nighbourhood of the poverty

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inefficiencies. Some of the major c

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Tamil Nadu is close to achieving un

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programmes. It is the only Self Emp

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6.5 Reaching Households and Individ

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proposition more insurable, a group

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line to post-office saving banks or

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each the urban poor who live in slu

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Eleventh Plan (2007) observes: “O

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i. provide financial assistance for

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unemployed or underemployed poor by

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Services Prepare detailed water sup

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Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND FORMULATION O

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positive and relatively high. The b

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3. In terms of composition of BPL p

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holdings are smaller than 4 hectare

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There are considerable inter-distri

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R i =(I a +I max -I i )/(I a +I max

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line to post-office saving banks or

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d. Targeting As far as rural areas

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7.6 Urban Poverty Reduction Strateg

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Fund, GoTN has created Tamil Nadu I

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• Page 209 and 210: REFERENCES Agarwal, S.P. (2005),
• Page 211 and 212: Deaton, Angus and Alessandro Tarozz
• Page 213 and 214: Himmelfarb, G. (1984), The Idea of
• Page 215 and 216: Report of the Working Group on Urba
• Page 217 and 218: APPENDIX TABLES Appendix Table 1.1:
• Page 219 and 220: Appendix Table 1.1 (contd.): Millen
• Page 221 and 222: Appendix Table 1.2 (a): Poverty Lin
• Page 223 and 224: Appendix Table 1.3: Poverty Gap Est
• Page 225 and 226: Appendix Table 1.5: Head Count Rati
• Page 227 and 228: Appendix Table 1.6 (contd.): Progre
• Page 229 and 230: Appendix Table 1.8: Women’s Malnu
• Page 231 and 232: Appendix Table 1.10: Child Mortalit
• Page 233 and 234: Appendix Table 1.11 (contd.): State
• Page 235 and 236: Appendix Table1.12 (contd.): Matern
• Page 237 and 238: Appendix Table 2.3: Decomposition o
• Page 239 and 240: and Publicity Relief from Natural C
• Page 241 and 242: Appendix Table 4.3: Demography Rela
• Page 243 and 244: Appendix Table 4.5: Health Faciliti
• Page 245 and 246: Sl. No Appendix Table 4.7: Efficien
• Page 247 and 248: Appendix Table 4.9: Employment unde
• Page 249 and 250: Appendix Table 5.1: Major and Mediu
• Page 251 and 252: Appendix Table 7.1: Indices for Dis
• Page 253: ANNEXURES 231
• Page 257 and 258: component of the poverty line is th
• Page 259 and 260: Fuchs (1969), while advocating the
• Page 261 and 262: H = m/n (2) The head count ratio ig
• Page 263 and 264: Annexure 1.3 UNIFORM RECALL PERIOD
• Page 265 and 266: ‣ Periyar became Erode; ‣ Tirun
• Page 267 and 268: Women Receiving 3 Or More ANC Visit
• Page 269 and 270: In Sivagangai, as per 2001 census,
• Page 271 and 272: Table 4.3: Block wise Gender Wise G
• Page 273 and 274: Block Table 4.6: Trained Teachers a
• Page 275 and 276: Annexure 5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUE
• Page 277 and 278: Annexure 6.1 NOTES ON SELECTED CENT
• Page 279 and 280: 10. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay
• Page 281: MSE Working Papers Recent Issues *
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