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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

urban poor to total

urban poor to total poor. This percentage increased from nearly 30 in 1973-74 to 47.5 in 2004-05. This was largely due to migration of poor from rural to urban areas. Table 1.6: Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Improvement Over Time Rural Urban Combined % of Years No. of Persons % of Persons No. of Persons % of Persons No. of Persons % of Persons Urban Poor to (Lakh) (Lakh) (Lakh) Total 1973-74 172.60 57.43 66.92 49.40 239.52 54.94 27.94 1977-78 182.50 57.88 72.97 46.69 255.47 54.79 28.56 1983 181.61 53.99 78.46 46.96 260.07 51.66 30.17 1987-88 161.80 45.80 69.27 38.64 231.07 43.39 29.98 1993-94 121.70 32.48 80.40 33.77 202.10 35.03 39.78 2004-05 76.50 22.80 69.13 22.20 145.62 22.50 47.47 Source (Basic Data): Government of India, Press Information Bureau. c. Poverty Gap Ratio Chart 1.1 indicates the progress in reducing the head count ratio in Tamil Nadu for rural, urban and combined. It will be noted that the urban poverty head count ratio exceeded that of the rural poverty HCR during the nineties and even in 2004-05 it is marginally higher than the rural poverty HCR. Chart 1.1: Head Count Ratio in Tamil Nadu for Rural, Urban and Combined 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1973-74 1977-78 1983 1987-88 1993-94 2004-05 HCR (Rural) HCR (Urban) HCR (Combined) Chart 1.2 indicates the percent of urban poor in the total poor in Tami Nadu. The sharp change in the slope is clearly discernable in 1987-88 after which the urban poor in 8

the total poor accounted for a progressively increasing share so that by 2004-05 the urban poor are nearly half of the total poor. Chart 1.2: Urban Poor in the Total Poor in Tami Nadu 50.00 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 1973-74 1977-78 1983 1987-88 1993-94 2004-05 Urban Poor/Total Poor in % As the poverty ratio does not make any distinction within the broad category of the poor on the basis of their actual levels of consumption and deprivation, the Poverty Gap Index (PGI) is widely used to capture the depth and severity of poverty. The PGI measures the total shortfall of consumption below the poverty line, per capita of the total population (Appendix Table 1.3 gives the details). Thus, it measures the magnitude of the effort that would be required to raise the consumption level of all the persons below the poverty line to the consumption level of the poverty line. During 1987-88 to 1993-94 the PG Index for rural India (adjusted estimates) declined from 9.2 percent to 7.0 percent (2.2 percentage points decline) and the index for Tamil Nadu from 13.7 to 9.1 percent (4.6 percentage points decline). The PG Index for urban India also declined from 4.8 percent to 3.7 (i.e., 1.1 percentage points decline) percent while PG index for urban Tamil Nadu declined from 6.2 percent to 4.5 percent. In 1999-00, there was a sharp decline of PG index for rural Tamil Nadu (4.5 percentage points decline). The urban Index also declined by 2.5 percentage points. In 1999-00, both urban and rural indices for Tamil Nadu were lower than that for the nation (Appendix Table 1.3). Thus, the depth and severity of poverty has declined as fast as incidence of poverty. 9

  • Page 1: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 MDGs-BASED POVERTY
  • Page 5 and 6: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 March 2010 Price:
  • Page 7 and 8: CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents
  • Page 9 and 10: List of Tables Table 1.1 Millennium
  • Page 11 and 12: Table 5.10 Status of Urban Water Su
  • Page 13 and 14: Appendix 1.12 Maternal Mortality an
  • Page 15 and 16: MDGs-Based Poverty Reduction: Main
  • Page 17 and 18: . In terms of share of below povert
  • Page 19 and 20: of expenditure on public goods like
  • Page 21 and 22: households or individuals. For each
  • Page 23 and 24: Chapter 1 ISSUES AND INITIAL CONDIT
  • Page 25 and 26: The first three goals relate to era
  • Page 27 and 28: . Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Inter-stat
  • Page 29: and the urban poverty ratio was sli
  • Page 33 and 34: physical development of people. Mor
  • Page 35 and 36: Table 1.11: Millennium Development
  • Page 37 and 38: indicates that Tamil Nadu will achi
  • Page 39 and 40: However, there is a scope for meeti
  • Page 41 and 42: status of malnutrition. The accepte
  • Page 43 and 44: The under-five mortality rate-U5MR
  • Page 45 and 46: (iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Di
  • Page 47 and 48: 3. While Tami Nadu has done compara
  • Page 49 and 50: Chapter 2 REDUCING POVERTY: THE MAC
  • Page 51 and 52: est of the economy indicates the ex
  • Page 53 and 54: share of the tertiary sector in Tam
  • Page 55 and 56: Chart 2.1: Sectoral Growth in Tamil
  • Page 57 and 58: policies are in place to absorb lar
  • Page 59 and 60: In the context of interface between
  • Page 61 and 62: Table 2.7: Decomposition of the Hea
  • Page 63 and 64: Dutt are not so relevant for predic
  • Page 65 and 66: The SDE estimates vary across the s
  • Page 67 and 68: Chart 2.3 highlights that agricultu
  • Page 69 and 70: 2.6 Summary In summary the followin
  • Page 71 and 72: Chapter 3 FISCAL REFORMS FOR POVERT
  • Page 73 and 74: Bardhan (1996) emphasizes that ofte
  • Page 75 and 76: atio of government employees to pop
  • Page 77 and 78: Table 3.2: Tamil Nadu in Inter-stat
  • Page 79 and 80: Chart 3.4: Own Tax Revenues Relativ
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    collected by state-owned enterprise

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    Chart 3.5: Capital Outlay as percen

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    The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statemen

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    f. Pension and Salary Expenditures

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    10 it is kept at 40 percent to acco

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    Government of Tamil Nadu has to sub

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    Chapter 4 COPING WITH SPATIAL IMBAL

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    In order to focus on the deficient

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    Chart 4.2 indicates the arrangement

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    Chart 4.5: Human Development Index:

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    Table 4.4: Index of Gender Deficien

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    Districts Table 4.7: Health Facilit

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    Regarding access costs in availing

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    4.6 Incidence of Poverty: District

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    district followed by Villupuram and

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    household willing to do public work

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    Districts Table 4.13: Implementatio

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    Table 4.14: Share of BPL Population

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    Table 4.16: Block -wise Gross Acces

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    Table 4.18: Block-wise IMR in Thiru

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    8. For provision of safe drinking w

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    Chapter 5 WATER, LAND AND AGRICULTU

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    5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu

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    Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply

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    funding under the Water Resources C

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    In 2006-7, 65.83 percent of habitat

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    the major cause for poor maintenanc

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    about 30 litre per capita per day (

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    2006-07). However, total area under

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    nearly 3.5 times as high as the pri

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    5.4 Agriculture: Key Issues Agricul

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    Table 5.19: Productivity (Yield) of

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    Only rice and sugarcane received ir

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    iv. There are severe water quality

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    Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIE

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    targeting as a device to improve ef

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    eneficiaries and of delivering prog

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    In the nighbourhood of the poverty

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    inefficiencies. Some of the major c

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    Tamil Nadu is close to achieving un

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    programmes. It is the only Self Emp

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    districts in Tamil Nadu. Namadhu Gr

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    6.5 Reaching Households and Individ

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    proposition more insurable, a group

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    each the urban poor who live in slu

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    Eleventh Plan (2007) observes: “O

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    i. provide financial assistance for

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    unemployed or underemployed poor by

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    Services Prepare detailed water sup

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    Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND FORMULATION O

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    positive and relatively high. The b

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    3. In terms of composition of BPL p

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    holdings are smaller than 4 hectare

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    There are considerable inter-distri

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    Table 7.1: Adjustment during 2007-0

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    R i =(I a +I max -I i )/(I a +I max

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    d. Targeting As far as rural areas

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    7.6 Urban Poverty Reduction Strateg

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    Fund, GoTN has created Tamil Nadu I

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    Some initiative by Government of Ta

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    • Addressing urban poverty allevi

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    land. There is need to develop a sc

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    REFERENCES Agarwal, S.P. (2005),

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    Deaton, Angus and Alessandro Tarozz

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    Himmelfarb, G. (1984), The Idea of

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    Report of the Working Group on Urba

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    APPENDIX TABLES Appendix Table 1.1:

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    Appendix Table 1.1 (contd.): Millen

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    Appendix Table 1.2 (a): Poverty Lin

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    Appendix Table 1.3: Poverty Gap Est

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    Appendix Table 1.5: Head Count Rati

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    Appendix Table 1.6 (contd.): Progre

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    Appendix Table 1.8: Women’s Malnu

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    Appendix Table 1.10: Child Mortalit

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    Appendix Table 1.11 (contd.): State

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    Appendix Table1.12 (contd.): Matern

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    Appendix Table 2.3: Decomposition o

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    and Publicity Relief from Natural C

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    Appendix Table 4.3: Demography Rela

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    Appendix Table 4.5: Health Faciliti

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    Sl. No Appendix Table 4.7: Efficien

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    Appendix Table 4.9: Employment unde

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    Appendix Table 5.1: Major and Mediu

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    Appendix Table 7.1: Indices for Dis

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    ANNEXURES 231

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    Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom Mono

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    component of the poverty line is th

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    Fuchs (1969), while advocating the

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    H = m/n (2) The head count ratio ig

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    Annexure 1.3 UNIFORM RECALL PERIOD

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    ‣ Periyar became Erode; ‣ Tirun

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    Women Receiving 3 Or More ANC Visit

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    In Sivagangai, as per 2001 census,

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    Table 4.3: Block wise Gender Wise G

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    Block Table 4.6: Trained Teachers a

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    Annexure 5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUE

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    Annexure 6.1 NOTES ON SELECTED CENT

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    10. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay

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    MSE Working Papers Recent Issues *

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