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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

d. Poverty and Calorie

d. Poverty and Calorie Intake in India Meenakshi and Vishvanathan (2003) have contended that in spite of the fact that income poverty has declined over the 1980s and 1990s, calorie intakes have declined. As such calorie deprivation has increased during 1983 and 1999-00. However, the depth and severity of nutrient deprivation and incidence of abject calorie deprivation has declined during this period. For rural areas the decline was on average 70 calories per capita over 1983 to 1999-00. This decrease has occurred in all states. This has implied that the head count ratios based on calorie thresholds have increased between 1983 and 1999-00 for rural households. Table 1.7 and Appendix Table 1.4 show of the head count ratio in term of percent consuming below 2400 calories per day. These head count ratios are compared to the HCR derived by using the official poverty line. Table 1.7: Some Summary Statistics on Calorie Intake and Poverty Average Calorie Median Calorie Head Count Ratios Head Count Ratios Intake Per Capita Intake Per Capita (Percent Consuming of Poverty (Percent Per Day (Kcal) Per Day (Kcal) Below 2400 Calories with Below OPL States Per Day) Incomes) 1983 1999-00 1983 1999-00 1983 1999-00 1983 1999-00 Andhra Pradesh 2204 2021 1988 1955 68.5 80.7 35.8 11.1 Karnataka 2260 2028 2097 1905 64.0 78.9 40.0 17.4 Kerala 1884 1982 1749 1904 81.5 81.2 48.5 9.4 Tamil Nadu 1861 1826 1720 1727 80.6 86.5 59.1 20.6 Source: Meenakshi and Vishvanathan (2003). Table 1.8 and Appendix Table 1.5 show the head count ratios for 1983 and 1999- 00 for alternative calorie norms. Table 1.8: Head Count Ratios of Calorie Deprivation, Alternative Norms 2200 Norm 1800 Norm 2700 (Per States Consumer Unit Norm) 1983 1999-00 1983 1999-00 1983 1999-00 Andhra Pradesh 56.9 69.7 30.0 36.9 53.8 68.1 Karnataka 55.2 69.9 35.7 41.8 53.2 68.6 Kerala 74.0 70.3 53.2 42.8 72.3 67.2 Tamil Nadu 74.6 78.7 54.4 55.4 72.7 77.7 Source: Meenakshi and Vishvanathan (2003). e. Human Poverty Index The above poverty measures are rooted in calorie consumption and do not take note of the levels of consumption of protein, minerals and vitamins essential for the mental and 10

physical development of people. More importantly, these say nothing about critical factors that shape living standards such as longevity, access to health services, nutritional status, educational status and access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The UNDP has formulated a composite index called the Human Poverty Index (HPI) containing four indicators: (i) proportion of population not expected to survive beyond 40 years, (ii) adult illiteracy rate, (iii) percentage of population without sustainable access to an improved water source, and (iv) percentage of children aged 5 or below who are underweight for their age. Annexure 1.4 summarizes the methodological details of measuring the HPI. The Planning Commission (2002) has provided the HPI values for major states using the following indicators that reflect the Indian conditions: (i) proportion of population not expected to survive beyond 40 years; (ii) a composite indicator on educational deprivation made up of (a) proportion of illiterate persons among those aged 7 and above, and (b) proportion of children in the age group (6-18 years) not enrolled in school; (iii) a composite indicator on economic deprivation made up of (a) proportion of population below the poverty line, (b) proportion of population not getting medical attention at birth {or proportion of children in the age group (12-23 months) not fully vaccinated}, (c) proportion of population living in kutcha houses, and (d) proportion of population not having access to basic amenities, including access to safe drinking water, sanitation and electricity. Table 1.9 shows the HPI for the year 1981 and a comparable Index for 1991. Table 1.9: Human Poverty Index HPI 1981 States Rural Urban Combined Value Rank Value Rank Value Rank Andhra Pradesh 56.2 23 30.0 24.0 50.1 20 Karnataka 50.1 15 27.4 21.0 34.0 15 Kerala 34.2 6 22.8 9.0 32.1 6 Tamil Nadu 49.2 14 25.3 15.0 42.1 14 All India 53.3 27.2 47.3 HPI 1991: Comparable with 1981 Andhra Pradesh 45.0 19 24.8 26.0 39.8 19 Karnataka 37.5 15 20.7 20.0 32.7 15 Kerala 21.8 2 14.4 4.0 19.9 4 Tamil Nadu 34.0 13 18.7 16.0 29.3 12 All India 44.8 22.0 39.4 Source: Human Development Report, Planning Commission (2002). 11

  • Page 1: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 MDGs-BASED POVERTY
  • Page 5 and 6: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 March 2010 Price:
  • Page 7 and 8: CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents
  • Page 9 and 10: List of Tables Table 1.1 Millennium
  • Page 11 and 12: Table 5.10 Status of Urban Water Su
  • Page 13 and 14: Appendix 1.12 Maternal Mortality an
  • Page 15 and 16: MDGs-Based Poverty Reduction: Main
  • Page 17 and 18: . In terms of share of below povert
  • Page 19 and 20: of expenditure on public goods like
  • Page 21 and 22: households or individuals. For each
  • Page 23 and 24: Chapter 1 ISSUES AND INITIAL CONDIT
  • Page 25 and 26: The first three goals relate to era
  • Page 27 and 28: . Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Inter-stat
  • Page 29 and 30: and the urban poverty ratio was sli
  • Page 31: the total poor accounted for a prog
  • Page 35 and 36: Table 1.11: Millennium Development
  • Page 37 and 38: indicates that Tamil Nadu will achi
  • Page 39 and 40: However, there is a scope for meeti
  • Page 41 and 42: status of malnutrition. The accepte
  • Page 43 and 44: The under-five mortality rate-U5MR
  • Page 45 and 46: (iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Di
  • Page 47 and 48: 3. While Tami Nadu has done compara
  • Page 49 and 50: Chapter 2 REDUCING POVERTY: THE MAC
  • Page 51 and 52: est of the economy indicates the ex
  • Page 53 and 54: share of the tertiary sector in Tam
  • Page 55 and 56: Chart 2.1: Sectoral Growth in Tamil
  • Page 57 and 58: policies are in place to absorb lar
  • Page 59 and 60: In the context of interface between
  • Page 61 and 62: Table 2.7: Decomposition of the Hea
  • Page 63 and 64: Dutt are not so relevant for predic
  • Page 65 and 66: The SDE estimates vary across the s
  • Page 67 and 68: Chart 2.3 highlights that agricultu
  • Page 69 and 70: 2.6 Summary In summary the followin
  • Page 71 and 72: Chapter 3 FISCAL REFORMS FOR POVERT
  • Page 73 and 74: Bardhan (1996) emphasizes that ofte
  • Page 75 and 76: atio of government employees to pop
  • Page 77 and 78: Table 3.2: Tamil Nadu in Inter-stat
  • Page 79 and 80: Chart 3.4: Own Tax Revenues Relativ
  • Page 81 and 82: collected by state-owned enterprise
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    Chart 3.5: Capital Outlay as percen

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    The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statemen

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    f. Pension and Salary Expenditures

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    10 it is kept at 40 percent to acco

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    Government of Tamil Nadu has to sub

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    Chapter 4 COPING WITH SPATIAL IMBAL

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    In order to focus on the deficient

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    Chart 4.2 indicates the arrangement

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    Chart 4.5: Human Development Index:

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    Table 4.4: Index of Gender Deficien

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    Districts Table 4.7: Health Facilit

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    Regarding access costs in availing

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    4.6 Incidence of Poverty: District

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    district followed by Villupuram and

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    household willing to do public work

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    Districts Table 4.13: Implementatio

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    Table 4.14: Share of BPL Population

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    Table 4.16: Block -wise Gross Acces

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    Table 4.18: Block-wise IMR in Thiru

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    8. For provision of safe drinking w

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    Chapter 5 WATER, LAND AND AGRICULTU

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    5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu

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    Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply

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    funding under the Water Resources C

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    In 2006-7, 65.83 percent of habitat

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    the major cause for poor maintenanc

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    about 30 litre per capita per day (

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    2006-07). However, total area under

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    nearly 3.5 times as high as the pri

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    5.4 Agriculture: Key Issues Agricul

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    Table 5.19: Productivity (Yield) of

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    Only rice and sugarcane received ir

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    iv. There are severe water quality

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    Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIE

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    targeting as a device to improve ef

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    eneficiaries and of delivering prog

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    In the nighbourhood of the poverty

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    inefficiencies. Some of the major c

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    Tamil Nadu is close to achieving un

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    programmes. It is the only Self Emp

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    districts in Tamil Nadu. Namadhu Gr

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    6.5 Reaching Households and Individ

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    proposition more insurable, a group

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    each the urban poor who live in slu

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    Eleventh Plan (2007) observes: “O

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    i. provide financial assistance for

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    unemployed or underemployed poor by

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    Services Prepare detailed water sup

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    Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND FORMULATION O

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    positive and relatively high. The b

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    3. In terms of composition of BPL p

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    holdings are smaller than 4 hectare

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    There are considerable inter-distri

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    Table 7.1: Adjustment during 2007-0

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    R i =(I a +I max -I i )/(I a +I max

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    d. Targeting As far as rural areas

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    7.6 Urban Poverty Reduction Strateg

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    Fund, GoTN has created Tamil Nadu I

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    Some initiative by Government of Ta

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    • Addressing urban poverty allevi

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    land. There is need to develop a sc

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    REFERENCES Agarwal, S.P. (2005),

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    Deaton, Angus and Alessandro Tarozz

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    Himmelfarb, G. (1984), The Idea of

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    Report of the Working Group on Urba

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    APPENDIX TABLES Appendix Table 1.1:

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    Appendix Table 1.1 (contd.): Millen

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    Appendix Table 1.2 (a): Poverty Lin

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    Appendix Table 1.3: Poverty Gap Est

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    Appendix Table 1.5: Head Count Rati

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    Appendix Table 1.6 (contd.): Progre

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    Appendix Table 1.8: Women’s Malnu

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    Appendix Table 1.10: Child Mortalit

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    Appendix Table 1.11 (contd.): State

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    Appendix Table1.12 (contd.): Matern

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    Appendix Table 2.3: Decomposition o

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    and Publicity Relief from Natural C

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    Appendix Table 4.3: Demography Rela

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    Appendix Table 4.5: Health Faciliti

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    Sl. No Appendix Table 4.7: Efficien

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    Appendix Table 4.9: Employment unde

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    Appendix Table 5.1: Major and Mediu

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    Appendix Table 7.1: Indices for Dis

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    ANNEXURES 231

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    Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom Mono

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    component of the poverty line is th

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    Fuchs (1969), while advocating the

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    H = m/n (2) The head count ratio ig

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    Annexure 1.3 UNIFORM RECALL PERIOD

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    ‣ Periyar became Erode; ‣ Tirun

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    Women Receiving 3 Or More ANC Visit

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    In Sivagangai, as per 2001 census,

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    Table 4.3: Block wise Gender Wise G

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    Block Table 4.6: Trained Teachers a

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    Annexure 5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUE

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    Annexure 6.1 NOTES ON SELECTED CENT

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    10. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay

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