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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

to attaining the first

to attaining the first Millennium Development Goal of halving the 1990s “extreme poverty” rate by 2015. However, they assess that the developing world outside China will not attain the MDG without a higher rate of poverty reduction than has been seen over 1981-2005. Two features in global poverty reduction are particularly notable: (i) there is a marked “bunching up” in the global distribution of consumption just above our international poverty line, and (ii) the poor are highly vulnerable to the steep rise in international food and fuel prices since 2005. The main lessons for India and its states are also that most people who migrated to the category of the non-poor are bunched just above the poverty line and that they may be highly vulnerable to rising food and fuel prices. 1.4 Current Status of Millennium Development Goals: Tamil Nadu In examining the initial conditions regarding MDGs, it is relevant to take note of the advice given by Jan Vandemoortele (2007) that ‘Global targets must be tailored to make them context-sensitive ’. In this section we look at the status and targets of MDGsrelated to hunger poverty, education, gender equality, and health in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu seems to be well on its way to achieving the poverty related MDGs for the state as a whole. a. Hunger Poverty The proportion of malnourished children (aged 0-5 years) was remarkably high - 48.4 percent in Tamil Nadu in 1990 as compared to 56.9 percent for all India, and this decreased to 39 percent in 2000-01 which puts the state off-track in halving the proportion of children suffering from hunger by 2015 (Table 1.11). 4 However, achieving this goal would still leave roughly one quarter of Tamil Nadu’s children malnourished. Even the decline in the proportion of malnourished children since 1990 has not led to any substantial decrease in the absolute number of children in this category, due to population growth. More than half of the rural children (0-3 years) in Tamil Nadu (60.3 percent as against the All India figure of 57.3 percent) in 1990 were underweight. The MDG calls for reducing the proportion of underweight children to 30.1 by 2015. The projection 4 Child malnutrition can result from a number of causes. A late start in breastfeeding, and/or early termination of breastfeeding increases the risk of infection in infants, leading to malnutrition. Supplementary but inadequate feeding after weaning, illness, infections, and low maternal and birth weight can also lead to child malnourishment. 14

indicates that Tamil Nadu will achieve the target level well in advance (i.e. in 2003) [Appendix Table 1.6]. The Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Program (TINP), started in 1980 by the State Government seems to be a successful program. This program uses growth monitoring to target the neediest children and follows their progress. Children in the scheme are given supplementary nutrition. Health services that include check-ups, treatment of diarrhea, de-worming and immunization are also provided to the needy children and to the expectant and lactating mothers. This program relies extensively on local nutrition workers who work with women’s and girls’ groups to promote strategies for awareness and change such as birth weight recording followed by monthly weighting of children and feeding practices. Thus, it also helps to empower local women through increased awareness to take better care of personal and household health, nutrition and hygienic issues. The Integrated Child Development Services Programme (ICDS) is also successful in Tamil Nadu. This programme, the main outlet for public spending on child nutrition, operates through centers in villages called anganvadi, where local workers are provide services mush the same as described above. Children and mothers in Tamil Nadu also benefit from the midday meal scheme which has improved the nutrition status of children as well as pregnant mothers. National Rural Employment Scheme implemented in 2004 is also a positive step to reduce the poverty ratio further. However, the state was not successful in reducing the proportion of underweight children in urban areas. The rate of underweight children in urban Tamil Nadu declined marginally from 35.7 in 1992-93 to 33.7 in 1998-99 which puts the state off track to halving the proportion of children suffering from weight (hunger) by 2015. Recently the state government has started providing three eggs and 20 grams of Black Bengal gram/Green gram and 20 grams of Potatoes per week through midday meal scheme. This would help to improve further the nutrition status of children in Tamil Nadu. According to National Family Health Survey (NFHS), proportion of adult women (15-49 years) in Tamil Nadu (India) whose body mass index is below normal was 29 (36.2) percent in 1998-99 and this rate declined to 23.5 (33) percent in 2005-06. The proportion of men in Tamil Nadu (India) whose body mass index is below normal was 18.5 (28.1) percent in 2005-06. 15

  • Page 1: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 MDGs-BASED POVERTY
  • Page 5 and 6: MONOGRAPH 6/2010 March 2010 Price:
  • Page 7 and 8: CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents
  • Page 9 and 10: List of Tables Table 1.1 Millennium
  • Page 11 and 12: Table 5.10 Status of Urban Water Su
  • Page 13 and 14: Appendix 1.12 Maternal Mortality an
  • Page 15 and 16: MDGs-Based Poverty Reduction: Main
  • Page 17 and 18: . In terms of share of below povert
  • Page 19 and 20: of expenditure on public goods like
  • Page 21 and 22: households or individuals. For each
  • Page 23 and 24: Chapter 1 ISSUES AND INITIAL CONDIT
  • Page 25 and 26: The first three goals relate to era
  • Page 27 and 28: . Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Inter-stat
  • Page 29 and 30: and the urban poverty ratio was sli
  • Page 31 and 32: the total poor accounted for a prog
  • Page 33 and 34: physical development of people. Mor
  • Page 35: Table 1.11: Millennium Development
  • Page 39 and 40: However, there is a scope for meeti
  • Page 41 and 42: status of malnutrition. The accepte
  • Page 43 and 44: The under-five mortality rate-U5MR
  • Page 45 and 46: (iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Di
  • Page 47 and 48: 3. While Tami Nadu has done compara
  • Page 49 and 50: Chapter 2 REDUCING POVERTY: THE MAC
  • Page 51 and 52: est of the economy indicates the ex
  • Page 53 and 54: share of the tertiary sector in Tam
  • Page 55 and 56: Chart 2.1: Sectoral Growth in Tamil
  • Page 57 and 58: policies are in place to absorb lar
  • Page 59 and 60: In the context of interface between
  • Page 61 and 62: Table 2.7: Decomposition of the Hea
  • Page 63 and 64: Dutt are not so relevant for predic
  • Page 65 and 66: The SDE estimates vary across the s
  • Page 67 and 68: Chart 2.3 highlights that agricultu
  • Page 69 and 70: 2.6 Summary In summary the followin
  • Page 71 and 72: Chapter 3 FISCAL REFORMS FOR POVERT
  • Page 73 and 74: Bardhan (1996) emphasizes that ofte
  • Page 75 and 76: atio of government employees to pop
  • Page 77 and 78: Table 3.2: Tamil Nadu in Inter-stat
  • Page 79 and 80: Chart 3.4: Own Tax Revenues Relativ
  • Page 81 and 82: collected by state-owned enterprise
  • Page 83 and 84: Chart 3.5: Capital Outlay as percen
  • Page 85 and 86: The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statemen
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    f. Pension and Salary Expenditures

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    10 it is kept at 40 percent to acco

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    Government of Tamil Nadu has to sub

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    Chapter 4 COPING WITH SPATIAL IMBAL

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    In order to focus on the deficient

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    Chart 4.2 indicates the arrangement

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    Chart 4.5: Human Development Index:

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    Table 4.4: Index of Gender Deficien

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    Districts Table 4.7: Health Facilit

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    Regarding access costs in availing

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    4.6 Incidence of Poverty: District

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    district followed by Villupuram and

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    household willing to do public work

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    Districts Table 4.13: Implementatio

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    Table 4.14: Share of BPL Population

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    Table 4.16: Block -wise Gross Acces

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    Table 4.18: Block-wise IMR in Thiru

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    8. For provision of safe drinking w

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    Chapter 5 WATER, LAND AND AGRICULTU

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    5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu

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    Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply

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    funding under the Water Resources C

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    In 2006-7, 65.83 percent of habitat

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    the major cause for poor maintenanc

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    about 30 litre per capita per day (

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    2006-07). However, total area under

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    nearly 3.5 times as high as the pri

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    5.4 Agriculture: Key Issues Agricul

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    Table 5.19: Productivity (Yield) of

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    Only rice and sugarcane received ir

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    iv. There are severe water quality

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    Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIE

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    targeting as a device to improve ef

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    eneficiaries and of delivering prog

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    In the nighbourhood of the poverty

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    inefficiencies. Some of the major c

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    Tamil Nadu is close to achieving un

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    programmes. It is the only Self Emp

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    districts in Tamil Nadu. Namadhu Gr

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    6.5 Reaching Households and Individ

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    proposition more insurable, a group

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    each the urban poor who live in slu

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    Eleventh Plan (2007) observes: “O

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    i. provide financial assistance for

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    unemployed or underemployed poor by

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    Services Prepare detailed water sup

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    Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND FORMULATION O

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    positive and relatively high. The b

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    3. In terms of composition of BPL p

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    holdings are smaller than 4 hectare

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    There are considerable inter-distri

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    Table 7.1: Adjustment during 2007-0

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    R i =(I a +I max -I i )/(I a +I max

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    d. Targeting As far as rural areas

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    7.6 Urban Poverty Reduction Strateg

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    Fund, GoTN has created Tamil Nadu I

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    Some initiative by Government of Ta

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    • Addressing urban poverty allevi

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    land. There is need to develop a sc

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    REFERENCES Agarwal, S.P. (2005),

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    Deaton, Angus and Alessandro Tarozz

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    Himmelfarb, G. (1984), The Idea of

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    Report of the Working Group on Urba

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    APPENDIX TABLES Appendix Table 1.1:

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    Appendix Table 1.1 (contd.): Millen

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    Appendix Table 1.2 (a): Poverty Lin

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    Appendix Table 1.3: Poverty Gap Est

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    Appendix Table 1.5: Head Count Rati

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    Appendix Table 1.6 (contd.): Progre

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    Appendix Table 1.8: Women’s Malnu

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    Appendix Table 1.10: Child Mortalit

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    Appendix Table 1.11 (contd.): State

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    Appendix Table1.12 (contd.): Matern

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    Appendix Table 2.3: Decomposition o

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    and Publicity Relief from Natural C

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    Appendix Table 4.3: Demography Rela

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    Appendix Table 4.5: Health Faciliti

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    Sl. No Appendix Table 4.7: Efficien

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    Appendix Table 4.9: Employment unde

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    Appendix Table 5.1: Major and Mediu

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    Appendix Table 7.1: Indices for Dis

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    ANNEXURES 231

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    Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom Mono

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    component of the poverty line is th

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    Fuchs (1969), while advocating the

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    H = m/n (2) The head count ratio ig

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    Annexure 1.3 UNIFORM RECALL PERIOD

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    ‣ Periyar became Erode; ‣ Tirun

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    Women Receiving 3 Or More ANC Visit

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    In Sivagangai, as per 2001 census,

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    Table 4.3: Block wise Gender Wise G

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    Block Table 4.6: Trained Teachers a

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    Annexure 5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUE

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    Annexure 6.1 NOTES ON SELECTED CENT

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    10. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay

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    MSE Working Papers Recent Issues *

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