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(i) Child and Infant

(i) Child and Infant Mortality It is estimated that nearly 26 million infant are born each year in India, of whom 1.2 million die before completion of first four weeks of life. About 1.7 million children die before reaching their first birth day in India, representing a tremendous waste of human potential and a pressing need to meet the MDG to reduce child and infant mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Between 1991 and 2005, the all India infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 80 to 58 and the IMR of Tamil Nadu from 57 to 37 (Appendix Table 1.11). If reduction of IMR continues at its current rate, India and Tamil Nadu are not likely to meet this goal. The IMR will reach the level of 27.2 in 2015 in Tamil Nadu as against the target rate of 19.6. Tamil Nadu’s rural IMR was 70.4 in 1990. Our projection indicates that the rural IMR will likely to be 31.7 in 2015 as against the target level of 23.5 in Tamil Nadu (Table 1.16). Details Table 1.16: Health Related Medium Development Goals Value in 1990 MDG Target Value in 2015 Average Annual Growth Rate Projected Value in 2015 Status Projected Year of Achieving Target IMR Tamil Nadu 58.79 19.6 -0.0304 27.17 Off-track 2027.2 Rural IMR Tamil Nadu 70.35 23.45 -0.0314 31.68 Off-track 2024.4 Under 5 Mortality Rate Tamil Nadu 95.99 31.9 -0.0507 26.1 On-track 2011 Children (12-23 months) received Measles Vaccine (%) Tamil Nadu 68.7 100 0.0199 100 On-track 2009 % Births attended by Skilled Health personal Tamil Nadu 72.89 100 0.0155 107 On-track 2010 Institutional Births Tamil Nadu 61 100 0.0266 117.5 On-track 2008 % Currently Married Women (15-49) use Contraceptive Tamil Nadu 47.55 100 0.0172 72.81 Off-track 2033 % Household access Safe Drinking Water (Total) Tamil Nadu 65.8 82.9 0.0242 119.6 On-track 2000 % Household access Safe Drinking Water (Rural) Tamil Nadu 62.5 81.3 0.0287 126.7 On-track 2000 % Households with Toilet/Latrine Facility Tamil Nadu 27.98 63.9 0.025 51.9 Off-track 2023 Source (Basic Data): Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal and National Health Survey. 20

The under-five mortality rate-U5MR (per 1000 live births) in Tamil Nadu was 96 in 1990 (as against the national figure of 115) and declined to 63 in 1998-99. The state is well on track to reduce the U5MR by two thirds by 2015. The prediction shows that the state will meet the target well in advance (i.e., by 2011). It is noted that the infanthood death constitutes about two-thirds of under-five mortalities. More policy attention is required to reduce infant death. Low birth weight and under nutrition are the major risk factors of infant and child mortality. According to National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-06), the proportion of children (0-3 years) who are underweight is 33 percent in Tamil Nadu and 46 percent in the country. About 73 percent (80 percent) of children (6 – 35 months) are anemic in Tamil Nadu (India) [Appendix Table 1.11). The Ministry of Health and Family welfare is implementing several programmes and schemes to address the issues of high infant and child mortality. Some of the major child health intervention includes Universal Immunization Programme, where immunization is carried out against six vaccine preventable diseases, control of deaths due to acute respiratory infections and diarrhea diseases and provision of essential new born care to address the issue of neonates. These schemes would help all states including Tamil Nadu to improve child immunization, thereby reducing infant deaths. According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) reports, the proportion of children 12-23 months fully immunized (BCG, measles, and 3 doses each of polio/DPT) in Tamil Nadu (India) increased from 65.1 (35.5) percent in 1992-93 to 80.8 (43.5) percent in 2005-06 (Appendix Table 1.11). This means that 20 percent children in Tamil Nadu are not fully immunized. However, the proportion of children 12-23 months received at least measles increased to 92.4 per cent in 2005-06 (See Appendix Table 1.10). The projections indicate that the state will attain the required 100 percent level in 2009 while the country in 2025 (Appendix Table 1.6). (ii) Maternal Mortality Ensuring safe motherhood is one of the biggest challenges in India. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) are extremely high with 407 deaths per 1 lakh births in 1998. The MDG goal calls for a reducing MMR between 1990 and 2015, by three-quarters, implying thereby bringing down the MMR of the country to 109 in 2015. The pace of decline of MMR has been slow and it seems very unlikely that India will meet this MDG if progress continues at its current rate (Bajpai, Sachs and Volvks, 2005). Tamil Nadu compares well 21

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau