9 months ago


in terms of MMR (1998)

in terms of MMR (1998) with 79 deaths per 1 lakh births. It seems that the state is well on track to reduce the MMR to the required level in 2015. The most common causes of maternal deaths are hemorrhage, anemia, puerperal sepsis, obstructed labour, abortion, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, anemia, bad obstetric history and lack of antenatal care. According to NFHS-3, the proportion of women (15-49 years) who are anemic was 53.3 percent in Tamil Nadu and 56.2 percent in India in 2005-06 (Appendix Table 1.12). Another important indicator of maternal care is the number of deliveries conducted by skilled personnel. In 2005-06, skilled attendants conducted only 48 percent of deliveries in India. This not only increases the mortality rates of infants and children but also contributes to high maternal mortality in India. The corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu was 93 percent. The projection shows that 100 percent of women in the state will give birth under the care of a skilled birth attendant by 2010. In terms of place of delivery, in 2005-06, only 41 percent of births occurred in health institution in India. In the same year, more than 90 percent of births in Tamil Nadu occurred in health institutions. It seems that almost all births in Tamil Nadu will occur in medical institution in 2008 (Appendix Table 1.6). The Government of India has introduced the Janani Suraksha Yojana (a modification of the National Maternity Benefit Scheme), which provides comprehensive medical care during pregnancy, child birth and post natal care and thereby endeavor to improve the level of institutional deliveries and reduce maternal mortality rate. It is interesting to note that 96.5 percent of pregnant women received at least 3 antenatal care check-up in Tamil Nadu in 2005-06. The corresponding figure for the country was only 50.7 (NFHS-3, 2005-06). (iii) Life Expectancy The male (female) life expectancy was 62.3 (64.4) years in 1991-95 in Tamil Nadu. The male expectancy increased to 67 years and female expectancy to 69.8 in 2001-06. In 2001-06, the all India life expectancy values of male and female were 63.9 and 66.9 years. In that period, Tamil Nadu ranked third in term of life expectancy values (Appendix Table 1.11). 22

(iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases AIDS is not only a severe public health problem but also a major development issue on account of its potential impact on productivity and economic growth. As on 31 st August 2006, the number of AIDS cases reported to National AIDS Control Organization (India) was 1.25 lakh. Of these, 41.6 percent cases reported from Tamil Nadu. The state AIDS project cell formed in 1991 was reconstituted as Tamil Nadu AIDS Control Society (TNSACS) to tackle the problem of AIDS in a more effective manner. The MDGs envisage that HIV/AIDS epidemic would be halted and the spread of disease would begin to reverse by 2015. Runaway spread of HIV/AIDS seems to have been already arrested in India (Agarwal, 2005). In 2006, of the 1.67 million malaria cases reported in the country, about 1.6 percent of them reported in Tamil Nadu. The MDGs envisage that the incidence of malaria and other major diseases would be halted and the spread of disease would begin to reverse by 2015. Given that the incidence of malaria had significantly declined from 80586 in 1996 to 27214 in 2006 due to intensive control measures like active and passive surveillance, and vector control measures, the state seems to meet the target well in advance (Appendix Table 1.10). India accounts for almost a quarter of Tuberculosis (TB) cases in the world. TB causes more deaths every year in India. The number of deaths due to TB increased from 7096 in 1998 to 37639 in 2004. During the same period, the deaths in Tamil Nadu also increased from 285 to 3437. (v) Human Development Index Like HPI, the human development index is a composite (formulated by UNDP) containing indicators relating to three factors: life expectancy at birth, representing a long and healthy life, educational attainment (representing knowledge) and real per capita income in purchasing power parity dollars, representing a decent standard of living. 7 The Planning Commission (2002) has provided the HDI values for major states using the following indicators: life expectancy at age 1, IMR, literacy rate, intensity of formal education, and per capita consumption. It shows the distance the state has to travel to 7 Adult literacy rate (two-thirds weight) and the combined gross primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio (one-third weight) measure the educational attainment. The purchasing power parity dollar value is used to compare the per capita income of the nations. UNDP argues that if people have these three “choices”, they may be able to access other opportunities as well. 23

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau