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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

each the maximum

each the maximum possible value. 8 During 1991 to 2001, Tamil Nadu’s HDI value increased from 0.466 to 0.531 and the all India HDI from 0.381 to 0.472. In 2001, Tamil Nadu ranked third among the major states in India (Appendix Table 1.7). (vi) Water and Sanitation Million of people in India suffer from waterborne diseases as a result of lack of access to safe drinking water. In 1991 the proportion of households with sustained access to safe drinking water was 67.4 percent in Tamil Nadu as against 62.3 percent in India (Appendix Table 1.10). The corresponding figures in rural areas were 64.3 percent and 55.5 percent. Since 1991, the proportion of households with safe drinking water has been increasing in both rural and urban areas in Tamil Nadu and India. If the rate of improvement is sustained, the country as well as Tamil Nadu will meet the MDG target well in advance (Appendix Table 1.6). Diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery and hepatitis are more likely to be contracted under poor sanitary conditions, which abound when human excreta is not properly disposed of. During 1992-93 to 1998-99, the proportion of households with toilet/latrine facility increased from 29.4 percent to 34.1 percent in Tamil Nadu (Appendix Table 1.10). Our projections indicate that state will fail to meet the MDG target and the country too. 1. 5 Summary To summarise the trends in poverty reduction in Tamil Nadu over time and in comparison to other states the following points can be highlighted. 1. Reduction in rural poverty in Tamil Nadu picked up after 1983. During the period 1983 to 2004-05 rural poverty head count ratio in Tamil Nadu fell by nearly 30 percentage points whereas the corresponding reduction in the all-India rural head count ratio was only 17 percentage points. 2. Reduction in urban poverty in Tamil Nadu picked up sharply after 1993-94 but the fall in the head count ratio during 1993-94 to 2004-05 was much less in Tamil Nadu compared to the corresponding reduction in all-India poverty urban head count ratio. 8 Although the computation procedure is the same, this index is not strictly comparable with the UNDP’s HDI. 24

3. While Tami Nadu has done comparatively better than most other states in reducing the combined poverty, the overall head count ratio at 22.5 in 2004-05 being nearly 5 percentage points below the all-India figure at 27.5. In 2004-05 several states in India including two southern states viz., Andhra Pradesh and Kerala has a much lower overall poverty head count ratio. 4. One noticeable pattern in the poverty reduction overtime is that in terms of absolute number of urban poor in Tamil Nadu are more in 2004-05 as compared to 1973-74. There is a discernable trend toward urbanisation of poverty, measured by the percentage urban poor to total poor which has increased over time. In 1973-74 nearly 30 percent of total poor in Tami Nadu were urban poor. In 2004-05 nearly 47.5 percent of total poor are urban poor in Tamil Nadu. In the context of the selected MDGs, some notable features are listed below. a. Tamil Nadu has one of the most successful records of reducing poverty in a state-wise comparison. The poverty head count ratio has fallen from about 55 percent in 1973-74 to 21 percent by 1999-00 according to the Planning Commission data. This is more than 5 percentage points lower than the all-India head count ratio in 1999-00. Tamil Nadu is however one of the few states in India, where the urban poverty head count ratio is higher than the rural poverty ratio. There is also a spatial concentration of poverty in some of the low-income districts. b. Despite the progress achieved in reducing income poverty, hunger poverty / calorie deficiency remains a major problem in Tamil Nadu. c. The infant mortality rate was 15 in Tamil Nadu compared to 77 for all-India in rural areas and 22 for Tamil Nadu compared to 45 for all-India in urban areas. d. The dropout rate in class 1-10 was 41.7 per cent for Tamil Nadu, compared to 59.9 for All-India in 2006-07. e. In terms of the human development index (HDI), Tamil Nadu is ranked after Kerala, Goa and Maharashtra. Its rank in HDI is better than its rank in GSDP. f. In terms of gender disparities also, Tamil Nadu’s performance is comparatively better. The gender ratio was 98.6 in 2001 and the female literacy rate was 63.4. 25

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