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Full members must have been a member for six consecutive months or pay the full annual dues to be eligible for the ANCC certification discounts. The Hospital Steward: His Relationship to Nursing continued from page 9 Hyde (1900) wrote a book about his own experiences as a Hospital Steward with the Ohio Infantry. He was a prisoner in three different Confederate POW camps. At the third POW camp, Andersonville, he was in the hospital outside the prison walls where he was dispensing to civilians & families and was allowed to go out into the countryside to collect herbs. He not only survived Andersonville, but stated that he returned after the war with Clara Barton to help identify the thousands of unmarked graves. Johnson (1917) wrote a book about his experiences as a Hospital Steward with the Illinois Infantry. He described and discussed medical care, medicines, surgery, and nurses. His book is a very descriptive narrative of the medical care that he saw the Surgeons deliver, but contains few details of what he personally was doing as a Hospital Steward other than assisting at Sick Call. He briefly mentioned nurses and at one point stated that he personally “nursed” and cared for a patient with typhoid. Priest (1995) edited from the many letters and the diary of John N. Henry, NY Volunteers. He stated that he was assisting the surgeon with sick call. Henry also stated that he was called out to see sick patients independently and was called out to see a patient in an emergency. In relation to the importance of his position he stated “…any other person could leave (on furlough) better than I could…” (p. 376). Roper (2001) edited from the diaries of John Samuel Apperson of a Virginia Brigade. Apperson described dressing wounds and administering anesthesia. He also talked about seeing patients independently, diagnosing & treating, vaccinating for smallpox, collecting tissue samples, extracting teeth, performing autopsies & triage, attending the wounded, practicing percussion & auscultation, and being an apprentice to a surgeon. At one time he went into the community to do minor surgery on a child’s neck and open an abscess. On other occasions he was doing surgery on gunshot wounds, amputating fingers, amputating below the knee, and removing a bullet from a foot. West (2010) edited from 230 letters and the diary of Daniel McKinley Martin, Virginia Infantry and West Virginia Cavalry. Martin referred to himself as the “tooth puller.” He stated he “vaccinated (for smallpox) perhaps 100 of our regiment today” (p. 207) and on another occasion mentioned “…how many operations I assisted with the doctor in performing I can’t tell…” (p. 114). For a period of time the surgeon went to Baltimore and Martin was “the only surgeon left with the regiment…I have to prescribe and dispense the medicines…” (p. 100). After reviewing the primary sources it is obvious that the roles and responsibilities of the Hospital Steward far exceeded those that Woodward penned in his official manual. It could be that an individual overstepped his role, but yet some of the same themes appear from different Stewards. The reader sees mention of diagnosis, treatments, prescribing medications, administering vaccinations, performing minor surgery, and administering anesthesia. The most important repeated theme is autonomy or practicing independently. This theme of autonomy is repeated throughout the primary sources in a military setting that was typically anything but autonomous. If one were to compare the Hospital Steward’s roles, responsibilities, and duties along with his level of autonomy to modern day healthcare, a similar individual can be identified. Those individuals are Advanced Practice Nurses (APRN), either Nurse Practitioners (NP) or Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNA) or maybe Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNS). While Woodward identified the Hospital Steward as a combination of Pharmacist and Hospital Administrator and Nursing Supervisor, based on primary sources one could add to the list the first APRN/NP/CRNA. He really was a “workhorse.” References Allan, Alice (Ed.). (2012). He said: Diary of a Civil War Hospital Steward. (self published). Earp, Charles (Ed.). (2002). Yellow Flag: The Civil War journal of Surgeon’s Steward C. Marion Dodson. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society. Flannery, Michael, and Oomens, Katherine. (2007). Well satisfied with my position: The Civil War journal of Spencer Bonsall. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Gillett, Mary. (1987). The Army Medical Department 1818- 1865. Washington DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. Hyde, Solon. (1996). A captive of war. Shippensburg, PA: Burd Street Press. Johnson, Charles Beneulyn. (1917). Muskets and medicine or army life in the sixties. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. Priest, John Michael. (1995). Turn them out to die like a mule: The Civil War letters of Hospital Steward John N. Henry, 49th New York, 1861- 1865. Leesburg, VA: Gauley Mount Press. Roper, John (Ed.). (2001). Repairing the march of mars: The Civil War diaries of John Samuel Apperson, Hospital Steward of the Stonewall Brigade, 1861-1865. (Jason Clayman, Peter Gretz, and John Herbert Roper, Trans.). Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. West, Alan I. (2010). Remember me: Civil War letters home from a Hospital Steward 1862-1864 Daniel McKinley Martin. Chicora, PA: Mechling Bookbindery. Woodward, J. J. (1862). The hospital steward’s manual: For the instruction of hospital stewards, ward masters, and attendants in their several duties. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
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