Marine non-native invasive species in Northern Ireland

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Marine non-native invasive species in Northern Ireland

Marine non-nativeinvasive speciesin Northern IrelandJulia Nunn & Dan MinchinInvasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Strangford Lough: 17 th September – 19 th October• survey for Didemnum vexillum• 11 shores• 1 pontoon• NIEA spot dive surveyInvasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


S P E C I E SAug-Oct 2012Foyle MarinaSeaton's MarinaColeraine MarinaPortrush pontoonRathlin PontoonBallycastle MarinaGlenarm MarinaCarrickfergusMarinaBelfast MarinaBangor MarinaCopelands MarinaBallydorn MarinaSketrick IslandWhiterock PontoonRinghaddyPortaferry MarinaQuoile PontoonKillyleagh PontoonEast DownArdglass MarinaWarrenpointCarlingford MarinaAmphibalanus improvisus D + AAplidium glabrum + + + + + +Austrominius modestus A B B A + + + + + C ABotrylloides violaceusBBotrylloides c.f. violaceus ? ?Bugula fulva + + +Bugula neritina C DBugula simplex + + + + +Caprella mutica + + + + + BColpomenia peregrina A A + B ACordylophora caspia B + BCorella eumyota + + + A A A A + + + A + + B A ADidemnum vexillum B + BGammarus tigrinus +Monocorophium acherusicum +Monocorophium insidiosum + + + + + +Monocorophium sextonae + + + + + +Perophora japonicaAPotamopyrgus antipodarumBSargassum muticum A + + A AStyela clava A ATricellaria inopinata + + + + + + +Undaria pinnatifidaAWatersipora subtorquataATotal confirmed spp.2 3 3 2 6 4 6 12 2 6 1 6 5 2 5 5 0 3 5 5 4 9Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


The greatest number of species attributed to a marina/pontoon was forCarrickfergus Marina, Belfast Lough where 12 non-native/cryptogenic specieswere found.q Aplidium glabrumq Austrominius modestusq Bugula neritinaq Bugula simplexq Caprella muticaq Colpomenia peregrinaq Corella eumyotaq Styela clavaq Monocorophium acherusicumq Monocorophium sextonaeq Tricellaria inopinataq Undaria pinnatifidaThe most widespread species were: Corella eumyota (16) and Austrominiusmodestus (11).Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


2006201220062012200620122006201220062012200620122006201220062012ColeraineMarinaBallycastleMarinaCarrickfergusMarinaBangorMarinaCopelandsMarinaPortaferryMarinaArdglassMarinaCarlingfordMarinaAmphibalanus improvisus + AAplidium glabrum + +Austrominius modestus A + B + + + ABotrylloides violaceus + BBugula fulva +Bugula neritina C + DBugula simplex + + +Caprella mutica + + B +Colpomenia peregrina A BCordylophora caspiaBCorella eumyota A + A A A B + ADidemnum vexillum + BMonocorophium acherusicum +Monocorophium insidiosum + + +Monocorophium sextonae + + + +Perophora japonica +Potamopyrgus antipodarumBSargassum muticum A + + AStyela clavaATricellaria inopinata + + + +Undaria pinnatifida +Watersipora subtorquataAInvasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


S P E C I E SAug-Oct 2012Culmore Point, Foyle EstuaryKircubbin, Strangford LoughN of Herring Bay, StrangfordLoughMahee Island spit,Strangford LoughDundrum BayMill Bay, Carlingford LoughBallydorn (shore),Strangford LoughSketrick island N, StrangfordLoughSketrick Island narrows,Strangford LoughMahee Island narrows,Strangford LoughWhiterock Bay, StrangfordLoughBraddock Island, StrangfordLoughPaddy’s Point, StrangfordLoughRainey Island narrows,Strangford LoughSketrick Island south,Strangford LoughGreenore , Carlingford LoughAmphibalanus improvisus +Aplidium glabrum + + + + + +Austrominius modestus + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +Botrylloides violaceus + ?Calyptraea chinensis + + + + +Chondracanthus acicularis +Colpomenia peregrina + + + + +Corella eumyota + + + + + + + + + + +Crassostrea gigas (feral) + + +Diadumene lineata +Didemnum vexillum ? ? ? ?Heterosiphonia japonica + + + + + + + +Gracilaria vermiculophylla + + +Monocorophium insidiosum +Perophora japonica + +Sargassum muticum + + + + + + +Total confirmed spp. 2 3 3 7 2 2 5 3 9 7 5 3 4 7 5 3Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


The greatest number of species attributed to an intertidal site was for SketrickNarrows, Strangford Lough where 9 non-native/cryptogenic species were foundq Aplidium glabrumq Austrominius modestusq Botrylloides violaceusq Calyptraea chinensisq Colpomenia peregrinaq Corella eumyotaq Crassostrea gigasq Didemnum vexillum (probable)q Sargassum muticumThe most widespread species were: Austrominius modestus (15), Corellaeumyota (11), Heterosiphonia japonica (8)Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Species found in Northern IrelandAmphibalanus improvisusAplidium glabrumAsparagopsis armata (drift only)Austrominius modestusBotrylloides violaceusBugula fulvaBugula neritinaBugula simplexCalyptraea chinensisCaprella muticaChondracanthus acicularisClymenella torquataCodium fragile ssp. fragileColpomenia peregrinaCorella eumyotaCordylophora caspiaCrassostrea gigasCrepidula fornicataDiadumene lineataDidemnum vexillumGammarus tigrinusGracilaria vermiculophyllaHeterosiphonia japonicaMolgula manhattensis?Monocorophium acherusicumMonocorophium insidiosumMonocorophium sextonaePerophora japonicaPotamopyrgus antipodarumSargassum muticumStyela clavaTeredo navalisTricellaria inopinataUndaria pinnatifidaWatersipora subtorquatataxonbarnacletunicatered algabarnacletunicatebryozoanbryozoanbryozoanmolluscamphipodred algapolychaetegreen algabrown algatunicatehydroidmolluscmolluscanemonetunicateamphipodalgaalgatunicateamphipodamphipodamphipodtunicatemolluscalgatunicatemolluscbryozoanalgabryozoanInvasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Algae: Gracilaria vermiculophylla• first recorded NI Dundrum Bay July 2012 & Carlingford Lough• abundant there during present survey.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Algae: Heterosiphonia japonica• first recorded Ballyhenry, StrangfordLough, C Maggs 2011• found abundant at Ringhaddy, March2012• present same site this survey, lowabundance• found in NI, several sites in 2012 –especially north coast at Portrush andBallycastle by Seasearch divers.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Algae: Undaria pinnatifida• 3 plants Carrickfergus• first record for islandof Ireland.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Algae: Sargassum muticum• first recorded island ofIreland 1995• extensive throughoutthe island• particularly abundantin Strangford Lough.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Hydroids: Cordylophora caspia• estuarine species• found Foyle and Bann Estuaries• dense mats• unknown if recordedin NI before.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Anemones: Diadumene lineata• first found by A. Raft September 2010 Mahee Island, Strangford Lough• found again this survey• elsewhere in Ireland only Tralee Bay• probably overlooked.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Barnacles: Amphibalanus improvisus• living Foyle estuary only• shells in Bann estuary• previous records Foyle and DundrumBay.Barnacles: Austrominius modestus• recorded at most sites• well established throughout the island.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Small crustaceans: Caprella mutica• first recorded June 2009 Bangor Marina• subsequently Strangford Lough & Rathlin Island• widely found, both areas, and around NI.Small crustaceans: Monocorophium spp.-• acherusicum: Carrickfergus• insidiosum: 6 sites, north and eastern NI• sextonae: 6 sites, southern NIall widely recorded previously.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Molluscs: Crepidula fornicata• first found March 2009, Belfast Lough, G.McNeill• subsequently sites throughout BelfastLough and in intertidal• breeding population at Fisherman’s Quay,visited every year• not found this survey.Molluscs: Calyptraea chinensis• first recorded NI June 2004 Mahee Island,Strangford Lough• range extended to several sites StrangfordLough nearby + Larne Lough• well known from Clew Bay.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Molluscs: Crassostrea gigas• escapees seen regularly• large specimens naturalsettlement, StrangfordLough & Lough Foyle.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Bryozoans: Bugula spp.Bugula fulva• cryptogenic, status unknown• first recorded NI Aug 2012 Workshop• two sites SL & Rathlin this survey.Bugula neritina• first record for NI at Carrickfergus• previously only from CarlingfordMarina.Bugula simplex• first recorded Bangor Marina Aug 2011• 5 sites this survey.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Bryozoans:Watersipora subtorquata• two colonies at Ardglass• overgrowing mussel shells and sponge• first record for NI• recently recorded from Dunlaoghaire Marina by Kelso & Wyse-Jackson.Bryozoans: Tricellaria inopinata• first recorded August 2011 Bangor Marina & subsequently Portrush• this survey – both sites + 5 other marinasInvasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Tunicates: Aplidium glabrum• unusual colonial tunicate• widespread Strangford Lough• also a number of other sitesaround NI• unlikely to have been in NIprior to 2010/2011Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Tunicates:Botrylloides violaceus• identification difficulties• previously (probable) BangorMarina 2011• recorded Strangford Lough thissurvey.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Tunicates: Perophora japonica• first record island of Ireland at Carlingford Lough• first record Northern Ireland at Sketrick & Rainey, Strangford Lough.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Tunicates:Styela clava• only previously NI in Larne Lough in 2008 and subsequentlyBangor Marina & Cultra, both Belfast Lough• this survey: Carrickfergus & Glenarm.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Tunicates:Corella eumyota• first recorded NI fromCarrickfergus 2006• rapid spread throughout NI• recorded from 2011 & 2012 from the entire coast where habitatsuitable• commonest non-native found on marinas• latest taxonomy suggests two species C. eumyota and C. antarctica inthe southern hemisphere – which one do we have?Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Tunicates:Didemnum vexillum• first recorded as pendulousgrowths & carpet form fromunderside of BallydornLightship, Strangford Lough5 th September• subsequent survey hasprobable records fromnearby at Sketrick, Raineyand Paddys Point• only elsewhere recordedfrom Carlingford Lough,Malahide, south GalwayBay & Clew BayInvasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013


Summaryq 260+ taxa recordedq 1150+ taxon records obtainedq 2 new species to island of Ireland: Undaria pinnatifida and Perophora japonicaq 4 additional species new to NI: Bugula neritina, Cordylophora caspia,Didemnum vexillum, Watersipora subtorquataq 2 new species to NI, status unclear – Chondracanthus acicularis, Aplidiumglabrumq many range extensions: Bugula simplex, Styela clava, Tricellaria inopinataq substantial changes (comparison 2006 with 2012): 35 new records for 8 marinasq ADR technique will enable relative changes over time to be recordedq 2 species may have substantial impact – Didemnum vexillum, Undariapinnatifidaq surveys should be undertaken every two years.Invasive Species Forum Belfast May 2013

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