Book: The Purpose of Life

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Book: The Purpose of Life

xøwmsarCIvitniBn§edayRBHetCKuN ex RsIFmμannÞERbsRmYl nigeroberogedayPikçú s‘uy suvNÑ bBaØaverae)aHBums 2553THE PURPOSE OF LIFEByVen. Dr. K. Sri DhammanandaTranslated and prepared byVen. Suy Sovann (paññàvaro)First Edition…………. CopiesA Publication ofCambodian Buddhist Student Monks/ Yangon/ MyanmarSponsored byMalaysian Buddhist FriendsFor Free Distribution OnlyB.E 2553


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xøwmsarCIvit&s'eyIgEtgEtsYrKñafa etIGIVeTACaxøwmsarCIvit? enHCasMnYrd¾samBaØmYy bu:EnþTMngCamanPaBsμúKsμajEmnETn kñúgkarpþl;nUvcemøIy. ebIeTaHCa manbuKÁlxøH)anpþl;nUvcemøIyCak;lak;mYy Rsbtampñat;KMnitKiteXIjrbs;xøÜnk¾eday vahak;bIdUcCaminTan;CacemøIyeBjeljdEdl cMeBaHbBaØvnþTaMgLay. ehtupl KWenARtg;fa eKmin)aneronemIl nigeQVgyl;[)anl¥m:t;ct;BITsSnvis½yénCIvitenH. eKbegáItEtkarRsemIRsémkñúgcitþ nigtamlT§PaByl;dwgrbs;xøÜn. TnÞwmKñaenH eyIgdwgfa emsasna TsSnviTU kvIniBn§ nigGñkviC¢asüg;TaMgLayk¾minEmnsuT§EtCMnajGMBI {CIvit} 1 eT. eBleyIgGannUvGIVEdleKniyaysþIGMBI {CIvit} GñkxøHTMngCaminGacpþl;nUvrUbPaBénCIvitBitR)akdpÞal;xøÜnÉgpg.1> tamn½yRtg; {CIvit} mann½yfa {dMeNIrrs;enA} b¤ {kiriyars;enA}. manviKÁh³faCviyetti =CIvitM b¤ CIvnM va =CIvitM.n½ymYyeTot {CIvit} mann½yfa {FmμCatiCaeRKOgrs;enAénstV b¤FmμCatiCaTIRbRBwtþieTAénsm,yutþFm’ ¬CIvit¦}. manviKÁh³fa CIvnþi Gennati = CIvitM/ CIvnþi bvtþnþi Étßsm,yutþFmμati va = CIvitM.2 xøwmsarCIviteKaledACIvit nig esckþIéføfñÚr&s'mnusSxøHniyayfa {CIvit KWeBareBjedayesckþITukç} buKÁlxøHeTotniyayfa {karekItmkCamnusSenH BitCamanP½BVsMNagx


4 xøwmsarCIvitFmμCatiénCIvit&s'bu:Enþm:üageTot RbsinebI eyIgeFIVkargarRbkbedaybBaØa mankarrkSasIl nigeKalkarN_GPismacar dUcCakarxnþI karmanGaFüa-Rs½yl¥ esckþIGaNitGasUr esckþIeKarB»nlMeTan sb,úrsFm’ manykGasaGñkdéT nigGb;rMcitþmin[manlMeGog enaHeyIgGacseRmc)aneKaledAd¾]tþm nigmanRbeyaCn_cMeBaHmnusSRKb;rUb. buKÁlEdlceRmInsIlFm’EbbenH nwgTTYl)annUvsnþiPaB suPmgÁl esckþIsb;citþ nigrYccakesckþITukç. enHeTIbeQμaHfa CIvitmann½yeBjelj nigmanRbeyaCn_dl;CnRKb;RsTab;vNѳ. Gñkeronmñak;niyayfa {CIvitknøgeTAedayxøÜnva xN³eBleyIgkMBugrs;enA. Gñkeronmñak;eTott¥ÚjEt¥rfa BüaFi Cra nigesckþIesakesATaMgLay KWCakartbsñgmkvij edaysareyIgykrUbragkayrbs;eyIgenHeFIVCaCRmk. sasnikmñak;epSgeTot niyayeLIgfa eyIgRtUvEtsgéføesckþIP½yxøac nigesckþIRBYy)armÖvij eRBaHEtkarbegáItKMnitGatμaniymenHÉg. TsSnviTUcinmñak;niyayfa{karekItrUbragkay naM[ekItTukç. eyIgrs;enAkan;EtyUr esckþITukçekIteLIgkan;EteRcIn. tNðacg;rs;ranmanCIvitkñúgeBlGnaKtenH eFIV[eyIgKμansmtßPaBkñúgkarrs;enAbc©úb,nñ}. RBHsmμasm Baküfa {mnusS} mkBIBakü {mn÷]sS} ERbfa {CnGñkmancitþxhitahitM mnti CanatIti = mnuesSa.xøwmsarCIvit 5


eyagtamBaküsMdIKat; {mnusSminmancriyamaryaTCamnusSBiteT}. tamTsSn³BuT§sasna mnusSminEmnCasPav³EdlminERb-RbYleLIy bu:Enþ tamevahars½BÞmYyfa vasßitenABImYyxN³ eTAmYyxN³ GaRs½yelIkMlaMgkmμCamUl. CIvitmnusSminEmnRtUv)anCb b¤begáIteLIgedaybuKÁlNamñak;eLIy. CIvitmanGtþsBaØaNpÞal;xøÜnrbs;va c,as;las;.eyIgminGacyl;nUvFmμCatiBiténCIvit edaysarEtPaBGviC¢anigtNðad¾Rkas;Xμwkrbs;eyIg. eRBaHEtehtucg;rs;hYsehtueBk enHÉg eTIbeyIgrgTukçevTnakñúgelakenH. dUecñH eyIgBitCaminGaceTArYckñúgkareQVgyl;fa etICIvitmanxøwmsar b¤minman enAkñúgelakenHedayKμankaryl;RtUv ¬smμaTidæi¦.6 xøwmsarCIvitkMlaMgkmμ&s'CIvitRtUv)anGFib,ayr:ayr:ab;fa CakarbUkbBa©ÚlKñaén {namnigrUb}. plénkarbUkbBa©ÚlKñaenH Pav³k¾cab;bdisn§ikñúgPB nigbnþpøas;bþÚrrhUtdl;rlt;eTAvij. eTaHbIya:gNa {namnigrUb} enHbegáItnUvFatub¤rUb kñúglkçN³epSg²KñaGaRs½yelIcriya karRbRBwtþrbs;mnusSmñak;²kñúgGtItkal. vIficitþenHbnþdMeNIrrhUt drabNakMlaMgkmμnigtNða enAEtman.xn§ 5 y:ag (Aggregates)&s'tamBuT§vcn³ CIvitRbmUlpþúMnUvxn§ 5 ¬bBa©xn§¦ man rUbxn§(material form), evTnaxn§ (feeling), sBaØaxn§ (perception), sgçarxn§(mental formation), nigviBaØaNxn§ (consciousness). FatuTaMg-Lay 4 Rbkar manFatudI (solidarity), FatuTwk (fluidity), FatuePøIg(heat), nigFatuxül; (motion) k¾naM[ekItrUbEdr. rUbxn§ nignamFm’ 4epSgeTot dUc)anEbgEckxagelI dUcCa evTna sBaØa sgçar nigviBaØaNRtUv)anbUkbBa©ÚlKñabegáIt)anCaCIvitmYy. lkçN³BiténbBa©kçn§enHRtUv)anBnül;eRbobeFobenAkñúgBuT§vcn³ dUecñHfa {rUbmanesckþIeRbobeFobnwgduMénBBuHTwk/ evTnamanesckþIeRbobeFobnwgRkeBjTwkEdle)a:geLIgRBYc² sBaØamanesckþIeRbobeFobnwgéfbeNþIrkUn sgçarTaMgLaymanesckþIeRbobeFobnwgedImeck viBaØaNmanesckþIeRbobeFobnwgklmaya}.karviPaKEvkEjkénCIvitEbbenH eyIgBitCaBi)akNas; edIm,IRsavRCavravrksc©PaB b¤xøwmsarCIvit dUcEdl)anBnül;rYcmkehIy.karviPaKénCIvitenH )aneFIV[manCMelaHy:agFn;FrekIteLIgcMeBaHCMenOsasnaTaMgLay enAkñúgsm½ykalenaH eRBaHRBHsmμasm


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nigyb;. cab;taMgBIéfEdleyIgekItmkkñúgelakenH karknøgeTAénéfnigyb; )ankat;RcwbnUvGayurbs;;eyIg[xøIeTA². TwkXμúMEdlRsk;cuHmk KWCakarbgðaj[eXIjBIesckþIsuxelakIy_ EdlcgmnusSenACab;kñúgGnic©PaB nigelakIy_ERbRbYlenH. burscitþFm’ Edl)anCYyhucédbgðajpøÚv edIm,IecjBIsßankard¾eRKaHfñak; KWRBHsmμasm


36 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIviteKaledA nigmaK’aCIvit&s'kñúgnamCamnusSCati eyIgRtUvEtmaneKaledAc,as;las;kñúgCIvitRbcaMéfrbs;xøÜn. mnusSEdlminRbkan;x¢ab;nUvsmμaGaCIv³ nwgEsVgrkeKaledACIvitmineXIjeLIy. Kat;GacbgáeRKaHfñak;dl;sgÁmCatiRbsinebI Kat;minRbkan;ykeKalkarN_c,ab;eTenaH. KμanmnÞilsgS½yeT GñkviTüasaRsþ nigGñkcitþsaRsþTaMgLay)anBRgIknUvbBaØarbs;eyIgEmnBit bu:EnþBYkeKminGacpþl;nUvxøwmsarCIvitdl;eyIg)aneTmanEteKalkarN_c,ab;EtmYybu:eNÑaH.kalBIedIm sasna)anbegáIteLIgdUcCamnusSniym edIm,IXuMRKgmnusS. bnÞab;mk k¾RtUv)anBnül;fa Cac,ab;rbs;eTvta. eTaHbICay:agNa maK’aCIvitRtUvEtman edIm,IFana)annUvKuNtémø nigesckþIéføfñÚrbs;mnusSCati. maK’aCIvitRtUv)anBiPaKSakñúgTIenH KWCaviFIsaRsþd¾éføføabMput eRBaHfa karceRmInGb;rMcitþenH mnusSGacseRmc)annUvelakutþrbBaØa.RbeTsTaMgLaymanbMNgCMnYseKalkarN_sasna edaysgÁmniym b¤smÖar³niym )anTTYlbraC½yenAkñúgsm½ykalTMenIbenH. vaTMngCafa mnusSRtUvEtmannUveKalkarN_d¾RbesIredIm,I[manPaBkkekþAkñúgCIvit.mnusSRtUvEteRCIserIsyknUvmaK’aCIvit EdlmanRbeyaCn_ nigRbkbedayeyaniesamnsikar edayqøgkat;karføwgEføgrbs;BYkKat;ehIymnusSminRtUvBwgelIeTvkfa TMenomTmøab; ehIynigRTwsþINamYyeLIy. eyIgminKYrKb,IbgçMnrNamñak;TTYlc,ab;sasna tamlkç½x½NÐNamYy mandUcCa CYykat;bnßyPaBRkIRk PaBminecHGkSr PaBevTnaedIm,IGenÞalGenÞagbuKÁlenaH[TTYlyknUvCMenOrbs;xøÜn.buKÁlmñak;²manesrIPaB kñúgkareRCIserIsykmaK’aCIvitEdlsmehtupl Rsbtamkaryl;eXIjrbs;xøÜnÉg. eday\tmankarBicarNasasnaxøHmanEtbgáTukçeTasdl; stibBaØa nigesckþIéføfñÚrrbs;mnusSbu:eNÑaH. CaFmμta mnusSmanvicarNBaØaNdwgxusdwgRtUv.eKGacEkERbxøÜneK eTAtamkarpøas;bþÚrkal³eTs³pgEdr. ehtuenHeKKYrKb,IeRCIserIsykmaK’aCIvitd¾RbesIréføfñÚrbMput ehIybuKÁlenaH k¾GacdwgnUvkþIsgÇwmrbs;eK. kñúgsßankarN_EbbenH sasnaRtUvEtdwknaMBYkeK[)anRbesIr ehIybnÞab;mk cUrpþl;»kasdl;BYkeKkñúgkarseRmccitþxøÜnÉg edayKμankarbgçitbgçM.BaküKYrriHKitmnusSminEmnCaTasénmnusSeT mnusSCaTasénRTBü kar)anCabuKÁlx


maK’akNþal&s'maK’aCIvitEdl)annwgkMBugEtBnül;TIenH KWCaRbB½n§Gb;rMpøÚvcitþEdlRtUv)aneKTTYlsÁal;TUTaMgBiPBelakGs;ry³eBl 25 stvtSr_knøgeTAehIy. GñkbegáItnUvmaK’aCIvitenH KWCaRKUEdl)anRtas;dwg nigbribUredaykruNaTiKuNd¾FMeFg. maK’aenHk¾RtUveKsÁal;fa CamaK’akNþal/ smμaGaCIv³ ¬karcwBa©wmCIvitRtUv¦/ RbB½n§GPismacar/ Gtþa-Fib,etyüFm’ ehIyk¾RtUv)aneKBnül;fa CamaK’aesrIPaB nigehtupl.vabeRgonnUvviFIsaRsþEdleyIgRtUvRbtibtþi bIy:ag KWevorcakkareFVInUvGMeBIGaRkk;/ RtUvbMeBjeFIVEtGMeBIl¥/ nigRtUvGb;rMcitþ[)anl¥rYcputBIeRKOgesAhμgTaMgLay.RTwsþIenH KWmansar³RbeyaCn_ nigKYrCaTIRbtibtþibMput. bu:EnþeKCYbpllM)akxøHenAeBlykRTwsþIenH eTAGnuvtþn_edaysarEtPaBTn;exSayrbs;mnusSxøÜnÉg. sIlFm’rbs;mnusS edIrtYCaEpñkmYyya:gsMxan;bMputkñúgmaK’aCIvitenH. RBHBuT§RTg;sMEdgfa ³BaküeRbonRbedArbs;RBHGgÁ minEmnsRmab;[mnusSeCOeTEtCaRTwsþIsRmab;Gnuvtþn_Rbtibtþi.RBHGgÁelIkTwkcitþmnusS [BüayamsikSaeQVgyl;nUvBaküeRbonRbedAenH GnuBaØat[BYkeKRtiHriHBicarNaxøÜneK faetIBYkeKKb,ITTYlykBaküTUnμanenH b¤Gt;. KμanbuKÁlNamñak;RtUv)aneKGMBavnav38 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvit[TTYlyknUvmaK’aCIvitenH edayKμankarKitføwgEføgBIBaküTUnμanenHCamunsinenaH k¾eTEdr. karbYgsYgbn;Rsn; nigbUCayBaØKμanRbeyaCn_eT enAkñúgmaK’aCIvitd¾]tþm. CMenOeqVg karxøacRBHGaTieTB nigmnþ-GaKmk¾minRtUv)anekatsresIreLIy.buKÁlmñak;²manesrIPaBkñúgkaresuIbGegÁtnUvBaküTUnμansRmab;BYkeK ehIynigsaksYredIm,Ikm©at;ecalnUvesckþIsgS½y. eyagtamRBHsmμasm


- smμaGaCIv³ = ciBa©wmCIvitRtUv/ (Perfect Livelihood);- smμavayam³ = karBüayamRtUv/ (Perfect Effort);- smμasti = karrlwkRtUv/ nig (Perfect Mindfulness);- smμasmaFi = kartaMgtmál;citþRtUv/ (Perfect Concentration)mCÄimb,dibTaenH KWCaRkmsIlFm’EdlCamaK’asRmab;mnusSTaMgLay dwknaMCIvitRbkbedaysuxsnþiPaB nigRbesIréføføa.mCÄimb,dibTaenH minEmnRtwmEtCabrmtßmKÁ TaMgminEmnCaelakiymKÁ/ vaminEmnCasT§anþniym 1 TaMgminEmnCaraCTNÐniym/minEmnkamsuxløikanueyaK TaMgminEmnCaGtþkilmfanueyaK/ minEmnCaGmtniym TaMgminEmnCabdibtþiniym/ minEmnCac,ab;RbTanedayskáeTvraC TaMgminEmnCakarekIt edaykarRsemIRsémrbs;mnusS.vaCamaK’aénkarRtas;dwg EdlrYcputBIesckþITukçTaMgBYg. maK’aénCIvitenH bdiesFnUvTsSn³Edlfa mnusSTaMgLayTTYlrgTukçevTnasBVéfeRBaHEtGMeBI)abEdlBYkeK)aneFIVkalBImun. RKb;Pav³rs;TaMgGs; manrukçCatiCaedIm k¾CYbRbTHnUvesckIþTukçevTnaEdr. mnusSRKb;rUbrkSanUvGMeBIkusl nigGkusltamxøÜn. mnusSBitCaRtUvTTYlxusRtUvTaMgesckþITukç TaMgesckþIsuxrbs;xøÜnpÞal;.1> sT§anþniym (dogmatism) karKitb¤esckþIyl;eXIjrbs;xøÜnRtUvCanic© ehIyBuMRBmTTYlykmtirbs;GñkdéTeT. Stating one’s own opinions in a strong wayand not accepting anyone else’s opinions.40 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvitmnusSEdl)anRbtibtþimCÄimb,dibTa TTYl)annUvesckþIsuxsnþiPaB nigsuPmgÁlBitR)akd. mnusSKb,IciBa©wmCIvitRbkbEtPaBéføfñÚr edaymin)aneFIVCaTaskrrbs;CMenONamYy nigrYmcMENkEckrMElknUvesckþIsuxsnþiPaB nigsuPmgÁlCamYyGñkCitxagenAkñúgsh-Kmn_ nigbriyakasenACuMvij.sabeRBaHBUCEbbNa TTYlplEbbenaH&s'maK’aCIvitenH bBa¢ak;[eXIjGMBImhicätad¾FMeFgrbs;mnusSCati. bu:Enþ vaGacTb;Tl;kat;bnßykarenOyNaynwgkargar kñúgCIvitRbcaMéf eRkABIkarpþl;nUvxøwmsardl;CIvitenH. vaminmankarP½yxøackñúgcMeNammhaCn. eFIVbuNü)anbuNü eFIV)ab)an)ab. eFIVGMeBIy:agNaTTYlply:agenaH. TaMgenH KWCac,ab;sakl. maK’aCIvitRbRBwtþieTARsbKñanwgmUldæanc,ab;TaMgenH ehIymnusSk¾RtUvEteFIVtamc,ab;enHnwg {sabeRBaHBUCy:agNa nwgTTYlply:agenaH}.mnusSRbRBwtþiGMeBIGaRkk;k¾edaysarEt elaP³ eTas³ nigemah³. PaBTn;exSayEbbenH GacykQñH)an qøgtamkarRtas;dwgbu:eNÑaH. mnusSKμanP½BV nigmanP½BVCYbRbTHenAkñúgelakenH KWminEmnedaysar\T§iBlNa eRkABIGMeBIkayTuc©rit vcITuc©rit nigmenaTuc©ritb¤kaysucrit/ vcIsucrit/ nigmenasucrit EdlBYkeK)anRbRBwtþikalBIeKaledA nigmaK’aCIvit 41


CatimunenaHÉg. Rtg;cMNucenH RBHGgÁRTg;Rtas;sEmþgfa eyIgekItmkGaRs½ykmμEdleyIg)aneFIVkalBIGtIt ehIyeyIgnwgekIteLIgk¾GaRs½ynwgplEdlkMBugeFIVenAbc©úb,nñenHEdr. ehtuenHehIy eyIgKb,ITTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHGIVRKb;y:ag enAkñúgCIvitrbs;eyIg.karlublag)ab KWminmaneT enAkñúgmaK’aCIvitenH. buKÁlKb,ITTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHTegVIrbs;xøÜn minfal¥ b¤GaRkk;eLIy. RbsinebIeyIgRbRBwtþinUvGMeBI)ab eyIgRtUvEtRbQmmuxTTYlnUvplrbs;va.viFIEtmYyKt;kñúgkarXat;citþGaRkk; KWeFVIEtGMeBIl¥. manEttamry³karhVwkhat;Gb;rMcitþ)anyUrGEgVgbu:eNÑaH eTIbcitþGackøaybrisuT§)an.RBHBuT§RTg;sEmþgfa esckþIsøab;minEmnCakarbBa©b;énCIviteT. mnusSstV KWRKan;EtCabNþúMéncitþ nigFatuTaMgLay ¬nam nigrUb¦bu:eNÑaH. esckþIsøab; KWRKan;EtCakarsRmakmYy enAkñúgvalvdþsgSar.dUecñH sBVstVEdlsøab;eTAk¾mindUcedIm b¤k¾køayCaTIéT kñúgkarbnþdMeNIrCIvit BImYyCatieTAmYyCati rhUtdl;)anseRmcnUveKaledACIvitenH.eyagtamBuT§vcn³ c,ab;kmμpledIrtYy:agsMxan;bMput enAkñúgCIvitrbs;eyIg. kñúgc,ab;ehtu nigplenH ehtudMbUgkøayCapl ehIyeRkaymkplenH k¾køayCaehtumþg. GIV²Edlman KWKμansßitesßreT.42 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvit&s'Gcäriyacarü&s'GñkrkeXIjviFIsaRsþenHminEmnCaeTvtaeT EtCaRKUGs©arüEdlRTg;Kg;Rbfab;enAkñúgBiPBelakenH. RBHBuT§minEdl)antaMgxøÜnRBHGgÁCaRBHGaTieTBeLIy bu:Enþ CamnusSGs©arü EdlxøÜnRBHGgÁpÞal;)anRtas;dwgnUvGriysc©³ 1 kmμpl b¤c,ab;sakl/ PaBGaf’kM)aMgénCIvit ehtunaM[ekItTukç nigesckþIsux. RBHGgÁk¾min)anRbkasfa CaeTvtapgEdr.sBVéfenH RBHGgÁminRKan;EtRtUv)aneKarBedaybris½Trab;rylanbu:eNÑaHeT b:uEnþ bBaØvnþTaMgLayk¾eKarBbUCaRBHGgÁEdr enATUTaMgBiPBelakenH. fVIt,it RBHBuT§GgÁ)ancUlbriniBVanehIyk¾eday EtRBHGgÁ)anbnSl;TuknUvBaküTUnμan sRmab;mnusSCatieFVIdMeNIrtam edIm,IrYcputBIesckþITukç esckþIesakesA esckþIP½yxøac karRBYy)armÖnigesckþImineBjcitþTaMgLayTaMgBYg. cMeBaHBaküeRbonRbedArbs;RBHGgÁ mnusSTaMgLayGacseRmc)annUvesckþIsux TaMgkñúgCatienHTaMgkñúgCatixagmux ehIyTIbMputrYccakBIesckþITukçTaMgBYg.1> Griysc©³ (The Four Noble Truths) : The Noble Truth of Suffering; TheNoble Truth of the Origin of Suffering; The Noble Truth of the Extinctionof Suffering; And The Noble Truth of the Parth that leads to the Extinctionof Suffering.eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvit 43


RBHGgÁ)anCYysRmalTukçdl;BYksBVstVTaMgLay. RBHGgÁ)anseRgÁaHdl;CnRkIRkEdleKmineGIeBIehIy. RBHGgÁk¾)anCYybuKÁlEdleKe)akR)as;[manPaBRbesIreLIg ehIyRBHGgÁk¾CYyeRbonRbedAdl;]RkidæCnTaMgLaypgEdr.RBHGgÁCYysRmalTukçdl;GñkTn;-exSayTaMgLay/ CYypSHpSabuKÁlEdlEbk)ak;samKÁI/ )anebIkEPñkbuKÁlmanPaBGviC¢a/ eFIV[Cak;c,as;dl;buKÁlEdlmanesckþIsgS½y/EfmTaMgjúaMgbuKÁlEdlefakTab[x


Edl)ansEmþgmkehIy. RBHGgÁCaGñksniTaniym 1 eRBaHRBHGgÁCaRKUd¾]tþm edaymancitþrYcRslHehIy. RBHGgÁCaGñkRtiHriHesrIniymeRBaHRBHGgÁEtgEtelIkTwkcitþénmnusSTaMgLay [KitedayÉkraCüedIm,IeQVgyl;BIsc©PaB. RBHGgÁmineCOeTAelIGaTieTB eRBaHRBHGgÁCaRKUbribUredaybBaØaEdlnaMmnusSTaMgLay.RBHGgÁ KWmin)anbBa©úHbBa©ÚlRKUl,I²TaMgLayeT. RBHGgÁminEdleRbIkarbgçitbgçM b¤bMPitbMP½ykñúgkarTak;Tajk¾eTEdr. RBHGgÁRTg;Bnül;;BImaK’aCIvitenH edaymin)anTak;TgeTAnwgkargarsasnaeLIy. GIVEdlRBHGgÁcg;)an KWeXIjmnusSstVTaMgLayrs;enARbkbedaysamKÁIPaB KμankarebotebonKña ehIynigrs;enAedayesckIþsuxsb,ay edaykarRbkan;ykBaküTUnμanrbs;RBHGgÁ.RBHGgÁ KWCaGñkbeRmIénmnusSCati/ RBHGgÁminEdlkeRmIkjab;j½r edaysarBaküsresIr b¤ninÞaeLIy. RBHGgÁmin)anGMBavnavmnusSTaMgLay[mkeKarBbUCaRBHGgÁ b¤bYgsYgcMeBaHRBHGgÁ edIm,IrYccakesckþITukçk¾eTEdr. RBHGgÁmin)anENnaMBaküTUnμanrbs;RBHGgÁfa CaRTwsþIKYrEtTTYlyk b¤fa CaRTwsþIrbs;RBHGaTieTB bu:EnþCaRTwsþIGb;rM nigCaRTwsþI[manCMenOeCOCak;dl;saFarNCn.1> GñksniTaniym (rationalist) mann½yfa GñkEdlmanehtuplc,as;las;. Inanother word, rationalist means someone whose actions and decisions arebased on reasons rather than emotions or beliefs.46 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvitsnþiPaB esckþIsux nigkarrYccakesckþITukç&s'sBVéfRTwsþIsnþiPaBrbs;RBHsmμasm


GacqøgputBIBiPBénesckþITukç eq


maK’aCIvit&s'maK’aCIvitenH KWc,as;las; smehtupl nigpþl;cemøIyeBjeljcMeBaHsMnYrsMxan;² nigbBaðaCIvitRKb;CMBUk. vapþl;nUvmUldæanRKwHsRmab;CYydl;mnusSCati [eq


sc©PaB&s'tamry³karRtas;dwg RBHsmμasm


enAkñúgmaK’aCIvitenH eyIgGaceXIjmanviFIbMeBjbuNükuslnigbBaØad¾l¥bMput. eyIgGacseRmc)anbBaØad¾]tþm qøgtamkarRtas;dwg ehIyminEmntamRbkasna 1 enaHeT. eyIgGacrYcputBIGMeBI)abTaMgBYg edaymincaM)ac;manGñklag)ab[eT. eyIgk¾GacrYccakTukçenAkñúgCatienH tamkarhVwkhat;Gb;rM\RnÞIy_rbs;xøÜn nigmincaM)ac;rg;caMTTYlenAkñúgCatixagmuxenaHeLIy.maK’aCIvitbeRgonfa mnusSminEmneFIVkarbeRmIsasnaeT bu:EnþsasnaRtUveFVIkarbeRmImnusSCativij. edIm,Imin[køayCaTaskrrbs;sasnaNamYy mnusSRtUvEteRbIsasnaenH sRmab;EtkareFIV[RbesIreLIg nigkarrYcputTukç. m:üageTot mnusSGacRbtibtþiRTwsþIenH [dUcCaGriybuKÁlTaMgLay edayminmanTTYlrgesckþITukç kñúgnaménCMenONamYyeLIy. maK’aCIvitenH min)anhamXat;nUvesckþIsuxelakIy_Edlmanehtupl nigéføfñÚrsmrmüenaHeT RbsinebI eKRbRBwtiþedayRbkan;x¢ab;nUveKalkarN_d¾RbéB.etIvaGaceTArYcb¤?&s'ebIKμanCMenOeTAelIGsIlFm’pg etImnusSGacmansT§a enAkñúgCIvit nigsIlEdreT?1> Rbkasna (revelation) karRbkas/ karbeBa©j[dwg/ sEmþgR)ab;[dwgral;Kña. Here,when something is made known that was secret, or the fact that is made known.54 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvitebIKμanc,ab;rdæGMNac etImnusSGackøayCamnusSl¥ )anEdrb¤?ebIKμanviFIbuNübYgsYgeT etImnusSGacdwknaMCIvittamGriymKÁEdreT?ebIsinNaCa KμansT§a nigCMenO etImnusSGacdwknaMCIvit edaykarciBa©wmRtUvEdrb¤eT?ebIminmanBwgEp¥kelIRBHGaTieTBNamYy etImnusSGacrYcputBIesckþITukç)anEdrb¤y:agNa?ebIsinNa KμanesckþITukçtamry³Gnutab³ ¬kareFVI[lM)akxøÜn¦ etImnusSGacRtas;dwgEdreT?ebIKμankarbegIátkarbMPitbMP½ykñúgcitþ etImnusSGacRbtibtiþnUveKalkarN_CIvitenHeT?ebIKμankarbgçitbgçM KRmamKMEhg etIeyIgGacENnaMnUvmaK’aCIvitd¾RbéBenHEdrb¤?ebIKμanCMenOGrUbI nigCMenOKμansc©PaB etIvaeTArYceT kñúgkareFIV[mnusSy:ageRcIn manCMenOedIm,IdwknaMCIvitbrisuT§?etImnusSGacelIkkMBs;tMélCIvitrbs;xøÜn)anb¤eT ebIKμanCMenOxagGFiFmμCati/ CMenOrhsSsaRsþ/ GaTieTB nigbBVCit?.RBHsmμasm


karyl;Cak;c,as;BIc,ab;kmμpl dUc)anGFib,ayedayRBHsmμasm nimμabnkmμ mann½yfa GMeBI b¤karbegáItGIV²edaybJT§i/ sil,³Epñkxagkarsag b¤tak;EtgnUvvtßúepSg²[)anl¥eqItqaydUcCanimμit.56 eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvitkarbric©aKkñúgmaK’aCIvitBitR)akd KWminEmnCaerOgburaN bu:Enþk¾minEmnCaerOgfIμEdr. TsSn³ehtupl/ saebkçniym 2 / \RnÞIyarmμN_/ehtukarN_niym/ kar[témøeTAelIsIlFm’/ karmineCOeTAelIGtþ³/ karminmanBak;B½n§GaTieTBGñkbegIátelak/ zansYK’CakEnøgGmt³ nigzannrkCaGmt³/ karbdiesFeTAelIkarbUCayBaØ nigdMeNaHRsay tambTBiesaFn_pÞal;rbs;xøÜn skmμPaBTaMgGs;enH enAEtmaneKalCMhrrwgbwugdEdl enAkñúgsgÁmTMenIbenH.]tþmCIvitkñúgsgÁmTMenIb&s'vatRmUv[manKuNFm’ nigmnsikar edIm,IjúaMgBiPBelakenH[mandMeNIrkarl¥ TaMgbc©úb,nñ nigGnaKt. maK’aCIvitenHnwgmansar³RbeyaCn_bMputcMeBaHmnusSRKb;rUb edIm,IsikSaeronsURt nig[témøvaenAkñúgsm½yTMenIbkmμenH. RTwsþIRtUveKsÁal;fa CaRTwsþIviTüasaRsþCagviTüasaRsþ ehIymandMeNIrrIkceRmInCagsarFatul,I² kñúgkarceRmInGb;rMpøÚvcitþ. vaCaRTwsIþd¾man\T§iBlbMputmYy sRmab;rkSaBiPBelakenH [mansnþiPaB samKÁIPaB nigkaryl;RtUv.2> saebkçniym (relativism) kñúgTIenHsMedAeTAelIlT§iTsSnviTüaniymfa karecHdwgmineTogGacERbRbYl)an.eKaledA nigmaK’aCIvit 57


KμankarerIseGIg&s'CabzmmaK’aCIvitenH )anRbqaMgtTl;eTAnwgkarRbkan;vNѳ.va)anbeRgonmnusSCati[kt;cMNaMfa »kasmanesμIKña cMeBaHmnusSkñúgkarerobcMxøÜnBYkeKRKb;CMhanénCIvit. maK’aCIvitenH k¾)anpþl;esrIPaBdl;RsþI[)ansikSa nigRbtibtiþ edIm,IseRmcnUvbBaØapgEdr.RBHsmμasm


dwknaMCIvitRbkbEtPaBRbesIréføføa edaymineboteboneTAelIbuKÁlNamYy.tamBit maK’aCIvitenHCacemøIycMeBaHbBaðaRKb;CMBUkrbs;eTvtanigmnusSTaMgLay. vapþl;nUvfamBld¾xøaMgkøa nigTisedA cMeBaHkarKitrbs;GñkeTAelIbBaðaerOgr:avTaMgpøÚvelak nigpøÚvFm’. vaCYyGñk[yl;BImaK’akarrs;enArbs;Gñk. Gñkyl;fa enHCamaK’aGb;rMEdlBiPBd¾GaRkk;RtUvkar. BuT§vcn³)anRbtisæanenAkñúgBiPBelak CakþIsgÇwmfIμCavb,Fm’fIμ CamaK’afIμ Casc©PaB nigmansar³sMxan;EdlCaP½sþútagenARKb;TIkEnøg ehIymkdl;bc©úb,nñenH vamanGayukalyUrGEgVgehIy. maK’aCIvitkñúgTIenH KWsMedAeTAelIRBHBuT§sasna ehIyGñkrkeXIjnUvsasnaenH k¾minmanbuKÁlNaeRkABIRBHsmNeKatm GñkRtas;dwgeLIy.minfaeKalbMNgCIvitrbs;GñkCaGIVeT EtsUmGeBa¢IjGñkTaMgGs;eFIVkarRkeLkemIlmaK’aCIvit EdlRBHsmμasm


etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?62 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?&s'EsnBi)akbMput kñúgkarEsVgrkmnusSEdlrYcputBIGtþTtßPaB.enHehIyCamUlehtuEdlkareQøaHTas;ETgExVgKMnitKña nigkarerIseGIgekItmanenAkñúgcMeNammhaCnenaH. BuT§sasnabeRgoneyIgTaMgGs;Kña [kat;bnßytNðakarR)afñacg;)an b¤mhicätarbs;eyIg. eyIg)anRbLÚkenAkñúgBiPBelakenH eyIgcg;dwgfa etIxusb¤eTkñúgkarmanmhicäta?. etIxusEdrb¤GIV ebImaneCaKC½yenAkñúgelakIy_enH. KMnitEdlmnusSTaMgLayKitTukkñúgcitþrbs;eK KWkarcg;køayCaevC¢bNÐitemFavI visVkr saRsþacarü RKUbeRgon b¤k¾GñkCMnYj KWsuT§EtCamhicäta.BuT§bris½TxøH)ansYrfa {RbsinebI BuT§sasnasresIrEtenkçmμ³ GBa©wgetIBuT§sasnikKYrKb,IvilRtLb;mkrkRTBüsm,tiþvij )anEdrb¤eT? kñúgelakenH KμanbuKÁlNamñak;Gacniyayfa karmanmhicäta CakarxusenaHeT ehIyk¾minGacyl;CMTas;nwgRBHBuT§sasnaEdr.dMbUnμansRmab;RKhsß&s'mnusSPaKeRcInyl;xusBIRBHBuT§sasna. RBHBuT§)ansEmþgy:agc,as;GMBImnusSTaMgBIrRbePT KW mnusSEdlmanbMNgcakecjBIBiPBelak ¬GnaKariybuKÁl¦ nigmnusSsßitenARKb;RKgpÞH ¬GaKariy-buKÁl¦. vin½y nigsikçabT RBHsmμasm


enAkñúgcitþrbs;eK. m:üageTot luHRtaEtmanGarmμN_Gs;sgÇwm b¤karbraC½yNamYy eTIbBYkeKecjbYs. buKÁlNaenOyNaynwgCIvitpñÜsk¾GacvilRtLb;eTAkan;ePTCaRKhsß ¬swk¦ vij)an. ehtuenH eyIgRtUvrgcaM rhUtkaryl;Cak;c,as;ekItmanR)akddl;eyIg.64 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?BuT§vcn³cMeBaHGñkRKb;RKgpÞH&s'esckþIsuxTI1 {Gtßisux³} KWkarsb,aynwgRTBüsm,tiþ EdlxøÜnmantamKnøgFm’. TI2³ {ePaKsux} KWkarcMNayRTBüenH edayRbéBdUceRbIR)as;sRmab;xøÜnÉg CYyTMnukbRmugRKYsar miRtsMLaj; sac;jatisnþan nigeFIVbuNükusl. TI3³ {Gnnsux³} KWesckþIsux eRBaHkarminmanCMBak;bMNuleK. TI4³ {GnvC¢sux³} esckþIsux eRBaHkarminmaneTaskMhus s¥ats¥M nigkarminRbRBwtþnUv)abTaMgBYgtampøÚvkaypøÚvvaca nigpøÚvcitþ. enAeBlGñkdwgfa xøÜnGñkrksuIciBa©wmCIvitedayesμaHRtg;enaH esckþIsux EdlGñkTTYl)antamry³RTBüsm,tiþEdlekInrbs;Gñk ceRmInnUvPaBeCOCak;enACIvitCaRKhsß. buKÁlxøH EdlRbwgERbgrkRTBüsm,tiþ)anmkehIy EtEbrCaKμanesckþIsux EfmTaMgeRbI-R)as;RTBüsm,tiþenaH min)anRtwmRtUvtamKnøgFm’eTotpg. RBHsm


mnusSxøHniyayfa BuT§sasnajúaMgRbeTsTaMgLay min[eFIVdMeNIrvivtþeTAmuxeT EtEbrCaeFIV[QanbkeRkayvij. minEtbu:eNÑaHBYkeKEfmTaMgniyayfa BuT§sasnaniyayEtBIesckþITukç ehIyTTUcsMu[mnusSTaMgLaylHbg;ecalnUvCIvitelakIy_ eTAGgÁúysmaFienAkñúgéRBeTotpg. cMeBaHehtuenH KWfa kalBIGtIkal BYkbs©wmRbeTsTaMgLay)ancat;TukBuT§sasna Ca {sasnaTuTidiæniym}. CakarBitEdlBuT§sasnaniyayBIesckþITukçénCIvit. bu:EnþbBaðaenHminEmneFIV[BuT§sasnaCasasnaTuTidæiniymeT. CamYyKñaenH eyIgk¾minGacehAelakevC¢bNiÐtEdlR)ab;GñkCmWfa Kat;nwgRtUvsøab;edayeraKmharIkCaRKUeBTü {TuTidæiiniym} Edr. sasnamYyCasasnaTuTidæiniym)anRbsinebI sasnaenaHniyayedaysamBaØfa CIvit KWeBareBjedayesckþITukçesakseRgg. bu:Enþ enAkñúgBuT§sasna »vaTd¾c,as;RtUveBaleTAelIfa etIRtUveFIVdUcemþc edIm,I[manesckþIsuxsuPmgÁl nigkarsb,ayrIkray enAkñúgCIvitRbcaMéfrbs;eyIg.Gtßn½ymaK’akNþal&s'RBHBuT§CaRKUsasnad¾skmμ nigmanviriyPaBCaTIbMput. RBHGgÁRTg;TUnμanmnusSTaMgLayTaMgBYg [eRbIR)as;nUvCMnaj nigbBaØa rbs;eKenAkñúgCIvitRbcaMéf. BuT§sasnikminKYrKb,IdwknaMCIvitedaygay²66 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?nigPaBx¢ilRcGUs ehIyriHKn;BuT§sasnacMeBaHPaBbraC½yrbs;xøÜnNamYyeLIy. BuT§sasnikd¾l¥RtUvmanviriyPaB. BuT§sasnikRtUvEtRbwgERbgyk[)annUvesckþIl¥brisuT§. BYkeKminRtUvBnüareBlkñúgkargaredayGagelsfa ekþAeBk b¤rgaeBkenaHeT. BaküeRbonRbedArbs;RBHGgÁcMeBaHRKhsß KWminRtUvFUreBk ¬kamsuxløikanueyaK³¦ ehIyk¾minRbRBwtþi[twgeBk ¬GtþkilmfanueyaK³¦enaHEdr. buKÁlRKb;rUbRtUvEtBüayamdwknaMCIvitenH RbkbedayesckIþsux senþas nigsnþiPaB.BuT§sasnaRtUv)aneKsÁal;fa CamaK’akNþal ¬mCÄimb,dibTa¦.eTaHCay:agNa vaCakarBitNas;Edlfa CIvitCaRKhsßGacgayRsYlCH\T§iBlelIGñk kñúgkarrMelaPbMBannwgc,ab;sasna enAeBlmankarl,ÜglYgelam esckþIRtUvkar nigesckþIekþARkhayekIteLIg. Gñk)anEhlqøgkat;PaBlM)aky:ageRcIn enAkñúgCIvitRbcaMéfkñúgnamCaRKhsßenH. GñkR)akdCayl;fa vaEsnBi)akxøaMgNas;kñúgkarrkSaPaBesμaHRtg; sb,úrs niigkarGt;Fμt; ¬xnþI¦. enHk¾CakarBitpgEdr EdlmanmnusStictYcGackøayCasasnikd¾l¥ kñúgCIvitCaRKhsß. karTTYlxusRtUv katBVkic© nigParkic©rbs;Gñk GacqaeqArMxancitþrbs;GñkRKb;eBl. vabgáerOgehtu[GñkeFIVnUvGIVEdlRbqaMgnwgsm,CBaس ¬esckIþdwgxøÜn¦ rbs;Gñk. RbsinebI GñkBüayamkøayCaGFimutiþsasnikkñúgxøÜnCaRKhsß Gakb,kiriyarbs;GñknwgminGacRtUvCamYysmaCikRKYsar miRtP½kþi nigGñkCitxagrbs;GñkeT. RbsinebIetIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤? 67


GñkRbtibtþitamk,Ünc,ab; EdlRtg;y:agBiess cMeBaHRBHPikçúsgÇEdlCaGñkminRKb;RKgpÞHenaH karTMnak;TMngrbs;GñknwgRtUveKesIccMGkehIyBYkeKGaccat;TukGñkfa CamnusSeRkAsgÁmEfmeTotpg. dUecñHcUrBüayamdwknaMCIvittamsmKYr edayrkSanUvc,ab;vin½ysasnaEdlsmehtupllμm. enHCameFüa)ayEdleFIV[GñkecosputBIGFimutiþsasnik.m:üageTot RbsinebI GñkRbtibtiþtwgrwgeBk mnusSTaMgLayminRtwmEtesIccMGk[GñkeT bu:EnþBYkeKnwgmanmicäaTidæicMeBaHBuT§vcn³eBalKWGIVEdlRBHGgÁ)ansEmþgTukmk. RbsinebI GñkminEmnCaGñkniymRCulhYsehtueBkeT GñkGacrs;enA nigeFIVkar)angay sUm,IEtCamYyBahirsasnik. RBHBuT§RTg;sEmþgfa GñkRtUvEtdwgBIEdnkMNt;rbs;eyIgkñúgerOgehtuRKb;y:ag. cUrRbtibtþic,ab;TUnμansasnaTaMg-LayEdleKTTYlsÁal;Casakl. kñúgnamCaGñkRKb;RKgpÞH Parkic©rbs;Gñk KWdwknaMCIvit tammaK’asasnad¾samBaØmYy xN³eBlEdlGñkbMeBjkatBVkic©cMeBaHRKYsarrbs;Gñk. RbsinebI GñkRBegIykenþIynwgTMnYlxusRtUvrbs;Gñk cMeBaHRKYsar GñkGacnwgCYbRbTHnUvbBaða. GñkdéTGacKitfa GñkCamnusSKμan)ankar.GñkRtUvEtecHvinicä½ynUvmaK’aCIvitrbs;Gñk cMeBaHRbeTsCatinigshKmn_EdlGñkrs;enA edayminRbRBwtþiRbqaMgnwgvb,Fm’ RbéBNIRbsinebI vaKμankarb:HBal;eTenaH. GñkKYrKb,IeFIVshRbtibtþikarCamYyGñkdéTeTot edaymineFIVGakb,kiriyafa sasnarbs;GñkKWCa68 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?sasnaEtmYyKt;EdlRtUv\tex©aH. BuT§sasna CasasnaesrIPaBniymBit². sasnaenH eKarBGFibtIPaBrbs;sasnadéT. eyaniesamnsikar³nigkaryl;dwgrbs;Gñk KWBitCasMxan;xøaMgNas;kñúgkarRbtibtþisasna.sarCatiénmhicäta&s'buKÁlRKb;rUbEtgEtsb,ayrIkray nwgRbePTénmhicäta. enAeBlniyayBIRBHsmμasm


KW eRBaHEtesckþIR)afñarbs;eyIgenACab;edaytNða nigkþI)armÖeTAkñúgkamsuxelakIy_. m:üagvijeTot esckþItaMgcitþR)afñarbs;RBHBuT§ KWkñúgbMNgrMedaHxøÜnRBHGgÁecjBIGtþTtßPaB ehIyedIm,ICYyseRgÁaHdl;GñkdéT. eyIgceRmInesckþIR)afñarbs;eyIg edayrMxanesckþIsuxGñkdéT.eRBaHehtuenaHehIy eyIgkMBugEtbgábBaða nigesckþIekþARkhl;Rkhaydl;BiPBelak. eyIgmanqnÞ³eFIVnUvGMeBIGkuslb¤GMeBIGsIl-Fm’sRmab;EtesckþIsuxrbs;xøÜnbu:eNÑaH. RsbtamTsSn³BuT§sasnamhicätaGatμaniymenH minEmnCaesckþIR)afñad¾l¥eLIy.GIVEdleyIgKYrKb,IBüayameFIVenaH KWRtUvceRmInRbePTmhicätad¾]tþm edaykarxitxMRbwgERbgy:agsVitsVaj edIm,IseRmc)anesrIPaBesckþIsux suPmgÁl nigrYcputBIbBaðaelakIy_Edlmanrbs;eyIg.mhicätaenH KWKμankarebotebon nigsmehtuplbMput. eTaHbICay:agNa enHk¾minEmnCaeKaledATIbMputEdr eyIgminRtUvCab;CMBak;nwgesckþIR)afñaelakIy_beNþaHGasnñTaMgenHeT. eKaledAd¾x


etIeyIgGacrs;enA)anEdrb¤ ebIKμantNða?&s'mnusSmYycMnYnFujRTan;nwgsMnYrenH. RbsinebI km©at;bg;nUvtNða KWsMxan;Nas;kñúgkarseRmcnUvTIbMputTukç GBa©wgetIeyIgGacrs;enAedayKμantNða)anEdrb¤eT? vaRtUvehIyEdlfa PaBcaM)ac;epSg²dUcCa Gahar sMelokbMBak; TIlMenA esvakmμdwkCBa¢Ún nigfñaMBüa)aleraK KWRtUvEtmanedayxanmin)ansRmab;CIvitrbs;eyIg. TnÞwmKñaenHeyIgRtUvEtmancMNUl edIm,IpÁt;pÁg;RKYsar vaCakarbMeBjParkic©rbs;eyIg. karCab;CMBak;cMNgcMeBaHsVamI b¤RbBn§ kUnecA KWCac,ab;Fmμ-Cati. eyIgminKYrKb,Icat;cMNgEbbenH fa CakarRbmafsasnaeT.RBHBuT§RTg;Rtas;sEmþgfa PvtNðanaMmknUvbBaðaTaMgBYg bu:EnþRBHGgÁmin)ansEmþgfa GñkRtUvEteFIVTaruNÐkmμxøÜn enAxN³eBlBüayamlHbg;nUvtNðaenH. enAkñúgBuT§sasna tNðaenHKWminEmnGMeBI)abeLIybu:Enþvabgá[manGkuslcitþ b¤k¾skmμPaBGaRkk;TaMgenHekIteLIgBIGviC¢a Edlbg¥ak;dMeNIrGb;rMcitþrbs;eyIg. kñúgBuT§sasna eyIgceRmInGb;rMbBaØatamlMdab;fñak;. dMbUgeyIgRtUvpSaycMeBaHbuKÁlEdleyIgRsLaj;kñúgRKYsarrbs;eyIgpÞal;. bu:Enþ eyIgRtUveFIVkargary:agNasRmab;CaRbeyaCn_dl;shKmn_pg. meFüa)ayenH eyIgGackMNt;dwgBIsarCatiCamnusSrbs;eyIg edIm,ITTYlsarCatiCaeTvta.RBHBuT§manRBHT½ycg;sEmþgEtBIeTas rbs;PaBGatμaniymbu:eNÑaH.72 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?mnusSceRmInnUvKMnitGatμaniymTaMgenH sRmab;esckþIsuxelakIy_EdlbNþal[RbRBwtþiEtGMeBIGsIlFm’TaMgLay. karRbwgERbgrbs;eyIgcMeBaHtRmUvkarenH GacmansuCIvFm’)an RbsinebI eyIgminceRmInnUvtNðaenHRCulhYsehtu EdlebotebonGñkdéTeTenaH. BuT§sasnak¾dUcCasasnaepSg²eTot sEmþgbgðaj[eXIjBIeTasénGMeBIGatμaniymenH.lHbg;tNða&s'RbsinebI KMnitGatμaniymEsnBisBl; GBa©wg etIeyIgGaclHbg;va)anEdr b¤y:agNa? enAeBlmanPaBlM)aklHbg;nUvcMNg cMeBaHRTBüsm,tiþpÞal;xøÜn eyIgk¾KYreQVgyl;fa etIGñkdéTmanGarmμN_y:agNaEdr cMeBaHRTBürbs;eK? ehtuenaHehIy eTIbeyIgrkSasikçabTevorcakkarkan;ykRTBürbs;EdleKmin)an[edaykayb¤edayvaca nigQb;manKMnitb:unb:gcg;)anRTBürbs;GñkdéT. eBleyIgQb;manKMnitGatμaniym enHehIyeQμaHfa eyIg[GñkdéTrs;enAedayKμanPaBP½yxøacBIkar)at;bg;RTBürbs;BYkeK. eBleyIgkMNt;dwgnUvkamtNðaenHehIyeyIgKb,IQaneTAhVwkhat;Gb;rMcitþrbs;eyIg edaykarBicarNafa PaBcaM)ac;rbs;eyIg Carbs;mineTogTat; ehIyenHRKan;EtbMeBjnUvParkic©rbs;eyIgbu:eNÑaH. ]TahrN_fa RbsinebI eyIgmanetIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤? 73


luykak;eRcIn eyIgKYrKb,IykR)ak;enH Ca»kaskñúgkarCYymnusSCatiTaMgLayrbs;eyIg. buKÁlEdlminmanluykak;R)ak;kasTaMgenaHGacpþl;nUvkarKaMRT nigshRbtibtþikarsRmab;RbeyaCn_saFarN³.Rtg;cMNucenH eyIgRtUvEtKitfa eyIgKWCaGñkGPirkSRTBürbs;EtmYyKt; EdleyIgGHGagCarbs;eyIg.RbsinebI gb;gulnwgsmÖar³niymhYsehtu eyIgnwgCYbRbTHnwgbBaðaRKb;CMBUk. esckþIP½yxøac Gsnþisux nigPaBsgS½ynwgrMxancitþsb;rbs;eyIg. enHCatémøEdleyIgRtUvbg; sRmab;karCab;CMBak;cMeBaHRTBüsm,tiþ. BieRBaHEtcMNgenH eTIbmnusSxøHkøayCaviklcritenAeBlBYkeK)at;bg;nUvRTBüsm,tiþrbs;eK edayeRKaHFmμCati b¤ecarlYc. BuT§sasnabeRgoneyIgmin[Cab;CMBak; edayKμanehtupleTAnwgRTBüsmÖar³enaHeT. TIbBa©b; eyIgk¾minGacykvaeTAtamxøÜn)anenAeBleyIgsøab;.RbsinebI eyIgBitCacg;manesckþIsuxsnþiPaB viFIEtmYyKt;EdleyIgGaceFIVeTA)an KWkat;bnßynUvTMnYlxusRtUvrbs;eyIg. cUrBüayamEckrMElkRTBüsm,tiþrbs;Gñk cMeBaHGñkdéTEdlmanÉksiT§ikñúgkarTTYlyk CaBiesseTAeTot cUrbric©aKRTBüTaMgenHcMeBaHsμÚmyackb¤k¾smNRBahμN_TaMgLay. RbsinebI GñkeFIVy:aghñwg)ancitþrbs;GñknwgrYcRsLHBIesckþIelaPln; ¬elaP³¦. RbsinebI eyIgcg;ceRmInGb;rMedaypøÚvcitþ eyIgRtUvEteRtomxøÜnCaeRscedIm,IbUCanUv74 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?RTBüsm,tiþrbs;eyIgsRmab;CnTUeTA. cMNucenH eyIgmann½yfaeyIgbUCacMeBaHbuKÁlTaMgLayNa EdlrgTukçedaysarPaBRkIRk CmWtmáat; nigmhnþrayepSg². eTaHCay:agNa karRbTUsr:ay nwgkarCMBak;RTBüsm,tiþc,as;CaekIteLIg edayFmμCati eBalKWkaryl;eXIjBit. eBleyIgceRmInGb;rMpøÚvcitþ PaBGviC¢apþl;pøÚv[bBaØa. bnÞab;mkeyIgnwglHbg;nUvsm,tiþenHy:ags¥at. karecjbYsenH naMesckþIsuxd¾]tþm ¬brmsux¦ mk[ eRBaHvaRbkbedaybBaØaénkareXIjnUvvtßúTaMgLay tamsPaBBitrbs;va.esckþIsb,ayrIkray&s'buKÁlTaMgLayNaEdlmin)andwgfa etIRtUvEfrkSanUvesckþIsb,ayrIkrayEbbNa enAeBldwknaMCIvitelakIy_enH R)akdCamin)anTTYlnUvesckþIeBjcitþeLIy. BYkeKceRmInEtesckþIRcENnQñanisesckþIsgS½y nigesckþIP½yxøac. BYkKat;CYbRbTHEtnwgesckþIP½y-RBYy nigGsniþsux. ehtudUecñHehIy eTIbRBHBuT§RTg;sEmþgfa esckþIsb,ayrIkray KWCaRTBüd¾RbesIrbMput. RbCaCnRkIRkKitfa GñkmanRTBüsm,tiþeRcIn manesckþIsux nigsMNagxøaMgNas;. BYkeKmin)andwgBIesckþIP½yRBYy nigPaBraymayrevIrvayEdlrMxancitþrbs;GñkmanenaHeT. GñkmanRTBüsm,tiþedkmin)anEq¥teLIy. cMENkGñkRketIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤? 75


vij minEdlCYbbBaðaEbbhñwgeT eTaHbIBYkKat;CYbRbTHnwgbBaðalM)akdéTeTotk¾eday. GñkRkkþI GñkmankþI GacmanesckþIsuxsb,ayBit²RbsiinebIBYkeKrIkray nigminmanbMNgb:unb:gcMeBaHRTBüGñkdéT.Rtg;esckþIenH eyIgGacniyayfa GñkmanRTBü nigGñkKμanRTBü KWesμIKña.éfmYy RBHsmμasm


YcenaHeT kñúgkarTTYl)annUvesckþIsuxenH drabNaesckþIP½yxøacesckþIsgS½y nigclaclpøÚvcitþ enAman. mhicätaEdleyIgb:gR)afñaGacbgá[manesckþIGs;sgÇwm nigbraC½y RbsinebIvaCasPav³GatμaniymenaH.cMeNHdwgsasnamansar³sMxan; kñúgkarEfrkSanUvsuxumal-PaBpøÚvcitþ RbQmmuxeTAnwgsßanPaBelakIy_minCaTIeBjcitþTaMg-Lay. eBlkarERbRbYl nigkarEbk)ak;ekIteLIg eyIgRtUvEtsRmbtammaK’aCIvitrbs;eyIg. minmanRbeyaCn_Tal;EtesaH Edlniyayfa RBHBuT§sasnahamR)ammnusSBItNða nigesckþIelaPln;.esckþIelaPln;cMeBaHRTBüsm,tiþ mnusS b¤TsSn³minmanCab;tamCamYynUvTNÐkmμenaHeT. RKb;skmμPaBEdlBuT§sasnaeFIV KWedIm,IBnül;BIRbtiXat 1 dlekIteLIgenAeBlbuKÁlmñak;køayCaTaskrtNðanigesckþIelaPln;. enHKWRKan;EteRbobbIdUcCamatabitaTUnμankUnmin[elgCamYy ePøIg dUecñaHÉg.mnusSminGacCYbRbTHnwgesckþIsuxelakIy_ nigesckþIelaPln;enH ebIKμankarbg;éføeTAelIesckþIRBYy)armÖ nigesckIþesakesA.eKRtUvEteRtomxøÜnrYceRscedIm,ITTYlpl RbsinebI eKBitCacg;rIkraynwgCIvitelakIy_enH. cMeBaHbuKÁlTaMgLayNaEdlmin)andwgnUvplnwgkøayCamnusSGs;sgÇwm y:agFn;FrbMput.1> RbtiXat (repercussion) PaBTgÁúkTegÁIEdlEtgekIteLIgBIerOgGIVmYy.78 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?kal³eTs³ERbRbYl edaysarcas;Cra nigCmWtmáat;epSg² k¾Gace)aHbg;ecalnUvesckþIsuxEbbenHEdr. mnusSEdlmin)aneRtomxøÜnedIm,IRbQmmuxnwgbBaðaenH Qandl;eFVIGtþXat b¤køayviklcritxUcsμartI. dUecñH cUrkMucat;TukBuT§sasnaCasasnaTuTidæiniymeLIyeRBaHfa BuT§sasnacg¥úlbgðajnUvsc©PaBénCIvit. BuT§vcn³TaMgGs;bgðajeyIgnUvrebobdwknaMCIvitenH Rbkbedayxøwmsar nigsuxsnþiPaBedaysarys;c,as;nUvFmμCatiBitrbs;mnusSeyIg. BuT§sasnaCasasnasuTidæiniymbMputkñúgcMeNamsasnaTaMgGs;kñúgelak.sPaBénkamtNða&s'eyIg)anBiPakSaKñarYcehIyfa ehtuGIV)aneyIgRtUvkarkat;bnßycMNg;rbs;eyIg? ehIyetIeyIgkat;bnßyedayrebobNa? eyIgk¾)anBnül;BIcMNg;cMeBaHRTBüsm,tiþbuKÁldéT k¾dUcCacMNg;cMeBaHRTBüsm,tiþrbs;xøÜnpÞal;Edr. RbsinebI eyIgkm©at;nUvcMNg;TaMgBIrRbePTenH)an eyIgnwgenAmantNðacMeBaHrUbragkayrbs;eyIgeTot.cMNg;cMeBaHrUbragkayenH KWxøaMgkøaNas;. mnusSesÞIrEtTaMgGs; nwgminmanqnÞ³eFIVBlikmμGIVmYyBIkayrbs;eK sRmab;CaRbeyaCn_saFar-N³eLIy. edayPaBGviC¢a BYkeKsmøab;CIvitbuKÁldéT kñúgkarkarBarragkayrbs;BYkeK. bu:Enþ enAeBlBYkeKyl;dwgBIFmμCatiEkøgkøayetIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤? 79


KμanxøwmsarnigmineTogTat;énrUbragkayenH eKnwgRtac;creTAkEnøgEsnqay edIm,IbUCanUvbsaTrUbenHBIragkayrbs;eK edaysareFIVy:agenH eKnwgGackat;bnßynUvcMNg;d¾xøaMgkøa cMeBaHrUbragkay)an.mnusSEdlGacyl;BIPaBmineTogTat;énCIvitenH nwgmanqnÞ³eFIVBlikmμbUCaCIvitrbs;Kat; edIm,ICYyseRgÁaHCIvitGñkdéT. buKÁlRbePTenHsIlFm’ nigKuNFm’ KWmansar³sMxan;;CagCIvit. enHCamaK’aEdlbNÐitkat;bnßynUvcMNg;rbs;BYkeK mYyCMhanmþg². bMNgCacm,génkarkm©at;ecjnUvcMNg;enH KWedIm,IrYcputBIesckþITukçTaMgEpñkpøÚvkay nigpøÚvcitþ.RBHBuT§)ankm©at;bg;nUvcMNg;rbs;RBHGgÁ BImYyCatieTAmYyCati. edaykarceRmInnUvsIlsikça kñúgkardkbJskiels edaykarlHbg;nUvesckþIsuxelakIy_rbs;RBHGgÁ ehIysUm,IEtvapþl;»kas y:ageRcIndl;CIvitrbs;RBHGgÁpÞal;. RBHGgÁ)anseRmceKaledAénkarRtas;dwgrbs;RBHGgÁ edIm,ICYyseRgÁaHGñkdéT[rYcputBIesckþITukç.mhabursmanqnÞ³eFIVBlikmμbUCaCIvitrbs;xøÜn edIm,ICYyrMedaHGñkdéTBIesckþITukçTaMgBYg. cMeBaHGñkTaMgGs;enaH CIvit KWKμann½yesaHeLIyRbsinebIva minRtUv)aneKeRbI edIm,ICYyGñkEdledIrtameRkayeTenaH.RBHeys‘URKws (Jesus Christ)/ elak sURkat (Socrates)/ elakmhatμKn§I(Mahatma Gandhi)/ elak m:aTIn lUFW Xij (Martin LutherKing) )anBlikmμbUCaCIvitrbs;xøÜn sRmab;esckþIsuxCnTUeTA. bu:Enþ80 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?eQμaHrbs;BYkeKminEdlsøab;eLIy. mnusSTUTaMgBiPBelakcgcaM nigeKarBBYkKat;. cMENkÉbuKÁldéTeTot CaGñkRbRBwtþiGMeBIGatμaniymehIybgáGsnþisux GBmgÁl dl;mnusSCatienaH minRtUv)aneKeKarBeLIy. bnÞab;BIsøab; BYkeKTaMgenaHRtUv)anmnusSelakcgcaMRtwmEtkarRbTUsr:ay nigesckþIs¥b;ex


sBVéfenH BiPBelakTaMgmUlkøayCasmrPUmiedaysarcMNg;GatμaniymenHÉg. cuHehtuGIV)anmnusSTaMgLaycg;eFIV)ab nige)akbeBaäatGñkdéT? ehtuGIV)anCaBYkeKcg;eFIVGMeBIGsIlFm’ nigGMeBIxusc,ab;? enHKWeRBaHEtcMNg;tNðaGatμaniymrbs;BYkeKhñwgÉg. skmμ-PaBEbbenH bNþal[G½BÞGYenAkñúgCIvitrbs;eK ehIybgánUvesckþITukçRKb;CMBUkEfmeTot.CMenOkñúgTegIVGsIlFm’enH KWeRbobbIdUcCasárRKab;EdleK[eTAkUnekμgbriePaK edIm,I[Kat;ePøckarQWeFμjrbs;Kat;GBa©wg. mnusSPaKeRcInminGacTTYlyknUvsßanPaBénCIivit Edlsgát;sgáinenHeTluHRtamanGñkR)ab;fa manPBGmt³EdleBareBjedayesckþIsuxbnÞab;BIsøab;eTA. BYkeKlg;exøANas;kñúgkarTTYlyknUvesckþþITukçenAkñúgbc©úb,nñCatienH edaysgÇwmnwgTTYl)annUvPBGmt³ enAkñúgzansYK’NamYybnÞab;BIsøab;eTA. ehtuenaHehIy eTIb)anCaelak kalm:ak (Karl Marx) )anvayRbhar edayKat;niyayfa {sasnaKWCaeRKOgejónénmnusSelak}.tamFmμta mnusSBalEtQøk;eTAnwgKMnitEbbenH ehIyminEdlBüayamsYrnaMBIsuBlPaBénCMenOeT. BYkeKmindwgnUvFmμCatiBiténPBeLIy. CYnkalBuT§bris½TEdlminyl;BIRBHFm’k¾gayFøak;eTAeKarBbuKÁlEdlniyayGMBIesckIþsuxGmt³ enAkñúgzansYK’Edr. eBlmaneKR)ab;BYkKat;BIkEnøgEbbenH BYkKat;k¾beg¥aneTAtamcMNg;revI-82 etIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤?rvaycg;)annUvCIvitGmt³enH. BYkeKRtUvEtyl;fa sUm,IEtCIvitenAkñúgzansYK’k¾mineTogTat;pg. manEtRBHniBVanmYyKt;CasßanGmt³.vaCasßanEdlminmankielstNða eBalKWminmankarekIt nigminmanesckþIsøab;.mnusSCaeRcIn minTan;eRtomxøÜnTTYlyknUvsc©PaBenHeT.RbsinebIsc©PaBenH minCaTIeBjRtecokrbs;eK Kat;minsþab;. sc©-PaBnwgminCaTIeBjcitþénCnEdlCaTaskrrbs;kamtNðaeLIy. sc©PaB KWsPavFmμCatimYy ehIyminecHlMeGog. eyIgk¾minmankþIGs;sgÇwm eBleyIgdwgc,as;nUvlkçN³FmμCatisakl. sc©PaBminbt;EbneTAtamtRmUvkarGatμaniymrbs;eyIgeT. eyIgRtUvEtyl;nUvsc©-PaBenH.GaRs½yGMeBIkmμEdleyIgksag nwgeFIV[cMNg nigtNðarbs;eyIg[kan;EtEvgGnøayenAkñúgsgSarvdþenH. karekItnaMmknUvcas;CraBüaFi nigesckþIsøab;. enHCasPav³CaTukçénPB ehIycab;bdisn§i enAEpñkNamYykñúgsaklelak. drabNa eyIgGenÞalvilvl;ekItsøab;enAkñúgvdþsgSarenHkan;EtyUrGEgVg eBlenaHeyIgk¾CYbRbTHnUvesckþITukçminecHcb;pgEdr. eyIgsáb;sál;nwgcMNg;tNðarbs;eyIgeT. karEq¥tq¥n;nwgcMNg;rbs;eyIg KWCabraC½ymYy. enAeBleyIgeBjcitþnwgcMNg;mYy eRkaymkeyIgk¾FujRTan;nwgcMNg;enH ehIyEsVgrkcMNg;déTeTotCaeRcIn bIdUcCaGñkejonfñaM y:agenaHÉg. RBHBuT§RTg;)anetIRKan;EtmanmhicätaxusEdrb¤? 83


diesFnUvCMenO eTAkñúgCIvitGmt³enH eRBaHRBHGgÁRTg;RCabc,as;nUvFmμCatiénPBenH. RBHGgÁmanbMNg[eyIgyl;BIPaBmineTogTat;énPvcká ¬cRkPB¦.karekIt KWCaehtucm,génbBaða nigGBmgÁlTaMgLay. CaFmμta karQøk;vegVgeTAnwgCMenOminR)akdniym enACatixagmux eyIgnwgminTTYl)annUvGIVEdleyIgb:gR)afñaeLIy. BYkeKmanEtkarRsemI-Rsémbu:eNÑaH. FmμCatisaklelakenH KWminGacERbRbYleT. vaminedIrmkrkeyIg tamkarR)afñarbs;eyIgenaHeLIy. eyIgCaRbFanenAkñúgc,ab;saklenH. PaBGviC¢arbs;eyIg c,ab;KtiyutþenH KWKμankarGP½yeTascMeBaHkMhusqÁgrbs;eyIgeT. ekμgd¾s¥ats¥MGacsøab;edaysareRKaHfñak;ePIøgGKÁisnIqk; eRBaHEtPaBeqatlg;. eyIgminGacRbEkktv:afa Kat;RtUvEtrs;eRBaHminmankMhusenaHeLIy. ehtuénkarsøab;rbs;Kat;KWPaBGviC¢a. manEtcMeNHdwg nigbBaØaEtmYyKt;EdlGac CYyseRgÁaHeyIg)an.c,ab;saklmineFIVRbtibtþikarelIkareRkveRkaF eBorevra karsgswk b¤KMnuMKMukYn. Parkic©rbs;eyIgKWrs;enARsbtamc,ab;enH RbsinebIeyIgcg;ecosputBIesckþITukçTaMgBYg. eyIgminGacEkERbc,ab;enH edaykareKarBbn;Rsn;bYgsYg cMeBaHnrNamñak;eLIy. enHKWCaGIVEdlRBHsmμasm


eyIgRtUvEtcgcaMfa BuT§sasnaminRbqaMgCMTas;nwgbuKÁlEdlmanCIvit RbkbedayesamnsSrIkray kMLúgeBlrs;enAelIPBEpndIenHeLIy. RBHBuT§GgÁRTg;sEmþgGMBImCÄimb,dibTa ¬maK’akNþal¦.RBHGgÁKaMRTnUvmaK’aCIvitEdlRbkbedayPaBéføfñÚrsmrmü nigRbkbedayvicarNBaØaNd¾RbéB EdlminRCulniymeBk ehIyk¾minEmnFUrrlughYsehtueBkEdr.BuT§sasnaeRbonRbedAeyIg [dwgRbmaNkñúgkarsb,ayrIkraynwgesckþIsuxelakIy_.BuT§sasnasresIrelIkkMBs;karceRmInGb;rMpøÚvcitþEdlnaM[km©at;bg;nUvtNðaTaMgLay EdlCamUlehtuénesckIþTukçTaMgBYg. BuT§sasnikTaMgLayminrMBwgfa køayCaRBHGriy³RtwmEtmYyyb;enaHeT. edayehaceTA BYkeKdwgnUvTIbMputTukçénCatieBalKWkarekIt. maK’aedIm,IseRmcnUveKaledAenH KWmanEtsmaTansIl/ ceRmInsmaFi nigceRmInbBaØa. sUm,IRBHsmμasm


PaBTMnYlxusRtUv&s'FmμCatirbs;mnusS KWfa eyIgTaMgGs;KñaEtgEtsIþbenÞasdl;GñkdéT cMeBaHPaBxVHxat b¤PaBKμansMNagpÞal;rbs;xøÜnÉg. etIeyIgFøab;manKMnitfa eyIgxøÜnÉg KWCabuKÁlEdlRtUvmankarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHbBaðapÞal;rbs;eyIgEdreT? esckþIesakesA nigTukçevTnarbs;Gñk minEmnbNþalmkBIRKYsareCrRbeTc EdlmantMNtKñaBICMnan;mYyeTACMnan;mYyenaHeLIy. bBaðaenaHk¾minbNþalmkBIGMeBIGaRkk;rbs;dUntaBIedIm EdlecjBIpñÚrmkbnøacGñkTaMgGs;KñaEdr. esckþIesakesA nigTukçevTnarbs;Gñk RtUvbegIáteLIgedayRBHGaTiB b¤ymraCNamYyk¾minEmn.esckþIesakesArbs;GñkekIteLIgedaysarxøÜnGñkesckþIesakesArbs;Gñk KWGñkeFIVedayxøÜnGñkpÞal;GñkCabuKÁlrMedaHxøÜnGñkedayxøÜnÉg.GñkRtUvEtErkBunnUvTMnYlxusRtUvénCIvitrbs;Gñk ehIyRtUvEtTTYlsÁal;PaBTn;exSayrbs;Gñk edaymincaM)ac;sþIbenÞas b¤rMxandl;buKÁldéT. cUrcgcaMnUvsuPasitburaNfa³mnusSKμankarGb;rM EtgEtsþIbenÞasbuKÁldéTmnusSEdlmankarGb;rMtictYc EtgEtsþIbenÞasxøÜnÉgrIÉbuKÁlCabNÐitminmankarsþIbenÞas TaMgGñkdéT TaMgxøÜnÉg.88 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvGñkRtUvEteronedaHRsaybBaðapÞal;xøÜnrbs;Gñk edaymincaM)ac;tiHedolsþIbenÞasGñkdéT bIdUcbuKÁlCabNÐit. RbsinebI buKÁlmñak;²BüayamEktRmUvxøÜnÉg kñúgBiPBelakenHR)akdCaminmanbBaðaeLIy.bu:EnþmnusSy:ageRcIn min)antaMgesckþIBüayameQVgyl;fa BYkeKCabuKÁlRtUvEtTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHPaBGt;sMNagEdlekItdl;xøÜn. BYkeKcUlcitþEtemIlkMhusGñkÉeTot. BYkeKemIlxageRkAxøÜneK sRmab;RbPBénbBaðarbs;xøÜnÉg BIeRBaHBYkeKsÞak;esÞIrkñúgkarTTYlsÁal;nUvPaBTn;exSaypÞal;xøÜnrbs;eK.citþrbs;mnusSe)akR)as;xøÜnÉgeRcInNas; CaehtueFIV[Kat;mincg;sarPaBBIPaBTn;exSayrbs;Kat;. Kat;nwgBüayamEsVgrkkarGt;»neTas edIm,IEktRmUvskmμPaBrbs;xøÜn ehIyvegVgfa Kat;minmankMhus. RbsinebI buKÁlmñak;²BitCacg;manesrIPaBEmn Kat;RtUvEtkøahanh‘anTTYlsÁal;nUvPaBTn;exSayrbs;xøÜn. RBHsmμasm


CaTIbMput. cUrcaMfa GñkmuxCaqáÜtCamYybuKÁlmYycMnYn enAeBlxøHEtmin EmnmYem:ACamYymnusSTaMgGs;RKb;eBlevlaEdr.buKÁlNaCaGñklg;exøA smÁal;xøÜnÉgfaCabNÐit buKÁlenaH CaGñklg;exøABit.ÉbuKÁlNadwgxøÜnÉgfa CaGñklg;exøA/buKÁlenaHnwgkøayeTACabNÐit)an eRBaHkardwgxøÜnenaH.cUrTTYlsÁal;PaBTn;exSaypÞal;xøÜnrbs;Gñk. kuMsþIbenÞasGñkdéT. GñkRtUvEtdwgfa GñkCamnusSEdlRtUvTTYlxusRtUvnUvral;esckþIesakesA nigPaBlM)akEdlekIteLIgcMeBaHxøÜnGñk. GñkRtUvyl;fakarKitrbs;Gñk k¾Gacbgá[manplBi)akcMeBaHGñkEdr. GñkRtUvEtKitfa GñkRtUvEtTTYlxusRtUvRKb;eBlevla minfaGIVEdl)anekItmancMeBaHGñkenaHeT.bBaðaminmaneT cMeBaHBiPBelakTaMgmUlb:uEnþ vaekItmaneLIgEt cMeBaHeyIgRKb;rUb.TMnYlxusRtUvcMeBaHTMnak;TMngnwgGñkdéT90 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv&s'cUrcaMfa bBaðaGIVk¾edayEdlekIteLIgcMeBaHGñk minGaceFIV[GñkQWcab;eT RbsinebIGñkecHrkSacitþrbs;Gñk[mantulüPaB. GñkQWRkhl;RkhayedaysarEtGarmμN_ EdlGñkmancMeBaHxøÜnGñk nigGñkdéTb:ueNÑaH. RbsinebI GñkbgðajnUvGakb,kiriyaRbkbedaykru-Na cMeBaHbuKÁldéT Gñkk¾R)akdCaTTYlnUvesckþIeKarBRsLaj;vij.RbsinebI GñkbgðajnUvesckþIeRkveRkaF GñknwgminTTYlnUvesckþIRs-Laj;mkvijeLIy. mnusSeRkveRkaFdkdegðImecjBisBul ehIyKat;eFIV[xøÜnÉgQWcukcab;CagGñkdéTeTAeTot. CnCabNÐitminEdlxwgcMeBaHkMhwg nigminmanesckþIQWcab;eLIy. cUrriHKitfa KμanbuKÁlNamñak;eFIV[GñkQWcab;)aneT RbsinebIGñkminebIkpøÚvGnuBaØat[eKeFIVeTenaH. RbsinebIbuKÁlNasþIbenÞas b¤eCrRbedAGñk bu:EnþGñkRbtibtþitamRBHFm’ eBlenaHRBHFm’nwgEfrkSaGñk BIkarvayRbharminsmehtuplenH.RBHsmμasm


92 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvcUrTTYlxusRtUv kMubenÞasGñkdéT&s'GñkRtUvEteronRKb;RKgcitþrbs;Gñk edayrkSanUvTsSnvis½yd¾RbéB ehtuenaHbBaðaxageRkANamYy minGacman\T§iBldl;citþtulü-PaBrbs;GñkeLIy. enAeBlGñksßitkñúglkçN³lM)aklMbin manbBaðaGIVmYyenaH GñkminRtUvsþIbenÞaskal³eTs³eT. GñkminRtUvKitfa xøÜnGñkKμansMNag KμanbuNü b¤k¾cgKMnuMnwgbuKÁlNamYy. minfa GñkmanehtuplGIVenaHeT bu:EnþGñkminRtUveKcevHBIkarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHskmμPaBpÞal;rbs;Gñk edayTMlak;kMhuseTAelIkal³eTs³eLIy.cUrBüayamedaHRsaybBaðarbs;Gñk edaymincaM)ac;eFIVmuxCUr. enAeBllM)ak cUreFIVkaredayrIkray enAeRkamkal³eTs³d¾twgEtgenH. cUrTTYlykkarpøas;bþÚr RbsinebIkarpøas;bþÚrenaHcaM)ac; bu:EnþKYrKb,IrkSaTuknUvGIVEdlGñkminGacbþÚr/ cUreFIVCaGñkQøasévkñúgkarRbQmmuxnwgbBaðaTaMgLayedayKμanTukçRBYy nigsb,ayrIkray. esckþIlM)akKWCakartsU‘rbs;GñkedIm,IykC½yCMnH. buKÁlNaEdleFVIRbeyaCn_cMeBaHmnusSTUeTA rEmgTTYlkarsþIbenÞaseRcInCagbuKÁl EdlmineFIVGIVesaH b:uEnþerOgenHminEmnmann½yfa BYkeKminRtUv)anTTYlkarelIkTwkcitþenaH k¾eTEdr. BYkeKmanbBaØadwgfa kareFIVRbeyaCn_dl;GñkdéT naMmknUvBanrgVan;pÞal;rbs;va.esñhaKμanviC¢a nigviC¢aKμanesñha minGacdwkCIvitmYy)anl¥eT.cUrTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHesckþIsb;pøÚvcitþrbs;Gñk&s'GñkRtUvEteronEfrkSanUvGIVEdlCaesckþIsux nigesckþIsb;BitEdlGñk)anbegIáteLIgenAkñúgcitþrbs;Gñk. kñúgkarEfrkSasnþiPaB GñkRtUvEtdwgfa etIeBlNaGñknwglHbg;nUvrUbkayrbs;Gñk? GñkRtUvEtdwgfa etIeBlNaGñknwge)aHbg;ecalnUvmanHrbs;Gñk? eBlNaGñknwgQñHkarRbkan;xøÜn ¬skáayTidæi¦/ eBlNaGñknwgEkERbnUvcritcecsrwgrUs b¤karRbkan;xus ehIyeBlNaeTIbGñkRbkan;yknUvFm’xnþIesckþIGt;Fμt;. GñkminKYrKb,I[GñkdéTqk;ykesckþIsuxsb;pøÚvcitþrbs;Gñk ehIyGñkGacEfrkSanUvesckþIsb;enH)an RbsinebIGñkdwgnUvkarRbRBwtþeFIVkargaredaybBaØa. bBaØaekIteLIgtamry³karTTYlsÁal;énPaBGviC¢a.mnusSminEmnekIteLIgedayRBHGaTieTBCbeTbu:EnþCakarekIteLIgBIstVFatu.&s'GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv 93


94 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv\riyabféføfñÚrcMeBaHkarriHKn;&s'GñkRtUvEtdwgrebobGb;rMxøÜn BIkartμHtiHedolEdlminsmrmünigecHeRbIR)as;nUvKMnitriHKn;sßabna. GñkRtUvEtsMLwgemIlnUvbuBVbTénkarriHKn;EdlGñkdéTeFIVcMeBaHrUbGñk. RbsinebI karriHKn;EdlekIteLIgcMeBaHGñkCakarRtwmRtUv/ eXIjRbéB/ ehIynwgpþl;nUvbMNgl¥/ehtuenaH cUrGñkTTYlykkarriHKn;enaH ehIyGnuvtþn_eRbIR)as;va.m:üageTot RbsinebI karriHKn;EdlekItcMeBaHrUbGñk CakarriHKn;minsmehtupl/ ehIyeXIjfa minRtwmRtUv/ nigpþl;nUvbMNgd¾GaRkk; Gñkk¾minKYrTTYlyknUvkarriHKn;enaHEdr. RbsinebIGñkdwgfa Gakb,kiriyarbs;GñkRtwmRtUv ehIyRtUv)anbNÐitnigsb,úrssresIr GBa©wgeT GñkmincaM)ac;RBYy)armÖBIkarriHKn;mYlbgáac;eLIy. karyl;BIkarriHKn;sßabna nigkarriHKn;mYlbgáac;rbs;Gñk KWsMxan;Nas;. RBHsmμasm


cemøIysamBaØ KWfa enAeBlGñkeFVIGMeBIl¥ GñkRtUvRbQmmuxnwgTegIVGaRkk;TaMgLay. RbsinebIminGBa©wgeT GñkkMBugEtRbQmmuxnwgplkmμGaRkk; EdlkMBughuc[kñúgbc©úb,nñenH.cUrbnþeFIVnUvGMeBIl¥rbs;Gñk ehIyminyUrminqab;GñknwgrYcputBIbBaðaTaMgGs;enH. cUrcaMfa Gñk)ansnSMksagnUvkþIGs;sgÇwmrbs;Gñkmk ehIymanEtGñkmñak;Kt;EdlGacykQñHnUvkþIGs;sgÇwmenH edayyl;c,as;BIsPaBBiténkmμpl nigl½kçx½NÐelakIy_ dUcEdlRBHsmμasm


BitCaBi)akcMeBaHmnusSRKb;rUb kñúgkarlHbg;ecalnUvmanHb¤k¾karRbkan;xøÜnrbs;BYkeK. bu:EnþGñkRtUvEteronkat;bnßynUvmanHrbs;Gñk. RbsinebIGñkGackat;bnßynUvmanHrbs;Gñk)an eBlenaHGñkGacEsVgrkesckþIsb;sRmab;xøÜnGñkeXIj ehIyGñkk¾GacCYymnusSCati[TTYl)anesckþIsb; nigesckþIsuxpøÚvcitþEdr. etIGIVmYyEdlRbesIrCag kñúgkarrkSaTuknUv {manH} b¤ {esckþIsb;} rbs;Gñk?.kareRbobeFobxøÜnGñknwgGñkdéT GacCaRbPBénkarRBYy)armÖKμanRbeyaCn_. cUrBüayameQVgyl;BIPaBesμIKña/ Gn;Cag/ x


esckþIGt;Fμt; nigkarGb;rM KWCaKuNFm’d¾]tþmEdlmnusSRKb;rUbRtUvEtceRmIn. drabNa GñkRbtibtþinUvKuNFm’enHkan;EteRcIn eBlenaH Gñkk¾rkSanUvesckþIéføfñÚrbs;Gñkkan;EtRbesIreLIg. GñkRtUvEtdwgBIkareRbIR)as;nUvKuNFm’TaMgenH ehIyvanwgCYyrMedaHGñk[ecjputBIesckþIesakesA/ esckþITukç/ nigclaclCIvitTaMgLay. eBlxøHGñkRtUvqøgkat;mnusS Edlqk;»kasTajykplRbeyaCn_énkarGt;Fμt;rbs;Gñk. enHCaeBlevlaEdlGñkRtUveFIVRbkbedaybBaØa. GñkRtUveRbIR)as;bBaØa. cUrcgcaMfa karsenþas/ esckþIGt;Fμt;/ nigbBaØa rbs;Gñk manfamBlxøaMgbMput eTAelIKUrsRtUvrbs;Gñk kñúgkarbgðajBYkeK[dwg fa BYkeKkMBugEteFIVdMeNIrkñúgpøÚvxusehIy.xnþI KWlVIgCUrct;Nas; b:uEnþplrbs;vaEp¥m/eyIgRtUvEtRbtibtþisIlFm’enHRbkbedaybBaØa.karGP½yeTas nigkarbMePøc&s'GñkRtUvyl;fa karsgswkeTAelIbuKÁlbgábBaða )anRtwmEtbgábBaða nigpllM)akkan;EteRcInEfmeTotbu:eNÑaH. GñkRtUvdwgfa KMnitnigskmμPaBGviC¢man naMmknUvkarxUcxat nigesckþITukçdl;Gñk nigbuKÁlGñkbgábBaða. edIm,Isgswk GñkRtUvEtmanesckþIeRkveRkaF enAkñúgdYgcitþrbs;Gñk. eTas³enH KWbIdUcCafñaMBisEdlcak;eTAkñúgxøÜn100 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvbuKÁlGñkbgábBaða y:agdUecñaHÉg. bu:Enþ cab;taMgBIfñaMBisenH ekItenAkñúgragkayrbs;Gñk vaBitCaeFVITukçeTasdl;Gñk muneBlEdlvabMpøajGñkdéTeTot. munnwgGñkKb;lamkeKadak;nrNamñak; vaR)akdCaRb-Lak;xøÜnGñk. Gakb,kiriyarbs;Gñkk¾dUcKñanwgskmμPaBrbs;CnBalEdr. minmanlkçN³NaxusKña rvagGñknigCnTuc©riteLIy. edaykareRkaFxwgnwgGñkdéT vahak;bIdUcCaGñkpþl;GMNacdl;BYkeK mkRKbdNþb;GñkdUecñaH. GñkminGacedaHRsaybBaðarbs;Gñk)aneT. RbsinebIGñkxwgnwgbuKÁlNamñak; ehIybuKÁlenaHEbrCajjwmdak;vij enaHGñknwgkøayCamnusSbraC½yy:agFn;FrbMput. eRBaHEtKat;minshkarCamYyGñk edIm,IbMeBjbMNgrbs;Gñk ehtuenaHKat;CaGñkmaneCaKC½yEtGñkCabuKÁlbraC½y. RBHsmμasm


karGb;rMl¥. edIm,IeFIVy:aghñwg)an GñkRtUvyl;fa GñkdéTRtUvelaP³eTas³ \sSakarRcENn b¤GviC¢aBgVk;ehIy. Kat;k¾minEmnepSgEbøkBImnusSdéT enAeBlNamYy RtUvQøk;vegVgnwgdYgcitþGviC¢mandUcKñaenHEdr. enAeBlmYyRBHsmμasm


uKÁlGaRkk; dUecñH GñkenAGacRbRBwtþinUvGMeBIéføfñÚrdl;xøÜnGñk nigGñkdéT edayminRbRBwtþiGMeBIGaRkk;dak;buKÁlGaRkk;.PaBTn;Pøn;Ep¥mElðm CatRmUvkarsRmab;buKÁlminmanbBaØa.eyIgTaMgGs;KñaCamnusS&s'mnusSstVTaMgGs;manPaBTn;exSay ehIygaynwgmankMhusNas;. mnusSRKb;rUbmanPaBTn;exSaymkBIelaP³/ eTas³/ nigemah³. PaBTn;exSayTaMgenHmanenACab;mnusSstVkñúgkMritepSg²BIKña. drabNa GñkminTan;seRmcFm’ b¤CaRBHGrhnþ karelIkElgeTask¾minmaneLIycMeBaHGñk.mnusSminEdlEq¥tq¥n;nwgCIvitrbs;BYkeKeTehIyk¾minEdlEsVgrknUvxøwmsarCIvitEdrsUm,IEteRkayBIseRmc)annUvBiPBelakTaMgmUlehIyk¾edaycuH.\LÚveyIgcUrRkeLkemIl[kan;EtCit nUvPaBTn;exSayénemah³ b¤GviC¢a mnusSRtUvRKbdNþb;edayPaBGviC¢a. citþrbs;Kat; KWeBareBjedayclacl/ esckþIlM)aklMbin/ nigPaBGn§kar. edaysarPaBGviC¢a mnusSbgá[manesckþITukç ehIyKat;EckcayesckþITukçenHdl;GñkEdlenABIeRkayeTot. esckþIesakesA nigesckþIRBYy)armÖ104 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvEdlekItcMeBaHmnusS KWBieRBaHEtl½kçx½NÐelakIy_/ karKμantulüPaBpøÚvcitþ/ karminGb;rMcitþ nigkarRbRBwtþGMeBIGsIlFm’.enAkñúgelakenH KμanbuKÁlNamñak;brisuT§eT. mnusSmñak;²EtgRbRBwtþiGMeBIGkusledayectna nigGectna. etIGñkKitfa GñkGacrYcputBI)abedayrebobNaeTA?.esckþIP½yxøac nigesckþIRBYy)armÖsabsUnüeTA)andrabNaGviC¢aRtUv)ankm©at;bg;ecaledaybBaØa.RbsinebI Gñkyl;BIFmμCatiBiténPaBTn;exSay EdlmanenAkñúgcitþmnusSelak Gñkk¾R)akdCaKμanehtuplNamYy kñúgkart¥ÚjEt¥rBIesckþITukç nigesckþIesayesakrbs;GñkEdr. GñknwgmanesckþIkøahan kñúgkarRbQmmux ehIynwgGt;Fμt;nUvral;esckþIesakesA/esckþIRBYy )armÖ/ nigesckþITukçTaMgBYg EdlekIteLIgcMeBaHGñk.KμanGIVmYyekIteLIgcMeBaHmnusSeLIyebIGIVenaHminsißtCamYymnusSeT.BaküKYrriHKit¡mnusSTuC’n niyayBaküBIeraHKYrCaTIeBjcitþ EtminRtUvykCaehtumkeFIVesckþIsiñT§sñal eRBaHEtsMdIBIeraHenaHeT eRbobdUcTwkXμúMCab;enAcugGNþat kñúgcitþeBjedayBisBuld¾ekþARkhayeralral.GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv 105


106 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvesckþIRsLaj;rbs;matabita&s'GñkmanTMnYlxusRtUvcMeBaHmnusSTaMgLay nigciBa©wmbI)ac;kUnpÞal;rbs;Gñk. RbsinebI kUnenaHekItmkmankMlaMgBlMl¥/ suxPaBl¥/nigCaBlrdæl¥ vaCalT§plénkarRbwgERbgrbs;Gñk. RbsinebI kUnenaHFMeBjv½ykøayCaCnelμIs Gñkk¾RtUvEtecjmuxTTYlxusRtUvEdr.sUmkMusþIbenÞasGñkdéT[esaH. kñúgnamCamatabita vaCakatBVkic©rbs;Gñk kñúgkarENnaMkUn[edIrtampøÚvRtUv.ekμgenAkñúgv½yePøItePøIn ¬Qamrav¦kUnRtUvkaresckþIRsLaj;fñak;fñm/ EfrkSa/ nigkarykcitþTukdak;BImatabita. ebIminmanesckþIRsLaj; nigkarENnaMrbs;matabitaeT kUnnwgRtUvCYb]bsKÁ ehIynwgyl;fa BiPBelakenHCakEnøgEdleFIV[Lb;sμartIkñúgkarrs;enA. eTaHCay:agNa karbgðajnUvesckþIRsLaj;/ karEfTaM/ nigkarykcitþTukdak;rbs;matabita minEmnmann½yfa RtUvEtbMeBjbMNgRKb;karTam-Tarbs;kUn b¤k¾ehtuplNaepSgenaHeLIy. karfñak;fñmkUnhYsehtueBk nwgeFIV[kUnTMerIs. kñúgkarbgðajnUvesckþIRsLaj; nigkarfñak;fñmmataKYrKb,Itwgrwg nigrwgmaMcMeBaHkarRceLatxwgrbs;kUn. kartwgrwgnigrwgmaMenH minEmnmann½yfa CakarKMeraHKMerIydak;kUnenaHeT. cUrbgðajnUvesckþIRsLaj;RbkbRBmedayvin½y eBlenaHkUnyl;)an.CaGkusl kñúgcMeNammatabitasBVéfenH esckþIRsLaj;rbs;matabitamantictYcNas;. karQøk;vegVgeTAnwgsmÖar³niym CaehtueFIV[mataTaMgLaycUlrYmCamYysVamIrbs;BYkeK/ cMNayeBlevlaeFIVkargarenAkariyal½ynighag eRcInCagcMNayeBlevlaenApÞHEfrkSakUn. kUnRtUvTukepJInwgjati b¤GñkbeRmI CaehtueFIV[BYkeKxVHPaBkkekþAbdiesFnUvesckþIRsLaj; nigkarEfrkSaedaymatabita. mataEdlmankaresaksþayGMBIPaBxVHkarykcitþTukdak;rbs;xøÜn cMeBaHkUn)anBüayampÁab;pÁúnkUn eday[vtßúRKb;Ebby:ag tamkarTamTarrbs;kUn.TegVIEbbenHehIyEdleFIV[kUnTMerIs. kar[rbs;elgTaMgLaydl;kUn mandUcCa rfeRkaH/ kaMePøIgm:asIun/ kaMePøIgxøI/ dav/ nigkarlYgcitþy:aghñwg KWminEmnCacitþsaRsþd¾l¥eT. BYkeKkMBugEtbeRgonkUnBIkarbMpøicbMpøajvij minEmnCakarbeRgonGMBIkareFIVl¥/ esckþIkruNa/ nigkarCYyseRgÁaHenaHeT. karemIlkUnCamYynwgrbs;elgEbbenH KWminEmnCakarCMnYsesckþIRsLaj; nigkarykcitþTukdak;rbs;mataenaHeLIy. esckþIRsLaj; nigkarENnaMrbs;matabitaKμann½y dUecñHminmanGIVKYr[PJak;ep¥IleT RbsinebI kUnenaHeBjv½yeLIgkøayCaekμgBal. dUecñHetIRtUvsþIbenÞasnrNa? BitCaRtUvsþIbenÞasmatabita. CaBiesseTAeTot mataeFIVkareBjmYyéf enAkñúgkariyal½y ehIyRtUveFIVkarpÞHCaeRcIn BitCaminGacrkeBlsRmab;kUn EdlkMBugEtRtUvkaresckþIRsLaj;fñak;fñmrbs;Kat;.GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv 107


kñúgkardeNþImsiT§iesIμKñaRsþIPaKeRcIn TMngCaKitfa dMeNaH-Rsay KWedIm,IRbkYtRbECgCamYybursenAxageRkApÞH. RsþICMBUkenHKYrKb,Ipþl;dMbUnμankMu[mankUnecAGI. vaCaPaBGatμaniymbMput EdlbegIátkUnmkenAkñúgelakenH ehIye)aHbg;Kñaecal. GñkRtUvEtTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHGIVEdlGñkksag eBalKWGñkRtUvTTYlxusRtUvkñúgkaremIlEfkUn minEmnbMeBjbMNgRtwmsmÖar³b:ueNÑaHeT bu:Enþ sMxan;CagenaHeTAeTot KWEpñksμartI nigcitþsaRsþ. karpþl;esckþIsuxEpñksmÖar³ KWCaCMhanTI2 eFobeTAnwgkarpþl;nUvesckþIRsLaj; nigkarykcitþTukdak;EfrkSa. eyIgdwgehIyfa mnusSCaeRcInkñúgRKYsarRkIRk Edl)anciBa©wmkUnrbs;eK)anl¥ edayesckþIRsLaj;eRcIn. rIÉRKYsarGñkmanvij)anpþl;nUvesckþIsuxxagsmÖar³dl;kUnrbs;eK b:uEnþ esckþIRsLaj;KμanxwømsarEbbenH)aneFIV[kUnTaMgenHeBjv½yeLIgKμansμartI nigsIlFm’esaH.RsþImYycMnYneTot Kitfa karGb;rMBYkeK[epþatGarmμN_Etkic©karRKYsar KWefakTab ehIyGPirkSniymeBk. CakarBitehIy EdlfakalBIGtItkal eKcat;TukRsþIy:agGn;bMput bu:EnþerOgenH KWedaysarEtPaBGviC¢arbs;burs eRcInCagPaBTn;exSayCab;mkCamYy kñúgkarmanTsSn³RsþImantYnaTIRtwmEtEfkUn. BaküsMRsáwt {RKuhini} mann½yfa {empÞH}. tamBit minEmnsMedAfa RsþIKWCahInePTeT. pÞúyeTAvij108 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvvamann½yfa karEbkEcktYnaTIsRmab;burs nigRsþI. enAkñúgRbeTsCbu:n sVamImYycMnYnRbKl;luyTaMgGs;eTARbBn§EdlCaGñkRKb;RKgkic©karpÞH. bBaðaenH eFIV[bursenATMenrBIkarKiteTAelIGIVEdlKat;RtUveFIVy:agBiess. edaysarRKYsarnImYy²yl;c,as;BItYnaTIrbs;xøÜnehtuenHminmankareQøaHRbEkkTas;EtgKñaekIteLIg ehIybriyakaskñúgRKYsark¾RbkbEtsnþiPaB suPmgÁl CakEnøgkUnecAeBjv½yCamnusSl¥.tamBit sVamIRtUvEtyl;fa Priyarbs;xøÜnEfrkSakUn)anl¥/RtUvsMueyabl;nagelIkarseRmccitþRKYsar/ smlμmmanesrIPaBkñúgkarGPivDÆn_buKÁliklkçN³rbs;nag/ edIm,ImaneBlTMenrkñúgkartamrkcMNUlrbs;nagCaedIm. kñúgkrNIenH sVamI nigPriyamanTMnYlxusRtUvesμIKña cMeBaHkic©kargarRKYsarrbs;eK ehIyminEmnCakarRbkYtRbECgKñaeT.mataKYrKb,IføwgEføgedayRbugRby½tñfa etInagKYrbnþCamataeFIVkargar b¤k¾CaempÞHEdlpþl;nUvesckþIRsLaj; nigkarEfrkSacMeBaHsuxumalPaBkUnrbs;nagEdlFMeBjv½y. edayELkmatasm½yTMenIbxøH kMBugEthuckaMePøIg nig]bkrN_smøab;déTeTot eBlBYkeK»bRkesabRsLaj;kUnrbs;BYkeK ehIyhVwkhat;BYkeK[køayCamnusSl¥ nigCaBlrdæeKarBc,ab;.GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv 109


ninñakar nigGakb,kiriyaénmataEdleFIVkargarTaMgLaycMeBaHkUnRbusRsITaMgBYg eTarTn;eTArkesckþIRsLaj;kUnEdlmankitþiysEdlkUnKitrMBwgkarbgðajBImatabita. karCMnYsbMe)AkUnnwgTwkedaHsuT§edayTwkedaHkMb:ug k¾CaehtumYyepSgeTotsRmab;karkat;bnßyesckþIRsLaj;rvagmþaynigkUnEdr. rhUtmkdl;eBlenH enAeBlmataFøab;bMe)AkUnedayTwkedaHxøÜnnigRkesab»bkUnedayrgVg;édesckþIRsLaj;rvagmatanigkUn KWmanTMhMFMeFgNas; ehIy\T§iBlmatamaneTAelIkUnsRmab;køayCaBlrdæl¥ k¾rwgrwtEtmaneRcIneTAeTot. enAkñúgkal³eTs³EbbenH esckþIRsLaj;kUn/ PaBsñiT§sñalRKYsar nigkareKarB minmankarpøas;bþÚreT. lkçN³RbéBNITaMgenH KWsRmab;GMeBIl¥nigesckþIl¥rbs;kUn. vaGaRs½yeTAelImatabitabu:eNÑaH CaBiessmatapþl;dl;BYkeK. matamanTMnYlxusRtUvcMeBaHkUn TaMgl¥TaMgcecsrwgrUs. mataGackat;bnßynUvkarRbRBwtþbTelμIsrbs;kUn. enAkñúgkMritx


eTaHCay:agNa RbsinebIGñkmanbMNgR)afñakm©at;bg; b¤rYcputBIesckþITukçtampøÚvkay nigpøÚvcitþ GñkKYrEtBüayamlHbg;nUv\T§iBltNða nigkamtNða. drabNa GñkenAEtsßitkñúgRbFanén\T§iBltNðaehtuenaHGñkk¾enAEtsßitkñúgRbFanénesckþITukç TaMgpøÚvkaynigpøÚvcitþ.edIm,IeKcecjBIesckþITukçpøÚvkay nigpøÚvcitþ ehIynwgseRmc)annUvesckþIsuxpøÚvcitþ GñkRtUvEteFIVkareRCIserIsrbs;Gñk. minmanpøÚvBIreT. dUecñH GñkminKYrKb,IecaTRbkan;GñkdéT enAeBlGñkCYbnUvbBaðaxN³eBlGñkkMBugEtesBesaynUvkamsuxenH.meFüa)aymYy kñúgkarEsVgrknUvesckþIFUres,IyCmWpøÚvcitþ nigesckþIminsb,ay KWeQVgyl;BITMhMesckþITukçpÞal;xøÜn nigesckþIlM)akrbs;Gñk tamry³kardkRsg;bTBiesaFn_GñkdéT. eBlGñkminsb,ay GñkmanGarmμN_fa BiPBelakenHRbqaMgnwgGñk. GñkKitfaGIVRKb;y:ag enACMuvijGñkhak;bIdUcCadYlrlM. GñkKitfa TIbMputénpøÚvenH KWCitbegáIyNas;. eTaHCay:agNa GñkBüayamRbmUlTuknUvbBaðanigBüayamKitrab; BIesckþIsuxsuPmgÁlrbs;Gñk Gñknwgyl;fa GñkRbesIrCagmnusSCaeRcIneTot. GñkRbEhlCaFøab;B¤PasitmYy fa {´t¥ÚjEt¥rfa ´KμanRTnab;eCIg drabNa´)anCYbnwgbuKÁlKμaneCIg}. CarYmeTA GñkRbRBwtþielμIsnwgesckþIlM)ak nigbBaðarbs;GñkhYsehtueBk.buKÁlmYycMnYneTot KWGaRkk;CagGñkrab;Ban;dg EtBYkeKminRBYy)armÖ112 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvhYsehtueBk. bBaðaBitCamanEmn ehIyGñkKYrBüayamedaHRsaybBaðaTaMgenH CMnYskarRBYy)armÖ nigbgá[manesckþItb;Rbml;citþ nigesckþIQWcab;. RbCaCncinmanPasitmYysþIBIkaredaHRsaybBaða fa³RbsinebIGñkmanbBaðaFM cUrBüayamkat;bnßyva[enAtUc. EtRbsinebIGñkmanbBaðatictYc cUrkat;pþac;kMu[manEtmþg.meFüa)aymYyeTot kñúgkarEksRmYltamesckþIlM)ak nigbBaðarbs;Gñk ehIynwgkat;bnßybBaðaTaMgenHtamTsSnvis½yxøÜn KWedIm,IsegçbGIVEdlGñk)aneFIVkalBIGtItkal eRkamkal³eTs³d¾Ga-Rkk; mYyGenøIedaymeFüa)ayEdlman qøgkat;karGt;Fμt; nigesckþIBüayam[kan;EtekIneLIg eBlenaH GñkGacBuHBarnUvesckþIlM)ak)anBitR)akd. edaykarGnuvtþEbbenH GñknwgminGnuBaØat[esckþIlM)aknigbBaðaTaMgLay jaMjIrUbGñk)aneToteT. pÞúyeTAvij GñknwgGacedaHRsay)an minfabBaðaGIVEdlGñkRbQmmuxenaHeLIy. GñkKYrKb,Idwgfa Gñk)aneFIVdMeNIrqøgkat;nUvsßanPaBd¾GaRkk; ehIyrlwkeTotfaGñkRtUveRtomxøÜnCaeRscedIm,IRbQmmuxnwgbBaða eBalKWGIVEdlGacekItman. edaysarpñt;KMnitEbbenH GñknwgmanPaBeCOCak;elIxøÜnÉgehIyGacRbQmmux nigedaHRsaynUvbBaðaGIVEdl)anekIteLIgenAkñúgcitþrbs;Gñk.GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv 113


114 GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUvmnusSminEmnl¥esμIKñaenaHeT&s'CaFmμta mankart¥ÚjEt¥rxøH²BImnusSEdlminFøab;bgábBaðadl;GñkdéT eBalKWBYkeKCaCnrgeRKaH BieRBaHl,icklrbs;GñkdéT edayxøÜnminmankMhusesaH. BYkeKmanGarmμN_ekItTukç eRBaHfa BYkeKeFIVGMeBIl¥ EtEbrCaRtUveKeFIVTukçeTasdl;xøÜnEdlminmaneTaseTAvij.sßitkñúgkal³eTs³EbbenH CnrgeRKaHminmankMhusRtUvdwg nigTTYlsÁal;fa BiPBelakenH minEmnbegáIteLIgedaymnusSl¥mYyRbePTeTehIy k¾minEmnedaymnusSGaRkk;mYyRbePTEdr nigmYyGenøIedaylkçN³BiessNamYy k¾minEmneLIy. CnKμaneTasKb,IRbwkSanwgxøÜnÉgfa Kat;CakmμsiT§iénGMeBIl¥ cMENkÉGñkrMxanesckþIsuxsnþiPaBrbs;Kat;CaRbePTmnusSGaRkk; ehIyfa Kat;nwgenAEtRtUvGt;RtaMCamYyGMeBIGaRkk;rbs;buKÁlCaCnTuc©ritenH.RsedogKñaenH eyIgelIkkrNIén {mnusSl¥ nigCaGñkebIkbrRbugRby½tñ} nig {mnusSGaRkk;ebIkbrminRbugRby½tñ}. mnusSl¥nigCaGñkebIkbrRbugRby½tñ begáInkarRbugRby½tñTukCamunkñúgkarebIkbredIm,IecosvageRKaHfñak;. Canic©kal mnusSl¥ nigCaGñkebIkbrRbugRby½tñCYb]bTÞvehtuedayminmaneTaseT bu:EnþedaysareTaskMhusrbs;GñkebIkbrminRbugRby½tñ. dUecñH enAkñúg»kasEbbhñwg mnusSl¥RtUvrgTukçCMnYsGMeBIl¥rbs;eK eRBaHmnusSGaRkk; nigeFVsRbEhs bIdUcCabuKÁlGaRkk; nigGñkebIkbrminRbugRby½tñ y:agenaHÉg. CakarBit BiPBelakenHminGaRkk; ehIyk¾minl¥Edr. vabegIátTaMgGaRkk;TaMgl¥/ TaMgBal TaMgbNÐit. dI\dædUcKña vtßúGaRkk;nigs¥at/ vtßúmanRbeyaCn_ nig\tRbeyaCn_GacRtUv)anbegáIteLIg. rIÉKuNPaBGaRs½yelICagqñaMg minEmnGaRs½yelIdI\dæeT. kñúgkrNIenH CagqñaMgKWGñkhñwgÉg. GñkCamnusSRtUvTTYlxusRtUvenAral;esckþIsux b¤esckþITukçpÞal;xøÜnrbs;Gñk.seRmc)annUvGIVEdlGñkEsVgrk&s'RbsinebI GñkBüayamGs;BIsmtßPaB edIm,IykQñHesckþIlM)ak edaykarRbtibtþitamdMbUnμanEdl)anpþl;kñúgesovePAenH GñkBitCanwgEsVgrkeXIjnUvsnþiPaB/ esckþIsux nigsamKÁIPaB EdlGñkkMBugEtEsVgrk. RbsinebI Gñktamm©as; EqánwgminxaMGñkeT.GñkQñHEtgRbTHnUveBor/ Gñkcaj;evTnaedkCaTukç.buKÁllHbg;karQñH nigkarcaj;)an rEmgrs;enACasuxsb,ay.cb;edaybribUrN_GñkCamnusSTTYlxusRtUv 115


BinitüEksRmYlxwømsar nigGkçraviruT§eday-RBHmha esOg vuT§I smNnisSitfñak;GnubNÐit énsaklviTüal½yBuT§sasnTUtefrvaTGnþrCati TIRkugr:gÁÚn shPaBmIy:an;m:a (ITBMU)- Pikçú eqam em:A smNnisSitfñak;briBaØabRtén ITBMU- Pikçú G‘¿u stßa smNnisSitfñak;briBaØabRtén ITBMU- Pikçú mYn viciRt smNnisSitfñak;briBaØabRtén ITBMU- sameNr hak; esogéh smNnisSitfñak;briBaØabRt ITBMU- Pikçú lag sar:y smNnisSitfñak;briBaØabRt ITBMU- ])ask em:A v:an ])asika Fn; sMbUr CaTIRbwkSaÉkGKÁraCTUtkm

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