hindi - Azim Premji Foundation

azimpremjifoundation.org

hindi - Azim Premji Foundation

vt+he izseth Qkm.Ms'ku dh if=dk

yfuZax doZ

fgUnh vad 3 ebZ] 2011

(dsoy futh izlkj ds fy,)

Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku ij fo'ks"k vad

Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

bfrgkl dk vkSj [kqn dk lkeuk djuk % bfrgkl

i


yfuZax doZ

Ldwy esa lkekftd foKku

fgUnh vad 3 ebZ] 2011

(yfuZax doZ & Lis'ky b';w vkWu lks'ky lkbal bu LdwYl~ (va¡xzsth)

lEikndh; Vhe

XV

v¡xzsth ls fgUnh vuqokn

fgUnh vad lEiknu

lg;ksx

dkVwZu

fMtk;u

eqnzd

vxLr]2010 dk fgUnh vuqokn)

vka¡py pkseky] xkSre ik.Ms;] eaxyk uank] uhjtk jk?kou] fuf/k frokjh]

½f"kds'k ch-,l-] ,l- fxfj/kj

lR;sUnz f=ikBh]Hkjr f=ikBh ,oa euh"kk f=ikBh

jkts'k mRlkgh

fofiu pkSgku

cyjkt ds,u

te'ksj ih-,u-]iqf"irk lsuxqIrk

Adroit Human Creative Services Pvt. Ltd.

Banglore

izxfr fizUVlZ

caxykSj 560 103

fVIi.kh % bl vad esa izdkf'kr ys[k ewyr% yfuZax doZ (va¡xzsth) XV vxLr] 2010 esa izdkf'kr ys[kksa ds vuqokn gSaA

ys[kksa esa O;Dr fopkj rFkk er ys[kdksa ds vius gSaA vt+he izseth Qkm.Ms'ku dk muls lger gksuk vko';d ugha gSA


lEiknd dh vksj ls

vk

ids le{k yfuZax doZ dk ;g vad çLrqr djrs gq, eq>s

cM+k g"kZ gks jgk gSA fiNys vadksa dh rqyuk esa bl vad

ds fy, çkjEHk ls gh lEikndh; ny ds chp T;knk

cgl vkSj ppkZ,a¡ gqbZaA ij eSa le>rk gwa¡ fd bl fo"k; dh çd`fr

rFkk blds pkjksa vksj Nk, gq, mPp&Lrjh; fookn dh otg ls

,slh gh vis{kk dh tk ldrh FkhA

,d cM+h pqukSrh Fkh fofo/krkiw.kZ ys[kd lewg dks blesa 'kkfey

djuk rkfd bl fo"k; ds foLr`r nk;js esa vkus okys gj rjg ds

n`f"Vdks.k dks çfrfuf/kRo fey ldsA gekjk ç;kl jgk gS fd ge

vius ikBdksa dks ,d fo"k; dh rjg lkekftd foKku dh çd`fr

ds ckjs esa bZekunkj o O;kid n`f"V ns ldsaA geus lekt ds Hkhrj

lkekftd foKku ds mís';] rFkk bl fo"k; ds ckjs esa jk"Vªh;

ikBîp;kZ dh :ijs[kk ¼us'kuy djhdqye ÝseodZ½ esa O;ä

fopkjksa ls 'kq: djds] bls i]

lq>koksa o leh{kk dk ,d lexz laxzg rS;kj djus dh dksf'k'k dh

gSA

yfuZax doZ ds çR;sd vad dk dksbZ ,d [kkl yEgk gksrk gS

ftldk ftØ eSa bl ist ij djus dh dksf'k'k djrk gwa¡A bl vad

ds ,d eq[; ys[k ds fy, geus çks- vkUæs cSVhy ls ckr dh &

gkyka¡fd gesa Hkjkslk ugÈ Fkk fd os yfuZax doZ ds fy, fy[kus dks

rS;kj gks tk,a¡xsA ij tc ge muls fgpfdpkrs gq, bldk

vuqjks/k dj gh jgs Fks] rHkh mUgksaus gesa vius ljy vkÜoklu ls

fufÜpUr dj fn;k fd mudk ys[k gesa t:j feysxkA dqN

lIrkgksa ds Hkhrj gh mudk caxykSj vkuk gqvk vkSj eq>s muls

feyus dk volj feykA esjk vfHkoknu djus ds ckn] izks- cSVhy

cxy esa j[kh est dh vksj eqM+s vkSj lkQ&lqFkjs s Fkek fn,A [kq'kh ds ekjs esjs eqa¡g

ls fdydkjh fudy iM+h vkSj ?kj okil tkrs oä jkLrs Hkj eSa

ml ys[k dks lhus ls yxk, jgkA ,d ckj fQj] vad esa lg;ksx

nsusokys çfrf"Br fo}kuksa ds ny us pquh xbZ fo"k;oLrq ds reke

igyqvksa dh foospuk djus esa gekjh enn dh gSA vkSj] ges'kk dh

rjg] vius&vius O;Lr dk;ZØeksa ds ckotwn mu lHkh dk cgqr

vuqxzg jgk fd mUgksaus fu;r frfFk rd vius&vius ys[k gesa ns

fn,A

gekjs dqN ys[kdksa us rks mlls

T;knk Hkh lgk;rk dh gSA mUgksaus

lEikndh; cglksa ds nkSjku

lEikndh; ny dh enn dh]

[kqn Hkh dqN eqís lq>k, vkSj nwljs

ys[kdksa ls lEidZ djds mUgsa Hkh

bl vad ds fy, fy[kus gsrq çksRlkfgr

fd;kA ,sls fe= okdbZ esa vueksy gSaA

lkekftd foKku dks ysdj esjh viuh cM+h lq[kn ;knsa gSa ¼mu

fnuksa bls lkekftd v/;;u dgk tkrk Fkk½A ;s fcuk fdlh vFkZ

ds rkjh[ksa jVrs jgus okyh ;knsa ugÈ gSaA cfYd blds foijhr] bu

;knksa esa ls ,d gS dsUæh; fo|ky; ds gekjs lkekftd foKku ds

f'k{kd Jh Vh-oh- pkjh }kjk ml fnu gels rwru[kkeu ds ckjs esa

vuk;kl ppkZ djuk] ftl fnu v[kckj esa vpkud mldk

mYys[k gqvk FkkA buesa tqM+h gSa pkjh th dh gh vkSj ;knsa] tSls

muds }kjk d{kk esa gksej tSls egku ys[kdksa ds ckjs esa yxkrkj nks

fnuksa rd ppkZ djuk] ;k fQj çFke o f}rh; foÜo;q)ksa ds ckjs esa

ppkZ djuk tcfd dqN Hkh gekjs ikBîØe dk fgLlk ugÈ FkkA

tc pkjh bu ?kVukvksa dh ppkZ fd;k djrs Fks rks mlesa ges'kk gh

tk¡p&iM+rky] çek.khdj.k] vkSj lHkh ckrksa dk lqlaxr feJ.k

jgrk FkkA

tSlk fd eSaus 'kq#vkr esa dgk Fkk] ;g vad lkekftd foKku ds

çfr lEikndh; ny ds tks'k o çse ls vksrçksr gSA ij T;knk

egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd D;k Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku dh f'k{kk

ds gekjs bl oSpkfjd fooj.k esa ge vkidh mEehnksa ij [kjs mrj

ik, gSa ;k ugÈA vkids fu"i{k çfrmŸkj ls gesa vkxs vkus okys

vadksa esa yxkrkj lq/kkj djrs tkus esa enn feysxhA

,l- fxfj/kj

dk;ZØe rFkk ,Moksdslh izeq[k]

vt+he izseth Qkm.Ms'ku

i`"B la% 1


yfuZax doZ

fgUnh vad 3 ebZ] 2011

Ldwy eas lkekftd foKku

[k.M & v % O;kid eqís

dy ds ukxfjd fufeZr djuk % lkjs lalkj esa

lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk laf{kIr loZs{k.k

& ,su gkWfoZVt+

bfrgkl dk vkSj [kqn dk lkeuk djuk %

bfrgkl iyfd;k¡ & lH;rkvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d

d{kk dh ;k=k

& lhrk uVjktu

94


D;k rVLFk

fooknkLin gksrk gS\

& eaxyk uank

[k.M & n % vkdyu dh Hkwfedk

lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu %

gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

& jf'e ikyhoky

Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa

vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu

& t;Jh ukafc;kj

99

104

113

bfrgkl us gekjh nqfu;k dks 'kDy nh gS !

& xqjehr dkSj vkSj efjve lkfgc

lkekftd foKku vkf[kj fdrus oSKkfud gSa\

& ekul 'kekZ

[k.M&Q% fQYe leh{kk vkSj lzksr fdV

146

148

xq.koÙkk cuke ifjek.k

& riL;k lkgk

119

rkjh[kksa vkSj yM+kb;ksa ls ijs!

& mek'kadj isfjvksMh

151

ijh{kk,a¡ % foÜoluh;rk vkSj ifo=rk cgky

djus dh vko';drk & vkj- ,l- d`".kk

123

lzksr fdV

154

vkdyu esa çkstsDV] {ks= dk;Z vkSj [kkst

dh Hkwfedk

& Jhi.kkZ

128

[k.M & b % dqN O;fDrxr vuqHko

^^vuqi;ksxh** gksus dk egRo

& /kuoUrh uk;d

133

lkekftd foKku& thou ds fy, ,d fLizaxcksMZ

& ½pk Hkkoue

137

lkekftd foKkuksa us D;ksa eq>s dHkh vkdf"kZr

ugh fd;k!

& uhjtk jk?kou

140

lkekftd foKku ds p'es ls tks eq>s feyk

& fuf/k frokjh

143


[k M v

O;kid eqís


Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku

vkUæs cSVhy

vk

t lkekftd foKku fo"k; ns'k Hkj ds Ldwyksa esa fdlh u

fdlh :i esa i


Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku

fjokt fodflr dj fy;k Fkk tgk¡ eSa çR;sd fo|kFkÊ ls Lo;a dk

çÜu cukus o mldk mŸkj fy[kus dks dgrk Fkk] vkSj mUgsa ;g

crk nsrk Fkk fd mudk ewY;kadu çÜu rFkk mŸkj] nksuksa ds vk/kkj

ij fd;k tk,xkA ij fo|kfFkZ;ksa us tYnh gh esjs bjknksa dks Hkkai

fy;k] vkSj os foÜofo|ky; dh ijh{kkvksa ds fiNys çÜui=ksa ls

çÜu] vkSj mu çÜuksa ds mŸkj igys ls rS;kj djds vkus yxsA

Hkkjrh; fo|kFkÊ fdlh Hkh ijh{kk O;oLFkk ds tky vkSj QUnksa ls

ikj ikus esa mLrkn gksrs gSaA

LukrdksŸkj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks is yxk fd d{kk dks ;g

crkuk esjh ftEesnkjh gS fd vDlj fdlh [kkl çÜu ds fy, dksbZ

,d lgh mŸkj ugÈ gksrkA eSa iôs rkSj ij ;g ugÈ dg ldrk fd

ml Lrj ij Hkh eSa vius lHkh fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks bldk foÜokl fnyk

ikrk Fkk ;k ugÈA ijUrq] iUæg ;k lksyg dh mez esa fo|kFkÊ ;g

tkuuk pkgrk gS fd fdlh loky dk lgh mŸkj D;k gS rkfd og

ijh{kkvksa esa vPNk dj lds vkSj thou esa vkxs c


Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku

lekt ds ewY;ksa ds :i esa is'k djus dh ço`fŸk gksrh gSA blds

pyrs dqN fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks phtsa vLi"V gh jg tkrh gSa tcfd dqN

nqjkxzgh gks tkrs gSaA

dqN yksx ekurs gSa fd lkekftd foKku ds f'k{kdksa ds Åij

vius f'k";ksa ds Hkhrj lgh ewY;ksa ds cht cksus vkSj mudk iks"k.k

djus dh fo'ks"k ftEesnkjh gSA gkyka¡fd] ;g Li"V ugÈ gS fd mUgsa

;g djuk dSls gS] D;k mUgsa bls lkekftd rF;ksa dh O;k[;k vkSj

foÜys"k.k ls vyx j[kdj djuk pkfg, ;k fQj mls blh çfØ;k

dk ,d vfHké fgLlk ekuuk pkfg,A ,d [kkl rjg ds uSfrd

ewY;ksa dks lekt] jktuhfr] vFkZO;oLFkk dh O;k[;k vkSj foÜys"k.k

esa 'kkfey dj ysuk csgn eqf'dy dk;Z gS ftldh fNih gqbZ

dfBukb;ksa dks gYds


Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku

vkUæs cSVhy fnYyh foÜofo|ky; esa vodk'kçkIr ekun çk/;kid gksus ds lkFk gh jk"Vªh; 'kks/k çk/;kid Hkh gSaA mUgksaus

dbZ foÜofo|ky;ksa esa O;k[;ku fn, gSa vkSj mudh fdrkcsa o 'kks/ki= Hkkjr esa vkSj ckgj Hkh çdkf'kr gq, gSaA os fczfV'k

vdkneh ds dkWjsLikWafMax QSyks gSa vkSj jkW;y ,sUFkzksiksykWftdy baLVhVîwV ds vkWWujsjh QSyks gSaA 2005 esa mUgsa Hkkjr ds

jk"Vªifr }kjk in~eHkw"k.k ls lEekfur fd;k x;kA

izks- cSVhy dbZ laLFkkvksa esa vfrfFk vdknfed inksa ij Hkh jgs gSaA os eSupSLVj foÜofo|ky; esa lkbeu QSyks] dsfEczt

foÜofo|ky; esa dkWeuoSYFk foft+fVax çksQslj] yanu Ldwy vkWWQ bdksukWfeDl esa foft+fVax izksQslj] cdZys fLFkr

dSfyQksfuZ;k foÜofo|ky; esa fMfLVafXo'M foft+Vax ySDpjj] cfyZu fLFkr baLVhVîwV vkWWQ ,MokaLM LVMh esa QSyks vkSj

,sfMucxZ fLFkr baLVhVîwV QkWj ,MokaLM LVMh bu n áweSfuVht+ esa foft+fVax QSyks jgs gSaA muls bl

andrebeteille@yahoo.co.in bZesy irs ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

i`"B la% 8

[k.M % v


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

iwue c=k

lkekftd foKku ;k lkekftd v/;;u\

;g ,d lqifjfpr rF; gS fd ,d v/;;u {ks= dh rjg

lkekftd foKku dk xBu vis{kkd`r gky esa] méhloÈ lnh ds

mŸkjk/kZ ls] 'kq: gqvkA Ldwyh fo"k; dh rjg lkekftd foKku dh

fo"k;oLrq] f'k{k.k i)fr;ksa vkSj lS)kfUrd vk/kkjksa dk fodkl rks

vkSj Hkh ckn esa gqvk gSA okLro esa rks] çkFkfed rFkk ek/;fed

Ldwy f'k{kk ra=ksa esa lkekftd foKku dks dsUæh; LFkku u fey

ikuk xEHkhj fpUrk dk fo"k; jgk gSA O;ofLFkr :i ls lkekftd

foKku ds fo"k; foÜofo|ky; ds Lrj ij i


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

v/;;u dks ,d vxz.kh :ikUrjdkjh Hkwfedk esa


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

nfd;kuwlh ço`fŸk;ksa dks jksdus ds fy,---lkekftd foKkuksa ds

f'k{k.k ls ekuoh;rk] /keZ fujis{krk vkSj yksdra= ds ewY;ksa dks

c


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

lkekftd foKkuksa ds f[kykQ nwljk rdZ gS fd os mu ^dkS'kyksa^ ls

jfgr gksrs gSa tks okLrfod lalkj esa dk;Z djus ds fy, vko';d

gSaA HkkSfrd vkSj çkd`frd foKkuksa ¼ftudk uomnkjokn ds


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

fn;k tkrk gS fd leL;k ds rg esa tkus dh ;g i)fr fo|kfFkZ;ksa

dks lewps lekt ds ckjs esa n`f"V çnku djus ds fy, mi;ksxh gS]

D;ksafd gj leL;k esa thou ds fofo/k igyqvksa dks fdlh [kkl

uk iM+rk gSA

lkekftd foKkuksa ds f'k{k.k esa lesfdr n`f"Vdks.k

ds i{k esa fn, tkus okys rdZ cPpksa dh laKkukRed

çfØ;kvksa ds lkFk lkeUtL; iSnk djus dh

vko';drk ls fudyrs gSa] D;ksafd ;g t:jh ugÈ gS

fd cPps lalkj dks vdknfed fo"k;ksa ds foHkktuksa

ds ek/;e ls ns[ksaA

mlh le; vkWWLVªsfy;k esa eksuk'k foÜofo|ky; us 1967 esa viuh

ikB~;p;kZ fodkl ifj;kstuk esa ,dhdj.k dks ,d fHké eksM+

fn;kA bl ifj;kstuk esa dqN pqus gq, çlaxksa dks ysdj lkekftd

v/;;u dk ,d ,slh ikB~;p;kZ fodflr dh xbZ tks lkekftd

v/;;u ds ^vf/kd u,^ fo"k;ksa dks Ldwyh f'k{kk esa lekfgr djrh

FkhA ;g ikB~;p;kZ ^lekt esa euq";^ dks dsUæh; lw= ekudj jpk

x;k FkkA bl n`f"Vdks.k us gj fo"k; dh [kkl i)fr dks lesfdr

ikB~;p;kZ esa lekfgr djus dk ç;kl fd;kA blesa fofHké

fo"k;lw=ksa dh iM+rky djus ds nkSjku fo|kFkÊ ^ukSflf[k,

lkekftd oSKkfudksa^ dh rjg dke djrs gSaA ;g bu ekU;rkvksa

ij vk/kkfjr Fkk fd lkekftd foKku dh rduhdsa vk¡dM+ksa ds

foÜys"k.k vkSj mudh O;k[;k djus ds fy, vko';d {kerkvksa ds

fodkl esa lgk;d gksrh gSa] vkSj ;g fd] djus ds }kjk lh[kuk

,d egRoiw.kZ 'kS{kf.kd fl)kUr Fkk ¼gaV] 1971½A lesfdr

ikB~;p;kZ dh bl çeq[k vkykspuk dks ns[krs gq, fd ;g

fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk lkekftd foKku ds vyx&vyx fo"k;ksa dh

i)fr;ksa ls ifjp; ugÈ djkrh] eksuk'k foÜofo|ky; ds ç;kl

fo'ks"k :i ls egRoiw.kZ gks tkrs gSaA

ij lesfdr lkekftd foKku ikB~;p;kZ ds fopkj dks Hkkjr esa

gqbZ ikB~;p;kZ cgl esa dksbZ fo'ks"k egRo ugÈ feyk gSA çkjfEHkd

mŸkj&vkSifuosf'kd nkSj esa odhy ¼1954½ }kjk lkekftd

foKkuksa esa ijLij lfØ; lg;ksx dk lq>ko fn;k x;k FkkA ;g

rdZ fn;k x;k Fkk fd lg;ksx dh bl vko';drk dks ^^fdlh

fo'ks"k lkekftd foKku dks miyC/k Kku dh lkexzh ds foLrkj

ds n`f"Vdks.k ls ugÈ ns[kk tkuk pkfg, D;ksafd dbZ ekeyksa esa

v/;;u ds ,sls igyqvksa tks fdlh fo'ks"k lkekftd foKku esa

[k.M % v

'kkfey ugÈ gksrs] dk vf/kd xgjk fodkl n`f"Vdks.k vkSj

dk;Zi)fr esa ifjorZu ij fuHkZj djrk gS---A^^ rdZ dks Li"V djrs

gq, vkxs dgk x;k gS fd ^^;fn O;fä dsoy vius v/;;u fo"k;

esa gh jr jgrk gS rks Kku ds dqN ,sls fNis gq, {ks= gks ldrs gSa

tks mls miyC/k u gksa^^ ¼odhy] 1954 %75½A

^lesfdr i)fr^ ij gqbZ fxuh&pquh ppkZvksa esa ls ,d dk ftØ

^^nl&o"kÊ; Ldwy^^ ds ikB~;p;kZ nLrkost ¼1975½ esa feyrk gS

ftlesa bls çkFkfed] fefMy vkSj fupys ek/;fed Lrj ij

lkekftd foKkuksa dks i n'kkZrs gq, vkxs dgrk gS fd blds fy,

fo"k;&çlaxksa dks pqus tkus ds nkSjku ^fo"k; ds lkekU; yduk pkfg,] vkSj bls ,d u,

fo"k; & ^lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd thou^] tks

vFkZ'kkL=] lekt'kkL=] vkSj jktuhfr foKku ds

v/;;u{ks=ksa ls lkexzh ysrk gS vkSj ikjEifjd :i ls

ukxfjd 'kkL= dgykus okys fo"k; dh txg ysrk gS

& esa fo'ks"k fo"k;lw=ksa dks çLrqr djus dh dksf'k'k Hkh

dh xbZ gSA

,ulh,Q] 2005 Hkh fefMy vkSj gkbZLdwy Lrjksa ij fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks

lkekftd foKkuksa ls tksM+us esa fofHké v/;;u {ks=ksa dh lhek

js[kk,¡ cuk, j[kus dh ckr nksgjkrk gSA ,ulh,Q] 2005 dh n`f"V

esa fo"k;ksa esa ikjLifjd lEcU/k tksM+us okyh lksp fo"k;lkexzh ds

i`"B la% 13


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

çLrqfrdj.k esa >yduk pkfg,] vkSj bls ,d u, fo"k; &

^lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd thou^] tks vFkZ'kkL=] lekt'kkL=]

vkSj jktuhfr foKku ds v/;;u{ks=ksa ls lkexzh ysrk gS vkSj

ikjEifjd :i ls ukxfjd 'kkL= dgykus okys fo"k; dh txg

ysrk gS & esa fo'ks"k fo"k;lw=ksa dks çLrqr djus dh dksf'k'k Hkh dh

xbZ gSA çkFkfed Lrj ij ,d fo"k; i;kZoj.k v/;;u Hkh fofHké

foKkuksa vkSj lkekftd foKkuksa ls tkudkjh ysus okys çlaxksa dks

tksM+dj is'k djus dk ç;kl djrk gSA

f'k{kk vkSj jk"Vªokn ds y{;

f'k{kk ds lkekftd lUnHkZ vkSj f'k{kk ds y{;ksa ls tqM+s çÜuksa dks

,d jk"Vªh; ukxfjd leqnk; ds fodkl ds vUrxZr lhfer dj

fn;k x;k gSA nk'kZfud foe'kks± esa vius dks f'k{kk ds ckjs esa

oLrqijd loZO;kid lR;ksa dh ryk'k rd lhfer j[kus dh ço`fŸk

jgh gSA gkWCt+ckWe ¼1952 % 9½ us rdZ lfgr crk;k fd fdl rjg

lkjs ;wjksi esa vk/kqfud jk"VªjkT;ksa ds vkfoHkkZo ds mijkUr

ukSdj'kkgh O;oLFkk us f'k{kk ij fu;a=.k djds ^jk"Vª dh Nfo vkSj

fojklr^ dk çpkj fd;kA mŸkj&vkSifuosf'kd Hkkjr esa Hkh f'k{kk]

[kkldj lkekftd foKku ikB~;p;kZ] ds ek/;e ls jk"Vªh;

vfLerk ds fuekZ.k dks cgqr egRo fn;k x;kA dksBkjh vk;ksx dh

fjiksVZ esa vk/kqfudrk vkSj jk"Vªokn dks lekukFkÊ ekuk x;kA

jk"Vªh; fodkl ds çfreku ds vUrxZr gh f'k{kk ds mís';

ifjHkkf"kr fd, x, vkSj os Ldwyh f'k{kk ds nSfud vkpj.k dh

ifjikfV;ksa esa çfrfcfEcr gq,A ek/;fed f'k{kk vk;ksx ¼Hkkjr

ljdkj] 1953½] ftlus 1950 ds n'kd ds çkjEHk esa cPps dh

euksoSKkfud vko';drkvksa ij vkSj Ldwy ds fo"k;ksa dks cPps ds

,dne vklikl ds okrkoj.k ls tksM+us ij tksj fn;k Fkk] ls ;g

,d Li"V fn'kk ifjorZu FkkA d`".kdqekj vius dksBkjh vk;ksx ds

foÜys"k.k ¼2001%51½ esa fy[krs gSa] ^---,d ,sls ;qok jk"VªjkT;]

ftlus pkj o"kks± ds vUrjky esa nks ;q) yM+s Fks vkSj tks jktuSfrd

vfLFkjrk ds nkSj ls xqtj jgk Fkk] esa cPps ds LFkkuh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa

ds lUnHkZ esa Kku dk iqufuZek.k djus dh Lora=rk ds vkn'kZ ds

16

çfr igys tSlk /kS;Z ugÈ FkkA^

jk"Vª&fuekZ.k ds o"kks± ds nkSjku x


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

bu mís';ksa ls] ckn ds ikB~;p;kZ nLrkostksa esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds eu esa

fufnZ"V ewY;ksa dks LFkkfir djus ds ckjs esa fn, x, Li"V oäO;ksa

dk rh[kk fojks/kkHkkl fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ :ijs[kk]

2000 lkekftd foKku f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk dks Li"V 'kCnksa esa O;ä

djrh gS % ^lkekftd foKku ds f'k{k.k ds ek/;e ls vusd ewY;ksa

dks eu esa cSBk;k tkuk gS^A ^Hkkjrh;rk^ dh ftl Hkkouk ds ckjs esa

1988 ds nLrkost esa ppkZ dh xbZ Fkh] mldh ,ulh,Q,lbZ]

2000 esa fgUnqRo ds ,ts.Ms dks ç{ksfir djus ds fy, dkQh ladh.kZ


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

fVIif.k;k¡

1- bls dksBkjh vk;ksx dh fjiksVZ ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA

2- xks;y ,oa 'kekZ ¼1987½ esa mfYyf[krA

3- IykmMu fjiksVZ us xkSj fd;k fd ^cPpksa dk lh[kuk fo"k;ksa dh Jsf.k;ksa esa lgh&lgh ugÈ cSBrk*( MhbZ,l, 1967 % 203 iSusykWih gkusZV ¼2004½ esa

mfYyf[krA

4- nl&o"kÊ; Ldwy ds fy, ikBîØe % ,d :ijs[kk ¼n djhdqye QkWj n VSu&bZvj Ldwy % , ÝseodZ & ,ulhbZvkjVh] 1975½ dh flQkfj'k Fkh

fd&lkekftd foKkuksa dks d{kk 1 rFkk 2 esa i;kZoj.k ds v/;;u ds fgLls dh rjg] vkSj vxyh d{kkvksa esa lkekftd v/;;u ds Lora= fo"k; dh rjg

i


Ldwyh lkekftd foKku dk fookfnr {ks=

22. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT). (2005). National Curriculum Framework, 2005. New Delhi

23. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT). (2006). Position Paper: Teaching of Social Sciences. New Delhi:

NCERT

24. Nirantar. (2009) Textbook Regimes:AFeminist Critique of Nation and Identity. New Delhi: Nirantar

25. United Nations Scientifi c, Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (1954). Round Table Conference on the Teaching of the

Social Sciences in SouthAsia: Papers and Proceedings of the Meeting' February 1519. New Delhi: UNESCO

26. Vakil, C.N. (1954). The Unity of the Social Sciences in Round Table Conference on the Teaching of the Social Sciences in South Asia:

Papers and Proceedings of the Meeting. 1519 February 1954, New Delhi: UNESCO, pp 7281

27. Wesley, E. B. (1937). Teaching the Social Studies. New York: Heath and Company

28. Wishon, P. M. et.al. (1998). Curriculum for the Primary Years:An IntegrativeApproach. UK: Prentice Hall

29. Wronski, S. P. (1981). 'Social Studies Around the World'. In Mehlinger, H. D. (Ed.). (1981) UNESCO Handbook for the Learning of Social

Studies. London,UNESCO, Paris: Croom Helm

iwue c=k fnYyh ds ekSykuk vktkn lsUVj QkWj ,yesUVjh ,.M lks'ky ,tqds'ku ¼,e,lhbZ,lbZ½] lsUVªy baLVhVîwV vkWWQ

,stqds'ku ¼lhvkbZbZ½ esa ,yesUVjh ,tqds'ku dh çk/;kid gSaA mudh fo'ks"k #fp ds dk;Z{ks= gSa % f'k{kk esa lkoZtfud uhfr] çkFkfed

f'k{kk ikBîØe rFkk f'k{k.k] f'k{kd&f'k{kk] f'k{kk dk fodklkRed o lkekftd euksfoKku] rFkk fyax&vk/kkfjr v/;;uA mUgksaus

lst }kjk 2010 esa çdkf'kr ,d xzUFk lks'ky lkbal yfuZax bu LdwYl % ilZiSfDVo ,.M pSysatst+ dk lEiknu fd;k gSA orZeku esa

os tokgjyky usg: QSyks ds :i esa f'k{kd&f'k{kk ,oa lkekftd ifjorZu fo"k; ij 'kks/k dj jgh gSaA muls bl

batrapoonam@yahoo.com bZesy irs ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

[k.M % v

i`"B la% 17


v

xj ;g dgk tk, fd ubZ&ubZ txgsa ns[kus&?kweus tkuk]

jktuhfr ij cgl] çfl) o lk/kkj.k yksxksa ls tqM+h gqbZ

dgkfu;k¡] vke Hkkjrh;ksa ds fy, ¼vkSj 'kk;n nqfu;k ds

ckdh yksxksa ds fy, Hkh½ Qqjlr esa ppkZ ds fy, lcls fiz; fo"k;

gSa] rks D;k bl ij dksbZ fookn gksxk\ eq>s ugÈ yxrkA fdlh Hkh

i;ZVu ;k=k vk;kstd ls iwNsa rks og dgsxk mldk fctusl

Qy&Qwy jgk gS] fdlh Hkh ppkZ eap ij xkSj djsa] vukSipkfjd

lHkk gks ;k vkSipkfjd] vki ik,¡xs fd jktuhfr lcls T;knk

pfpZr fo"k; gSA gekjs v[kckjksa ds nSfud ifjf'k"Vksa o vke

if=dkvksa dh ,d >yd ns[kus Hkj ls yksxksa ls lEcfU/kr

dgkfu;ksa dh fcdkÅ yksdfç;rk dh iqf"V gks tkrh gSA

lkekftd foKku ds fo"k; dh Åijh irs± gVkdj dj ns[ksa rks

ik,¡xs fd mldh cqfu;knh çd`fr dk ljksdkj yksxksa] txgksa vkSj

laLFkkvksa ds fdLls dgkfu;ksa ls gh gSA mUgsa gh ge vius pkjksa

rjQ dgkfu;ksa esa cnyrk ns[krs gSa] pkgs og Vh-oh- ij gks ;k

fQYeh inZs ij ;k fQj v[kckjksa esaA ijUrq] ;fn lkekU; yksxksa ds

chp ;g loZs fd;k tk, fd vius Ldwyh fnuksa esa mUgsa lkekftd

foKku esa fdruh fnypLih Fkh] rks ;g ckr lkeus vk,xh fd mUgsa

lkekftd foKku ds fo"k; isa vkSj mldh dæ

djsa fd ge tgk¡ vHkh gSa ogk¡ rd dSls vk, gSaA ;s fo"k;] ge ij

'kklu djus okyh laLFkkvksa ds v/;;u ds ek/;e ls gesa orZeku

ls Hkh tksM+rs gSa] rFkk ge ftl o`gn~ ikfjfLFkfrd ra= dk fgLlk gSa

mldh le> gekjs Hkhrj fodflr djds vrhr vkSj orZeku dks

i`"B la% 18

Hkkjr esa lkekftd foKku dk ^ghu* ntkZ &

dkj.k o lq/kkjkRed mik;

½f"kds'k ch-,lifjfpr

lUnHkks± esa gekjs lkeus ykrs

gSaA lkekftd foKku ,d csgrj

nqfu;k cukus dk liuk ns[kus esa

gekjh enn djrk gSA ekuoh;

fodkl ls tqM+s gq, O;kogkfjd

çÜu tSls fd ^uxjksa dks dSls

csgrj cuk,¡] yksxksa ds thouLrj

esa lq/kkj dSls fd;k tk,] vijk/k&nj dks dSls de fd;k

tk,] HksnHkko dks dSls nwj fd;k tk,] csgrj 'kklu fdl rjg

çnku fd;k tk ldrk gS] mRikndrk vkSj dSls lq/kj ldrh gS*]

vkfn bUgÈ lc ckrksa ls lkekftd foKku curk gSA

;fn ;g lp gS] rks tc bu eqíksa dks bdÎk djds fo"k;ksa ds :i esa

lkeus j[kk tkrk gS rks os v#fpdj vkSj csdkj dSls yxus yxrs

gSa\ D;k bldk lEcU/k bu fo"k;ksa dk v/;;u djus ds fy, rS;kj

dh tkus okyh lkexzh ls gS] ;k fQj ml


Hkkjr esa lkekftd foKku dk ^ghu* ntkZ & dkj.k o lq/kkjkRed mik;

ij ekufodh ls tqM+k fo"k; ¼bfrgkl] lkfgR;] vkSj n'kZu'kkL=

tSls fo"k; tks ekuo laLd`fr vkSj fopkjksa ds v/;;u ij

vk/kkfjr gSa½ pqurk gS] rks og çkd`frd foKkuksa dks pquus okys

fo|kFkÊ dh rqyuk esa de cqf)eku@gksf'k;kj ekuk tkus yxrk

gSA derj gksus dk ;g BIik lcls igys rks ifjokj ds Lrj ij gh

yx tkrk gS vkSj bldk egRoiw.kZ dkj.k gS vk/kqfud Hkkjrh;

lekt }kjk bathfu;jksa rFkk MkWDVjksa dks fn;k x;k Å¡pk ntkZA

;gk¡ ,d ckr vkSj] ftu fo|kfFkZ;ksa us çkd`frd foKku ds fdlh

fo"k; dks pquk gS] ij tks bathfu;jh ;k fpfdRlk txr esa dSfj;j

cukus ds bPNqd ugÈ gSa] mUgsa Hkh lEHkor% mlh p'es ls ns[kk

tk,xk ftlls lkekftd foKku isaA lHkh Lrjksa ij lekt

dk v/;;u gh lkekftd foKku gSA ;g ,d cgq&v/;;u{ks=h;

[k.M % v

fo"k; gS tks lEHkor% ckdh lHkh fo"k;ksa ls vkSj ekuoh; vuqHkoksa ls

dqN u dqN ysrk gSA bldk {ks= vkSj egRo yxkrkj c


Hkkjr esa lkekftd foKku dk ^ghu* ntkZ & dkj.k o lq/kkjkRed mik;

fd;kA gekjs pkjksa rjQ ,sls mnkgj.k gSa tks n'kkZrs gSa fd o`gn~

lekt dks rks NksM+ nsa] gekjs Ldwy Hkh bu mís';ksa dks gkfly dj

ikus ds djhc ugÈ igq¡ps gSaA 1964 esa] dksBkjh vk;ksx us dgk Fkk

fd i;kZoj.k dk Kku vkSj ekuoh; lEcU/kksa dh le> gkfly

djus ds vykok] lkekftd ¼v/;;u½ foKku i


Hkkjr esa lkekftd foKku dk ^ghu* ntkZ & dkj.k o lq/kkjkRed mik;

;g t:jh gS fd lkekftd foKku dk v/;kid f'k{k.k ds fofHké

nk'kZfud n`f"Vdks.kksa dk v/;;u vkSj foÜys"k.k djs] blds ckn

muls vko';d laÜysf"kr n`f"V fodflr djsA visf{kr dbZ phtksa

esa ls ,d ;g gS fd lkekftd foKku ds f'k{kd dks ,d nk'kZfud

dh Hkwfedk fuHkkuk pkfg,A mls vyx&vyx nk'kZfud

fopkj/kkjkvksa dh tkudkjh gksuh pkfg,A ,slk gks blds fy,]

f'k{kdksa ds çf'k{k.k esa cqfu;knh cnyko ykus dh t:jr gSA ;g

muds fy, [kklrkSj ij rS;kj fd, tkus okys f'k{k.k dkslks± ds

ek/;e ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] 'kS{kf.kd n'kZu

dks vius mís';ksa esa mi;ksxoknh gksuk pkfg, vkSj ,slk gksus ds

fy, ;g egRoiw.kZ gks tkrk gS fd ml n'kZu ds fl)kUrksa dks

vey esa ykus ij /;ku dsfUær fd;k tk,A

blfy,] çkd`frd foKkuksa ds f'k{kd ls T;knk

lkekftd foKku ds f'k{kd ds fy, ihBklhu gksdj

çopu nsus dh ikjEifjd vknr ls gVuk t:jh gS(

f'k{k.k ds


Hkkjr esa lkekftd foKku dk ^ghu* ntkZ & dkj.k o lq/kkjkRed mik;

ls çkIr tkudkfj;k¡ lkekftd HksnHkko] csjkstxkjh] 'kgjh fgalk]

bR;kfn fofHké eqíksa ls fuiVus ds fy, cuk, tkus okys ljdkjh

dk;ZØeksa ds fu/kkZj.k dks çHkkfor djrh gSaA

,d çkstsDV&vk/kkfjr i)fr tks lh[kus ds fy,

xfrfof/k;ksa ij dsfUær n`f"Vdks.k ij tksj nsrh gS] f'k{kk

ds n'kZu dh rjg ^ekuooknh fopkj/kkjk* ftldh

odkyr dkyZ jkWtlZ ¼1902&1985½ us dh Fkh vkSj ftlesa

fo|kFkÊ gh mu çÜuksa dh igpku djrs gSa ftudk mŸkj

fn;k tkuk gS] rkfd lh[kus esa tks okaNuh; gS og muds

Hkhrj ls gh fudydj vkrk gS] vkSj leL;kvksa dks

lqy>kus dh ,slh fof/k viukuk ftlesa fofHké

v/;;u{ks=ksa ls lkexzh yh tkrh gS] bu lHkh dk lek/kku

[kkstus ds fy, bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA

^buVw n ;wpj foFk lks'ky lkbalst+* 'kh"kZd ds ,d n'kd iqjkus

'kks/ki= esa Mk;jsDVªsV QkWj bdksukWfed dks&vkWWisjs'ku ,.M

MsosyieSaV ds T;ka&,sfjd vkWWcVZ us vuqeku yxk;k Fkk fd

^lEHkor% lwpuk ;qx esa vkSj Kku&vk/kkfjr foÜo dh vHkkSfrd

vFkZuhfr esa lekt dks [kqn dks vkSj csgrj


yksdra= ds fy, f'k{kk & Ldwyksa esa

lkekftd foKku f'k{kk dh çklafxdrk

vatfy ujksUgk

lk

ekftd foKku nqfu;k Hkj ds Ldwyksa esa fdlh u fdlh

:i esa i


yksdra= ds fy, f'k{kk & Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku f'k{kk dh çklafxdrk

esa] mls cuk, j[kus esa vkSj fodflr djus esa lkekftd foKku

dh f'k{kk dh çklafxdrk ij jgsxkA ,slk djrs oä] eSa lkekftd

foKku f'k{kk dks lekt dh orZeku 'kfä lajpuk rFkk mlds

Å¡p&uhp okys] lkeUrh vkSj fof'k"Vrk okys joS;ksa ls Hkjs vkpj.k

dh uSfrd /kkj.kkvksa] ftUgsa [kqn f'k{kdksa o ikydksa us gh oS/krk

çnku dh gS] ls feyus okyh pqukSfr;ksa dks fpfUgr d:¡xhA

yksdra= ds fy, f'k{kk ds :i esa lkekftd foKku

f'k{kk

yksdrkaf=d lekt bl vFkZ esa dkQh gn rd ^fodflr* lekt

gksrs gSa fd os O;fä fo'ks"k ls O;ogkj :i esa dqN fufÜpr

rkSj&rjhdksa] uSfrdrk] {kerkvksa vkSj ;ksX;rk dh ek¡x djrs gSa

ftlds fy, euq";ksa esa ekStwn ,slh uSlfxZd ço`fŸk;ksa ds cgqr

vf/kd mnkŸkhdj.k dh t:jr gksrh gS tks fd Åij fy[kh ckrksa

ds çfrdwy gksa( rkfd yksdra= dk fl)kUr okLro esa yksdra= dh

gdhdr cu tk,A dsoy ,d [kkl rjg ds lpsru ç;kl

¼ftlesa f'k{kk Hkh 'kkfey gS½ ds }kjk gh yksdra= dks fl)kUr ls

gdhdr cukus ds fy, t:jh vkpj.k] ;ksX;rk vkSj ewY;

fodflr fd, tk ldrs gSa vkSj cPpksa ds ekul esa cSBk, tk ldrs

gSaA

;fn bfrgkl ij xkSj fd;k tk, rks vk/kqfud yksdra=] vleku

'kfä&lehdj.kksa vkSj dqN yksxksa ds gkFkksa esa lŸkk ds dsUæhdj.k

ds f[kykQ la?k"kZ ds :i esa mHkjk Fkk ftlus ledkyhu

Å¡p&uhp okys lkeUrh vkSj vf/kdkjoknh syuk iM+rh gS ftUgksaus [kqn gh lcls igys

yksdrka=hdj.k dh ek¡x esa Hkkxhnkjh dh FkhA ,slk blfy, gksrk

gS D;ksafd [kqn gekjk lkekthdj.k ,d ,slh o`gn~ ,sfrgkfld

çfØ;k dk fgLlk gS] tks vlekurkvksa o oxÊdj.kksa dks ;ksX;rk esa

vUrjksa ;k ^bZÜoj çnŸk* kX; dk uke nsdj oS/krk çnku dj nsrh

gSA vkSj lEHkor% bldk ewy çR;sd O;fä dh [kqn dh ljkguk

dh rFkk nwljksa dh ftUnxh ij fu;a=.k dh tUetkr pkgr esa Hkh

Nqik gqvk gSA blfy,] O;ogkj esa ftruk la?k"kZ lkekftd {ks=ksa o

çfØ;kvksa esa yksdra= dh LFkkiuk djus dk gS mruk gh la?k"kZ bls

O;fä;ksa ds Hkhrj LFkkfir djus dk Hkh gSA bl la?k"kZ dks gh

d{kkvksa ds Hkhrj vkSj 'kS{kf.kd vuqHkoksa esa txg fn, tkus dh

t:jr gSA ;g dSls gksxk] bldh ppkZ djus ls igys vkb, ge

bl Vs


yksdra= ds fy, f'k{kk & Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku f'k{kk dh çklafxdrk

vczkge fyadu ds xSfVlcxZ mn~cks/ku ls fy;k x;k gS tks

yksdra= dks ^turk dh] turk ds }kjk] turk ds fy, ljdkj* ds

:i esa ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA blfy,] yksdra= esa ukxfjdksa dh

Hkkxhnkjh ds }kjk gh uhfr;ksa o dkuwuksa dk fuekZ.k] mudh leh{kk

rFkk la'kks/ku fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn ukxfjdksa dk joS;k csgrj vkSj

T;knk çklafxd uhfr;ksa dh jpuk dh çfØ;k esa [kqn 'kkfey gksus

vkSj kxhnkjh djus dk ^fljnnZ mBkus dk ugÈ gS*] rks [krjk ;g

jgrk gS fd ,slh uhfr;ksa o dk;ZØeksa dk Qy dsoy mu pUn

yksxksa dks feysxk tks blesa Hkkxhnkjh djrs gSaA

blfy,] O;ogkj esa ftruk la?k"kZ lkekftd {ks=ksa o

çfØ;kvksa esa yksdra= dh LFkkiuk djus dk gS mruk

gh la?k"kZ bls O;fä;ksa ds Hkhrj LFkkfir djus dk Hkh

gSA bl la?k"kZ dks gh d{kkvksa ds Hkhrj vkSj 'kS{kf.kd

vuqHkoksa esa txg fn, tkus dh t:jr gSA

yksxksa dk çfrfuf/kRo rFkk muds çfr mŸkjnkf;Ro %

vk/kqfud yksdra= çR;{k yksdra= u gksdj çfrfuf/kRo ij

vk/kkfjr gksrs gSa] D;ksafd çR;{k yksdra=ksa ds fglkc ls jk"Vª cgqr

cM+s gksrs gSaA bl rjg ;g t:jh gS fd yksx çfrfuf/kd usr`Ro dk

^lgh* vFkZ le>sa] tks fd yksxksa ds er }kjk pqus x, çfrfuf/k dk

^'kklu* ugÈ gksrk cfYd mu yksxksa ds çfr mldk mŸkjnkf;Ro o

tokcnsgh gksrh gS ftUgksaus mls usrk pqukA bldk vFkZ gqvk fd

usr`Ro csyxke ugÈ gksrk rFkk tks pkgs og ugÈ dj ldrkA mls

lafo/kku }kjk] uhfr;ksa }kjk vkSj ukxfjdksa dh lfØ; rFkk

lekykspukRed Hkkxhnkjh }kjk lhfer fd;k tkrk gSA

;fn ;s lc ,d LoLFk vkSj lqn`


yksdra= ds fy, f'k{kk & Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku f'k{kk dh çklafxdrk

ds


yksdra= ds fy, f'k{kk & Ldwyksa esa lkekftd foKku f'k{kk dh çklafxdrk

dkxt ij cny nh tkus okyh uhfr;k¡ gksrh gSaA gdhdr ;g gS

fd lkekftd o lkaLd`frd :i ls Hkkjr cgqr gn rd Å¡p&uhp

ds Øe ij vk/kkfjr] ¼vkfFkZd ugÈ cfYd lkaLd`frd ds uhps >qd xbZaA

f'k{kd] ikyd] lkeqnkf;d usrk] lHkh ,slh lkekftd foKku

f'k{kk dks rjthg nsuk pkgsaxs tks lŸkk ds çfr etcwr

lekykspukRed joS;k j[kus ds ctk; mldk vfHkoknu djrh gks]

vkSj fooknksa dks cPpksa ds fnekxksa ls nwj gh j[krh gksA blfy, os

yksx] ftudk [kqn vius vkpj.k esa yksdrkaf=d gksuk t:jh gS]

rFkk ftuls ;g vis{kk gksrh gS fd os cPpksa ds hrj Hkh ,sls ewY;ksa

o xq.kksa dks iSnk dj mUgsa c


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

g`n;dkar nhoku

v- fo"k; ifjp;

lk

ekftd v/;;u gekjs thou vkSj vfLrRo ls xgjs rjhds

ls tqM+k gSA blls gekjs O;ogkj dks çHkkfor djus vkSj

lalkj dks ns[kus ds gekjs utfj, dks xk

tk ldrk gS fd bu [kkl 'kCnksa ls D;k rkRi;Z gS] ijUrq budh

O;k[;k djus ds


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

fufeZr djus esa cPps dh enn djus ls gSA mls ,sls mi;qä

fodYi pquus esa l{ke cuuk t:jh gS tks vf/kdk¡'k lekt ds fy,

ykHkdkjh gksaA blds vykok] mls iwjs lekt dh vko';drkvksa

vkSj i;kZoj.k ds çfr laosnu'khy cukuk Hkh t:jh gSA

vDlj lkekftd v/;;u dks fdlh fo'ks"k çdkj ds lkeqnkf;d

thou vkSj uSfrd foKku ds ckjs esa lh[kuk eku fy;k tkrk gS]

vkSj ;g vDlj djus vkSj u djus okyh ckrksa dh ,d lwph rd

lhfer gks tkrk gS ftudk cPpksa dks ikyu djuk gksrk gSA ,slk

dk;ZØe cPps ds fujh{k.k djus] vuqHko djus] fopkjksa dks x


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

gSaA foKku esa ge ,d ç;ksx dks nksgjk ldrs gSa ;k u, ç;ksx Hkh

dj ldrs gSaA blesa ;g Hkh lqfufÜpr jgrk gS fd fdUgÈ nh xbZ

fLFkfr;ksa esa çs{k.kksa ds ifj.kke lqlaxr gksaxsA

ijUrq lkekftd v/;;u esa foÜys"k.k dks x


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

n- n`f"Vdks.k

ftu n`f"Vdks.kksa ls dksbZ d{kk esa lkekftd eqíksa dks mBkrk gS

mlesa fNik loky vR;Ur ijs'kku djus okyk gSA D;k lerk vkSj

U;k; dk vknj djuk lh[kus ls mu fLFkfr;ksa esa dqN djus dh

vis{kk dh tkrh gS tgk¡ vU;k; vkSj vlekurk gks & pkgs bldk

vFkZ cPps ds ?kj ;k leqnk; esa çR;{k :i ls mifLFkr ckrksa dk

lkeuk djus ls gks\ ;fn cPps vU;k; vkSj vlekurk dh

fLFkfr;ksa dk vUos"k.k djrs gSa rks D;k os bUgsa cnyus ds rjhdksa

vkSj lk/kuksa dh Hkh ppkZ djrs gSa\ ;k] D;k mUgsa vius dks flQZ

lafo/kku] mlds ok;nksa vkSj lajpuk rd gh lhfer j[kuk pkfg,]

fcuk bldk foÜys"k.k fd, fd os ;FkkFkZ esa dSls dke djrs gSa\ ;g

,d dfBu fu.kZ; gSA

D;k lerk vkSj U;k; dk vknj djuk lh[kus ls mu

fLFkfr;ksa esa dqN djus dh vis{kk dh tkrh gS tgk¡

vU;k; vkSj vlekurk gks & pkgs bldk vFkZ cPps ds

?kj ;k leqnk; esa çR;{k :i ls mifLFkr ckrksa dk

lkeuk djus ls gks\

okLrfod fLFkfr;ksa ls mBus okyksa lokyksa ij d{kk esa ppkZ djuk

vklku ugÈ gksrkA fofHké i`"BHkwfe;ksa vkSj lkekftd&vkfFkZd

Lrjksa ls vk, cPps ,sls eqíksa ij ek= lS)kfUrd ;k vdknfed koksa dk cks> Hkh

gksrk gSA Ldwyh O;oLFkk dh LokHkkfod ço`fŸk Vdjko vkSj

vfç;rk dks Vkyus] vlekurkvksa dks fNikus rFkk 'kkfUr vkSj

l˜ko dh odkyr djus dh gksxhA vPNk ukxfjd og gS tks

viuh fLFkfr dks 'kkUr Hkko ls Lohdkj dj ysrk gS vkSj vk'kk

djrk gS fd csgrj dkuwu cusaxs vkSj vf/kd çHkkodkjh us ls

cpukA

i`"B la% 31


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

b- fo"k; dh çd`fr

D;k ;g lkekftd v/;;u gS ;k lkekftd foKku\

vke çpfyr /kkj.kk jgh gS fd oSKkfud i)fr Kku vkSj thou

dk csgrj ekxZ lqyHk djkrh gS( ;g Hkh fd xf.krh; rdZ ç.kkyh

ds lkFk feydj ;g ekuoh; thou dks rdZlaxr cukus ds fy,

,d lexz lek/kku cu tkrh gSA blds ifj.kkeLo:i lkekftd

v/;;u {ks=ksa dk Hkh] oSKkfud çR;; tksM+dj] fQj ls ukedj.k

dj fn;k x;kA

oSfÜod :i ls foKku vkSj ;kaf=dh dh 'kfä] rFkk

çek.k&vk/kkfjr rdks± vkSZj oSpkfjd rdZ i)fr ds vpwd gksus ds

foÜokl dks gh leLr Kku ds fuekZ.k dk vk/kkj ekuk x;kA ;g

/kkj.kk v/;;u ds lHkh {ks=ksa esa ?kj dj xbZ] vkSj blds QyLo:i

oSKkfud n`f"Vdks.k ewY;oku gks x;kA lkekftd v/;;u ds

vUrxZr vkus okys fofHké fo"k;ksa ds v/;srkvksa us ifjJeiwoZd ;g

crk;k fd fdl rjg mudk fo"k; foKku ds fudV Fkk vkSj

laKkukRed n`f"V ls mruk gh rdZlaxr FkkA

ijUrq] tgk¡ rdks± vkSZj oSpkfjd lajpukvksa ds rdZlaxr gksus dh

vko';drk esa dqN Hkh xyr ugÈ gS] ogÈ bl ckr dks /;ku esa

j[kuk egRoiw.kZ gS fd ekuo O;ogkj ds dbZ igyw lh/ks&lkQ

foosdiw.kZ foÜys"k.k vkSj rdZ'kkL= ds vuq:i ugÈ gksrs D;ksafd

muesa dbZ vlaxfr;k¡ gksrh gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, vkLFkk iz.kkfy;ka¡

dSls fufeZr gksrh gSa] ;g ,d vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ çÜu gS vkSj bldh

tk¡p&iM+rky ,sls rjhds ls djuk iM+rh gS ftls oSKkfud ugÈ

dgk tk ldrkA

fQj] ;g Hkh cgl dk eqík gks ldrk gS fd ,d lk>k

n`f"Vdks.k ;k O;kid ekU;rk


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

,d gh n`f"Vdks.k ls le>k tk ldrk gS] fo'ks"k :i ls ;g

ns[krs gq, fd nksuksa la;qä :i ls ^i;kZoj.k v/;;u* ds

vUrxZr ik tk ldrk gS] fo'ks"k :i ls ;g ns[krs gq, fd

nksuksa la;qä :i ls ^i;kZoj.k v/;;u* ds vUrxZr i


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

;fn dk;ZØe cPps dks dkj.k [kkstus] vius fopkjksa dks O;ofLFkr

djus vkSj fodYi pquus dk volj nsrk gS rks cPps ds O;ogkj ds

fy, mlds mi;ksxh vFkZ gksaxsA ,slk dk;ZØe cPps dks bldh

çrhfr djk,xk fd lekt D;k gS vkSj mlls dSls tqM+uk pkfg,A

og vklikl dh nqfu;k esa ?kV jgh ?kVukvksa dks le>us ds rjhds

Hkh lq>k,xkA cPps dks dqN fo'ks"k fl)kUrksa vkSj lkekftd

vkn'kks± dk Kku gksuk vkSj mu ij loky mBkus esa mldk l{ke

gksuk Hkh t:jh gSA

vki fo|kFkÊ ds vuqHko ij fo"k; dks] [kklrkSj ls

bfrgkl esa] dSls fufeZr dj ldrs gSa\

vo/kkj.kkvksa ds fy, fo"k;lw= vkSj çkjfEHkd fcUnq pquus ds fy,

vusd yksd n`f"V;k¡ gSaA buesa lokZsifj rdZ gS Kkr ls vKkr dh

vksj c


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

ftuds lgkjs iqjkus dkyksa ds ,sls fooj.k fn, tk ldsa tks cPps

ds fy, jkspd gksaA

tgk¡ ckr cPps ds fy, rkRdkfyd Vdjko okys

eqís dh gks rks f'k{kd lhek js[kk dgk¡ [kÈpsaxs\

;g r; djuk rqyukRed n`f"V ls vklku gks ldrk gS fd vki

HkkSfrd Hkwxksy ds lkFk D;k djuk pkgrs gSa] gkyk¡fd blesa Hkh

vewrÊdj.k dk ifjek.k vkSj mu Hkw{ks=ksa dk vkdkj ftuds fy,

;s egRoiw.kZ gksrs gSa] vius vki esa Hk;kog gksrs gSaA ;g tkuuk Hkh

lEHko gS fd xk¡o ds cktkj dk D;k djuk gS ;k ge eqæk ds

fopkj dk foÜys"k.k dSls djsaA ijUrq tc ge vf/k'ks"k dk lEcU/k

vlekurk dh lkekftd xfrdh ls tksM+rs gSa vkSj lEifŸk ds

lap; dk] futh tk;nkn ds vkSfpR; dk] ;k fojklr esa feyh

lEifŸk dk foÜys"k.k djrs gSa] rks ge lkekftd v/;;u dh ,slh

vo/kkj.kk,a¡ fufeZr dj jgs gksrs gSa tks vyx&vyx yksxksa ds

fy, vyx&vyx rjhds ls dke djrh gSaA ge ,d lkFk

lkekftd fopkjksa ds fuekZrk vkSj muds foÜys"kd] nksuksa gksrs gSaA

bl çdkj d{kk esa eqä cgl egRoiw.kZ] vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd

O;oLFkk dh fuUnk djus okyh Hkh gks ldrh gSA blh çdkj] ;fn

ge Hkwxksy dk lEcU/k ns'kksa dh jktuhfr ls] vkSj lalk/kuksa ds

opZLo vkSj forj.k ls tksM+sa] rks xSj cjkcjh ds Åij çÜu mBkus

vkSj Lohdk;Zrk dks c

gksuk pkfg,A fdlh Hkh fodflr dh tkus okyh fo"k;oLrq dk

vk/kkj ;g fu"d"kZ gksuk pkfg, fd ,d ,sfrgkfld le;js[kk dk

gksuk vkids fy, t:jh gSA blds fy, fo'ks"k fo"k; ds

vewrÊdj.k ds ,sls Lrj dh vko';drk gksrh gS tks ,d lesfdr

fopkjlw=&vk/kkfjr i)fr ds vUrxZr fodflr ugÈ gksxkA

lkexzh dk lesfdr gksuk bls cPps ds fy, vf/kd jkspd cuk

ldrk gSA ijUrq ;g vius vki esa y{; ugÈ gks ldrkA ;g

igpkuuk egRoiw.kZ gS fd vkSipkfjd f'k{kk cPps dks lexz

;FkkFkZ dks le>us vkSj mldk dbZ n`f"V;ksa ls foÜys"k.k djus esa

enn djus ds fy, gksrh gS] vkSj blds fy, i`Fkd fo"k;ksa ij

vk/kkfjr dk;ZØe vko';d gSA

x- vfUre fVIi.kh

bl ys[k esa mBk, x, lHkh lokyksa ds mŸkj gekjs ikl ugha gSa( os

lkekftd v/;;u dk;ZØe fodflr djus ds la?k"kZ dk fgLlk

i`"B la% 35


lkekftd v/;;u esa ijs'kku djus okys loky

gSaA iwjs 'kSf{kd leqnk; esa] [kkldj çkFkfed Ldwy f'k{kdksa vkSj

ikBîiqLrdksa ys[kdksa ds chp lkekftd v/;;u ds eqíksa dh

O;kid le> fodflr djus dh t:jr gS] rkfd os d{kk dh

xfrfof/k;ksa dks mi;qä tkudkjh ls le`) cuk ldsaA

ys[kd dh vksj ls vkHkkj

bl ys[k dks O;ofLFkr vkSj lEikfnr djus esa lgk;rk ds fy, eSa vt+he

çseth Qkm.Ms'ku ds vkuan LokehukFku vkSj fo|k Hkou dh efgek flag

ds çfr gkfnZd d`rKrk O;ä djuk pkgw¡xkA

g`n;dkar nhoku ¼gkMʽ ,dyO; ds laLFkkid lewg ds ,d lnL; gSa vkSj orZeku esa fo|k Hkou lkslk;Vh] mn;iqj

ds laxBu lfpo ,oa 'kS{kf.kd lykgdkj gSaA os f'k{kk ds {ks= esa fofHké i{kksa ij fofHké rjhdksa ls fiNys 35 o"kks± ls dk;Z

dj jgs gSaA fo'ks"k :i ls os 'kS{kf.kd uokpkj rFkk jkT; dh 'kS{kf.kd O;oLFkkvksa esa la'kks/ku ds ç;klksa ls tqM+s jgs gSaA

muls bl vbsudr@yahoo.com bZesy irs ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

i`"B la% 36

[k.M % v


lkekftd foKku rFkk jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh

:ijs[kk

bUnq çlkn

lk

ekftd foKku ds fo"k; vdknfed v/;;u ds os {ks= gSa

tks ekuo lekt vkSj tfVy ekuoh; lEcU/kksa ds fofHké

igyqvksa dk vUos"k.k djrs gSaA ,d U;k;iw.kZ rFkk 'kkfUriw.kZ lekt

gsrq vk/kkj fufeZr djus ds fy, lkekftd foKku fo"k;ksa ds

n`f"Vdks.k vkSj tkudkjh vifjgk;Z gSaA lkekftd foKku ds nk;js

esa lekt dh fofo/k fpUrk,¡ vkrh gSa] vkSj bldh O;kid foLrkj

okyh fo"k;oLrq bfrgkl] Hkwxksy] jktuhfr foKku] vFkZ'kkL=]

lekt'kkL= vkSj ekuo'kkL= vkfn ls yh tkrh gSA

jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk ¼us'kuy dfjdqye

ÝseodZ&,ulh,Q½ dgrh gS fd lkekftd foKkuksa dk v/;;u

fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ijLij vf/kd fuHkZj gksrs tk jgs lalkj ls rkyesy

fcBkus ds fy, vko';d lkekftd] lkaLd`frd vkSj

foÜys"k.kkRed dkS'ky çnku djrk gSA

lkekftd foKkuksa ij ekuoh; ewY;ksa & tSls fd] Lora=rk]

Hkjkslk] ijLij lEeku vkSj fofo/krk ds fy, vknj Hkko dk xgjk

cks/k & dks fufeZr djus dh ftEesnkjh gksrh gSA lkekftd foKku

ds f'k{k.k dk y{; fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa ,d lekykspukRed uSfrd vkSj

ekufld ÅtkZ mRié djuk gksuk pkfg, ftlls os bu ewY;ksa ds

fy, [krjk cuus okyh lkekftd rkdrksa ds çfr tkx:d cusaA

ftu fo"k;ksa ls feydj lkekftd foKku curk gS mudh viuh

fof'k"V i)fr;k¡ gksrh gSa ftudks ns[krs gq, muds chp esa

lhekjs[kkvksa dk cuk jguk mfpr çrhr gksrk gSA ij blds lkFk

gh] tgk¡ Hkh vUrjfo"k;h n`f"Vdks.k lEHko gksa mUgsa Hkh n'kkZ;k

tkuk pkfg,A fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ;ksX; cukus okyh ikB~;p;kZ ds fy,

mlesa ,sls fo"k;lw=ksa dk lekos'k djus dh t:jr gS tks

cgqfo"k;h lksp esa lgk;d gksaA

,ulh,Q ds vuqlkj lkekftd foKku dh fo"k;oLrq dk y{;

ifjfpr lkekftd ;FkkFkZ dk lekykspukRed vUos"k.k djus vkSj

mlds ckjs esa çÜu }kjk fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh psruk dks Åij mBkuk

gksuk pkfg,A blesa fo'ks"k :i ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds vius

thou&vuqHkoksa ls tqM+s u, vk;keksa vkSj ubZ fpUrkvksa dks tksM+us

dh cgqr lEHkkouk,a¡ gksrh gSaA blfy, lkexzh dks pquuk vkSj mls

,slh vFkZiw.kZ ikB~;p;kZ ds :i esa O;ofLFkr djuk tks fo|kfFkZ;ksa

dks lekt dh lekykspukRed le> fodflr djus esa l{ke

cuk,] ,d pqukSrhiw.kZ dk;Z gSA

lkekftd foKku ds ^vuqi;ksxh* fo"k; gksus dh vke /kkj.kk ds

çfr ,ulh,Q lpsr gSA d{kk esa bldh is tkudkjh dks flQZ ;kn j[kus ds

ctk; vo/kkj.kkvksa dks rFkk lkekftd] jktuSfrd

okLrfodrkvksa dk foÜys"k.k djus dh ;ksX;rk dks fodflr djus

ij tksj fn;k tkuk pkfg,A bl ckr dks igpkuuk Hkh t:jh gS

fd lkekftd foKkuksa esa Hkh oSKkfud tk¡p iM+rky dh mruh gh

xq¡tkb'k gksrh gS ftruh çkd`frd rFkk HkkSfrd foKkuksa esa gksrh gSA

lkFk gh ;g Hkh n'kkZ, tkus dh t:jr gS fd lkekftd foKkuksa

ds }kjk mi;ksx dh tkus okyh fof/k;k¡ fdl çdkj çkd`frd vkSj

HkkSfrd foKkuksa ls fHké gksrs gq, Hkh muls ?kfV;k Lrj dh drbZ

ugÈ gksrÈA

,ulh,Q KkuktZu ds n`f"Vdks.k esa ,d cqfu;knh cnyko

çLrkfor djrk gS] ftlds vuqlkj %



ikBîiqLrd tkudkjh dk ,dek= lzksr gksus ds ctk;

ikBîiqLrd dh Hkwfedk eqíksa dks le>us dk ,d [kkl

rjhdk lq>kus dh gksA

vrhr vkSj mlds Hkh vrhr dh ^eq[;/kkjk* ds fooj.k dks

[k.M % v

i`"B la% 37


lkekftd foKku rFkk jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk



cnydj mlesa vkSj vf/kd lewgksa vkSj {ks=ksa dks 'kkfey

fd;k tk,A

mi;ksfxrkokn ds ctk; lerkokn dks viuk;k tk,A

ikBîiqLrd dks ,d cUn cDls dh rjg u ns[kdj mls ,d

xfr'khy nLrkost dh rjg ns[kk tk,A

;g ifjorZu blfy, lq>k;k x;k gS rkfd Hkkjrh; jk"Vª dh

vusd çdkj ls dh xbZ ,slh dYiukvksa dks lekfgr fd;k tk lds

ftuesa jk"Vªh; n`f"Vdks.k dks LFkkuh; lUnHkks± ls tksM+dj mls

lUrqfyr cukus dh vko';drk dks /;ku esa j[kk x;k gksA blds

lkFk gh] Hkkjr ds bfrgkl dks 'ks"k foÜo ls i`Fkd ekudj ugÈ

iukA

i`"B la% 38














Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa LFkkfir ewY;ksa dk egRo le>ukA

cM+s gksdj lekt ds lfØ;] ftEesnkj vkSj fopkjoku lnL;

cuukA

fofHké erksa] thou'kSfy;ksa rFkk lkaLd`frd fjoktksa dk vknj

djuk lh[kukA

nwljksa ls feys fopkjksa] laLFkkvksa vkSj fjoktksa ij loky mBkuk

vkSj mUgsa tk¡puk ij[kukA

i


lkekftd foKku rFkk jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk

3- ek/;fed Lrj

fuEu mís';ksa ds fy, foÜys".kkRed vkSj vo/kkj.kkRed dkS'ky

fodflr djuk %







vkfFkZd vkSj lkekftd ifjorZu rFkk fodkl dh çfØ;k,a¡

le>ukA

lkekftd vkSj vkfFkZd eqíksa rFkk pqukSfr;ksa & tSls xjhch]

ckyetnwjh] foiérk] fuj{kjrk vkfn & dh lekykspukRed

tk¡p iM+rky djukA

,d yksdrkaf=d vkSj /keZfujis{k lekt esa ukxfjdksa ds

vf/kdkj vkSj ftEesnkfj;k¡ le>ukA

laoS/kkfud nkf;Roksa ds ikyu esa jkT; dh Hkwfedk,a¡ vkSj

ftEesnkfj;k¡ le>ukA

foÜo dh vFkZO;oLFkk vkSj jkT;ra= ds lUnHkZ esa Hkkjr esa

ifjorZu vkSj fodkl dh çfØ;k,a¡ le>ukA

LFkkuh; leqnk;ksa ds i;kZoj.k ls lEcfU/kr vf/kdkjksa]

lalk/kuksa ds foosdiw.kZ bLrseky vkSj lkFk gh çkd`frd

i;kZoj.k ds laj{k.k dh vko';drk dk egRo le>ukA

ek/;fed Lrj ij] lkekftd foKkuksa esa bfrgkl] Hkwxksy]

jktuhfr foKku vkSj vFkZ'kkL= ds rRo 'kkfey jgrs gSaA ;gk¡

/;ku çeq[k :i ls ledkyhu Hkkjr ij gksuk pkfg,A

4- mPprj ek/;fed Lrj





viuh vfHk#fp;k¡ [kkstus vkSj viuh ;ksX;rk,a¡ vk¡dus esa

fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh lgk;rk djuk rkfd os vius fy,

foÜofo|ky; ds mi;qä ikBîØe vkSj@ ;k dk;Z{ks= pqu

ldsaA

fofHké v/;;u{ks=ksa esa Kku ds mPp Lrjksa dks tkuus le>us

ds fy, mudks çksRlkfgr djukA

dy ds ukxfjdksa esa leL;k,a¡ gy djus dh {kerkvksa vkSj

l`tukRed lksp dks c


[k M c

dqN ifjizs{;


lkekftd foKku v/;;u & D;k lgh gS vkSj D;k xyr\

foeyk jkepUæu

t

c eq>ls lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dh ekStwnk fLFkfr ij

vius fopkj nsus dks dgk x;k vkSj iwNk x;k fd vkf[kj

D;ksa gekjs Ldwyh ra= dk iwjk /;ku cPpksa dks dksbZ ,d r; lgh

mŸkj crk nsus] ,d r; lgh i)fr crk nsus vkSj nqfu;k dks ns[kus

dk ,d r; lgh


lkekftd foKku v/;;u & D;k lgh gS vkSj D;k xyr\

esjs fe=ksa esa vkSj eq>esa tks lcls cM+k ifjorZu vk;k

og ;g fd geus loky [kM+s djuk rFkk jkstejkZ ds

vuqHkoksa ij fopkj djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA geus

1968&1969 ds [kk| ladV ij rFkk lekt esa O;kIr

v'kkfUr vkSj ?kksj vlekurk ij ppkZ,a¡ dhaA

nks&grs ds bl NksVs ls izkstsDV us tkfr] uLy] lkekftd

HksnHkko rFkk mlesa O;kIr vlekurk ,oa vU;k; dh dkyh Nk;k

ds ckjs esa esjh vk¡[ksa [kksy nÈA çkstsDV ds iwjk gksus ij eSaus

ikjEifjd fjoktksa rFkk HksnHkko ds lw{e vkSj [kqys :iksa ij loky

mBkus 'kq: dj fn,A lkFk gh [kkl /;ku nsrs gq, vyx&vyx

leqnk;ksa o i`"BHkwfe;ksa ds cPpksa ds lkFk fe=rk dhA blds vykok

eSa vius nksLrksa ds ?kj [kkuk [kkus dk Hkh [kkl /;ku j[kk djrh

FkhA esjs fe=ksa esa vkSj eq>esa tks lcls cM+k ifjorZu vk;k og ;g

fd geus loky [kM+s djuk rFkk jkstejkZ ds vuqHkoksa ij fopkj

djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA geus 1968&1969 ds [kk| ladV ij rFkk

lekt esa O;kIr v'kkfUr vkSj ?kksj vlekurk ij ppkZ,a¡ dhaA dqN

gh grksa dh NksVh ls vof/k esa gekjh nqfu;k iwjh rjg myV xbZ

FkhA ml le; ;g dksbZ cM+k Hkkjh vuqHko ugÈ yxk Fkk] ij fQj

dbZ lky ckn o;Ld thou esa igq¡pus ds ckn eq>s vglkl gqvk

fd ftl fdLe dh f'k{kk eSaus ikbZ mldk eq>ij fdruk xgjk

vlj gqvkA eSaus ;g Hkh vglkl fd;k fd gekjs f'k{kd us gesa

dHkh ;g ugÈ crk;k fd D;k ryk'ksa vkSj D;k u ryk'ksa] ;k fdl

ij ;dhu djsaA lcls egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g Fkh fd mUgksaus dHkh

gedks tkfr ;k /keZ ij dksbZ O;k[;ku ugÈ fn;kA gekjs f'k{kd us

gesa ;g ekSdk fn;k fd ge [kqn fLFkfr;ksa dh tk¡p&iM+rky djsa

vkSj fQj Lo;a vius fu"d"kZ ij igq¡psaA

dbZ n'kdksa ckn eq>s Hkhe la?k uked dkedkth cPpksa ds dukZVd

ds ,d laxBu ds dk;Z ij nLrkost rS;kj djus dk lkSHkkX;

feykA nf{k.k déM+k fLFkr dq.Mkiqj dh esjh ;k=k ds nkSjku] eq>s

eôkyk iapk;r ¼cky iapk;r½ ds ckjs esa irk pykA 18 o"kZ rd

dh vk;q okys cPps iapk;r Lrj ij [kqn vius çfrfuf/k pqurs gSa

vkSj cky iapk;r dk xBu djrs gSaA o;Ld yksxksa dh iapk;r

vkSipkfjd çfØ;kvksa dk ikyu djrs gq, pqukoksa dk lapkyu

djrh gS] tSls fuokZpu vf/kdkjh ds le{k ukekadu nkf[ky

djuk] çpkj vkSj fQj pqukoA ;g dk;ZØe yksdrkaf=d ewY;ksa

i`"B la% 42

rFkk çFkkvksa ds ckjs esa cPpksa dks vuqHkotU; f'k{kk nsus ds fy,

rS;kj fd;k x;k FkkA cky iapk;r ds pqukoksa ds ckn] ,d VkLd

QkslZ ¼dk;Z cy½ dk xBu fd;k tkrk gSA ;g ,d çfrfuf/kd

eap gksrk gS ftlesa lHkh LFkkuh; ljdkjh vf/kdkjh] fuokZfpr

çfrfuf/k vkSj eôkyk iapk;r ds cPps 'kkfey gksrs gSaA ;g eap

ljdkj ds lkFk fujUrj laokn cuk, j[kus vkSj lg;ksx djus ds

mís'; ls cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA bldh 'kq#vkr ds nkSj ls gh] bl

eap ij cPpksa dh fHké&fHké rjg dh


lkekftd foKku v/;;u & D;k lgh gS vkSj D;k xyr\

;g n'kkZrk gS fd ckank] mŸkj çns'k esa ,e,lds ikBîØe fdl

rjg fodflr gqvkA

gekjs ikBîØe dh leL;k gS fd og fo"k;&çlaxksa

ij rks cgqr T;knk cy nsrk gS ij lh[kus dh çfØ;k

ij cgqr de /;ku nsrk gSA fo"k;&çlax dh ijokg

fd, cxSj ;fn v/;;u çfØ;k gesa çsfjr djs fd ge

viuh nqfu;k dks tk¡psa&ij[ksa] ,d nwljs ls ,oa

vklikl ds yksxksa ls ppkZ djsa] [kqn vius ifjos'k esa

bfrgkl dks [kkstsa vkSj lcls t:jh ckr] lewgksa esa

dke djrs gq, cgl djsa] rdks± dks pqukSrh nsa] loky

mBk,a¡ & rks bl rjg ds vuqHko ls ge lc ¼f'k{kd

o cPps½ T;knk le`) gks ldsaxsA

yxHkx pkj n'kd ckn eq>s fnYyh ,llhbZvkjVh }kjk rS;kj dh

xbZ ukxfjd 'kkL= dh ikBîiqLrd dks is mldk çk:i fn[kk;kA og ikBîiqLrd

ijEijkxr ikBîiqLrdksa tSlh ugÈ Fkh( mlesa f'k{kd dks izkstsDVksa

ds ek/;e ls cPpksa ds lkFk dke djus ds fy, çksRlkfgr fd;k

x;k FkkA mudks çsfjr fd;k x;k Fkk fd os vius vklikl ns[ksa

vkSj vius iM+ksl vkSj vius 'kgj ds ckjs esa tkusaA eq>s ;kn gS fd

eSaus Hkh viuk vuqHko muesa ls dqN yksxksa ds lkFk cka¡Vk FkkA

esjk lkSHkkX; Fkk fd blh nkSjku eq>s o"kZ esa nks ckj _f"k oSyh

Ldwy ¼enukiYys] vk¡/kz çns'k½ tkus dk ekSdk feyrk Fkk vkSj eSaus

ns[kk fd dSls bfrgkl] ukxfjd 'kkL= vkSj rdjhcu lHkh fo"k;ksa

ds çkstsDV&vk/kkfjr v/;;u ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks i


lkekftd foKku v/;;u & D;k lgh gS vkSj D;k xyr\ lkekftd foKku v/;;u & D;k lgh gS vkSj D;k xyr\

fy, rS;kj gSa\ u, fopkjksa dks tkurs jgus] v/;;u&v/;kiu dh

çfØ;k ds ckjs esa ,d vyx n`f"V j[kus ds lkFk gh lh[ks gq,

tM+rkiw.kZ Kku dks fnekx ls fudky nsus dk lpsr ç;kl Hkh lkFk

gh lkFk pyrs jguk pkfg,A ukxfjd 'kkL= vkSj lkekftd

foKku dh i


Ldwy dh ikBîiqLrdsa

jf'e ikyhoky ,oa lh-,u- lqczã.;e

lk

ekftd ifjorZu dh çfØ;kvksa ds çfr tkx:d n`f"V dk

vHkko] vusd çdkj dh ml fuj{kjrk dk ,d igyw gS tks

gesa vius pkjksa vksj fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA blh ls gksM+ djrh gqbZ nwljh

vleFkZrk gS] ,d çdkj dh ekufld *nhokj* tks ,sls yksxksa ds

thou dh oS/krk dks Lohdkj djus esa #dkoV cu tkrh gS tks

*fHké* gSa & tks *nwljs* gSaA pkgs gekjh Hkwfedk lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ

dh gks ;k 'kklukf/kdkjh] fo'ks"kK] ;k dk;ZØeksa dh fuxjkuh ;k

iqujh{k.k djus okys ijke'kZnkrk dh gks] ge lHkh vis{kk djrs gSa

fd vfUre :ikUrj.k gekjs ç;klksa ds ifj.kkeLo:i gh gksaxsA ge

;g ugÈ le>rs fd ;s ç;kl ,d o`gn çfØ;k dh dfM+;k¡ ek=

gksrs gSaA

bl lUnHkZ esa bfrgkldkj dh Hkwfedk egRoiw.kZ gks tkrh gSA

bfrgkldkj dk dke] ;k ftEesnkjh gS lkekftd çfØ;kvksa dk

utnhd ls vkSj bZekunkjh ls bl rjg o.kZu djuk fd mlesa

n`f"Vdks.k mBus okys çÜuksa ds mŸkj nsus dk gksA blfy, t:jr

*vuqHkookn* vkSj vewrZ /kkj.kkvksa dh vU/kHkfä] nksuksa ls nwj gVdj

,sls o.kZu dh gS ftls fl)kUrksa dk lg;ksx çkIr gksA lkekftd

çfØ;kvksa ds fudVrk ls fd, x, ewY;kadu esa fVd ikus dh

rkdr gksrh gS( ;g thou dks ftl rjg og gekjs pkjksa vksj ft;k

tkrk gS] mlh rjg ns[kus ds fy, fnekx dks çf'kf{kr djrk gSA

bl ftEesnkjh dks dk;Z :i esa fuHkkuk Ldwyh cPpksa ds fy, ubZ

ikBîiqLrdsa fodflr djus ds ml miØe dk lcls jksekapd

igyw Fkk ftldk chM+k ge yksxksa us ,dyO; esa mBk;kA ,dyO;

ds lkekftd foKku lewg] ftlesa bfrgkl] vFkZ'kkL= vkSj Hkwxksy

fo"k;ksa ds v/;srk 'kkfey Fks] us rc py jgh ikBîiqLrdksa dk

iqujh{k.k djus] lkekU; lkekftd foKku d{kkvksa ds lapkyu dk

voyksdu djus] vkSj f'k{kdksa ls bl fo"k; dks i


Ldwy dh ikBîiqLrdsa

cPpksa us ,sls ljyhd`r mŸkj fn,A yxHkx nks&frgkbZ cPpksa us

iqjkrRoh; [kkstksa esa cjruksa vkSj erZckuksa ds vHkko dk dkj.k

Hkkstu o ikuh ds lalk/kuksa ds lekIr gks tkus dks crk;kA vU; us

dgk fd lEHkor% ;s yksx taxyksa ls viuk Hkkstu bdÎk djrs gksa]

vkSj mls lh/kk oSls gh [kk tkrs gksa ftlls laxzg djds j[kus ds

fy, dqN cprk gh u gksA ;k os ?kqeUrw yksx Fks tks vius lkFk cM+s

cjru vkfn ugÈ j[k ldrs FksA ;s mŸkj bl leL;k dh T;knk

xgjh le> n'kkZrs FksA

vr% gesa feyus okys mŸkj dqN bl çdkj ds çrhr gksrs gSa% pfpZr

oLrq dh vf/kd le`) vkSj ltho rLohj] lrgh O;k[;kvksa ls

vkxs ck,¡a] rkfd os okil mŸkj nsus dh Hkwfedk fuHkk ldsa] vkSj dgk

*gk¡] eryc rwjkuh vehjksa dks yxk fd mudh iwN ugÈ jgh*A ;gk¡

gesa cPpksa ds fnekx esa cu jgh vo/kkj.kk dks O;ä djus ds fy,

mudk pqVhyh mfä;k¡ cukus vkSj eqgkojs bLrseky djus dk

ç;kl fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA

,d vkSj ?kVuk ;kn vkrh gSA ;g d{kk 7 ds Lrj ij gqbZA geus

,d cgqr pqipki jgus okys yM+ds ls ,d v/;k; esa nh xbZ

rLohjksa ij ckr dhA ;s rLohjsa çkjfEHkd e/;dkyhu Hkkjr esa

mHkjrs gq, jktoa'kksa ls lEcfU/kr FkÈA bu rhu rLohjksa esa ls ,d esa

?kksM+ksa ij cSBs gq, fdlh 'kfä'kkyh ifjokj ds nks iq#"kksa dks ,d

czkºe.k ls ckr djrs gq, fn[kk;k x;k Fkk] nwljh esa jkT;kfHk"ksd

lekjksg dk n`'; Fkk ftlesa ,d czkºe.k lekjksg dh fof/k;ksa esa

enn dj jgk Fkk] vkSj rhljh esa ,d jktk ,d czkºe.k dks rkezi=

HksaV dj jgk FkkA

*?kksM+ksa ij cSBs gq, nksuksa vkneh ukjkt fn[krs gSa---D;ksafd---gks

ldrk gS fd nwljs xjhc yksx mUgsa jktkvksa dh rjg Lohdkj u

dj jgs gksa---D;ksafd 'kk;n mudks irk ugÈ fd ;s yksx dkSu lh

tkr ds gSa---*A *bl rLohj esa oks if.Mr ls dg jgk gS fd esjs dks

Hkjh lHkk esa eqdqV iguk nks---eSa jktk cu tkš]---oks [kqn eqdqV

igu ysxk rks tks dksbZ mldh lHkk gksxh oks ekusxh ugÈ fd ;g

jktk gS] lc dksbZ if.Mr dh ckr ekurs gSa*A *vc jktk nku ns jgk

gS---D;ksafd czkºe.k ls dgk Fkk] lks mlus mldk dke dj fn;k*A

rLohjksa ij çfrfØ;k djrs gq, cPps us tks dFkkud lquk;k og

ml ikB ls vyx Fkk tks geus 'kks/kdrkZvksa vkSj bfrgkldkjksa dh

lgk;rk ls fy[kk FkkA mlls ckr djrs gq, ge lksp esa iM+ x,

fd 'kk;n rsjg lky dk ;g xzkeh.k yM+dk gekjs tSls yksxksa dh

vis{kk oa'k ijEijk] 'kfä vkSj lŸkk dh /kkfeZd oS/krk ds lUnHkZ ls

dgÈ T;knk fudV FkkA ;g ckr 'kk;n mu mŸkjksa dh çfr ds

ekeys esa Hkh dgh tk ldrh gS tks vdcj ds dky esa [ksesckth dh

jktuhfr vkSj rkdr ds ckjs esa iwNs x, lokyksa ds tokc esa feys

FksA

[k.M % c


Ldwy dh ikBîiqLrdsa

gekjs }kjk fodflr dh xbZ ubZ ikBîiqLrdksa ij cPpksa dh

çfrfØ;kvksa dks gesa fdl rjg le>uk Fkk\ ,slk yxrk gS fd

tc ,sfrgkfld çfØ;kvksa dks ewrZ :i ns fn;k tkrk gS rks ges'kk

,d çfr/ofu fufeZr gks tkrh gS] dksbZ rkj >ad`r gks mBrk gS] vkSj

nwljs yksxksa rFkk nwljs dkyksa ls ,d HkkoukRed tqM+ko iSnk gks

tkrk gSA cPps vius vuqHkoksa vkSj viuh Hkk"kk ds ek/;e ls ml

bfrgkl dks vkRelkr vkSj vfHkO;ä djus yxrs gSa ftls os i


Ldwy dh ikBîiqLrdsa

dky vkSj {ks= ls tqM+k jgrk gS] vkSj bl fo'ks"krk vkSj ifjorZu

dh O;k[;k lcls igys djuk t:jh gSA blds ckn fu/kkZfjr

LFkku vkSj dky dh lhekvksa esa lHkh fØ;kdykiksa dh ijLij

vUrlZEcfU/kr çd`fr dks igpkuuk Hkh blesa 'kkfey gksxkA

fdlh ,sfrgkfld fLFkfr dk vuks[kkiu mldh vU; fLFkfr;ksa ls

rqyuk ds ek/;e ls LFkkfir djuk t:jh gSA ij ;g rqyukRed

i)fr gekjh ikBîiqLrdksa esa fcjys gh bLrseky dh tkrh gSA

fofHké ,sfrgkfld dkyksa esa Hksn n'kkZus ds fy, dksbZ O;ofLFkr

ç;kl ugÈ gksrkA ml le; dh ,ulhbZvkjVh dh iqLrdksa esa

;nk&dnk ,sls vUrjksa dk mYys[k gksrk Fkk] ij os Hksn fcjys gh

ewyHkwr vkSj xq.kkRed çd`fr ds gksrs FksA ftl dks fo[kf.Mr fd, fcuk Hkh mlesa fofHké

fo"k;ksa ds fo'ks"k n`f"Vdks.kksa dks lek;ksftr djuk lEHko gSA ,sls

mnkgj.kksa ds çdk'k esa gh ge lesfdr ikBîiqLrd fy[kus ds

dfBu loky dk lek/kku djus esa leFkZ gks ldsA

'ks"k ikBîØe dh :ijs[kk rS;kj djus esa gesa cPpksa ds lkFk dke

djus esa enn feyhA geus lh[kk fd vius Lo;a ds ifjos'k ds ckjs

[k.M % c


Ldwy dh ikBîiqLrdsa

esa rF;ksa dk flQZ voyksdu djuk vkSj mUgsa ntZ djuk csekuh gks

ldrk gSA ;g rc rd cPpksa dh le> esa dksbZ [kkl ;ksxnku ugÈ

nsrk tc rd ifjos'k ls ijs tkdj ckrksa dh iwjh O;k[;k u dh

tk,A cPpksa dks vius ifjos'k dk cgqr utnhdh Kku gksrk gSA

ysfdu mls csgrj us ds fy, mUgsa fofo/k çdkj dh

fLFkfr;ksa dh tkudkjh gksuk t:jh gSA viuh fLFkfr dh

tkudkjh dk vU;] leku rFkk vleku] fLFkfr;ksa ds vUos"k.k ds

fy, mi;ksx djus dk vH;kl] flQZ ifjfpr ckrksa dks nksgjkus dh

vis{kk vf/kd jkspd yxrk gSA

blds lkFk gh geus ik;k fd fefMy Ldwyksa ds cPpksa esa vewrZ

Jsf.k;ksa ds lkFk dke djus dh ;ksX;rk ugÈ FkhA os ewrZ fLFkfr ls

tqM+h fopkj çfØ;k ds lkFk vf/kd lgt FksA blds vykok] lzksrksa

vkSj /kkj.kkvksa esa leh{kkRed vkSj O;k[;kRed


dy ds ukxfjd fufeZr djuk % lkjs lalkj

esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk laf{kIr loZs{k.k

,su gkWfoZVt+

lk

ekftd foKku dh f'k{kk dks le>uk vkSj mldks cus ds

fy, rS;kj djus ij /;ku dsfUær djuk t:jh gSA vkt tc ns'k

fujUrj de iM+rh tk jgh oSfÜod lEink esa viuk fgLlk c gks] dks rS;kj djus

dh ckr dkQh gn rd ,d ihNs ls vkus okyk fopkj Hkj cudj

jg x;k gSA

la{ksi esa] iwjh nqfu;k dh rLohj dqN ,slh gS ftlesa

lkekftd foKku **vf/kd Bksl** fo"k;ksa ls egRo dh

n`f"V ls ihNs jg tkrs gSaA vHkh le>nkjh blh esa çrhr

gksrh gS fd ;fn dksbZ ns'k oSfÜod vFkZO;oLFkk esa Li/kkZ

djuk pkgrk gS rks mldh f'k{kk O;oLFkk dks vius

dkexkjksa dks la[;kvksa vkSj 'kCnksa dks le>us ds fy,

rS;kj djus ij /;ku dsfUær djuk t:jh gSA

ij bfrgkl] lekt'kkL= ;k lkekftd foKku ds vU; {ks=ksa esa

f'k{kk dks R;kxdj cgqr nwj pyk tkus okyk dksbZ Hkh ns'k viuk

Hkkjh uqdlku djrk gSA cs'kd l{ke] ;ksX;] dkexkj vkcknh dks

rS;kj djus ds fy, mi;qä f'k{kk ds egRo ls 'kk;n gh dksbZ

bUdkj djsxk] vkSj blh dkj.k ls lk{kjrk vkSj la[;k Kku

ikB~;p;kZ esa gksrs gSa] vkSj mudk gksuk t:jh Hkh gSA ysfdu]

i`"B la% 50

[k.M % c


dy ds ukxfjd fufeZr djuk % lkjs lalkj esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk laf{kIr loZs{k.k

ekuoh; iw¡th&fuekZ.k gh jkT;ksa ds f'k{kk esa fuos'k dk ,dek=

dkj.k ugÈ gksrkA Ldwy ,sls LFkku gSa tgk¡ ;qok yksx ukxfjdrk]

vkSj lkoZtfud dk;ks± ds rjhds lh[krs gSa] tgk¡ muds lkekftd

vkSj jktuSfrd yxko fufeZr gksrs gSa] tgk¡ fdlh lekt ds Hkhrj

fo|eku Hksnksa dks çfrfcfEcr fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k :ikUrfjr

fd;k tk ldrk gSA bu dkj.kksa ls] ikB~;p;kZ esa lkekftd

foKkuksa dk Hkh LFkku & dqN yksx dg ldrs gSa fd lcls

egRoiw.kZ LFkku & gksrk gS] vkSj bldk vkxs Hkh cuk jguk t:jh

gSA

vkfFkZd nckoksa] tks ,d leFkZ dkexkj vkcknh dh ek¡x djrs gSa]

vkSj lkekftd vis{kkvksa] tks ,d lfØ; ukxfjd leqnk; dh

ek¡x djrh gSa] ds chp LokHkkfod [kÈprku lalkj ds fdlh ,d

Hkkx rd lhfer ugÈ gSA bls lEié ns'kksa esa vkSj xjhc ns'kksa esa]

yEcs le; ls LFkkfir yksdrU=ksa esa vkSj u,&u, yksdrU=ksa esa]

lHkh txg ns[kk tk ldrk gSA gkyk¡fd lkjs lalkj esa lkekftd

foKku f'k{k.k ds fo"k; ij xzUFk fy[ks tk ldrs gSa] ij eSa ;gk¡

viuh iM+rky dks FkksM+s ls ns'kksa rd gh lhfer j[kwa¡xhA

vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij lkekftd foKkuksa dh ikB~;p;kZ vkSj f'k{k.k

i)fr;ksa esa bruh fofo/krk gS fd muesa ls vf/kdka'k dks ;gk¡

vuNqvk NksM+uk vQlksl dh ckr gSA ij eq>s vk'kk gS fd ;g

ys[k ikBdksa dh #fp dks mdlk,xk vkSj os bl ckjs esa vkSj vf/kd

tkuus dh igy djsaxsA

*vPNs* ds fy, ;k *cqjs* ds fy,

lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dh oSfÜod rLohj esa ços'k djus ls

igys] gesa f'k{kkdfeZ;ksa dh rjg] vius dks ;g ;kn fnykuk

mi;ksxh gksxk fd f'k{kk fulafnX/k :i ls ges'kk vPNh gh gksrh gks

,slk ugÈ gSA vDlj vkSj vusd txgksa ij fdlh [kkl fopkj/kkjk

dks eu esa cSBkus ds fy, vkSj jkT;'kfä dks etcwr djus ds fy,

lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dks fod`r djds midj.k dh rjg

mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ,sls lqjf{kr 'kj.kLFky gksus ds ctk;]

tgk¡ fo|kFkÊ lekt ds lkeus [kM+h leL;kvksa ds ckjs esa

leh{kkRed


dy ds ukxfjd fufeZr djuk % lkjs lalkj esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk laf{kIr loZs{k.k

jk"Vªifr tkWu ,MEl us fy[kk Fkk] **yksxksa esa lkekU; Kku ds fcuk

Lora=rk dks cpk, ugÈ j[kk tk ldrkA**

blfy, lkekftd f'k{kk ds iSjksdkj vkbZ-bZ-,- ds

ukxfjd f'k{kk v/;;u esa vkxs Hkkx u ysus ds ljdkj

ds fu.kZ; ls grksRgkflr gSa] D;ksafd blls ;g

fujk'kktud lUns'k tkrk gS fd bfrgkl] Hkwxksy

vkSj ukxfjd 'kkL= ds Kku dks ukiuk csdkj gSA

;w,l esa lkoZtfud Ldwyh f'k{kk dk rsth ls fodkl lgh rkSj ij

gkWjsl eku ds usr`Ro esa 1830 ds n'kd esa 'kq: gqvkA os Ldwyksa ds

ek/;e ls yksdrkaf=d ukxfjdksa dks gksrh gSA

mUgsa bldh xgjh le> ugÈ gS fd muds ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa esa

D;k fufgr gS---u gh mUgsa yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk dh dk;Zç.kkyh ij

vkfFkZd eqíksa ds çHkko dh xgjh le> gSA** bls lq/kkjus dh t:jr

ds vykok vkWWLVªsfy;k ds lkeus mldh ewy vkcknh esa O;kIr

xjhch vkSj vleku voljksa ds nqLlk/; eqís Hkh gSaA ljdkj ij

vDlj vkjksi yxrs jgrs gSa fd leL;k ds lek/kku ds fy,

lkekftd foKku dh ikB~;p;kZ esa ;wjksi&dsfUær i{kikr dks nwj

djus ds fy, og leqfpr dk;Zokgh ugÈ djrhA vkWWLVªsfy;kbZ

jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ ds ,d u, elkSns ij vHkh ijke'kZ py jgk gS]

vkSj ;fn og lkekftd foKku ikBîiqLrdksa ds nks"kksa dks nwj djus

esa lQy gksrk gS rks og vU; ns'kksa dks Hkh muds oafpr lewgksa dks

rkdroj cukus ds fy, ,d çk:i çnku dj ldrk gSA

Hkwe.My dh nwljh rjQ] ifÜpeh ;wjksi esa] f'k{kk lkekU;r;k

[k.M % c


dy ds ukxfjd fufeZr djuk % lkjs lalkj esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk laf{kIr loZs{k.k

dsUæhd`r ekeyk gSA ,d iqjkuk pqVdqyk gS fd ÝkUl ds

f'k{kkea=h fdlh Hkh fnu viuh ?kM+h ns[kdj vkidks ,dne

Bhd&Bhd crk ldrs gSa fd ml le; lkjs ÝkUl esa dkSu lk

ikB i dks c


dy ds ukxfjd fufeZr djuk % lkjs lalkj esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk laf{kIr loZs{k.k

lgHkkfxrkiw.kZ f'k{k.k i)fr vkSj jVdj lh[kus ds chp py jgs

la?k"kZ dks çfr/ofur djrh gSA tgk¡ bu fHké n`f"Vdks.kksa ds chp

vya?; çrhr gksus okyh [kkbZ dks ns[krs gq, grk'k gks tkuk

vklku gS] ogÈ bl erHksn esa ,d 'kSf{kd volj dks [kkstuk Hkh

lEHko gS] vkSj f'k{kdksa dh gSfl;r ls ogh djuk gekjs fy, t:jh

gSA tSlk fd oYMZ lks'ky lkbal fjiksVZ 2010 gesa ;kn fnykrh gS]

**euq";ksa ds ikjLifjd O;ogkj ls ;g le>us esa fd lalkj dSls

dke djrk gS]** lkekftd foKku gekjh enn djrk gSA

lkekftd foKku f'k{kk çnku djus dk lcls vPNk rjhdk D;k

gks] bldh cgl vius vki esa vxyh ihk mís'; dh Hkkouk ls ppkZ dj ldsa] rks ge mUgsa fn[kk ik,a¡xs

fd ftEEksnkj gksus vkSj oSfÜod leqnk; ds lfØ; lnL; gksus dk

D;k eryc gSA okdbZ] gekjh lcls xEHkhj lk>k pqukSfr;ksa &

xjhch ls ysdj ;q) vkSj tyok;q ifjorZu rd & dk lek/kku

[kkstuk bl ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd ge fdrus dkjxj


frgkl dk vkSj [kqn dk lkeuk djuk %

bfrgkl i ikus esa enn

feyrh gSA lkFk gh] fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks bl ckjs esa ubZ n`f"V feyrh gS

fd vkt muds O;fäxr thou esa rFkk c`gn~ nqfu;k esa D;k gks

jgk gSA bfrgkl ds v/;;u rFkk vkt dh nqfu;k ds v/;;u ds

chp vkxs&ihNs gks ldus dh ;g xfr'khyrk fd'kksjksa ds fy, &

tks [kqn dks o`gn~ bfrgkl ds fgLls ds :i esa ns[kus vkSj

ifjHkkf"kr djus yxs gSa vkSj vDlj **vUrj iSnk djus** ds rjhds

ikuk fd fdl çdkj vrhr dh ?kVukvksa

us orZeku dks çHkkfor fd;k gS ¼;k ugÈ fd;k gS½A blesa

,sfrgkfld vo/kkj.kkvksa vkSj tk¡p&iM+rky dh i)fr;ksa ds }kjk

fdlh [kkl bfrgkl dh le> dks vkSj mlds lkoZHkkSfed vk'k;ksa

ds ewY;kadu dks çHkkfor djuk 'kkfey jgrk gSA bldk eryc

[kqn dks bfrgkl ds }kjk x


frgkl dk vkSj [kqn dk lkeuk djuk % bfrgkl irs gSa] vkSj fdl rjg ge O;fäxr :i ls vkSj

lkewfgd :i ls viuk thou thrs gSa] bl lcdks

ysdj mu ?kVukvksa ds D;k fufgrkFkZ gSa] blds ckjs

esa ckSf)d :i ls bZekunkj n`f"V j[kh tk,A

oLrqr% bfrgkl ds fdlh Hkh vFkZiw.kZ v/;;u ds fy, t:jh gS fd

vrhr dh ?kVukvksa dh rjQ] rFkk ge euq";ksa dh gSfl;r ls [kqn

dks fdl rjg ls le>rs gSa] vkSj fdl rjg ge O;fäxr :i ls

vkSj lkewfgd :i ls viuk thou thrs gSa] bl lcdks ysdj mu

?kVukvksa ds D;k fufgrkFkZ gSa] blds ckjs esa ckSf)d :i ls

bZekunkj n`f"V j[kh tk,A fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj f'k{kdksa] nksuksa gh ds

fy, bl çfØ;k esa lgh&lgh foÜys"k.k ds lkFk&lkFk HkkoukRed

tqM+ko gksuk Hkh t:jh gksrk gS & vkSj bls Qsflax fgLVªh ,.M

vojlSYOt+ esa fnekx vkSj fny dgk tkrk gSA bl ikBîØe esa

ckj&ckj laKkukRed vlaxfr] HkkoukRed cspSuh vkSj pqHkus okyh

uSfrd tk¡p&iM+rky lkeus vkrh gSaA ubZ tkudkjh] u,

n`f"Vdks.k vkSj u, lEcU/k ckj&ckj fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj f'k{kdksa dks

bfrgkl] orZeku eqíksa vkSj Lo;a ds ckjs esa viuh le> ij

iqufoZpkj djus dh pqukSrh nsrs gSaA

,d thoUr<ho] igq¡p ds Hkhrj] vFkZiw.kZ vkSj

egRoiw.kZ bfrgkl rVLFkrk ls ysdj lfØ; laosnuk

rd ds iwjs uSfrd foLrkj dks n'kkZus okyh ekuoh;

çfØ;kvksa dks js[kkafdr djrk gSA ,sls bfrgklksa dks

tqM+ko vkSj euu ds lkFk lh[kuk ;qok vkn'kZokn dks

txkrk gS] D;ksafd ;qok yksxksa dks cks/k gksrk gS fd

bfrgkl cukus esa mUgsa Hkh Hkwfedk fuHkkuk gSA

i`"B la% 56

f'k{kdksa vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vko';d ukxfjdh; vkSj uSfrd

lEcU/k cukus esa enn djus ds fy, bfrgkl ds ek/;fed Ldwyh

ikBîØeksa dks ,d lk>k /kqjh ds bnZ&fxnZ fufeZr djuk lcls

vPNk gksrk gSA ;g


frgkl dk vkSj [kqn dk lkeuk djuk % bfrgkl ikrh gS fd tgk¡ ekuoh; fLFkfr dh dqN ço`fŸk;k¡ vrhr vkSj

orZeku] nksuksa ls tqM+h jgrh gSa] bu lEcU/kksa dh çd`fr le; ds

lkFk cnyrh tkrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] vekuohdj.k dh

çfØ;k dks ysa] ftldh dbZ çlaxksa ds vius v/;;u esa Qsflax

fgLVªh iM+rky djrk gSA vekuohdj.k mu Øfed pj.kksa dk

,slk tkuk&igpkuk **ladsrd** gS tks /khjs&/khjs vUrr% ujlagkj

rd ys tkrs gSaA bl lUnHkZ esa ukft;ksa }kjk ;gwfn;ksa ds

vekuohdj.k] vkSj jokaMk ds ujlagkj esa VqVlh yksxksa ds

vekuohdj.k esa dqN [kkl xfreku fo'ks"krk,a¡ lk>k :i ls ns[kh

tk ldrh gSaA ij ;g dgus ds ckn] ;g Hkh dguk gksxk fd bu

nksuksa dky[k.Mksa vkSj lkekftd lUnHkks± esa ls çR;sd esa

vekuohdj.k dh viukbZ xbZ fo'ks"k fof/k;k¡ vkSj uhfr;k¡ fHké

:iksa esa çxV gqbZaA

f'k{kdksa ds fy, pqukSrh ;gh gS fd fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh ;g vUos"k.k

djus esa enn dh tk, fd ,sls fopkj vkSj laLFkk,a¡ fdl rjg

le; chrus ij **tkjh jgrh gSa** vkSj lkFk gh **cnyrh** h gSaA

vkSj Hkh egRokdka{kh y{; gS fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh ;g ns[kus esa enn

djuk fd ;g fojks/kkHkkl vrhr vkSj orZeku ds fdlh Hkh xgjs

vUos"k.k dk vfuok;Z fgLlk gSA

;qok yksx vDlj bfrgkl dks **phtsa tSlh FkÈ** bl utfj, ls

ns[krs gSa] ctk; ,slh çfØ;k ds tks O;fä;ksa] lewgksa vkSj lektksa

ds fØ;kdykiksa lfgr vusd dkjdksa ls çHkkfor gksrh gSA os

vDlj ,sfrgkfld fooj.kksa dks fdlh Hkh çdkj ds lUnHkZ esa j[ks

cxSj lp ekudj pyrs gSaA gks ldrk gS fd os dkj.k vkSj

dk;Zdkjh ek/;e ds ,d vk;keh çfr:iksa dk bLrseky djsa] tSls

fd ;g dgdj fd ;gwfn;ksa dk lkewfgd lagkj fgVyj uke ds

,d ikxy vkneh ds **dkj.k gqvk** Fkk] vkSj fQj ;g le>kus dk

ç;kl djsa fd **D;ksa mlus lHkh ;gwfn;ksa dks ekj Mkyk**A ,sls

d`R;ksa] tks mUgsa vkt ds ekudksa ds fglkc ls lkQ rkSj ij

ukle>h Hkjs vkSj vuSfrd yxrs gSa] ls fopfyr gksdj muesa

ihfM+r O;fä;ksa ds lkFk lEosnuk vuqHko djus] igpkus tk ldus

okys vkrrkb;ksa vkSj ewdn'kZdksa dks nks"k nsus] vkSj mudh uSfrd

n`f"V dks rs gSa

fd ?kVukvksa ds vusd dkj.k gks ldrs gSa vkSj cnyko ds fy,

fdlh rkdr dks ,sls çfrjks/k dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gS

ftlls ikj ikuk dHkh lEHko gksrk gS] vkSj dHkh ugÈA os O;fä;ksa

[k.M % c

dh /kkj.kkvksa vkSj d`R;ksa dks muds pkjksa vksj tks gks jgk gS] mlls

çHkkfor gksrk gqvk rks ns[krs gSa] ij mlls fu/kkZfjr gksrk gqvk ugÈ

ekursA gks ldrk gS os lkspsa fd yksxksa us tks fodYi pqus os D;ksa

pqus] vkSj ;fn os muds LFkku ij gksrs rks D;k djrsA tc os vrhr

vkSj orZeku dk lEcU/k tksM+rs gSa rks gks ldrk gS fd os nwljksa ds

LFkku ij vius dks j[kus dk Hkjiwj ç;kl djsaA bl ckr dk

vglkl gksus ij fd os Lo;a vius gh vkn'kks± ij ges'kk [kjs ugÈ

mrjrs] os nwljksa dks vka¡dus esa mnkj gks ldrs gSaA ij blds lkFk

gh mnh;eku uSfrd nk'kZfudksa dh rjg os vrhr vkSj orZeku ds

yksxksa ls viuh lk>k ekuork dks Lohdkjus dh] ,d&nwljs dh

t:jrksa dks igpkuus vkSj mudk /;ku j[kus dh] vkSj vius

utnhdh nk;js ls nwj ds yksxksa dh fQØ djus dh vis{kk djrs

gSaA

n`f"Vdks.k FkksM+k vkSj fodflr gksus ij] ;qok vkSj o;Ld bfrgkl

dks dbZ p'eksa ds ek/;e ls ns[k ldrs gSaA os le>rs gSa fd

O;fäxr pquko vkSj d`R; vusd ijLij lfØ; dkjdksa }kjk

çHkkfor vkSj lhfer gksrs gSa] vkSj os fofo/k i`"BHkwfe;ksa]

ifjfLFkfr;ksa vkSj ,sfrgkfld dky[k.Mksa esa lk>k jpuk,¡a [kkstrs

gSaA os tkurs gSa fd of.kZr **rF;** vDlj ,sls n`f"Vdks.kksa ls

Nudj vkrs gSa tks laLd`fr] fopkj/kkjk vkSj vuqHko ls çHkkfor

gksrs gSaA vr% fdlh dgkuh dks ns[kus ds dbZ dks.k gks ldrs gSa]

ij ;g t:jh ugÈ fd lHkh leku :i ls egRoiw.kZ gksaA bl ckjs

esa fo}ku yksx bZekunkjh ls vlger gks ldrs gSa fd dksbZ ckr

D;ksa gqbZ vkSj ;fn vU; fu.kZ; fy, x, gksrs rks D;k gks ldrk

FkkA muds fooj.kksa vkSj O;k[;k fl)kUrksa dk vkykspukRed

ewY;kadu djuk fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, lEHko gSA bfrgkl dh

çkekf.kd le> ds fy, ,sfrgkfld çek.kksa dks bdÎk djus vkSj

muds egRo dks vk¡dus dk bZekunkj ç;kl djuk vko';d gSA

,sfrgkfld fooj.kksa dh Nkuchu djds fo|kFkÊ euq"; dh çd`fr

ds ckjs esa fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSaA ijUrq mUgsa uSfrd lkis{kokn]

nks"k n'kZu ;k grk'kk esa Qal tkus dh t:jr ugÈ gS( blds

ctk; tc os tkudkjh ij vk/kkfjr fopkjiw.kZ fu.kZ; ysaxs vkSj

vius vkn'kks± ij pyus dh dksf'k'k esa vifjgk;Z :i ls

dfBukb;ksa dk lkeuk djsaxs] rks os lfØ; cks/k] fpUru vkSj

lko/kkuhiwoZd lksps&le>s d`R;ksa dk ekxZ viuk ysaxsA

Qsflax fgLVªh dh d{kkvksa esa vrhr vkSj orZeku ds chp tkudkjh

ij vk/kkfjr rqyuk,a¡ djuk ,d uhjl 'kS{kf.kd vH;kl gks ;g

t:jh ugÈ gS] okLro esa ,slk gksuk Hkh ugÈ pkfg,A ,sfrgkfld

vkSj lelkef;d fooj.k ftl lekuqHkwfr] fpUrk] Øks/k vkSj

uSfrd ukjktxh dks txkrs gSa] os lHkh Hkko fØ;kRed foÜys"k.k esa

i`"B la% 57


frgkl dk vkSj [kqn dk lkeuk djuk % bfrgkl ius esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA tc ge fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks

fQØ ¼'kCn ds lHkh vFkks± eas½ ls ius ds

fy, fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vrhr esa vFkZ


ekufp= vkSj jktuhfr

,e-,p- dqjS'kh

e

uq";ksa us vius LFkku dk Bhd&Bhd fu/kkZj.k djus ds fy,

ges'kk gh ,sls funZs'kkadksa dh enn ls dksf'k'k dh gS tks

njvly muds eu dh gh mit gksrs gSaA tc dksbZ fn'kk

Hkwyk gqvk vtuch fdlh vU; O;fä ls Lo;a dks lgh fn'kk esa

bafxr djus ds fy, enn ek¡xrk gS] rks ;g enn dHkh&dHkh

dkxt ij ykbusa cukdj] ;k fQj tehu ij

fnfDcUnqvksa@fn'kklwpdksa dh lgk;rk ls çnku dh tkrh gSA bl

rjg dh tkudkjh nsus ds fy, fdlh O;fä dk çf'kf{kr

ekufp=dkj gksuk t:jh ugÈ gSA bl çdkj] ;g rks ekuk gh tk

ldrk gS fd ekufp= gekjs fnekx esa gksrs gSa Hkys gh ge muds

çfr lpsr gksa ;k ugÈA çkjfEHkd euq"; Hkh vius f{kfrt ds ckgj

ds LFkkuksa o yksxksa ds ckjs esa tkuus ds fy, mRlqd jgrs FksA vius

f{kfrt ds ijs D;k gS] bl ckr us ges'kk yksxksa ds eu esa mRlqdrk

iSnk dh gSA nwjLFk LFkkuksa ds ckjs esa tkudkfj;k¡ dgkfu;ksa]

;kf=;ksa ds o`Ÿkkarksa] ;k fQj O;fä;ksa dh dYiukvksa ds ek/;e ls

,d nwljs rd igq¡prh FkÈA os dgkfu;k¡ tks vkerkSj ij bl okD;

ds lkFk 'kq: gksrh FkÈ & **,d ckj] ,d jktk Fkk** vkerkSj ij

ml dkYifud jkT; dk foLr`r o.kZu gksrh FkÈ( vkSj ikBdx.k

ges'kk blds ckjs esa ,d fnekxh ekufp= cuk ysrs Fks tks muds

ekul dk fgLlk cu tkrk FkkA

;fn ge ekufp= jpuk ds ,sfrgkfld m˜o ij

ut+j Mkysa rks ikrs gSa fd ekufp=dkjksa us ;FkkFkZ

ds ckjs esa viuh n`f"V dks fu:fir djus dk ç;kl

fd;kA ;FkkFkZ cgqeq[kh ,oa cgqvk;keh gksrk gS(

blfy, bls nks vk;keksa esa n'kkZuk dfBu dke gSA

i`Foh ds lcls 'kq#vkrh o.kZu Hkh Bksl oSKkfud rF;ksa dh vis{kk

nk'kZfud rdZ ij T;knk vk/kkfjr FksA nk'kZfud viuh

dYiuk'kfä dk mi;ksx djds nk'kZfud rdZ cukrs Fks vkSj fQj

oSKkfud ,sls rdks± dks fl) djus ;k [kkfjt djus dk ç;Ru

djrs FksA fl) gks tkus ij og rdZ ,d oSKkfud rF; cu tkrk

gSA ;fn oSKkfud nk'kZfudksa ds rdZ dks [kkfjt dj nsrs Fks rks

nk'kZfud vius rF;ksa esa FkksM+k gsjQsj djds vius fl)kUr dks u;k

:i nsrs FksA 'kq#vkrh ;wukuh nk'kZfudksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd i`Foh

xksy rks gS ij og ,dne ,d xksyk u gksdj leqæ ds ikuh ls

[k.M % c

f?kjh xksy fVfd;k dh rjg gSA

;g n`f"V lEHkor% IysVks ds le;

rd cuh jgh ftlus igyh ckj

;g fopkj lkeus j[kk fd i`Foh

,d *xksyk* gSA mlus vius

fopkjksa ds fy, dHkh dksbZ lk{;

ugÈ fn;k vkSj u viuh ckr dks fl) djus dk dksbZ ç;kl

fd;kA mlds rdZ dk ewy ekufp=dyk esa u gksdj /keZ'kkL= esa

FkkA mldk ekuuk Fkk fd euq"; bZÜoj dh loZJs"B d`fr gSA

ekuo 'kjhj lefer gS] vr% bZÜoj us viuh loZJs"B d`fr ds

vkokl ds :i esa i`Foh dks cuk;k gksxk ftls] rkfdZd :i ls]

lefer vkdkj dk gksuk pkfg,A pw¡fd] xksyk ,d iw.kZ lefer

HkkSxksfyd Lo:i gS] vr% i`Foh dks ,d xksykHk gksuk pkfg,A

mlus czºekaM ds ckjs esa ,d HkwdsfUæd jk; çfrikfnr dhA blesa

mlus i`Foh dks dsUæ esa j[kk vkSj ;g ekuk fd ckdh lHkh

[kxksyh; fi.M i`Foh ds pkjksa vksj ?kwers gSaA i`Foh dks ysdj ;g

HkwdsfUæd fopkj yEcs le; rd ekStwn jgk vkSj /kkfeZd laLFkkvksa

us vius /kekZns'kksa }kjk budk çpkj&çlkj fd;kA IysVks us rks

dHkh vius rdZ ds fy, lk{; is'k djus dh dksf'k'k ugÈ dh]

ysfdu mlds f'k"; vjLrw us bl ckjs esa lk{; nsus dk ç;kl

fd;k fd i`Foh ,d xksyk gSA vkSj bl rjg xksykdkj i`Foh dks

f}vk;keh ekufp= esa :ikUrfjr djus dh leL;k ekufp=dkjksa

ds fy, ,d lrr fpUrk dk fo"k; cu xbZA

HkwxksyosŸkkvksa vkSj ekufp=dkjksa us ekufp= dks vo/kkj.kkc)

djds ifjHkkf"kr djus dk ç;kl fd;kA ikBîiqLrdksa esa] vkerkSj

ij ekufp= dks **i`Foh dk ;k mlds fdlh fgLls dk Åij ls ns[ks

x, vuqlkj ,d iSekus ij vk/kkfjr f}vk;keh] ikjaifjd

fu:i.k** ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA i`Foh dk f}vk;keh

fu:i.k & ;g vfHkO;fä n'kkZrh gS fd ekufp= ds vFkZ esa

vf/kdkj{ks= dh Hkkouk tqM+h jgrh gSA vf/kdkj{ks= us ges'kk u

flQZ euq";ksa dks cfYd i'kqvksa dks Hkh vkdf"kZr fd;k gSA tgk¡

euq";ksa us 'kq#vkr esa thfor jgus ds fy, Hkw{ks=ksa dk

vkSifuos'khdj.k fd;k vkSj vius lkekftd&vkfFkZd fodkl ds

ckn ds pj.kksa esa mlds lalk/kuksa dk 'kks"k.k fd;k] ogÈ i'kqvksa us

thfor jgus gsrq vkSj detksj tkuojksa ij çHkqRo LFkkfir djus ds

fy, vius {ks= fodflr fd,A 'ksj dk {ks= jktkvksa ds jkT;ksa ls

de egRoiw.kZ ugÈ gksrk vkSj blhfy, 'ksj dks taxy dk jktk

dgk tkrk gSA euq"; vius {ks=ksa dk lhekadu ekufp= cukdj

djrs gSa tcfd i'kqvksa dk vius {ks=ksa dks fpfUgr djus dk


ekufp= vkSj jktuhfr

cM+k lw{e gksrk gSA u flQZ 'ksj cfYd dqŸkksa ds Hkh vius lhekafdr

{ks= gksrs gSa vkSj muds }kjk fdlh Hkh vfrØe.k dk cgqr

fgalkRed us

gsrq çk;ksftr fd;k tkrk FkkA bl ç;kl esa ,f'k;kbZ yksx

lEHkor% iFk&çn'kZd FksA lezkV v'kksd ds laj{k.k esa Hkkjrh;

Hkxoku cq) dk lUns'k ysdj iwoÊ vkSj nf{k.k iwoÊ ,f'k;k ds

nwjLFk dksuksa rd x,A vjc ;k=h lcls igys vÝhdk esa Hkwe/;

js[kk dks ikj djds nf{k.kh xksyk/kZ igq¡ps tks dHkh Hkh ;wukfu;ksa

}kjk dfYir fuokl&;ksX; nqfu;k dk fgLlk ugÈ FkkA ;wukuh

fo}kuksa ds vuqlkj] vÝhdk dh fuokl&;ksX; nqfu;k vÝhdk esa

dsoy 12-5 fMxzh mŸkjh v{kka'k rd gh lhfer FkhA vjc ;k=h]

bCu&,&gkWdy us bl lksp dks xyr fl) fd;k tc mlus

Hkwe/; js[kk ds 20 fMxzh nf{k.k esa tkdj vÝhdk ds iwoÊ rV ds

fdukjs yksxksa dks jgrs ns[kkA phuh ;kf=;ksa us tehuh rFkk leqæh

ekxks± ds ek/;e ls fofHké Hkw{ks=ksa dks [kkstuk 'kq: fd;kA e'kgwj

phuh ;kf=;ksa esa ls ,d] àsu lk¡x frCcr ds mtkM+ iBkj dks ikj

djds HkwekxZ ls lkroÈ lnh bZloÈ esa Hkkjr igq¡pk FkkA ,d vU;

phuh ;k=h bfpax nf{k.k&iwoÊ ,f'k;k ds }hiksa dks ikj djds 671

bZloÈ esa leqæh ekxZ ls Hkkjr igq¡p ldk FkkA iUægoÈ lnh bZloÈ

rd ,f'k;kbZ ;kf=;ksa us viuh leqæh ;k=k,a¡ cUn dj nÈ FkÈA

bCu&,&crwrk] lEHkor%] vfUre vjc ;k=h FkkA 1433 bZloÈ esa

viuk vfHk;ku iwjk djus okyk phuh ,Mfejy] psax gks] ykSVus

okyk vfUre O;fä Fkk] vkSj mlds lkFk phuh vUos"k.kksa dh

dgkuh Hkh lekIr gks xbZA

iUægoÈ lnh bZloÈ rd çkphu nqfu;k ds cM+s fgLlksa dh

tkudkjh miyC/k gks xbZ Fkh( blfy, bl lnh esa ;wjksfi;u

;kf=;ksa us vUos"k.k ds ç;kl fd,] [kklrkSj ij iqrZxky vkSj Lisu

ds ;kf=;ksa us ftUgsa bu ns'kksa ds jktkvksa dh vkfFkZd enn vkSj

laj{k.k çkIr gq,A iqrZxkyh ;kf=;ksa us bu vUos"k.kksa dks Hkwe/;

lkxj ds ijs ys tkus dh 'kq#vkr dhA 1415 bZ- esa jktdqekj

gSujh dh ftczkYVj ds nf{k.k esa] vÝhdk esa gqbZ thr fdlh

;wjksih; 'kfä dh ;wjksi ds ckgj igyh thr FkhA ;wjksi }kjk

vÝhdk] ,f'k;k vkSj ckn esa ubZ nqfu;k ds vkSifuos'khdj.k dh

çfØ;k lEHkor% blh eksM+ ij 'kq: gqbZ FkhA jktdqekj gSujh us

1418 esa] lSxjs esa igyk HkkSxksfyd 'kks/k laLFkku LFkkfir fd;kA

bl laLFkk dks ukfodksa dks çf'kf{kr djus dk vkSj ,sls midj.k

rFkk ekufp= cukus dk dk;Z lkSaik x;k ftuls vkxs ds vUos"k.kksa

esa enn fey ldsA ekufp=] çpqj lalk/kuksa okys xUrO;ksa rd

igq¡pus ds lqjf{kr vkSj lcls NksVs ekxks± dks fpfUgr djus ds

vR;ko';d midj.k cu x,A euq"; ges'kk gh de ls de ç;kl

ds fl)kUr ls çsfjr gq, gSa] vkSj mUgksaus ges'kk gh lcls NksVs ekxks±

dh ryk'k dh gS ftUgsa edZsVj ds ç{ksi.k ij fufeZr ekufp=ksa

}kjk [kkst ikuk lEHko gks x;kA tgk¡ ,d vksj lSxzs esa ekufp=

fuekZ.k dk dke tkjh Fkk ogÈ nwljh vksj ykxksl esa jktdqekj

gSujh ds funZs'ku esa u, tgkt rS;kj gks jgs FksA vkSifuosf'kd ;qx

ds cht cks fn, x, Fks vkSj muesa ls v¡dqj fudyuk 'kq: x, FksA

lcls igyh çfr}fUnrk Lisfu;kb;ksa o iqrZxkfy;ksa ds e/; 'kq:

gqbZ vkSj ckn esa vU; ;wjksih; 'kfä;k¡ Hkh u, mifuos'kksa dh [kkst

dh nkSM+ esa 'kkfey gks xbZaA VkWfMZlSykl dh lfU/k ds nLrkost

iqrZxkfy;ksa o Lisfu;kb;ksa ds chp ds erHksnksa dks lqy>kus ds fy,

iksi }kjk dh xbZ e/;Lrrk dh dgkuh dgrs gSaA rhu 'kfä;k¡(

v¡xzst] Ýkalhlh vkSj iqrZxkyh Hkkjrh; miegk}hi ij çHkqrk

i`"B la% 60

[k.M % c


ekufp= vkSj jktuhfr

LFkkfir djus ds fy, ,d&nwljs ls yM+rs jgsA Ýkalhlh] Mp vkSj

v¡xzst nf{k.kiwoÊ ,f'k;k vFkkZr eysf'k;k] b.Mksusf'k;k vkSj

fgUnphu ds çk;}hi esa vkeus&lkeus FksA vkSifuosf'kd çfØ;k

ds foLrkj ds lkFk u, ekufp= mHkjuk 'kq: gks x,A

jktuhfr dh l`f"V ds :i esa ekufp=

jktuSfrd fu.kZ; u, ekufp=ksa ds l`tu vkSj ekufp=ksa esa gsjQsj

ds fy, ftEesnkj gksrs gSaA Hkkjr esa v¡xzstksa }kjk viukbZ xbZ

ledkyhu jktuhfr ds pyrs Hkkjrh; miegk}hi dk foHkktu

gqvk( ;g jktuhfr gh igys Hkkjr] ikfdLrku] rFkk ckn esa

ckaXykns'k ds u, uD'kksa ds fy, ftEesnkj FkhA v¡xzstksa us

rRdkyhu lksfo;r la?k vkSj phu dks fczfV'k Hkkjr ls nwj j[kus

ds fy, mldh lhekvksa ij dbZ NksVs&NksVs jkT;ksa dks cQj

¼vUr%LFk½ jkT;ksa dh rjg ls lajf{kr fd;kA vaxzst ugÈ pkgrs Fks

fd os dHkh Hkh bu iM+ksfl;ksa ds lkFk fdlh >xM+s esa my>saA cQj

jkT;ksa dk dke vkerkSj ij ,slh cdfj;ksa dh rjg dke djuk

gksrk gS tks nks 'ksjksa ds chp [kM+h jgdj lqjf{kr jgrh gSaA bu

ns'kksa dk vfLrRo cus jgus dk dkj.k mudk cQj jkT; gksuk gh

FkkA f}rh; foÜo;q) dh jktuhfr ds pyrs teZuh dk foHkktu

gqvk] vkSj ,d gh jk"Vª ds nks ekufp= cu x,A psd vkSj

Lyksokdksa dks feykdj ,d ns'k dj fn;k x;k ftldk ,d

ekufp= Fkk] vkSj lksfo;r :l us iwjs e/; ,f'k;k dk i`Fkd

vfLrRo feVkrs gq, lkjs vyx&vyx jk"Vªksa dks gM+idj vkSj

vkil esa feykdj ,d bdkbZ cuk fn;kA v¡xzstksa us csyQksj

?kks"k.kk ds }kjk ,d jktuSfrd fu.kZ; ysrs gq, ;gwfn;ksa dh

ekr`Hkwfe ds :i esa btjk;y dk l`tu fd;kA ;gwnh çkphu

vrhr esa btjk;y NksM+dj pys x, Fks vkSj ogk¡ vjcksa dk fuokl

gks x;k FkkA ml {ks= esa btjk;y ds ekufp= ds gdhdr cu

[k.M % c

jktuSfrd fu.kZ; u, ekufp=ksa ds l`tu vkSj

ekufp=ksa esa gsjQsj ds fy, ftEesnkj gksrs gSaA

Hkkjr esa v¡xzstksa }kjk viukbZ xbZ ledkyhu

jktuhfr ds pyrs Hkkjrh; miegk}hi dk

foHkktu gqvk( ;g jktuhfr gh igys Hkkjr]

ikfdLrku] rFkk ckn esa ckaXykns'k ds u, uD'kksa ds

fy, ftEesnkj FkhA

tkus ds ckn] vjcksa us bldk o.kZu vjc fny esa /k¡ls ,d Nqjs ds

:i esa fd;kA bl iwjs {ks= esa ekStwn lHkh ns'kksa ds fnyksa ls cgqr

le; ls ygw cg jgk gSA

vkSifuos'khdj.k us ,d u;k foÜo ekufp= rS;kj fd;kA v¡xzsth

lkezkT; ds ekufp= ij dHkh lw;kZLr ugÈ gksrk FkkA ubZ nqfu;k esa]

;wjksih; 'kfä;ksa ds chp dh çfrLi/kkZ 'kq: ls gh çp.M FkhA

dukMk ds uD'ks ij Ýk¡lhlh çHkqRo ds {ks= vkSj fczfV'k çHkqRo ds

{ks= vklkuh ls ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA v¡xzstksa us] lEHkor% HkkoukRed

dkj.kksa dh otg ls] vius ns'k ds LFkkuksa ds uke la;qä jkT;

vesfjdk ds mŸkj iwoÊ jkT;ksa ds ekufp= ij çfrjksfir dj fn,A

baXyS.M] U;w baXyS.M ds :i esa( gSai'kk;j] U;w gSai'kk;j ds :i esa(

vkSj ;kWdZ] U;w;kWdZ ds :i esa vesfjdk esa LFkkfir gq,A blls

baXyS.M ls vk, vkçokfl;ksa dks ekufld larks"k feyk vkSj

fueZwyrk dh Hkkouk ls iSnk gksus okys larki Hkh blls de gq,A

jktuSfrd çfØ;k esa gq, foijhr ifjorZu us u, çdkj ds

ekufp= rS;kj fd,A mifuos'kokn dk vUr gksus ij ,d ubZ

nqfu;k dk vkfoHkkZo gqvk ftlesa Lora= ns'kksa ds u, ekufp=

lkeus vk,A ,f'k;k vkSj vÝhdk ds ekufp=ksa esa cnyko gqvkA

v¡xzsth lkezkT; us çkphu nqfu;k vkSj ubZ nqfu;k] nksuksa ij gh

viuk fu;a=.k leku :i ls [kks fn;kA u, Lora= gq, jkT;ksa us

viuh çkphu ,sfrgkfld tM+ksa vkSj ewY;ksa dks ryk'kuk vkSj

mudh iquLFkkZiuk djuk çkjEHk fd;kA jk"Vªh; /otksa] jk"Vªh;

xkuksa vkSj uojfpr ekufp=ksa ds :i esa u, çrhd lkeus vk,A

foÜo ekufp= dks fQj ls cukus vkSj u;k vkdkj nsus dh çfØ;k

tks mifuos'kokn ds iru ds lkFk 'kq: gqbZ Fkh vHkh rd Fkeh ugÈ

gSA 1990 ds n'kd esa nqfu;k us rkRdkfyd lksfo;r la?k ds iru

ds lkFk gh ,d vU; çdkj dh jktuSfrd [kycyh ns[kh] vkSj ,d

ckj fQj u, ekufp= lkeus vkuk 'kq: gq,A ;wjksi o e/; ,f'k;k

esa fLFkr lksfo;r la?k ds x.kjkT; Lora= ns'k cus vkSj muds

i`Fkd ekufp= vfLrRo esa vk,A bl jktuSfrd çØe dk vlj

;wjksih; ns'kksa ij Hkh iM+kA nksuksa teZuh ,d gks x,A psd vkSj

Lyksokdksa ds chp e[keyh vyxko gqvkA VhVks ds ;qxksLykfo;k

dks jäjaftr fo[k.Mu >syuk iM+kA fofo/k Lrjksa ij gq,

jktuSfrd fu.kZ;ksa ds pyrs gj txg u, ekufp= mHkj dj vk,A

ekufp=ksa esa lhekafdr fdlh ns'k dh lhek,a¡ ml ns'k ds ukxfjdksa

ds fy, cgqr ifo= gksrh gSa D;ksafd ;s ml jk"Vª dh v[k.Mrk vkSj

lEçHkqrk dk çrhd gksrh gSa vkSj ukxfjd mudh lEçHkqrk cuk,

j[kus ds fy, viuh tku Hkh U;kSNkoj dj nsrs gSaA nqfu;kHkj esa

dbZ yM+kb;k¡ lhek fooknksa dh otg ls gh HkM+dh gSaA jktuSfrd

i`"B la% 61


ekufp= vkSj jktuhfr

HkwxksyosŸkk ljgn ¼ckWMZj½ dks {ks= dh rjg ls vkSj lhek ¼ckmUMªh½

dks js[kk dh rjg ls ifjHkkf"kr djrs gSaA lhek,a¡ HkyhHkka¡fr

ifjHkkf"kr] fu/kkZfjr vkSj vafdr okLrfodrk,¡a gksrh gSa vkSj mudh

cM+s tru ds lkFk j{kk dh tkrh gSA ;fn fdlh T;knk 'kfä'kkyh

iM+kslh }kjk dqN {ks= gM+i fy;k tkrk gS rks Hkh ijkftr ns'k

vius ekufp=ksa esa ewy lhek dks gh n'kkZrk gS vkSj Nhu fy, x,

{ks= dks u cpk;k tk ldk t+cfj;k vf/kxzghr {ks= ekuk tkrk gSA

;s ekufp= ys[kkxkjksa rd lhfer jg tkrs gSa vkSj ubZ ihfksad fn;k vkSj lkFk gh lkFk [kqn dk Hkh uqdlku fd;kA

fpjdky ls nqfu;k ds lHkh ns'kksa esa ekufp= gekjs vfLrRo dk

,d vge fgLlk jgs gSaA pkgs ge budh dYiuk i`Foh ds

f}vk;keh fu:i.k ds :i esa djsa] ;k bUgsa ,d fnekxh jpuk ekusa]

[k.M % c


ekufp= vkSj jktuhfr

fufgr LokFkks± dks iwjk djus ds fy, rksM+s&ejksM+s x, jktuSfrd

midj.k ds :i esa ns[ksa] ;k fQj ,d jk"Vª&jkT; dk çrhdkRed

Lo:i ekusa( ekuo lekt dh cgqi{kh; okLrfodrk dks fu:fir

djus ds ,d vge midj.k ds :i esa ekufp=ksa dk vfLrRo lnk

cuk jgsxkA

,e,p dqjS'kh lsUVj QkWj LVMht+ bu jhtuy MSoyIeSaV] ts,u;w ds iwoZ çk/;kid gSaA mUgsa Hkkjr lfgr fons'kksa ds

dbZ foÜofo|ky;ksa vkSj dkWystksa esa Hkwxksy i


nSfud thou esa Hkwxksy

riL;k lkgk

dHkh&dHkh eSa lksprh gw¡ fd vksyfEid] QhQk vkSj ;gk¡

rd fd vkbZih,y Hkh Hkwxksy fl[kkus dk ,d LokHkkfod

rjhdk gSA

,

d fnu tc eSa iSny vius ?kj okil tk jgh Fkh rc eSaus ,d

;qok ek¡ vkSj mldh lkr@vkB lky dh cPph ds chp dk

laokn lqukA muds vkxs nks vQzhdh ;qod py jgs Fks] ftUgsa ns[k

dj NksVh cPph us viuh ek¡ ls iwNk] *ek¡ bu vknfe;ksa ds cky

dq.Mfy;ksa dh rjg ?kqa?kjkys D;ksa gksrs gSa] gekjs cky rks ,sls

?kqa?kjkys ugÈ gksrs\* ek¡ us fcuk dqN lksps tokc fn;k] **lHkh

vÝhfd;ksa ds cky ,sls gh gksrs gSaA** ml ek¡ dk mŸkj cPpksa }kjk

fd, tkus okys ,sls lHkh çÜuksa] lHkh pht+ksa ij tks os vius

vkl&ikl ns[krs gSa rFkk vius Lo;a ds ekufld vkdk'k esa vius

s ml yM+dh dks mŸkj

nsus dk cgqr eu Fkk D;ksafd og çÜu ,d HkkSxksfyd çÜu FkkA

Hkwxksy dgk¡ gS\

esjs fy, Hkwxksy thou thus dk ,d s fgeky; D;ksa tkuk iM+rk gS\

mls eSa gSnjkckn esa D;ksa ugÈ ns[k ldrh gw¡\

lw;Z] lw;kZLr ds iÜpkr iwoZ esa mfnr gksus ds fy, fdruh

rsth ls nkSM+rk gS\

D;k B.M esa dksgjk vkSj /kqU/k cukus ds fy, ckny uhps ugÈ

vkrs\

uhe ds isM+ ds ctk; nsonkj ds o`{k ?k.Vh ds vkdkj ds D;ksa

gksrs gSa\

;gk¡ ij gesa fgj.k vkSj ck?k ns[kus dks feyrs gSa] ij fØy

vkSj fdoh D;ksa ugÈ\

foeku pkyd vkdk'k esa foeku dSls mMk+rk gS vkSj dHkh

viuh fn'kk ugÈ [kksrk\

[k.M % c


nSfud thou esa Hkwxksy


bu lHkh çÜuksa vkSj ,sls dbZ vkSj çÜuksa ds mŸkj eq>s dgk¡

feysaxs\

eq>s ;dhu gS fd nknk&nknh] ekrk&firk vkSj f'k{kd vius

vuqHkoksa ds vk/kkj ij buesa ls dbZ çÜuksa ds mŸkj ns ldrs gSaA

muls feys mŸkj cPpksa ds fy, cgqr foÜoluh; vkSj Lohdk;Z gksrs

gSaA dqN çÜuksa dks le>kus ds fy, Li"Vhdj.k vkSj vU; phtksa ds

Kku rFkk vo/kkj.kkvksa dh vko';drk gks ldrh gSA vkb, ge

dqN mŸkj lq>kus okys çÜu iwNsa vkSj cPps dks vius Lo;a ds mŸkj


nSfud thou esa Hkwxksy

rks ,d fo'kky lalk/ku Hk.Mkj mRié gks tkrk gSA

D;k thou dks csgrj rjhds ls thus ds fy, Hkwxksy dh

vo/kkj.kkvksa dks lh[kus dh okLro esa t:jr gS\ D;k ;s

vo/kkj.kk,a¡ gesa gekjs nSfud thou esa enn djrh gSa\ ;k bl

rjg iwNk tk, fd D;k os ,d çdkj dk thou&dkS'ky gSa\ D;k

gekjs cPpksa dks bl dkS'ky dks iSuk cukus dh vko';drk gksrh

gS\

D;k bu vuqHkoksa] tks okLrfod thou esa gksus okyh ?kVukvksa ij

vk/kkfjr] muls fudys ;k c¡/ks gksrs gSa] ;k O;fä ds thou dks

lh/ks çHkkfor dj jgs gksrs gSa] dks Hkh HkkSxksfyd vuqHko dgk tk

ldrk gS\ D;k thou ds dkS'ky ds :i esa] HkkSxksfyd

vo/kkj.kkvksa ds gekjs Kku dh thfor jgus ds fy,] thou dk

vkuUn mBkus ds fy,] jkstejZk ds thou dh leL;kvksa dks

lqy>kus ds fy,] fu.kZ; ysus ds fy,] vU; fo"k;ksa dks le>us ds

fy,] gekjs vklikl gksus okyh ?kVukvksa dks le>us ds fy,] vkSj

mlls viuh thfodk pykus ds fy, cgqr t:jr ugÈ gksrh\

buesa ls vf/kdka'k çÜuksa dk mŸkj ,d 'kCn *gk¡* esa fn;k tk

ldrk gSA

;g ys[k fy[krs le; eSaus viuh uun ls *wxksy* fo"k; ds ckjs esa

iwNk] fuR; çfrfnu ds thou esa Hkwxksy ds egRo ds ckjs esa mldh

jk; iwNhA gkyk¡fd og ,d cSad deZpkjh gS vkSj mlus xf.kr ius ds fy,

HkkSxksfyd vo/kkj.kkvksa dks le>uk bruk t:jh gksxk rks eSaus

vius Ldwy ds fnuksa esa blesa vf/kd #fp yh gksrh vkSj fufÜpr

:i ls eSa vkt T;knk dkfcy gksrhA vc leL;k dks Bhd ikuk esjs fy, dfBu dk;Z gksrk gSA**

bl laokn ls ge D;k fu"d"kZ fudkyrs gSa\

esjs fe= ds csVs dks Hkwxksy #fpdj yxrk Fkk vkSj dbZ ckj geus

Hkwxksy dh fofHké vo/kkj.kkvksa ij ppkZ dh vkSj rdZ&fordZ

fd;k( ,d ckj ;g ppkZ v{kka'k vkSj ns'kkUrj rFkk mldh t:jr

ij gqbZA dbZ o"kks± ckn og ,d lqUnj ukStoku foeku pkyd ds

:i esa eq>s feyk A tc ge lkFk fcrk, gq, le; dh ;kn rktk

i`"B la% 66

dj jgs Fks rks mlus eq>s crk;k fd fdl çdkj v{kka'k vkSj

ns'kkUrj dh vo/kkj.kk us mM+us ds nkSjku fdlh txg dh fLFkfr

dks le>us esa mldh enn dhA blls eSaus [kqn Hkh lcd lh[kk fd

fdlh cPps dks ftKklq cukuk fdruk t:jh gSA

D;k vktdy ds Hkwxksy dk ikBîØe cPps dks

lh[kus esa enn djrk gS\

esjs fopkj ls ;gk¡ gesa fo'ks"k :i ls nks {ks=ksa esa dqN cnyko djus

dh vko';drk gS-%



fo"k;oLrq

ml fo"k;oLrq dks ge ftl rjhds ls lqxe cukrs gSa

pfy, ge ;g eku ysrs gSa fd cPps igys ls gh cgqr lkjh phtsa

tkurs gSa] vkSj os phtksa dks fodflr djus] tksM+us] ifjofrZr djus]

ifj"d`r djus] vuqeku yxkus] le>us vkSj dYiuk djus dh

fLFkfr esa gksrs gSaA rc lgk;dksa ds :i esa gesa muds ekStwnk

ekufld


nSfud thou esa Hkwxksy

lUnHkZ edku dk Øekad vkSj lM+d dk uke gSa½A fQj vxys l=

esa ge ,slh nks lUnHkZ js[kkvksa dks v{kka'k vkSj ns'kkUrj ds :i esa

Xyksc ij vafdr dj ldrs gSa vkSj fQj v{kka'k vkSj ns'kkUrj dh

lgk;rk ls fdlh 'kgj dh fLFkfr crk ldrs gSaA

us=k vkSj çhre dks f=dks.k vkdkj ds *vykbok* fcfLdV [kkuk

vPNk yxrk gS( vc us=k tc Hkh fdlh f=dks.kkdkj oLrq dks

ns[krh gS rks og mls *vykbok* cqykrh gS vkSj tc çhre

*vykbok* fcfLdV dks ns[krk gS rks og mls *f=dks.k* dgrk gSA

vly esa nksuksa us vkdkj dks igpku fy;k gS Hkys gh mldk o.kZu

djus ds fy, lgh uke fy;k gks ;k u fy;k gksA nksuksa gh ds ikl

vius okLrfod vuqHkoksa ds vk/kkj ij f=dks.k dh /kkj.kk Fkh] vr%

tc cPpk dgrk gS fd *vykbok* ,d *f=dks.k* gS rks f'k{kd

le>k ldrk gS fd *gk¡ vykbok ,d f=dks.kkdkj fcfLdV gS]

vkSj blh çdkj igkM+ dh pksVh ;k fØlel dk isM+ Hkh] vr% os

lHkh *f=dks.k* dgykus okyh Js.kh ls lEcU/k j[krs gSaA

dksbZ cPpk vius vklikl dh phtksa ;k vius pkjksa vksj

ds lalkj ds ckjs esa dSls lh[krk gS\

cPps Nwus] [kkus] ç;ksx djus] voyksdu djus] udy djus] iwNus

vkfn xfrfof/k;ksa ds }kjk lh[krs gSaA *jpukRedrkokn* dk

fl)kUr dgrk gS fd ;s vk/kkj :ijs[kk,¡a gksrh gSa( lh[kus okys

O;fä bu vuqHkoksa ds vk/kkj ij ftUnxh Hkj vius Kku dks c


nSfud thou esa Hkwxksy

tehu dh rqyuk esa ikuh /kheh xfr ls B.Mk vkSj xeZ gksrk gS]

cPps ;g iwokZuqeku yxk ldrs gSa fd leqæ rV ij tyok;q

e/;orÊ jgsxhA

blh çdkj vkfVZlu dq,¡ ml {ks= esa lhfer gSa tgk¡ pÍkuh

lajpuk,a¡ r'rjh ds vkdkj dh gSa vkSj mu ij ty dk ncko

vklkuh ls iM+rk gSA bl rjg Nk= ;g le> ldrs gSa fd ,slh

lajpukvksa esa [kksns x, dqvksa ls ikuh Lo;a ds ncko ds dkj.k

ckgj fudy vk,xkA

D;k ge Hkwxksy dh ,slh d{kk ds ckjs esa ugÈ lksp ldrs tks [kqys

esa yxkbZ tk,\ f'k{kd vkSj Ldwy dks bl ckjs esa igys ls gh

;kstuk cukuk iM+sxh ftlesa dqN fo"k;ksa dks ,d lkFk feyk fn;k

tk, ¼feÍh] feÍh dk {kj.k] çkd`frd ouLifr] d`f"k] yksxksa dk

O;olk; vkfn½] vkSj dHkh&dHkh foKku vkSj Hkwxksy dh d{kkvksa

dks ¼lkSj e.My] [kfut½ ,d lkFk feyk fn;k tk,A dqN fo"k;ksa

tSls ekSle vkSj tyok;q dks iwjs o"kZ ds nkSjku vyx&vyx

_rqvksa ds vuqlkj i


vksg! iapk;r % lkekftd foKku dh ikBîiqLrdsa

rS;kj djus esa feys dqN fc[kjs lcd 1

vyDl ,e- tkWtZ

f'k

{kk ds lekt'kkó & ,d ,slk fo"k;{ks=] tks yxrk gS

fd esjs is'ks dk eq[; dk;Z{ks= jgk gS & ds lEcU/k esa

'kSf{kd vkykspd ikBîiqLrdksa ds ckjs esa tks ckrsa dgrs gSa os ges'kk

esjs fnekx esa dgÈ jgrh gSaA os dgk djrs gSa fd ikBîiqLrdsa%




jkT; dk ,d ,slk lk/ku ftlds }kjk og f'k{kd vkSj mlds

fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds chps gksus okyh vUrfØZ;kvksa dks fu;af=r djrk

gS rkfd mldk vfLrRo LFkk;h cuk jgs(

jkT; ds gkFkksa esa ,d ,slk midj.k gS ftlds }kjk

vkf/kdkfjd Kku dk ,d ,slk rkukckuk jp fn;k tkrk gS

ftlls ;g lqfufÜpr gks tkrk gS fd e/;e oxZ dk vfLrRo

cuk jgs(

cPpksa dks f'k{kk ls nwj dj nsus esa l{ke midj.k( bR;kfnA

fQj Hkh] fiNys dbZ lkyksa ls eSa v/;;u lkexzh rS;kj djus ds

dke esa gh yxk jgk gwa¡] ftlesa ckj&ckj eSaus bu lhekvksa dks

rksM+dj fudy Hkkxus dh dksf'k'k Hkh dh!

;g ys[k Ldwyh ikBîiqLrdksa ds ,d ikB & iapk;r & dks rS;kj

djus ¼vDlj nwljksa dks rS;kj djrk ns[kus½ ls eSaus tks lh[kk

mldk lkj gSA nks dkj.kksa dh otg ls ;g ikB gky ds le; esa

eq>s fQj ls ;kn vk;k] 1- gfj;k.kk dh dq[;kr [kki iapk;rsa vkSj

2- dukZVd ds pqukoA ij eq>s dgkuh 'kq: ls crkuk iM+sxh---A

eSa ekurk gwa¡ fd esjs ekStwnk ikBdksa esa ls 'kk;n fdlh dks Hkh

foLrkj ls ;g le>kus dh t:jr ugÈ gS fd iapk;r D;k gksrh

gSA ij tYnh ls eSa iapk;r dh ikBîiqLrdh; O;k[;k ns nwa¡ fd

,sls v/;k; esa vkidks feysxk % iapk;r dh jpuk] 'kfä;ksa] vkSj

dk;ks± dk o.kZuA bls vkerkSj ij fu;eiqfLrdk dh csgn

lkQ&lqFkjh 'kCnkoyh esa fy[kk tkrk gSA fiNys dqN n'kdksa ls

cPpksa ls fe=or O;ogkj ds uke ij] ikBîiqLrdh; o.kZuksa dks

vDlj muesa ,sls fdjnkjksa dks ykdj fcxkM+ fn;k x;k gS tks ogh

dh ogh tkudkjh vDlj nwljksa ij d`ik djus ds Hkko ds lkFk

2

maMsy nsrs gSaA

lcd 1 % cq) ds ga¡lus ¼vly esa jksus!½ ls dqN fnu

igys

;g QqVckWy ds pkSFks foÜodi ds igys dh ckr gSA ckr 'kq: gksrh

[k.M % c

gS t;iqj ds rc ds ckgjh bykds

>kyuk Mwa¡xjh esa ,d vfrfFkx`g

ds ikl ,d s vHkh Hkh iôh

rjg ls ;g vglkl ugÈ gks ik jgk Fkk fd

eSa

d{kk 6 fgUnh ek/;e ds fy, ,dyO; dh lkekftd foKku dh

fdrkcksa esa ls lgh **vFkks±** dks le> jgk Fkk fd ugÈA eSaus

vjfoUn ds iapk;r v/;k; ds okpu dks lqukA ;g lEHkor%

ika¡poh erZck Fkk fd geus ;g v/;k; feydj i


vksg! iapk;r % lkekftd foKku dh ikBîiqLrdsa rS;kj djus esa feys dqN fc[kjs lcd

ij lkekU;r;k dkQh tksj fn;k tkrk gS] tSlk fd dsjy jkT;

dh ikBîiqLrdksa ds fy, feys esjs fiNys dk;Z esa gqvk] ij fdlh

ds ikl bruh fgEer ugÈ gksxh fd jktuSfrd laLFkkvksa ds o.kZu

dks udkjkRed s

;k=k dh ;kstuk le>kus yxkA **fnu esa] yxHkx 3 ?k.Vs pyus

ds ckn vki igys xka¡o igqa¡psaxs] tks fd ,d NksVs ls lksrs ds lehi

fLFkr gSA ogka¡ 4 ?kj gSaA vki viuk iSd fd;k gqvk fnu dk

Hkkstu ogka¡ dj ldrs gSaA fQj vki 4 ?k.Vs vkSj pydj nwljs

xka¡o igqa¡p tk,a¡xsA ogka¡ 7 ?kj gSaA os yksx vkidks muds ?kjksa esa

Bgjus dh txg ns nsaxsA vxys fnu djhc 4 ;k 5 ?k.Vs pyus ds

ckn vki ml fnu ds igys xka¡o igqa¡psaxs] ogka¡ ,d gh ?kj gS---A**

;g o.kZu blh rjg pyrk x;k fd fdl rjg ls vkSj fdu&fdu

iM+koksa ls xqtjdj ge vius xarO; LFkku] yík[k ds fgersanqvk

fjtoZ esa nkf[ky gks ldrs FksA esjs fy, eqík ;g ugÈ Fkk fd ge

igkM+ksa ij bruk iSny py ikrs ;k ugÈ] cfYd esjs fnekx esa rks

vHkh Hkh iapk;r okyk v/;k; ?kwe jgk FkkA brus de ?kj gksus ij

okMZ dSls cu ldrs gSa\iapk;r ds vUrxZr vkf[kj fdruk cM+k

{ks= vk,xk\iapk;rksa dh esjh Nfo;k¡ rks ,sls xk¡oksa ij vk/kkfjr FkÈ

ftuesa gtkjksa ;k de ls de dbZ lkS yksx fuokl djrs Fks! vr%

i`"B la% 70

eq>s viuh dkQh dqN tkudkjh dks Hkwyus dh t:jr FkhA

vkidk /;ku d{kk 4 vkSj 5 dh ikB~;iqLrdksa ds mu u, lSVksa ij

tkrk gS tks 2003 esa lSDeksy ¼SECMOL½ }kjk fudkyk x;k FkkA

bUgsa yík[k {ks= esa bLrseky fd;k tkuk Fkk] ftldk vius

lkekftd lEcU/kksa dks laxfBr djus dk ges'kk ls ,d [kkl o

vuks[kk


vksg! iapk;r % lkekftd foKku dh ikBîiqLrdsa rS;kj djus esa feys dqN fc[kjs lcd

ekStwnxh dks udkjdj Hkkjrh; jkT; bu yksxksa dks gkf'k;s ij gh

j[kuk pkgrk gS\ cM+h foMEcukiw.kZ ckr gS fd vkf[kj D;ksa ,d

jkT; tks ikBîiqLrdh; Kku ds ek/;e ls vius vfLrRo dks

etcwr cuk, j[kuk pkgrk gS] ,slh laLFkkvksa ds vfLrRo dks u"V

djrk gS] mls Vky nsrk gS vkSj vuns[kk dj nsrk gS\

,d vU; çeq[k nqfo/kk vrhr dh ;knksa ls mRié gksrh gSA *uhps ds

yksxksa*a dh ikBîiqLrdksa esa iapk;r ds o.kZu dks bl rjg ls çkjEHk

djuk cgqr çpfyr gS & *iap vFkkZr ik¡ap] çkphu le; esa gekjs

xka¡oksa dk ç'kklu ika¡p cqf)eku yksxksa ds gkFkksa esa gksrk Fkk--A* ,d

vk/kqfud laLFkk dks ekU;rk fnyokus ds fy, ge vrhr dh ;kn

fnykus yxrs gSaA ikBîiqLrdksa esa rks phtksa dks cl cM+h ljyrk ls

fy[k fn;k tkrk gS fd *ij mu fnuksa esa efgykvksa dh cgqr vf/kd

Hkwfedk ugÈ gksrh Fkh] vkSj nsf[k, vc **geus** bl pht dks lgh

dj fn;k gSA* ij iapk;r dh ppkZ ds flyflys esa dHkh&dHkkj

fdlh dk ,slk dg nsuk] *D;k oSlh tSlh gfj;k.kk dh [kki

iapk;rsa*] vrhr dh bu e/kqj Le`fr;ksa dks iapj dj nsrk gS vkSj

,dne ls vkids lkeus ml tekus ls pyh vk jgh lkeUroknh

gdhdrsa mtkxj gks tkrh gSaA vFkkZr lkeUrokn dh çfrfuf/kRo

foghu vkSj vyksdrkaf=d çd`fr gekjs lkeus vk tkrh gSA ij

lkspus yk;d loky ;g gS fd fdlh 9 ;k 10 lky ds cPps ds

fy, dfFkr :i ls fdlh çkphu ;k vk/kqfud laLFkk dks le> ikus

dk D;k eryc gS\ D;k ;g ekuuk okdbZ lEHko gS fd ,d 10

o"kÊ; cPpk ikBîiqLrdksa ds mnkgj.kksa }kjk ;g Hksn n'kkZ, tkus

ij] fd rqEgkjs firk [kki çeq[k gSa vkSj rqEgkjs iM+kslh xzke iapk;r

lnL; gSa] buds vyx&vyx vFkks± dks le> ik,xk\

lcd 3 % vdLekr gh czEgiq= ds ikj tkuk--

,d ckj] vjfoan eq>s xqokgkVh ys x;k( ogka¡ d{kk 5 esa i


vksg! iapk;r % lkekftd foKku dh ikBîiqLrdsa rS;kj djus esa feys dqN fc[kjs lcd

d{kk 10 esa feyk fn;k x;kA ij fQj] pwa¡fd fofHké jkT;ksa dh

Ldwyh O;oLFkkvksa esa çkFkfed Ldwy ds [kRe gksus vkSj

mPp@ek/;fed Ldwy ds 'kq: gksus dh ifjHkk"kk,¡a vyx&vyx

FkÈ] vr% ikBîiqLrdh; fo"k;oLrq dks vDlj rksM+k&ejksM+k tkrk

jgkA eq>s ;g ,glkl gqvk fd ;g euksoSKkfud fu;frokn&fd

,d ifjdYiuk ;k fo"k;oLrq dks flQZ ,d [kkl Lrj ij gh

i gksrk gS - /;ku nsa *ernkrk*] u fd *tq>k# O;fä* ;k *yM+kdw

efgyk çfrfuf/k*A D;k ;gÈ ij e/;eoxÊ; ewY;ksa dk bl /kkj.kk

ls Vdjko gksrk gS ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i jkT; dk vfLrRo tl

dk rl cuk jgrk gS\ yksdra= esa l'kä foÜokl dks Ldwyh f'k{kk

dk egRoiw.kZ] vifjgk;Z vax ekuk x;k FkkA vc ihNs ns[kus ij

yxrk gS fd LFkkuh; Lo'kklu & lgHkkfxrk&vk/kkfjr ;kstuk

& esa fn[kk;k x;k Hkjkslk ,d cqycqys tSlk gh FkkA oYMZ cSad ls

4

fuf/k çkIr djus okyh ,l,l, bUgsa R;kxus dh çfØ;k esa gSA

dsjy esa okeiaFk pkSFkh nqfu;k ds fopkj dks vius fnekx ls nwj

j[krk gSA fQj Hkh] vf/kdka'k yksx bl ckr ls lger gksaxs fd

d{kk 6 lgHkkfxrk&vk/kkfjr çtkra= ij lkFkZd ppkZ djus ds

fy, tjk *T;knk gh NksVh* mez gksrh gSA ;g r; fd;k tk ldrk

gS fd ,slh ppkZ,a¡ Åa¡ph d{kkvksa esa dh tk ldrh gSaA vkSj bl

çdkj] iapk;r ij vHkh Hkh dbZ viw.kZ v/;k; jg x, gSa] D;ksafd

ih tkus okyh ckrksa dks fu/kkZfjr djus esa laLFkkvksa

vkSj ç'kklfud çfØ;kvksa dk gh cksyckyk gSA D;k eSa bls dHkh

iwjk dj ikÅa¡xk\

milagkj & fdlh Hkh ckr ds çfr dHkh vkÜoLr u

gksa

ns'k ds dbZ dksuksa esa dqN rksM+&ejksM+ dj pqdus ds ckn vkjke ls

viuh vkjkedqlÊ ij gkFk esa v[kckj vkSj dkWQh dk I;kyk fy, eSa

jatu ls nf{k.k déM+k ds ,d xka¡o esa fiNys eghus gq, pquko esa

mlds oksV ds ckjs esa iwN jgk FkkA mlus dgk fd mlus vius okMZ

ds fy, 5 lnL; pqus gSaA ogk¡a 14 iapk;r lnL; vkSj 5 okMZ gSaA eSa

mldh bl ckr dk foÜokl ugÈ dj ik jgk FkkA eq>s ,glkl

gqvk fd ,ulhbZvkjVh dh d{kk 6 dh **ubZ** ikBîiqLrd xyr

gSA esjs fy, ikBîiqLrdksa dk yksdra= ,d O;fä & ,d oksV &

,d çfrfuf/k okyk gksrk gS! iapk;r ds pquko ds lEcU/k esa

ikBîiqLrd ds o.kZu dgrs gSa fd ernkrk dh gSfl;r ls eSa vius

iapk;r okMZ ds fy, ,d çfrfuf/k pqurk gw¡A ij ;g ,d ,slk

jkT; gS tgk¡ cgqlnL;h pquko&{ks= gSa & ,d iwjs okMZ ds fy, ,d

ls T;knk çfrfuf/k mŸkjnk;h gSA eSa rks mlls cgl Hkh ugÈ dj

ldrk D;ksafd mlus eq>s ;kn fnyk;k fd **vkius rks flQZ dqN

jkT;ksa dh ikBîiqLrdsa vkSj fu;eiqLrdsa gh ns[kh gSa tcfd eSaus

vlyh esa oksV Mkyk gS**A vksQks! eq>s mldh chp dh maxyh ij

yxh vfeV dkyh L;kgh ns[kdj fdruh [kh> vk jgh Fkh!

[k.M % c


vksg! iapk;r % lkekftd foKku dh ikBîiqLrdsa rS;kj djus esa feys dqN fc[kjs lcd

lUnHkZ

1- bl ys[k esa dbZ okLrfod yksxksa dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gS] ij ;g dksbZ fu"i{k vUr%çsfjr çfØ;k ugÈ gSA ;g vopsru ds /kq,a¡ ls Hkjk tSfod

tkfrxr o.kZu gS tks dYiukfefJr Le`fr;ksa ij fuHkZj gSA ;g lR; dks [kkstus okyksa ds fy, ugÈ fy[kk x;k gS] gkyk¡fd blesa is; inkFkks±

ds uke **'kSf{kd f'k"Vkpkj** dk [;ky j[krs gq, cny fn, x, gSaA ç;kl fd;k x;k gS fd ikBksa dks fopkj.kh; çÜuksa ds lkFk lekIr fd;k

tk,A ;g ml ikjEifjd Hkkjrh; 'kS{kf.kd foÜokl ds foijhr gS tks ;g ekurk gS fd gj ckr ,d lkQ&lqFkjh *dgkuh dh lh[k* ds lkFk

lekIr gksuk pkfg,A

2 - ;g ys[k lekt ds dqN yksxksa dks gkf'k;s ij /kdsy fn, tkus ds Lo:iksa vkSj eqíksa dk mYys[k ugÈ djrkA blds fy, vki bl fyad ij

*bQ bZo dqM ch LVho* 'kh"kZd dk ys[k i


21 oha lnh ds fy, Hkwxksy dh f'k{kk

pUæ'ks[kj ckypUæu

'kq

Øokj] 3 fnlEcj 1971 dks ikfdLrkuh ok;qlsuk }kjk

Hkkjrh; ok;q {ks= esa dh xbZ ?kqliSB ls Hkkjr vkSj

ikfdLrku ds chp iwjh rjg ls yM+kbZ fNM+ xbZA 'kfuokj]

4 fnlEcj dks] us'kuy gkbZLdwy] caxykSj dh d{kk 8 *ch* ds

lkekftd v/;;u ds f'k{kd ujlék th d{kk esa vk,( igyk

ihfj;M Fkk] lqcg&lqcg dk oä FkkA

mUgksaus ?kks"k.kk dh] **vkt] ge foÜo lekpkjksa ij ik¡p fefuV

ppkZ djsaxsA** ge yksx gYds&gYds jksekafpr gq,--- vxj uhjl

ikBîiqLrd i


21 oha lnh ds fy, Hkwxksy dh f'k{kk

tokuksa ds fy, jkf'k tqVkuk] jkr esa lqj{kk dkj.kksa ls fd, tkus

okys çdk'k&jks/ku ds fy, ?kj dh f[kM+fd;ksa ds 'kh'kksa ij dRFkbZ

dkxt yxkuk vkfnA ml d{kk esa tks mUgksaus i esa vkus

yk;d cuk ldrk gSA Hkwxksy dh 'kfä nksgjh gksrh gS% ¼v½ og

gekjh nqfu;k dks vFkZiw.kZ djus ds fy, ,d vuks[kk


21 oha lnh ds fy, Hkwxksy dh f'k{kk

wxksy dh 'kfä nksgjh gksrh gS% ¼v½ og gekjh nqfu;k

dks vFkZiw.kZ djus ds fy, ,d vuks[kk


21 oha lnh ds fy, Hkwxksy dh f'k{kk

enn feyrh gS fd thou ds ifjos'k esa Hkwxksy fdl rjg ls dke

dj jgk gksrk gSA

3- ikBîsŸkj fodkl

Hkwxksy ds lgh v/;;u ds fy, ;g lcls egRoiw.kZ fof/k gSA blls

fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds eu esa Hkwxksy ds çfr vkSj fnypLih iSnk djus esa

enn feyrh gS vkSj ikB~;p;kZ&vk/kkfjr fodkl dks vkSj csgrj

djus esa Hkh enn feyrh gSA ;g Hkwxksy dh loZJs"B

ewY;&lEof/kZr f'k{kk gSA ;gÈ ij ukxfjd&lkekftd


21 oha lnh ds fy, Hkwxksy dh f'k{kk

LFkkiuk dh tk jgh gS rkfd fudV Hkfo"; esa bl fn'kk esa l?ku

dk;Z djus ds fy, NksVs&NksVs lewg 'kq: fd, tk ldsaA

dEI;wVjksa dh cqfu;knh tkudkjh] vkSj Hkwxksy dh cqfu;knh

vo/kkj.kkvksa dh xgjh le> j[kus okys fo|kFkÊ bu midj.kksa

dks le> ik,a¡xs vkSj dkQh tYnh gh os mudk mi;ksx djuk Hkh

lh[k tk,a¡xsA vkBoÈ d{kk ls ysdj vkxs rd ds lHkh fo|kfFkZ;ksa

dks bu çkS|ksfxfd;ksa vkSj rduhdksa dh le> gkfly gksuk

pkfg,A xwxy vFkZ vkSj ,sls gh vU; eap vPNh&[kklh 'kq#vkr gSa

ij os HkkSxksfyd Kku dh mRifŸk vkSj mi;ksx ds fy, t:jh

ç[kj ;ksX;rk,a¡ çnku ugÈ djrsA ysfdu] 'kq#vkr rks dgÈ ls dh

gh tkuk pkfg,A

rks lkj :i esa eSa ;gh dguk pkgw¡xk fd gekjs fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds

LFkkfud cks/k ds lHkh vk;keksa dks fodflr djus ds fy, Hkwxksy

dh f'k{kk csgn egRoiw.kZ gSA Hkwxksy dks lkekftd vkSj çkd`frd

foKkuksa ds chp ,d iqy ds :i esa ns[kk tkuk pkfg,A Hkkjr esa 60

lky ls Hkh T;knk le; ls ge f'k{kk esa *cqfu;knh ckrksa* dh

t:jr ij t+ksj nsrs jgs gSaA vkSj ;g fcydqy lgh gSA

ysfdu] vxj ge pkgrs gSa fd ,d ubZ lkglh nqfu;k ds m˜o dh

çfØ;k esa T;knk ls T;knk yksxksa dh Hkkxhnkjh lqfufÜpr djus esa

ge enn dj ldsa rks gesa rqjUr gh lrr ç;kl djds f'k{kk esa

*ewY; lao/kZu* dks txg nsus ij tksj nsuk gksxkA

blls de esa dke ugÈ pysxkA

bu eqíksa ds ckjs esa nks CykWx gSa tks cM+s mi;ksxh lkfcr gks ldrs gSaA ij bl ys[k dks fy[krs oä usV ij mudk LFkku cnyk tk jgk gSA muds

;wvkj,y tkuus ds fy, d`i;k eq>ls ckn esa lEidZ djsaA

pUæ'ks[kj ckypUæu caxykSj ds fuoklh gSaA mUgksaus yxHkx 25 lkyksa rd vesfjdk vkSj Hkkjr esa Ldwyh rFkk foÜofo|ky;hu Lrj

ij Hkwxksy f'k{kk ds {ks= esa dke fd;k gSA os n bf.M;u baLVhVîwV vkWWQ T;kWxzkWfQdy LVMht+ ¼http://tiigs.org½]

caxykSj] ds

laLFkkid o funs'kd gSa] ftldk dke gS f'k{kdksa vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks uwru o çklafxd Hkwxksy f'k{kk nsus o xzg.k djus ds fy, leFkZ

cukukA os n fgUnq ds ifjf'k"V **;ax oYMZ** esa ;qok yksxksa ds fy, Hkwxksy&lEcU/kh ys[k vDlj gh fy[krs gSaA muls bl

balachandran@tiigs.org bZesy irs ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

i`"B la% 78

[k.M % c


frgkl dh f'k{kk ls tqM+s eqís %

baXyS.M vkSj vesfjdk ds n`f"Vdks.k

fyt+ MkWt+ nqjbZflag

b

l ys[k esa eSa bfrgkl dh f'k{kk dks ysdj baXyS.M vkSj

vesfjdk esa igys ls ekStwn o u, mHkj jgsss dqN eqíksa dk

pqfuUnk fooj.k çLrqr dj jgh gw¡A eSa ;g Hkh le>kus dh

dksf'k'k d:¡xh fd bu nksuksa ns'kksa dh bfrgkl i


frgkl dh f'k{kk ls tqM+s eqís % baXyS.M vkSj vesfjdk ds n`f"Vdks.k

gksA vesfjdh ikBîiqLrdksa }kjk dqy feykdj tks dgkuh crkbZ

tkrh gS og vesfjdh vlk/kkj.krk dh] vkSj mlds ukxfjdksa ds

yxkrkj c


frgkl dh f'k{kk ls tqM+s eqís % baXyS.M vkSj vesfjdk ds n`f"Vdks.k

gkyk¡fd baXyS.M esa] bfrgkl i fodflr djus esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks leFkZ

cukrh gS vkSj lkFk gh muesa bfrgkl ds çfr ,d xgjh fnypLih

Hkh iSnk djrh gSA va¡xzst 'kks/kdrkZvksa ¼mnkgj.k ds fy,] ihVj yh]

MSful 'kSfeYV vkSj jkWl ,s'kckbZ½ ds lekukUrj fd, x, muds

'kks/kdk;Z esa bl ckr dks Hkh js[kkafdr fd;k x;k gS fd bfrgkl

dks ysdj fo|kFkÊ dh lksp vDlj lgtKku ds myV gksrh gS

vkSj bfrgkl ds ckjs esa l'kä vkSj Qyçn fopkj fodflr djus

ds fy, fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks lg;ksx nsus ds lkFk&lkFk bls muds le{k

,d pqukSrh ds :i esa j[kk tkuk pkfg,A mnkgj.k ds fy,]

'kq#vkr esa dbZ fo|kFkÊ ekurs gSa fd bfrgkl rks igys ls gh

*cuk&cuk;k* gksrk gS vkSj mls ,sfrgkfld lzksrksa ls fufeZr djus

dh dksbZ t:jr ugÈ gksrh ;k] fd ?kVukvksa ds ?kVus ds ihNs cl

,sfrgkfld ik=ksa dh oSlk djus dh bPNk gksrh gS% v/;;u&fo/kk

ds :i esa bfrgkl i


frgkl dh f'k{kk ls tqM+s eqís % baXyS.M vkSj vesfjdk ds n`f"Vdks.k

bfrgkl ds ckjs esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh bl fo/kk dh le> dks ysdj

jgrh gSA ftlesa bu ckrksa dk 'kqekj Hkh jgrk gS fd vrhr ds ckjs

esa gesa tkudkjh gh dSls gksrh gS] vkSj D;ksa ,d gh ?kVuk ds

vyx&vyx vFkZ gks ldrs gSaA blds vykok] mu f'k{kdksa dh

i)fr;k¡ FkksM+h vkSj vyx gksxh ftudk çeq[k mís'; fo|kfFkZ;ksa

dh ;g le>us esa enn djuk gksrk gS fd ekuo bfrgkl dh cM+h

rLohj esa Lo;a mu yksxksa dh txg dgk¡ curh gSA vkSj fdl rjg

os vrhr dk bLrseky viuh [kqn dh ftUnxh dks lkFkZd fn'kk

nsus ds fy, dj ldrs gSaA fufÜpr gh] bfrgkl dh f'k{kk ds vU;

lEHkkfor mís'; Hkh gSa ftudk ;gk¡ eSaus ftØ ugÈ fd;k gSA tSls

fd fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks uSfrd ;k /kkfeZd ikB i


Ldwyh vFkZ'kkL= dh nqfo/kk vkSj pqukSrh

vjfoUn ljnkuk

b

l ij vHkh Hkh fookn gS fd Ldwyh Lrj ij vFkZ'kkL= i


Ldwyh vFkZ'kkL= dh nqfo/kk vkSj pqukSrh

d{kk 8 esa ljdkj dh ppkZ dqN ,slh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedkvksa&ftudks

fuHkkus dh ftEesnkjh ljdkj dh ekuh tkrh gS]tSls

loZf'k{kk]lkoZtfud lqfo/kk,a¡ vkSj vkfFkZd xfrfof/k;ksa dk

fu;eu&esa ljdkj dh foQyrk ij xkSj djrh gS]lkFk gh bl

ckr ij tksj nsrh gS fd lcds fy, thou dh csgrj xq.koRrk

gkfly djus ds fy, bu Hkwfedkvksa dk fuokZg djus ds fy,

ljdkj laoS/kkfud :i ls ck/; gSA

lexz :i ls bu ikB~;iqLrdksa esa vFkZ'kkL= ds [k.Mksa ds fy, ,d

jktuSfrd vFkZO;oLFkk dk n`f"Vdks.k viuk;k x;k gSA ;g

Lohdkj djuk iMs+xk fd ;gka¡ mi;ksx dh xbZ fo'ys"k.kkRed

Jsf.k;k¡ ges'kk ljy ugha gSa] ysfdu O;kidhdj.k djus ds igys

fofHkUu izdkj ds ekeyksa ds mi;ksx] vkSj vkSipkfjd fof'k"V

'kCnkoyh ds djhc&djhc vuqifLFkr jgus ls ;g ekuk x;k gS

fd ;s izlax fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, jkspd vkSj le> esa vkus okys

gksaxsA

fo"k; dh izLrqfr okLrfod mnkgj.kksa vkSj okLrfod thou dh

ifjfLFkfr;ksa ¼ifjfpr ls izkjEHk djds vf/kd tfVy ifjfLFkfr;ksa

rd½ ij dsfUnzr gSA bUgsa fQj lkekftd uSfrdrk ds ,sls iz'uksa ls

tksM+k x;k gS tSls ^D;k vki bls mfpr dher ekusaxs\^ ^D;k

yksxksa dks bl ekeys esa U;k; feyk\^ ,d vU; n`f"Vdks.k ls ns[ksa

rks yksdra=]cjkcjh]/keZfujis{krk vkSj lkekftd U;k; ds fopkjksa

dh ppkZ djus ds ctk; ¼ Hkkjr esa ukxfjd 'kkL= ds ikB~;Øe

dh lkekU; izo`fr½ jkstejkZ dh fLFkfr;ksa esa lk/kkj.k yksxksa ds

thou&vuqHkoksa esa buds vFkksZa dh Nkuchu dh xbZ gSA

ek/;fed Lrj ij n`f"Vdks.k D;k gksuk pkfg,\

la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk esa egkfo|ky; ls uhps ds Ldwyksa esa

vFkZ'kkL= i


Ldwyh vFkZ'kkL= dh nqfo/kk vkSj pqukSrh

yksdrkaf=d gks xbZ Fkh D;ksafd ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk cukus]

fy[kus vkSj iqujh{k.k djus dk dke ,d O;fDr ds ctk; fofHkUUk

nyksa dks lkSaik x;kA

;fn ge mPp&izkFkfed Lrj ij izLrqr fd, x, fo"k;lw+=ksa ds

lkFk gkbZLdwy vFkZ'kkL= ds ikB~;Øe dks ns[ksa rks ik,a¡xs fd

vo/kkj.kkRed Hkkxksa dks foLrkj fn;k x;k gS vkSj dqN vkSipkfjd

vkfFkZd mi;ksxksa ls Hkh ifjp; djk;k x;k gS] rkfd fo|kFkhZ bl

Kku dks ml lcls tksM+ ldsa tks os lapkj ek/;eksa esa o;Ldksa dh

ckrphr esa lqurs gSaA ysfdu vewfrZdj.k vHkh Hkh cgqr FkksM+s gSa]

vkSipkfjd fl)kUr ugha gSa vkSj lHkh fo"k;lw=ksa dh O;kogkfjd

izklafxdrk cjdjkj gSA bldk mn~ns'; lkekU; f'k{kk gSA gesa ;g

/;ku j[kuk t:jh gS fd vFkZ'kkL= lkekftd foKku ikB~;Øe

dk ,d vax gS ftls bl fo"k; esa bfrgkl]Hkwxksy vkSj jktuhfr

foKku ls lk>snkjh djuk gSA

igys okyh ,ulhbZvkjVh dh ikB~;iqLrd ds ml Lrj dks lh[kus

okyksa ds fy, mi;qDr u gksus dk ,d dkj.k ;g Fkk fd ml

iqLrd us fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vFkZ'kkL= dk izeq[k Kku iznku djus dh

¼;|fi eksVs rkSj ij bl mn~ns'; dks Li"V :i ls O;Dr ugha

fd;k x;k Fkk½ dksf'k'k dhA ;g ,d egRoiw.kZ ifjorZu gS fd

,ulhbZvkjVh ds gkbZLdwy vFkZ'kkL= ds u, ikB~;Øe us bl

vkdka{kk dks R;kx fn;k gSA blds ctk;] vc mn~ns'; vFkZ'kkL=

esa viuk, tkus okys oSpkfjd rjhdksa ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ifjfpr

djkuk gSA

vDlj ikB~;iqLrdsa ubZ Jsf.k;k¡ vkSj ubZ tkudkjh

izLrqr djus ij dsfUnzr jgh gSa]ijUrq vo/kkj.kkRed

us fd fdl izdkj

bldk vFkZ fofHkUu oxksZa ds m/kkj ysus okyksa dh

lkekftd&vkfFkZd gSfl;r ds vuqlkj cnyrk jgrk gS] dk

eryc gksxk ,d


Ldwyh vFkZ'kkL= dh nqfo/kk vkSj pqukSrh

fo|kFkhZ dh gkfu gqbZ gSA ;g [kklrkSj ls Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk ds

¼fofHkUu Lrjksa ij½ ikB~;Øe dh [kkeh jgh gS vkSj blds paxqy ls

cpus dh t:jr gSA vr% gekjs lkeus fo'ys"k.kkRed fooj.k]us ds fy, i;kZIr ugha gSaA ;g

vkykspuk dk ,d izeq[k dkj.k jgk gSA vkfFkZd foe'kZ dh izd`fr

ds ckjs esa fo"k; ds ckgj vkSj Hkhrj] nksuksa vksj ls dkQh le; ls

fpUrk,¡ O;Dr dh tk jgh gSaA lkekftd uSfrdrk ds eqn~nksa dks

fo"k; esa dSls yk;k tk,\ blds fy, ,d cgqfo"k;h n`f"Vdks.k Hkh

t:jh gS]rkfd lkekftd foKku dh lexz ikB~;p;kZ esa bfrgkl]

jktuhfr foKku] Hkwxksy vkSj vFkZ'kkL= esa etcwr xBtksM+ cusA

bl fn'kk esa vkSj dke fd;k tk ldrk gSA

ikB~~;iqLrdksa] f'k{kd&izf'k{k.k vkSj ijh{kkvksa dks

tksM+uk

;g ekurs gq, fd d{kk esa i

dk egRo ,d rjg ls xkS.k gks x;k gSA

mPPkrj&ek/;fed Lrj ij fookn

fefMy vkSj lsds.Mjh Lrj ij vFkZ'kkL= dks lkekftd foKku

ikB~;Øe ds fgLls dh rjg i


[k M

l

d{kk esa


,ulhbZvkjVh dh lkekftd foKku dh ubZ ikBîiqLrdsa

lEiw.kkZ fcLokl

lk

ekftd v/;;u dh ubZ fdrkcksa esa fiNyh fdrkcksa dh

rqyuk esa fufÜpr gh lq/kkj gqvk gSA eSa vHkh nloÈ d{kk

esa gwa¡ vkSj eq>s bl d{kk esa rFkk blds iwoZ uoeÈ esa bu uohuhd`r

fdrkcksa dks bLrseky djus dk ekSdk feykA lcls cM+k vUrj

fdrkc dh xq.koŸkk vkSj mlds :ijax esa vk;k gSA T;knk jax

bLrseky fd, x, gSa] fp= vkSj dkVZwu Hkh T;knk gSa vkSj js[kkfp=

Hkh csgrj dksfV ds gSaA ;g lc djrs gq, fdrkc dh vUroZLrq dh

xq.koŸkk esa dksbZ deh ugÈ vkus nh xbZ gSA

fdrkc ds Lo:i esa gqvk ;g ifjorZu lrgh drbZ ugÈ gSA ;g

Kkr rF; gS fd T;knk ys[kkfp=ksa vkSj jaxksa ls csgrj le> cuus

esa enn feyrh gS D;ksafd ;s fnekx ds vf/kd fgLlksa dks míhfir

djrs gSaA blds vykok buls fdrkc T;knk vkd"kZd Hkh gks tkrh

gS vkSj yksx ,slh fdrkcksa dk bLrseky djuk dgÈ T;knk ilUn

djrs gSa ftudk Lo:i mUgsa vPNk yxrk gSA

bfrgkl

vkBoÈ d{kk dh bfrgkl dh fdrkc okdbZ mckÅ FkhA mlesa flQZ

nks gh jax bLrseky fd, x, Fks & dkyk vkSj lQsnA vkSj buds

chp iM+us okys /kwlj jax dh vusd NVk,a¡ FkÈA uoeÈ vkSj nloÈ

dh bfrgkl dh ubZ fdrkcsa blls cgqr vyx gSaA buds ckjs esa tks

igyh ckr vki xkSj djrs gSa fd] vc bfrgkl dh fdrkc igys ds

leku [k+qn bfrgkl dh fdlh oLrq tSlh ugÈ fn[krhA ,sls jkspd

vH;kl&dk;Z fn, x, gSa ftuesa ikBd dks fpf=r fd, x, dky

fo'ks"k dh n`f"V ls lkspuk vkSj fy[kuk vko';d gks tkrk gS

¼mnkgj.k ds fy, i`"B Øa- 144 ¼,ulhbZvkjVh] d{kk 10½ ij ;g

çÜu fn;k x;k gS % **dYiuk dhft, fd vki fdlh pky esa jg jgs

;qok O;fä gSaA viuh ftUnxh ds ,d fnu dk o.kZu dhft,A**½]

;k fQj fodYi ds :i esa ikBd dks rF;ksa dh vius


,ulhbZvkjVh dh lkekftd foKku dh ubZ ikBîiqLrdsa

jktuhfr foKku

bu fdrkcksa dh lcls vPNh fo'ks"krk gS dkVZwu!! méh vkSj eqéh]

rFkk jktuhfr okysA buls ikBî lkexzh ds chp esa vPNh jkgr

feyrh gSA v/;k; ds lkFk&lkFk pyus okys ;s nks dkVZwu

fdjnkj] méh vkSj eqéh eq>s [kklrkSj ij vPNs yxrs gSa D;ksafd os

gesa vyx kus dk JhyadkbZ rjhdk & cgqla[;dksa ¼flagfy;ksa½ dh

ljdkj dk 'kklu vkSj vYila[;dksa ¼rfey yksx½ ds vf/kdkjksa

dk neu djuk & vlQy gks x;k gS] ogÈ csfYt;e }kjk viuk,

x, rjhds & Mp vkSj Ýkalhlh yksxksa dh lkaLd`frd Lora=rkvksa

esa lkeatL; LFkkfir djuk & us **nksuksa çeq[k leqnk;ksa ds chp

ukxfjd la?k"kZ Vkyus esa enn dh vkSj Hkk"kkbZ vk/kkj ij ns'k ds

lEHkkfor cVokjs dks jksdkA** ij] ;g cgqr lgh ugÈ gS] D;ksafd

csfYt;e esa vkt Hkh ukxfjd la?k"kZ dh fLFkfr cuh gqbZ gS vkSj

blh Hkk"kkbZ vk/kkj ij ns'k jktuSfrd :i ls foHkkftr gksus dh

dxkj ij gSA

gka¡] ,ulhbZvkjVh ds cpko esa vki ;g t:j dg ldrs gSa fd

'kk;n bl iqLrd ds çdk'ku ds oä ogka¡ ;s leL;k,a¡ u jgh gksaA

fQj Hkh ,ulhbZvkjVh dks ,slk o.kZu djus ls cpuk pkfg,A

'kk;n] ;g ,d ,slk lek/kku Fkk tks dkjxj gks ldrk Fkk ijUrq

,slk gqvk ugÈA ij gdhdr ;gh gS] fd ,slk eku ysus ls csfYt;e

dh fLFkfr;ksa esa dksbZ okLrfod lq/kkj ugÈ gqvk gSA ,ulhbZvkjVh

us ;g n'kkZus ds fy,] fd lŸkk esa lgHkkfxrk vPNh ckr gksrh gS]

bl O;oLFkk dks mnkgj.k ds :i esa is'k fd;k gSA rks vkf[kj esa

blls dqN Hkh fl) ugÈ gksrkA

vkBoÈ d{kk esa jktuhfr foKku i`Fkd fo"k; ugÈ Fkk vkSj u gh

mldh vyx ls dksbZ fdrkc FkhA ij vkBoÈ dh fdrkc esa tks

ukxfjd 'kkL= dk [k.M Fkk] mldh rqyuk esa bu ubZ fdrkcksa dk

:ijax dkQh csgrj gSA T;knk jaxksa dk ç;ksx fd;k x;k gS]

fo'ks"kdj ekufp=ksa esaA ubZ fdrkcksa esa fp= vkSj iksLVj Hkh

fufÜpr :i ls T;knk gSaA fofHké fo"k;fcUnqvksa dks Li"V djus ds

fy, vly ftUnxh ds vusd mnkgj.k bLrseky fd, x, gSa

ftuls çtkra= ds ckjs esa gekjh le> ,d çdkj ls T+;knk

**okLrfod** gks tkrh gSA gesa tks crk;k tkrk gS] os dsoy ;kn

dj fy, tkus okys rF; Hkj ugÈ gSa( mudk vk/kkj lQy

O;oLFkk,a¡ vkSj vlQy O;oLFkk,a¡ gSaA os okLrfodrk ij vk/kkfjr

gSaA ikBksa dks ,sls çR;{k mnkgj.kksa }kjk le>k;k x;k gS ftuls

ge [k+qn dks tksM+ ik,¡aA pwa¡fd blesa cgqr dqN ,slk gS tks d{kk ls

ckgj dh nqfu;k ij vk/kkfjr gS vkSj *vHkh ?kV jgk gS*] vr% blls

d{kk esa cgl dk lw=ikr Hkh gksrk gSA eSa le>rk gwa¡ fd ;g

lpeqp t:jh gS] fo'ks"kdj jktuhfr foKku tSls fo"k;ksa esa]

D;ksafd fdlh eqís ij cgl djus ls gesa mldh lkj&oLrq dks

dgÈ csgrj us esa enn feyrh gSA

Hkwxksy

vkBoÈ d{kk esa jktuhfr foKku dh Hkka¡fr Hkwxksy dh Hkh vyx ls

dksbZ fdrkc ugÈ FkhA vr% lkjh rqyuk,a¡ vkBoÈ dh lkekftd

v/;;u dh f}rh; fdrkc esa fn, x, Hkwxksy ds fgLls ds lkis{k

dh xbZ gSaA

,d ckj fQj] fdrkc ds ckjs esa tks igyh ckr vkids fnekx esa

vkrh gS og gS mldk Lo:iA ikbZ&pkVZ vkSj ekufp= T;knk

vkd"kZd gks x, gSaA ubZ lkexzh tSls **D;k vki tkurs Fks@D;k

vki dks irk Fkk\** cgqr fnypLi gSA vkys[kksa esa] vkSj fp=ksa ds

Lrj esa Hkh lq/kkj gqvk gSA fdrkc dks vkSj csgrj cukus ds fy,

mlesa iqujZfpr vH;kl vkSj oxZ&igfy;ksa dk lekos'k tSls u,

[k.M % l

i`"B la% 89


,ulhbZvkjVh dh lkekftd foKku dh ubZ ikBîiqLrdsa

ç;kl ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA ¼dqN oxZ&igsfy;ksa esa FkksM+s lq/kkj dh

vko';drk gS vkSj eq>s vPNk yxsxk ;fn fdrkc esa budh la[;k

vkSj vf/kd gks A½

,d fnu d{kk esa ,d 'kadk mHkjh tks esjs fopkj esa vkidks tkuuk

pkfg,A fdlh us dgk fd dbZ v/;k;ksa esa nh xbZ tkudkfj;ka¡

dHkh&dHkh ,d&nwljs ls esy ugÈ [kkrÈA f'k{kd dk dguk Fkk

fd lEHkor% iqLrd dk lEiknu dqN gM+cM+h ls fd;k x;k FkkA

wxksy dh fdrkcksa esa fufÜpr gh lq/kkj dh xqatkb'k gSA dqN oxZ

igsfy;ksa ¼v/;k; ds vUr esa nh xbZa½ esa dkV&Nka¡V dh t:jr gSA

lEHkor% dqN txgksa ij vfr'k; x| lkexzh dks ?kVkdj mldh

txg dqN vkSj pkVZ vkSj vkys[k nsdj uhjlrk ls cpk tk

ldrk gSA ;g lpeqp vkSj Hkh cf


Hkwxksy dks fny esa clkuk

Ekkfj;k vFkk;Ms

;q

ok fo|kFkÊ ds :i esa eSa fdlh ,slh dgkuh dh fdrkc esa Mwcs

jguk ilUn djrh Fkh tks eq>s fofp= vkSj jksekapd LFkkuksa

ij ys tkrh] tSls *usoj&usoj yS.M* tgk¡ ihVj iSu cM+k gksus

ls euk dj nsrk gSA esjk dkYifud lalkj tksukFku fLoV vkSj

MSfu;y MsQks }kjk jps x, rwQkuksa ls rckg gq, tgktksa vkSj cp

x, yksxksa dh dgkfu;ksa ls Hkjk gqvk FkkA eSa ,fuM CykbVUl dh

eSftd Qkjvos Vªh ls Hkh mruh gh ea=eqX/k FkhA gk¡] os lc mu

txgksa ds ckjs esa FkÈ tks dHkh Hkh esjs Ldwy ds ,Vyl esa ugÈ jgÈ

ftls eSa cM+h gh fu"BkiwoZd fy, ?kwerh FkhA D;k ;gh dkj.k Fkk

ftldh otg ls eq>s dHkh Hkh Hkwxksy esa etk ugÈ vk;k\ugÈA

ihNs eqM+ dj ns[krh gwa¡ rks ;g fo"k; eq>s v.kqvksa vkSj dhVk.kqvksa ls

T;knk yqHkk ldrk Fkk vkSj bls yqHkkuk pkfg, Fkk] ij ,slk u gks

ikus dk nks"k blds f'k{kd vkSj ikBîiqLrd dks tkrk gSA ysfdu

mu fnuksa esa ge vius f'k{kd ds ckjs esa vPNk lksprs Fks vkSj

ikBîiqLrd dk /;ku j[krs Fks D;ksafd mlus gekjh ftUnxh dks

vklku cuk fn;k FkkA mlus gekjh Lej.k 'kfä dks Hkh cgqr

QqrÊyk vkSj rst cuk, j[kkA ijh{kk vkSj dwV çÜu çfr;ksfxrkvksa

esa thrus ;k çFke LFkku gkfly djus ds fy, og lcls vPNh

rduhd lkfcr gqbZA bl ckr ls T;knk QdZ ugÈ iM+rk Fkk fd

ge ekSle vkSj tyok;q esa Hksn ugÈ dj ikrs Fks] u gh ge vkys[kksa

dks vafdr djus vkSj Xyksc dks pkjksa vksj ls ,d tky esa ck¡/kus

okyh mu [kM+h vkSj vkM+h js[kkvksa ds vkl&ikl dh txgksa dks

ds tfj, le>us

dh dksf'k'k djrh gSA nwljh ifjHkk"kk bl çdkj ls Fkh % Hkwxksy

i`Foh ds Hkwn`';ksa] yksxksa] txgksa vkSj i;kZoj.kksa dk v/;;u gSA bls

ljyrk ls dgk tk, rks Hkwxksy ml lalkj ds ckjs esa gS ftlesa ge

jgrs gSaA

vxyk çÜu % ge vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls Hkwxksy lh[k dj D;k gkfly

djus dh mEehn djrs gSa tks os ikBîØe ds vU; {ks=ksa ls çkIr

ugÈ dj ldrs\ th, ¼1999½ ds }kjk fn, x, blds mŸkj ds

vuqlkj] **Hkwxksy dk mís'; gekjs pkjksa vksj ds lalkj ds fy,

tkx:d fpUrk] rFkk LFkkuh; vkSj oSfÜod nksuksa Lrjksa ij

ldkjkRed dk;Z djus dh bPNk vkSj dkfcfy;r fodflr djuk

gSA** ,d nwljk lzksr tSls vkWWDlQse ekurk gS fd Hkwxksy ;qok

yksxksa dh fpUrkvksa ds vk/kkj ij fufeZr gksuk pkfg, ftlls os

*oSfÜod ukxfjd* cuus esa leFkZ gksaA vkSj foLrkj esa le>k,a¡ rks

& *oSfÜod ukxfjd ,d ,slk O;fä gS tks O;kid lalkj dh

ijokg djrk gS] tks tkurk gS fd lalkj fdl çdkj ls dk;Z

djrk gS] tks xjhch vkSj vU;k; ls vkØksf'kr gksrk gS vkSj phtksa

dks csgrj cukus ds fy, lfØ; jgrk gSA* ¼xkyZsd 2000½

;fn Hkwxksy dk mís'; oSfÜod ukxfjdksa dks iksf"kr djuk gS rc %

D;k ge fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks Kku ds tfVy ekxks± esa ls ys tk ldrs gSa

vkSj mUgsa mu reke pqukSfr;ksa dh le> çnku dj ldrs gSa tks

vkt nqfu;k ds lkeus gSa\ oSfÜod xekZgV vkSj xzhu gkÅl xSlksa

ds gkfudkjd mRltZu dks de djus dh vko';drk] lhfer

lalk/kuksa vkSj ÅtkZ dk T;knk nh?kZdky rd py ldus okys

rjhdksa ls mi;ksx] çnw"k.k dks de djus dh vko';drk]

lkekftd U;k; dks cuk, j[kuk vkSj iwokZxzg vkSj vlekurk dks

nwj djukA la{ksi esa dgk tk, rks Ldwyksa esa Hkwxksy dk dk;Z gS Hkkoh

ukxfjdksa dks foÜo ds fojkV eap dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh Bhd&Bhd

dYiuk djus esa çf'kf{kr djuk vkSj muds vkl&ikl ds lalkj

dh jktuSfrd vkSj lkekftd leL;kvksa ds ckjs esa foosdiwoZd

lkspus esa enn djukA blfy, Hkwxksy vkSj ukxfjdrk ds chp dh

dfM+;k¡ lgt vkSj çR;{k gSaA D;k gekjs Ldwyksa esa bl lEcU/k dks

iksf"kr djuk lEHko gS\

i`"B la% 91


Hkwxksy dks fny esa clkuk

,d i;kZoj.k =klnh /;ku esa vkrh gSA og 26 tqykbZ 2005 dk

fnu Fkk tc 24 ?k.Vs rd gqbZ 994 feyhehVj ewlyk/kkj o"kkZ us

eqEcbZ dks vLr&O;Lr dj fn;k Fkk vkSj Hkkjr dh vkfFkZd 'kfä

nks fnuksa ds fy, **[k+Re** gks xbZ FkhA thou vkSj /ku&lEink dk

bruk uqdlku gqvk Fkk ftls crk;k ugÈ tk ldrkA og *Hk;kog

eaxyokj* bfrgkl esa dgÈ nQu gks tk,xk ysfdu mlls igys

dksbZ mRlkgh f'k{kd viuh Hkwxksy dh f'k{kk esa mldk bLrseky

dj ysxkA jkuh d{kk 9 ds vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkFk fLFkfr dks

vk¡dus ds fy, mRlqd FkhA os nŸkfpŸk cPps Fks] ckfj'k ds vius

vuqHkoksa dks ck¡Vus ds fy, mrkoys FksA jkuh us bl loky dks iwN

dj mUgsa /khjs ls ,d ppkZ esa /kdsy fn;k % D;k ck


Hkwxksy dks fny esa clkuk

vU; 'kks/k v/;;uksa us n'kkZ;k fd lkekftd vkSj

HkkoukRed dkS'kyksa dks c vkSj fofo/krkA

dsjsu LVksu eSdkÅu ¼1998½ ds vuqlkj **Hkkouk,a¡ gekjs

vkl&ikl ds lalkj ds çfr gekjh çfrfØ;k,a¡ gSa vkSj os gekjs

fopkjksa] Hkkoukvksa vkSj fØ;kvksa ds la;kstu }kjk iSnk gksrh gSaA**

mnkgj.k ds fy, LysVj ¼2001½ dgrh gSa fd *ukxfjdksa dks

Hkwxksy vkSj HkkSxksfyd le> dh t:jr gksrh gSA* os ekurh gSa fd

Hkwxksy dk iwjk ljksdkj blh ls gS fd gekjs ifjos'k ds çfr gekjk

n`f"Vdks.k D;k gS vkSj mlesa ge HkkSxksfyd vkSj jktuSfrd n`f"V

ls tkx:d ukxfjdksa dh rjg dSls jgrs gSaA

lalkj fldqM+ jgk gS tcfd dkWcZu mRltZuksa esa o`f) gks jgh gSA

xwxy ds uD'kksa us cgqr igys esjs f?kls&fiVs ,Vyl dh txg ys

yh vkSj eSaus Hkwxksy dks fny esa clk fy;k gSA esjs fy, ;g ,d

,slk fo"k; gS tks vius igkM+ksa] ufn;ksa] eSnkuksa vkSj ekSleksa ds

v˜qr lkSan;Z ds vkxks'k esa Hkfo"; dks fNik, gq, gSA

ekfj;k vFkk;Ms vt+he çseth Qkm.Ms'ku] caxykSj esa ,tqds'ku VsDukWykWth ,.M fMtkbu esa ijke'kZnkrk gSaA os lSaV t+sfo;j

baLVhVîwV vkWQ ,tqds'ku vkSj ,l,uMhVh foeUl ;wfuolZflVh eqEcbZ esa 1990 ls f'k{kdksa dks çf'kf{kr dj jgh gSaA os iwjs ns'k esa

f'k{kdksa ds fy, dk;Z'kkykvksa dk vk;kstu djrh gSaA os HkkoukRed :i ls ekurh gSa fd % *cPps gekjs lcls cs'kdherh çkd`frd

lalk/ku gSa vkSj mUgsa lcls vPNs f'k{kd feyus pkfg,*A muls bl maria@azimpremjifoundation.org bZ&esy irs ij

lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

[k.M % l

i`"B la% 93


yfd;k¡ & lH;rkvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d d{kk dh ;k=k

lhrk uVjktu

lk

ekftd v/;;u D;k gS\ cPpksa ds O;fäRo ds fodkl ds

fy, vuqHkokRed


yfd;k¡ & lH;rkvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d d{kk dh ;k=k

lezkV Fkk vkSj mlus ns'k ds N% ;q)jr jkT;ksa dks lSfud fot;ksa

}kjk ,dhd`r fd;k FkkA lezkV ds edcjs ds utnhd ;FkkFkZ

vkdkj ds ?kksM+ksa ds lkFk VSjkdksVk ds lSfudksa dh nQukbZ gqbZ

fo'kky lsuk dh rLohjsa vkSj lezkV dh ftUnxh] mldh Øwjrkvksa]

rFkk miyfC/k;ksa ds ckjs esa


yfd;k¡ & lH;rkvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d d{kk dh ;k=k

ysdj vPNkbZ vkSj cqjkbZ ds chp gqbZ yM+kbZ dks fu:fir djus

okys MªSxu u`R; dk vH;kl fd;kA

cPpksa dh lHkk tcnZLr :i ls lQy lkfcr gqbZA ikÜoZ esa ctrk

cM+k e/kqj phuh laxhr rFkk cgqçrhf{kr MªSxu u`R; mldh

fo'ks"krk jghA vkSj bl çdkj ,d çkphu lH;rk dh gekjh [kkst

lekIr gqbZA

os fo|kFkÊ vc d{kk 10 esa gSa vkSj ;g ns[kdj cgqr [kq'kh vkSj

çksRlkgu feyrk gS fd os yksx fdrus jksekap ds lkFk vHkh Hkh ml

vuqHko dks ;kn djrs gSaA

dbZ xfrfof/k;ksa dk :i ys fy;k & eq[;r%] tkudkfj;ksa dks ,d

nwljs ds lkFk ck¡Vus ds ek/;e ls ljdkj ds vyx&vyx :iksa

ds ckjs esa fd;k x;k ,d rqyukRed v/;;u( rFkk jktra=]

dqyhura=] vYira= o yksdra= ds chp Hksn fn[kkus ds fy, dh

xbZa fouksniw.kZ ukfVdk,¡aA cPpksa dks bl ckr dk vuqHko fnykus ds

fy, fd yksdra= D;k gksrk gS vkSj og dSls dke djrk gS] eSaus

vyx&vyx Vheksa ds chp muds Ldwyh thou ds fofHké igyqvksa

ij vk/kkfjr cglsa vk;ksftr dhaA blds ihNs mís'; Fkk mUgsa ;g

le>kuk fd fdl rjg ns'k ds egRoiw.kZ eqíksa ds ckjs esa ppkZvksa o

cglksa ds ek/;e ls fu.kZ; fd, tkrs gSaA

çkphu ;wuku

bl lH;rk ij fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkFk dke djrs gq, eSaus rdjhcu

blh dk;Zfof/k dk vuqlj.k fd;kA çkphu ;wuku ds ckjs esa ,d

iqfLrdk] iqLrdky; dh fdrkcksa ds le`) lzksr ij vk/kkfjr

lUnHkZ dk;Z] ekufp=] fp=] pkVZ vkfn gekjs }kjk bLrseky fd,

x, cqfu;knh lk/ku FksA ,d vkSj u;k dkS'ky Fkk] fnekxh uD'ks

cukuk] ftlds ckjs esa cPpksa dks crkuk eq>s egRoiw.kZ yxkA ,d

fo"k; dh rjg ls lkekftd v/;;u dh t:jr gksrh gS fd cgqr

lh lwpukvksa] rF;ksa] vka¡dM+ksa vkSj vU; tkudkfj;ksa dks ;kn j[kk

tk,A eq>s yxrk gS fd fnekxh uD'ks cukuk fooj.kksa dks ,d

xqPNs ds :i esa bdÎk j[kus dk lcls vklku rjhdk gSA blfy,]

eSaus fnekxh uD'kksa ds ckjs esa Vksuh cqtku dh rduhdksa dk

bLrseky fd;k vkSj dqN gh l=ksa esa ,slk yxk fd fo|kFkÊ ;wuku

ls lEcfU/kr fHké&fHké fo"k;&çlaxksa ij lqUnj] jax&ladsrksa okys

fnekxh uD'ks cukus esa n{k gks x, FksA

buesa ls dqN çlax ogk¡ dh Hkwfe dh HkkSxksfyd fo'ks"krkvksa] fdlh

;wukuh dLcs ds xM+ksa] vkfn dks le>uk FksA

isjhDyht+ ds l{ke usr`Ro esa ;wuku esa gq, yksdra= ds m˜o ij

vk/kkfjr ikB ,d ;knxkj vuqHko FkkA bl çlax us foLr`r gksdj

i`"B la% 96

tc geus ;wukuh dFkkvksa vkSj fdonfUr;ksa dks ysdj viuh [kkst

'kq: dh rks fQj cPpksa dks *uqôM+ ukVd* dh vo/kkj.kk ls ifjfpr

djk;k x;kA rdjhcu N% ls lkr dgkfu;k¡ i


yfd;k¡ & lH;rkvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d d{kk dh ;k=k

dgkA cPpksa us dqN le; ds fy, f'k{kd gksuk cgqr ilUn fd;k]

ij ;gk¡ tks mYys[kuh; ckr gS og gj lewg dh cgqr xgjkbZ ls

dh xbZ rS;kjh FkhA u flQZ mUgksaus vkil esa ftEesnkfj;ksa dk

c¡Vokjk fd;k] vkSj vius nksLrksa dks vius gh f'k{kdksa }kjk viuk,

tkus okys rjhdksa ls ladsr ysuk fl[kk;k] cfYd mUgksaus ikB i


yfd;k¡ & lH;rkvksa ds ek/;e ls ,d d{kk dh ;k=k

jkr eSa vkSj esjs ,d vU; lg;ksxh] ge nksuksa cPpksa dh rS;kjh

djkus ds mís'; ls n'kZdksa dh Hkka¡fr ogk¡ x, vkSj çR;sd lewg ls

muds dk;Z ls lEcfU/kr çÜu iwNs o mUgsa vius QhMcSd o lq>ko

fn,A bl rjg ls cPpksa dk ;g v/;;u ifjiw.kZ] lg;ksxkRed

vkSj lexz Fkk] gkyk¡fd çR;sd lewg us vius&vius çlaxksa ij

iwjh rjg Mwc dj dke fd;k FkkA

bl vUos"k.k dh 'kq#vkr dks 'kq: fd, rhu lky gks pqds gSa] vkSj

;k=k& vius fo"k; dks vkSj csgrj


D;k rVLFk

eaxyk uank

fooknkLin gksrk gS\

lkekftd foKku esa fookfnr eqíksa dks is ;g yxk fd eSa Lo;a dh jk; dks

fNik dj j[kwa¡ rkfd mUgsa çHkkfor u d:¡aA esjs fy, rVLFk

lgk;d dh Hkwfedk lcls egRoiw.kZ FkhA ijUrq] eq>s tYnh gh ;g

foÜokl gksus yxk fd f'k{kd dh rVLFkrk okLro esa lEHko ugÈ

Fkh] vkSj u gh ;g okaNuh; FkhA

v/;kiu vifjgk;Z :i ls jktuSfrd gksrk gS] blfy, vO;ä

[k.M % l

:i ls ;k Li"V :i ls eSa ¼;k fQj

dksbZ vU; f'k{kd½ d{kk esa

*rVLFk* ugÈ jg ldrhA ge tks

Hkh dne mBkrs gSa og fdlh u

fdlh


D;k rVLFk

fooknkLin gksrk gS\

esa bl n`f"Vdks.k dks cuk, j[k ikuk lEHko ugÈ gksrkA d{kkvksa esa

gksus okyh ppkZvksa ds foLr`r foÜys"k.k ij vk/kkfjr muds 'kks/k ds

fu"d"kZ ;g n'kkZrs gSa fd **¼f'k{kdksa ds½ vius #[k dk çHkko mlls

dgÈ vf/kd gksrk gS ftruk mudk bjknk gksrk gS ;k] ftldh

lEHkkouk vf/kd gS] ftruk mUgsa vglkl gksrk gS** ¼ist 223½A

ewy fuokfl;ksa ds Hkwvf/kdkjksa ds ckjs esa uhps fn;k x;k ,d

ifjlaokn ;g fn[kkrk gS fd tc fdlh f'k{kd ds ewY;ksa vkSj fdlh

Nk= ds }kjk O;ä fd, tk jgs fopkjksa esa vUrj gksrk gS rc fdl

rjg ,d f'k{kd dks rVLFk jgus ds fy, la?k"kZ djuk iM+rk gSA

18- f'k{kd% eEEe--- vgk] bUgsa efjax ds ou dgk tkrk gS D;ksafd

budh feyfd;r efjax dh gS] gk¡A

19- lkjk% ;s muds ugÈ gSa] os flQZ ogk¡ jgrs gSaA

20- f'k{kd% vksg] blls dbZ rjg dh cgl 'kq: gks ldrh gS]

lkjk] gS uk\ vxj budh feyfd;r mudh ugÈ gS rks fQj

fdldh gS\ vkSj D;k bldk eryc ;g gS fd ewy fuoklh---\

21- lkjk% bu ij fdlh dh feyfd;r ugÈ gS] os flQZ bldk

mi;ksx djrs gSaA

22- f'k{kd% vkSj bldk eryc D;k gS---- D;k bldk eryc ;g gS

fd ewy fuokfl;ksa dk dksbZ Hkwfe vf/kdkj ugÈ gS\

23- lkjk% ugÈ ¼eq>s ,slk ugÈ yxrk½ ¼dkWVu 2006 ist 236½A

;g iwjk laokn is d{kk 9 dks bfrgkl dh ,d bdkbZ dh rjg

foDVksfj;kdkyhu xjhch ds ckjs esa is ;kn gS fd eSaus

Nk=ksa dks Li"V dj fn;k Fkk fd esjh O;fäxr jk; esa *ySls Qs;j

¼fu;a=.k&eqä vFkZO;oLFkk½* okyh jktuhfr xSjftEesnkj FkhA

xjhcksa ds fy, f'k{kk vkSj LokLF; lsokvksa tSlh tu lqfo/kk,¡a çnku

djuk ljdkj dh ftEesnkjh FkhA mlh le;] d{kk 8 esa ge xqykeh

vkSj cU/kqvk etnwjh ¼ifÜpeh vÝhdh ns'kksa ds lkFk dksdks dk

dkjksckj½ ds ckjs esa ,d v/;k; i


D;k rVLFk

fooknkLin gksrk gS\

fctsyks us ml ikB ds ckjs esa crk;k ftlesa mUgksaus

ukbdh vkSj oSfÜod iwa¡thokn ds ckjs esa i


D;k rVLFk

fooknkLin gksrk gS\

Nk= fojks/kh fopkj/kkjk okys vius lkfFk;ksa ij O;fäxr geyk

fd, cxSj viuh ckr dg ldsaA esjk ç;kl ;g Fkk fd pkgs ge

,d vke jk; u cuk ik,a¡] ysfdu gesa dqN ,sls rjhds LFkkfir

djuk pkfg, ftuls ijLij Vdjkus okyh /kkj.kkvksa dk

lEekutud s

vHkh Hkh irk ugÈ gS fd eSa ml fLFkfr ls vkSj csgrj s ;g yxk fd n[ky nsuk egRoiw.kZ gS] fdUrq

eq>s bl ckr ls /kôk yxk fd ftu nks Nk=kvksa ds fopkjksa dk eSaus

[k.Mu fd;k mUgsa ;s yxk fd eSaus mudh /kkfeZd ekU;rkvksa dk

vieku fd;k FkkA

fu"i{krk vkSj lUrqyu ,d lkekftd foKku f'k{kd ds }kjk

viuk, tkus ds fy, vkn'kZ ewY; çrhr gksrs gSaA ij] tSlk Åij

dh foospuk ls tkfgj gS] blds cgqr lcwr gSa fd bu ewY;ksa dk

okLro esa ikyu djuk lEHko ugÈ gksrkA ge lHkh dh rjg]

f'k{kd Hkh lalkj dks fdlh [kkl lkekftd vkSj jktuhfrd

çfreku ds ek/;e ls ns[krs gSa( blfy, ;g ekuuk fd og muds

O;ogkj esa] de ls de NksVs&eksVs rjhds ls gh lgh] ugÈ >ydsxk]

rdZlaxr ugÈ gksxkA blds vykok] dksbZ ;g rdZ ns ldrk gS fd

fu"i{krk gkfly djus dk ç;kl djuk Lo;a esa Hkh vokaNuh; gSA

f'k{kd fu"i{k gksus dk ç;kl djds Nk=ksa }kjk mls pqukSrh nsus]

,d lkFkZd laokn esa fgLlk ysus] vkSj nqfu;k dks nwljs p'eksa ls

ns[kus dh Nk=ksa dh {kerk dks lhfer dj nsrk gSA lkekftd

foKku rdZ] okn&fookn vkSj jk;ksa ds fy, ljyrk ls volj nsrs

gSa & vkSj Nk=ksa ds fopkjksa dk flQZ fu.kkZ;d cu dj] f'k{kd ml

vkosx vkSj mRlkg dks çnf'kZr ugÈ djrk] ftls txkus dh bu

fo"k;ksa esa lkeF;Z gSA vUr esa] ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd f'k{kd ds

fy, dbZ ckj **pje iwokZxzg dk çfrjks/k djus ds fy,** n[ky nsuk

vko';d gks tkrk gS ¼,"Vu] bZ ,.M okWVlu] ch 1998] ist 88½]

*oSY;wt+ ,tqds'ku% v ÝS'k yqd ,sV çkslhtjy U;wVªfyVh*]

,tqds'kuy LVMht+] 24 ¼2½] ¼83&193½A d{kkvksa esa ,sls rdZ Hkh

mHkj ldrs gSa tks fgalk ;k fQj lkekftd vU;k; dks c


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu %

gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

jf'e ikyhoky

l

u~ 1986 ls 2002 rd eiz ds 8 'kkldh; ek/;fed Ldwyksa

esa ,dyO; us lekt foKku fo"k; ds f'k{k.k dks lq/kkjus ds

fy, ,d iz;ksx 'kq: fd;kA jkT; ds ikB~;Øe dks ns[krs

gq, ubZ ikB~;iqLrdsa fy[kha vkSj 'kkldh; f'k{kdksa dh enn ls

mUgsa cPpksa ds chp mi;ksx djds ns[kkA f'k{kdksa ds lkFk gh ,d

ewyHkwr laokn bl ckr ij fd;k x;k fd lekt foKku dk

Lo:i D;k gS vkSj blds f'k{k.k ls Nk=ksa esa fdu miyfC/k;ksa dh

vis{kk dh tkuh pkfg,A blh ds vkxs cdj

vkRelkr djus dh xqatkb'k ugha jgrh gSA ,sls esa Nk=ksa ds ikl

,d gh fodYi cprk gS& jV ysuk ;k fQj vkSj Hkh ljy dqaft;ksa

dh ryk'k djukA

geus Ldwyh lekt foKku ds izeq[k mn~ns'; ,sls izLrqr fd,--

bfrgkl

1- lkekftd izfØ;kvksa esa fujUrjrk vkSj cnyko dh [kkst

djukA le; ds lkFk D;k cnyko gq, vkSj dkSu&lh ckrsa

oSlh gh cuh jgha & ;g igpkuukA

2- lekt dh vyx&vyx izfØ;kvksa dk ,d&nwljs ls lEcU/k

[kkstuk] muds dkj.k [kkstukA

3- vkt ds gekjs thou ij chrs gq, le; dh izfØ;kvksa dh

Nki o vlj igpkuukA

4- lekt esa O;fDr dh Hkwfedk dks mlds le; dh lEiw.kZ

ifjfLFkfr ds lUnHkZ esa le>ukA

5- ;g le>uk fd chrs le; dh tkudkjh fdl rjg ds lzksrksa

ls] fdu rjhdksa ls izkIr dh tkrh gSA

6- Ckhrs le; dh ckrksa ds ckjs esa viuk lUrqfyr er cukukA

ukxfjd 'kkL=

1- cPpksa esa 'kklu&iz'kklu vkSj vFkZO;oLFkk ds


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

ewyHkwr vo/kkj.kkvksa dh le> fodflr djukA

2- ;s ukA

6- voyksdu o v/;;u dh HkkSxksfyd i)fr;ksa dks fodflr

djuk tSls ekufp= cukuk o mi;ksx djuk] js[kkfp=] fp=]

Nk;kfp=] rkfydkvksa dk mi;ksx vkfnA

fdrkc dk Lo:i

bu mís';ksa dks ysdj fy[kh tkus okyh iqLrd dSlh gksuh pkfg,

vkSj mlesa fdu&fdu ckrksa dk /;ku j[kk tkuk pkfg,\

ikB~;Øe dk pquko djus esa bfrgkl&Hkwxksy vkfn esa

^^bruk&bruk rks i dks c


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

v/;;u ds f'k{k.k esa bl Hk.Mkj dk dksbZ mi;ksx ugha gksrk gSA

exj mldk mi;ksx f'k{k.k dh ,d cgqr gh dkjxj fof/k cu

ldrk gSA gekjh iqLrdksa esa chp&chp ds lokyksa esa dbZ ,sls gSa

tks cPpksa dh tkudkjh o vuqHkoksa dks mHkkjrs gSa o ikB dh fo"k;

oLrq ls tksM+rs gSaA

3- iqLrd ds mi;ksx dk vH;kl %

lkekftd v/;;u esa fyf[kr ek/;e ls le>us vkSj vfHkO;Dr

djus dh dq'kyrk dk egRo loksZifj gSA D;ksafd nwljs

lektksa]le;ksa]LFkkuksa]laxBuksa]laLd`fr;ksa dk vuqHko flQZ izR;{k

rkSj ij gkfly ugha fd;k tk ldrkA bls lqu&le>dj vkSj

idj gkfly djuk gksrk gSA vr% iBu lkexzh dh eq[;

ckrsa crkuk] la{ksi esa dguk] iuk & ,slh dq'kyrk,a¡

gSa ftuds vH;kl ls gh Nk=ksa dks lkekftd v/;;u esa l{ke

cuk;k tk ldrk gSA geus ikBksa esa bu dq'kyrkvksa dk vH;kl

djokus dh dksf'k'k dh gSA

ijh{kk esa Hkh bu dq'kyrkvksa dks fo'ks"k egRo fn;k gSA blh

ifjizs{; esa geus [kqyh iqLrd ijh{kk dks viuk;k D;ksafd ge

Nk=ksa dh jVus dh {kerk ds ctk; lkspus] le>us vkSj fdrkc dk

cqf)eRrk ls mi;ksx dj ikus dh {kerk ds ewY;kadu dks lcls

vf/kd egRo nsuk pkgrs FksA

Nk=ksa dk ewY;kadu&[kqyh iqLrd ewY;kadu fof/k

lkekftd v/;;u esa ewY;kadu dh ;g fof/k egRoiw.kZ gS D;ksafd

bl ckr dk ewY;kadu djuk fujFkZd gS fd cPpksa dks fo"k; dh

fdruh tkudkfj;k¡ daBLFk gSaA tkudkfj;ksa dk dksbZ vUr ugha

gSA fdlh Hkh ikB~;Øe esa lkjh tkudkjh ugha nh tk ldrh vkSj

cgqr lkjh tkudkjh ;kn j[kuk lEHko Hkh ughaA dqN le; ds

fy, ;kn j[k Hkh fy;k tk, rks ;g fuf'pr gS fd dqN le; ckn

oks tkudkfj;k¡a Hkqyk nh tk,a¡xhA rks D;k tkudkfj;ksa ds Hkwy tkus

ij f'k{kk dh dksbZ Nki O;fDr ds O;fDrRo esa ugha jgsxh\ D;k

f'k{kk ls ,slh lksp] le> vkSj dq'kyrk gekjs lkFk ugha jguh

pkfg,] tks vkthou dke vk,] tks ubZ&ubZ ifjfLFkfr;ksa]ubZ&ubZ

iqLrdksa o lkefxz;ksa] ubZ&ubZ leL;kvksa ds chp gekjs dke vk,\

f'kf{kdk vkSj euksoSKkfud deyk eqdqUnk] viuh iqLrd]OgkV

fMM ;w vkLd ,sV Ldwy VqMs ¼ 2009]ist 68½ esa vesfjdk esa fd,

x, ,d jkspd v/;;u dk mYys[k djrh gSaA gSjh ckgfjd vkSj

muds lkfFk;ksa us ;g tkuus dh dksf'k'k dh fd gkbZLdwy esa ius o vfHkO;Dr djus dh

dq'kyrk dks ewY;kadu ds yk;d ekuk vkSj ijh{kk esa iqLrd dh

NwV nhA ;s lkekU; dq'kyrk,¡ gSa & ij ;s dq'kyrk,a¡ lkekftd

v/;;u ds fy, Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSaA buds vykok fofHkUu le;ksa ;k

LFkkuksa ds chp rqyuk djuk] dkj.k le>kuk] fLFkfr;ksa o

izfØ;kvksa dk foLr`r o.kZu djuk ;k lkj O;Dr djuk] fo'ys"k.k

djuk vkfn & fof'k"V :Ik ls lkekftd v/;;u ds ewY;kadu ds

fcUnq gSaA bl rjg ewY;kadu dh fn'kk cnyus ls ge cPPkksa ds

Åij ls jVus] Hkwyus vkSj ijh{kk nsus ds vkrad dks Hkh [kRe djuk

pkgrs FksA O;kogkfjd rkSj ij bldk ,d ykHk ;g Hkh gqvk fd

uD'kksa] fp=ksa] js[kkfp=ksa vkfn ij tks loky cuk, x, muds fy,

uD'kksa vkfn dks iz'ui= esa Nki nsus dh t:jr ugha jgh&fdrkc

esa fn, uD'kksa vkfn ij gh u, loky ijh{kk esa iwNs tk ldrs FksA

Nk=ksa dk ewY;kadu djus ds fy, fuEu eqn~nksa ij iz'u cuk, tkrs

Fks&

1- iqLrd ls vko';d tkudkjh dj lVhd mRrj fy[k ikus dh {kerkA

-3- fdlh eqís ij ikBksa esa dh xbZ ppkZ dk lkj O;Dr dj ikus dh

{kerkA

4- ikB esa pfpZr eqíksa ds vk/kkj ij fdlh ubZ tkudkjh ;k

ifjfLFkfr ls lEcfU/kr [kqyk fo'ys"k.k dj ikus dh {kerkA

5- uD'kksa] fp=ksa] rkfydkvksa o js[kkfp=ksa ds vk/kkj ij tkudkjh

gkfly djus dh {kerkA

6- vyx&vyx fLFkfr;ksa ds chp rqyuk djus dh {kerkA

7- fdlh ifjfLFkfr dk dkj.k le>k ikus dh {kerkA

iz'uksa ds izdkj D;k Fks\

1- oLrqfu"B iz'u&tSls ,d 'kCn ;k okD; esa mRrj nks] [kkyh

LFkku HkjksA oLrqfu"B iz'uksa ij 100 esa ls 16 vad j[ks tkrs

FksA

[k.M % n


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

2- ,sls iz'u ftudk mRrj iqLrd ds ,d va'k esa iwjh rjg fey

tk,xkA ,sls lVhd iz'uksa ij 100 esa ls 30 vad j[ks tkrs FksA

3- ,sls iz'u ftudk mRrj ikB ;k iqLrd ds ,d ls vf/kd va'k

esa ls fudkyuk gksxk ;k ,sls iz'u ftudk mRrj ikB esa dgha

fy[kk ugha feysxk] ij fp=] uD'kk vkfn dh lgk;rk ls ;k

vius rdZ] vuqeku] dYiuk] tkudkjh o vuqHko dh lgk;rk

ls nsuk gksxkA lkj] rqyuk] fo'ys"k.k] rdZ] uD'kk] fp=]

rkfydk] vuqeku vkfn dq'kyrkvksa ij vk/kkfjr iz'uksa ij

100 esa ls 54 vad j[ks tkrs FksA

ewY;kadu dh uhfr % dqN ckrsa

1- iqLrd esa fn, x, iz'u ijh{kk esa ,d ls vf/kd la[;k esa ugha

j[ks tkrs Fks gj ckj u, iz'u cukus dk iz;kl gksrk FkkA

2- tks Nk= vius 'kCnksa esa mRrj ns] pkgs Hkk"kk VwVh QwVh D;ksa u

gks] mls vfrfjDr vad fn, tkrs FksA

3- iqLrd ls mrkjs x, lgh mRrj esa ;fn iqLrd ds va'k dh

vkxs&ihNs dh vuko';d ckrsa Hkh mrkjh gksa rks vad dkVs

tkrs FksA

iz'uksa ds uewus

1- oLrqfu"B iz'u

uhps fn, dsoy xyr okD;ksa dks lq/kkj dj fy[kks%

1- cpr [kkrs esa tek iSlksa ij cSad C;kt ugha nsrs gSaA

2- ØkWl psd nsus ij cSad C;kt ugha nsrs gSaA

3- cpr [kkrs ls jkstkuk iSls fudkys tk ldrs gSaA

4- cSad ls dsoy cM+s dkj[kkuksa ds ekfyd gh _.k ys ldrs gSaA

5- fe;knh [kkrs esa T;knk C;kt feyrk gSA

[kkyh LFkku Hkjks%

1- &&&&&&& dks vius lkFk djus ds fy, vdcj us

&&&&&&&esa ;k=k dj vkSj 1564 esa &&&&&&&

gVk;kA

2- vdcj ds 'kklu dh 'kq#vkr esa mlds jkT; esa

dsoy&&&&&&& vkSj &&&&&&&&& vehj FksA

3- 1580 ds ckn vdcj us &&&&&&& dh uhfr viukbZA

4- eqxy eulcnkjksa dh fu;qfDr &&&&&&& djrk FkkA

[k.M % n

5- vkSjaxtsc ds 'kkludky esa vehjksa dks nsus ds fy,

&&&&&&& dh deh iM+us yxhA

6- f'kokth us &&&&&&&& jkT; ds yksxksa ls

&&&&&&&&uked yxku olwy fd;kA

2- lVhd ¼mRrj okys½ iz'u

1- baXyS.M esa tc igys laln cuh rks dkSu&dkSu yksx oksV

Mky ldrs Fks vkSj dkSu ughaA

2- vaxzst dky esa ou foHkkx us taxy cpkus ds fy, yksxksa ij

D;k&D;k jksd yxkbZ\

3- lkj]rqyuk]rdZ]vuqeku]fp=]uD'kk vkfn ij iz'u

1- Hkkjr esa vkt oksV Mkyus ds fu;eksa vkSj baXyS.M dh igyh

laln ds fu;eksa esa D;k vUrj gS\

2- Hkkjr ds dkuwu dkSu cukrk gS\ dkuwu fdl izdkj curs gaS\

o.kZu djksA

3- i`"B 101 ij cus fp= dk o.kZu djksA fp= esa D;k&D;k

fn[k jgk gS\ ;s phtsa dgka¡ ls ys tkbZ tk jgh gSa\ bl fp=

esa tks yksx fn[k jgs gSa] os dkSu gaS\ D;k dg jgs gSa\ D;k os

,d nwljs dh ckr eku jgs gSa\

4- vesfjdk ds vkfnoklh vkSj ;wjksih; nksuksa gh ckbluksa dk

f'kdkj djrs Fks] fdUrq muds }kjk ckblu ds mi;ksx esa

cgqr vUrj FkkA ;g vUrj D;k Fkk] le>kvksA

5- iqLrd ds i`"B 220 dk ekufp= ns[kdj bu iz'uksa ds mRrj

fy[kks&

d- dksyfEc;k unh fdl fn'kk esa cgrh gS] fdl lkxj esa

fxjrh gS\

[k- esdsath unh fdl fn'kk esa cgrh gS] fdl lkxj esa fxjrh

gS\

x- dkSu&lh unh Hkwe/;js[kk ls T;knk nwj gS& esdasth ;k

jsM unh\

?k- tkM+s ds ekSle esa fdl unh dk ikuh cQZ cu tkrk

gksxk& eSdsath dk ;k jsM dk\

M- buesa ls dkSu&lh txg leqnz fdukjs gSa& MsUoj]

fofUuisx] ukjQksd] lsu ÝkuflLdks\

6- ;gka¡ rhu txgksa dk tkM+s vkSj xehZ dk rkieku fn;k x;k

gSA gj txg ds ckjs esa dkj.k lfgr le>kvks fd ogk¡a dh

tyok;q dks rqe le tyok;q dgksxs ;k fo"ke\

i`"B la% 107


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

Tkxg Tkuojh dk rkieku ebZ dk rkieku

d

[k

x

15

25

26

30

30

28

7- vesfjdk ds QkeksZa ds ekfyd lSdM+ksa ,dM+ esa ,d gh

Qly cksrs gSaA

d- ;g ckr i`"B 247 ds fp= esa fdl rjg fn[kkbZ ns jgh gS\

[k- lSadM+ksa ,dM+ esa ,d gh Qly cksus esa D;k Qk;nk gS\

f'k{kd izf'k{k.k

vkB 'kkldh; 'kkykvksa esa 16 f'k{kdksa ds lkFk gj lky ;s iz'ui=

cuk, tkrs FksA ijh{kk gks tkus ds ckn nqckjk f'k{kdksa ds lkFk

feyk tkrk vkSj cPPkksa dh mRRkj iqfLrdkvksa dks ik

tkrk fd ewY;kadu djus dk gekjk iz;kl fdruk lkFkZd gks ik;k

gSA iz'ui= dh leh{kk djus ds ckn ewY;kadu ds ekin.M cuk,

tkrs vkSj dkWfi;k¡ tk¡ph tkrhaA lky esa nks ckj gksus okyh bu

dok;nksa esa geus ewY;kadu ds mn~ns';ksa vkSj rkSj&rjhdksa ij

viuh le> dk fodkl fd;kA

iqLrd ds mi;ksx dh dq'kyrk vkSj mldk Kku

geus ns[kk fd cPPkksa us fdrkc ds bLrseky ds fy, rjg&rjg dh

dksf'k'ksa dhaA dqN cPPks iz'u ds mRrj dks vius eu esa cuh le>

ds vk/kkj ij vius 'kCnksa esa fy[k nsrs] dqN cPPks ;g u djds

fdrkc esa gh mRrj [kkstus dh dksf'k'k djrsA ;g ns[kdj gesa

cgqr vQlksl gksrk fd cPPks fdrkc lkeus gksus ds ckotwn]

lksp&le>dj ugha ij ,d csrjrhc


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

mRrj 2%

¼Nk= ds vius okD;]Nfo;k¡ o fu"d"kZ gSaA½

mRrj 3% vaxzstksa ls igys

pkSFkk 4%

mRRkj 5%

[k.M % n

vaxzstkssa ls igys yksx taxy dk mi;ksx cM+s vPNs


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

mRrj 3%

mRrj 4%

mRrj 5 %

cukuk t:jh FkkA ysfdu ckx fdlls cuk,a xzsV Iyasl

es cM+s&cM+s tksr okys fdlku cusA vktdy ;gka¡ ,d

fdlkuksa ds ikl 500&600 ,dM+ tehu gksuk vke

ckr gSA ;g vUrj gSA

¼fdrkckas ls mBk, x, vlEc) okD;ksa ls cuk

mRrj½

iwohZ fgeky; dh >we dh [ksrh& vc >we dh [ksrh ds

fy, i;kZIr taxy ugha gSaA dbZ yksxksa dk ;g dguk

gS >we fd [ksrh ds dkj.k taxy u"V gks jgs gSaA vkSj

;gka¡ ds yksx dks la'kksf/kr djuk Hkh Kku

dk vtZu gSA geus Åij fn, mnkgj.kksa esa dbZ cPPkksa dks vius

eu esa fufeZr Nfo;ksa] lkjk'kksa] fu"d"kksZa dks vius okD;ksa esa izLrqr

djrs ik;kA

vki ns[ksaxs fd cPPkksa us ;g dke viuh viuh rjg ls fd;k

gS&mudh izLrqfr esa fofo/krk gS tks muds futh la?k"kZ dh |ksrd

gSA fdrkc ls


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

eq[; :i ls fdrkc ls mfpr va'k [kkstus o fy[kus dh dq'kyrk

gkfly dj jgs gSaA

bldk dqN mRrj gesa ,d vkSj NksVs ls v/;;u ls feyk ftls

,d Ldwy esa d{kk 6]7o8dscPpksa ds lkFk fd;k x;kA

,d Ldwy esa geus bu cPPkksa dks ,d iz'ui= fn;k vkSj dgk fd

bldk mRrj fdrkc ds fcuk nsuk gSA tks ;kn gS] tks le>s

gks]fy[k nksA ,d lIrkg ckn ogh iz'ui= mUgha cPpksa dks fQj

fn;k vkSj dgk fd bls gy djus esa os fdrkc dk mi;ksx dj

ldrs gSaA bu nksuksa izdkj ds mRrjksa dh rqyuk djus ij ;g

lkeus vk;k fd [kqyh iqLrd ijh{kk esa T;knk cPps lQy gq, FksA

nwljh ckr ;g fd cPps ,sls iz'uksa ds mRrj fy[kus esa nksuksa ckj

T;knk vlQy jgs tks mu ikBksa ls Fks ftuesa foLrkj o

mnkgj.k]dgkuh vkfn ugha Fkha&;kuh tks laf{kIr o xw ds vk/kkj

ij] vius 'kCnksa esa fn, vkSj iqLrd ds gksrs gq, Hkh mlesa ls va'k

mrkjus dh dksf'k'k ugha dhA bl vuqHko ls ;g bafxr gks jgk Fkk

fd vxj ikB izHkkoh gS] ¼ftlls mlds f'k{kd }kjk izHkkoh rjhds

ls mi;ksx fd, tkus dh lEHkkouk Hkh cy dke ugha jgrkA ,sls esa] cgqr QdZ ugha

iM+rk fd iqLrd ikl esa gS ;k ughaA

bl rjg ;g loky ;g gS fd Kku cka¡Vus okyh iqLrd gh Kku

dks dSls ns[krh gSA vc Ldwyh Kku dk Lo:i vkykspuk dsUnz esa

gSA vc lh[kus ds fl)kUrksa esa gks jgs fodkl ds pyrs ;g le>k

tk jgk gS fd Ldwy esa rF;ksa dks vlEc) :i esa vyx&vyx

vius vki esa egRoiw.kZ tkudkjh ds VqdM+ksa ds rkSj ij fl[kk;k

tkrk gS&tcfd lh[kus okys us ml oDr rd nqfu;k ds ckjs esa

tks ekufld vo/kkj.kk,¡ cuk yh gSa] os vo/kkj.kk,¡ tkudkfj;ksa ds

mu VqdM+ksa ds lkFk tqM+dj dksbZ lkFkZd fd;zk dj ugha ikrhaA

blfy, lh[kus okys dh vo/kkj.kkvksa esa dksbZ cqfu;knh cnyko gks

ugha ikrkA ogha] ftl gn rd Hkh ;g cnyko gksuk 'kq: gks] blesa

cPps&cPPks ds chp fHkUurk gksuk vo';aHkkoh gSA izR;sd cPpk

viuh cukbZ /kkj.kkvksa dks vius rjhds ls cnyus dh dksf'k'k

djrk gSA ij Ldwy esa Kku dks u rks vkil ds thoUr lEcU/kksa ds

lkFk is'k fd;k tkrk gS vkSj u gh lh[kus okys dh dksf'k'kksa dks

[k.M % n

fl[kkus esa vkSj ewY;kadu djus esa LFkku fn;k tkrk gSA bl rjg

Kku ds cuus vkSj ;kn j[ks tkus dh fLFkfr;k¡ gh Ldwy esa ugha

iSnk gks ikrhaA

Kku] cPps vkSj f'k{kdh; is'kk

viuh rjg ls lkspus]le>us vkSj O;Dr djus dh NwV gekjs

dk;ZØe esa cPpksa dks nh tk ldh D;ksafd f'k{kd vkSj ge gj cPps

dh lksp ls tw>us dks rS;kj Fks&igys ls r; ekudksa ds vk/kkj ij

cPpksa ij BIis yxkus dk mn~ns'; gekjk Fkk gh ugha& tSls

dkj[kkuksa esa cus eky ij yxk, tkrs gSaA geus ns[kk fd dSls

f'k{kdksa dk lewg vius is'ks dh xfjek j[krs gq,] ,d&nwljs dks

tokc nsrs gq,] mfpr&vuqfpr ewY;kadu ij vkilh lgefr

cukrs gq, ;g dke dbZ lkyksa rd vuojr djrk jgk&dj ik;kA

;gh lc gks'kaxkckn foKku dk;ZØe ds f'k{kd Hkh djrs Fks&30

lky rd djrs jgs Fks&is'ks dh ijEijk,¡]uhfr;k¡ vkSj iz.kkfy;k¡

cukrs gq,A f'k{kd lewg dk ;g vfLrRo Hkh ewY;kadu lq/kkj ds

fy, ,d vfuok;Z 'krZ gSA

nwljh vksj ;g Hkh tkfgj gS fd f'k{k.k dk;Z dks vf/kd lkFkZd

cukrs jgus dh t:jr gS&ewY;kadu esa lq/kkj ds iz;klksa dh

lkFkZdrk mlh ij vk/kkfjr jgrh gSA cqjh fdrkc vkSj cqjs f'k{k.k

ds lkFk [kqyh iqLrd ijh{kk Hkh fdlh dh dksbZ enn ugha dj

ldrhA gk¡] vPNh fdrkc vkSj vPNs f'k{k.k ds lkFk [kqyh iqLrd

ijh{kk dk vuqHko dqN egRoiw.kZ dq'kyrkvksa dks lh[kus dk ekSdk

ns ldrk gSA ;s dq'kyrk,¡ vius vki esa ewY;oku gSa vkSj lR;

ekuh xbZ ckrksa ds Kku ds fuek.kZ ds lkFk&lkFk ;s dq'kyrk,¡ Hkh

ikB~;Øe ds leqfpr y{;ksa dk fgLlk gSaA

f'k{kdksa ds vuqHko esa gekjh ijh{kk iz.kkyh esa nks rjg ds lq/kkjksa dh

t:jr Fkh&,d ;g fd iz'uksa dh la[;k de jguh pkfg, rkfd

t:jr iM+us ij fdrkc ls i


lekt foKku esa Ldwyh f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu % gekjs vuqHko] iz;ksx vkSj lcd

nh xbZ fLFkfr ds vk/kkj ij vkxs dk vuqeku yxkus] ;k

viuk er O;Dr djus dh ek¡x djus okys iz'uksa esa 38

izfr'kr cPps e/; o mPp Js.kh ds vad izkIr dj ik,A

f'k{kd vkSj ge lksprs fd cPPkksa dks fdl ds vuqHko fn, tk,¡

rkfd os fyf[kr :i esa Hkh rdZ] rqyuk vuqeku tSls dk;ksZa dks dj

ik,¡A d{kk dh lkewfgd ppkZvksa esa ;k NksVs lewg esa gq, ekSf[kd

vH;klksa esa] os bu dk;kZsa esa [kwc Hkkx ysrs FksA ;kuh mudh ckSf)d

{kerkvksa dh lhek dh ctk; gesa mudh ys[ku {kerk dh lhek

vf/kd utj vkrh FkhA ek/;fed Ldwy ds 20 ls 50 izfr'kr cPps

Lora= :i ls fdrkc ius o vius fopkjksa dks Lo;a

fy[k ikus ds Lrj ij ugha gksrs Fks],slk gekjk vuqHko FkkA gkyk¡fd

;g Hkh ekuuk iM+sxk fd lkewfgd ppkZvksa esa lHkh cPps cjkcjh ls

Hkkx ugha ysrs Fks&nwljh rjQ] ijh{kk dh fyf[kr dkWfi;ksa esa

izR;sd cPps dh fLFkfr gekjs lkeus gksrh FkhA cgjgky] ijh{kk

dkWfi;ksa ds v/;;u ls gesa o f'k{kdksa dks cPpksa dks fl[kkus o lHkh

dks iwjs ekSds nsus dh pqukSfr;k¡ lkQ gksrh xbZ] ftuds fy, ge

jkLrs fudkyrs jgsA tgk¡ rd cPpksa ds fjtYV dk loky Fkk]rks

ge mUgha ckrksa dk ewY;kadu djus ij fo'okl djrs Fks tks cPpksa

dks ge fl[kk ik, FksA blfy,] ftu iz'uksa dks cgqr gh de cPpksa

us Bhd fd;k gksrk Fkk] muds dqy vadksa dks Hkh de dj fn;k

tkrk Fkk rFkk os vad ,sls iz'uksa dks ck¡V fn, tkrs Fks ftUgsa T;knk

cPps Bhd ls dj ik, FksA ikB~;Øe ds mn~ns'; gkfly djus dk

nkf;Ro f'k{kd o ikB~;Øe fuekZrkvksa dk igys Fkk&cPpksa dk

ckn esaA

iz;ksx]uhfr;k¡ vkSj muds vkxs

2005&06 esa Nk=ksa ds ewY;kadu ij cqfu;knh fpUru djrs gq,

,d us'kuy Qksdl xzqi us dbZ egRoiw.kZ vuq'kalk,¡ dhaA mlus

fy[kk fd tks fl[kk;k x;k mls fdruk lafpr fd;k x;k&dsoy

bls Nk=ksa dk ewY;kadu djus dk /;s; ugha gksuk pkfg,A fl[kk,

x, ds izfr Nk= dh izfrfØ;k dks ewY;kadu dk dsUnz fcUnq cukuk

t:jh gSA foLrkj ls fn, x, vusd izLrkoksa esa vksiu cqd ijh{kk

i)fr dh vksj vUrr% c


Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu

t;Jh ukafc;kj

L

dwyksa esa lkekftd foKku f'k{k.k dk detksj igyw mldk

vkdyu gSA vkdyu ;kuh izpfyr :i esa ewY;kadu

vDlj&uke vkSj rkjh[ksa] fdlh dky dh crkbZ xbZ fo'ks"krk,¡a]

fdlh ?kVuk ds dkj.k] ?kVuk esa ?kfVr ckrsa] vkSj fdlh ?kVuk ds

ifj.kke] tks lcdqN ikBîiqLrdksa esa fn, x, gksrs gSa & dks ;kn

j[kus vkSj mls Le`fr ls rqjUr is'k dj ikus dh ;ksX;rk dk gksrk

gSA bl ys[k esa bldh Nkuchu d:¡xh fd lkekftd foKku esa

gesa vkdyu fdu ckrksa dk vkSj dSls djus dh t:jr gS] vkSj

bldk mi;ksx bfrgkl ds v/;;u&v/;kiu esa dSls fd;k tk

ldrk gSA eSaus bfrgkl dks pquk gS D;ksafd eSa mlls ifjfpr gw¡A

eSaus bls blfy, Hkh pquk D;ksafd bfrgkl ds i


Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu

ds ckjs esa lh[kus ds fy, bLrseky fd, tk ldrs gSaA ml {ks= dk

uD'kk igkfM+;ksa ls Hkwry ij [kkM+h dh vksj cgrh gqbZ nks ufn;k¡

n'kkZrk gSA unh ds fdukjs ds {ks= fupys ry ij gSa vkSj dkQh nwj

ihNs igkfM+;k¡ gSaA utnhdh tk¡p&iM+rky vkSj vusd çÜuksa ls

fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ogk¡ ds eq[; O;olk;] LFkkuh; vFkZO;oLFkk] fuekZ.k

esa bLrseky gksus okyh lkexzh vkSj ;q)ksa dh vko`fŸk ds ckjs esa

le>us esa enn feysxhA ;gk¡ fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks voyksdu djus vkSj

voyksduksa dks vius vuqHko vkSj ekuo thou ds Kku ds


Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu

ikBîiqLrdksa esa tkfr vkSj fL=;ksa ds lkFk fdl çdkj cqjk crkZo

fd;k tkrk Fkk] blds ckjs esa fn, x, oäO; vDlj ,sls eqíksa dks

s

tkus dh t:jr gSA ge tks ns[krs gSa vkSj i


Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu

gh yksx jg jgs FksA bl ,d 'kCn esa lŸkk dk bfrgkl] ,d le`)

vkSj fHké bfrgkl ds xk;c gks tkus ds dkj.k] mldk foyksi vkSj

tcjnLrh feyk fy;k tkuk lHkh dqN lek;k gqvk gSA ,d vkSj

felky ysa rks 'kCn *vkfne* esa ghu vkSj vKkuh gksus ds Hkko fNis

gSa] vkSj *çxfr* esa ldkjkRed Hkko 'kkfey gSaA bu vdsys 'kCnksa esa

fufgr oSfÜod n`f"V;k¡ pyrh jgsaxh vkSj ;qok fo|kFkÊ Hkh muls

vyx ugÈ lkspsaxs tc rd os bu 'kCnksa vkSj vo/kkj.kkvksa ij

loky mBkuk vkSj mudh iM+rky djuk ugÈ lh[krsA

fo|kFkÊ dks dbZ] vkSj dHkh&dHkh fojks/kh]

vk[;kuksa vkSj fHké&fHké erksa dks fcuk

Vdjko ds xzg.k djuk lh[kus dh t:jr gSA

D;k lkspuk fl[kkus dh vis{kk fdl rjg

lkspuk fl[kkuk f'k{kd ds fy, T;knk t:jh

gSA

ikBîlkexzh ls ifjfpr gksus ds }kjk vkSj lokyksa ds }kjk fo|kFkÊ

lkspuk lh[krs gSaA tc dksbZ fo|kFkÊ tkurk gS fd og Lo;a fopkj

dj ldrk gS rks mlesa cgqr vkRefoÜokl vk tkrk gSA vkerkSj

ij Ldwy esa f'k{kk vkidks fl[kkrh gS fd D;k lkspuk gS] u fd

dSls lkspuk gSA fopkj djus ds }kjk gh fo|kFkÊ l`tukRed

euq"; curs gSa u fd nksgjkus okyh e'khusaA fopkj djus dh bl

{kerk dks gh gesa iksf"kr djus dh vkSj mldk vkdyu djus dh

t:jr gSA

çÜu iwNuk

voyksdu vkSj fopkj djuk lh[kus ds ek/;e ls fo|kFkÊ vrhr

dh le> vkSj bfrgkl dh çfØ;kvksa ds ckjs esa vUrn`f"VZ;k¡

gkfly djrk gSA bfrgkl dks lh[kus dk eryc ;g le>us dh

dksf'k'k djuk gS fd lekt dSls dke djrs gSa] vkSj ;g Hkh ns[kuk

fd ;g le> vkt dh ?kVukvksa dks le>us ds fy, Hkh mruh gh

mi;ksxh gSA bfrgkl blhfy, vfregRoiw.kZ gS fd ;g orZeku

dks le>us ds rjhdksa esa Hkh gekjh enn djrk gS] vkSj blds

dkS'ky jkstejkZ ds thou esa lkeus vkus okyh fLFkfr;ksa vkSj

tkudkjh ij Hkh ykxw gksrs gSaA vkosxiw.kZ vkSj fcuk tkus le>s

tYnckth esa fu.kZ; djus vkSj fu"d"kZ fudkyus dh vis{kk] ,slk

lh[kuk fo|kFkÊ dks lh[kus vkSj ewY;kadu djus ds tks vkStkj

mlds ikl gSa mUgsa iSuk djus ds vkSj bLrseky djus ds dkfcy

cukrk gSA

i`"B la% 116

bls dSls fl[kk;k] lh[kk vkSj bldk vkdyu fd;k tk,\ ;fn

bfrgkl orZeku dks le>us dk ,d rjhdk gS] rks orZeku gh

blds fy, ,d vPNk çkjfEHkd fcUnq gksrk gSA d{kk esa ,d cgl

;g çÜu iwNus ls 'kq: gks ldrh gS fd Hkkjr ds Ldwyksa esa f'k{kk

dk ek/;e v¡xzsth D;ksa gS\Hkkjrh; Ldwyksa esa Nk=k,¡a fiukQksj] VkbZ

vkSj twrs eksts D;ksa igurh gSa\ gekjh vkt dh d{kk dk Lo:i

x


Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu



fu"d"kZ %

Lo;a jktkvksa ij lŸkk dk D;k çHkko iM+rk gS\ ¼vykmíhu

f[kyth vkSj eqgEen fcu rqxyd] tgk¡xhj vkSj 'kkgtgk¡½

lŸkk dk ;g la?k"kZ nwljksa ds lkFk lEcU/kksa dks dSls çHkkfor

djrk gS vkSj Lo;a O;fä ds Hkhrj D;k gksrk gS\

;gk¡ nq[k dh ckr D;k gS\ ¼jft;k] cgeuh jktkx.k] eqxyksa

ds chp esa mŸkjkf/kdkj ds ;q)] vkSjaxtsc dk flagklu ij

vk:k,a¡A

çÜu 2%

uhps ,d v[kckj ls yh xbZ [kcj nh xbZ gSA blesa fdl

ekuokf/kdkj dk mYys[k gS\ vf/kdkj crkb, vkSj ;g le>kb,

fd ;gk¡ dSls mldk mYya?ku gqvk gSA

çÜu 3%

;gk¡ dydŸkk dh *CySd gksy ¼dky dksBjh½* dh ?kVuk ds ckjs esa

nks bfrgkldkjksa ds fooj.kksa ds va'k gSaA ys[kdksa ds fooj.kksa esa D;k

lekurk,a¡ gSa\ buds vk/kkj ij vki fdu ckrksa dks rF; dh rjg

eku ldrs gSa\

çÜu 4%

fn, x, uD'ks esa ,d {ks= dks fpfUgr fd;k x;k gSA uD'ks dk

[k.M % n

/;kuiwoZd v/;;u djks vkSj fuEu çÜuksa ds mŸkj nhft, %






ogka¡ ds yksxksa dk O;olk; D;k gksxk\ D;ksa\

os QqlZr ds le; esa fdu xfrfof/k;ksa esa layXu jgrs gksaxs\

rqEgsa bldk ladsr fdl ckr ls feyrk gS\

bl {ks= esa O;kikj ,d egRoiw.kZ xfrfof/k D;ksa gks ldrh gS\

bldk fdu {ks=ksa ls lEidZ jgk gks ldrk gS\

vki bl {ks= esa fdu Qlyksa ds iSnk gksus dk vuqeku yxk

ldrs gSa\

vius dkj.k crkb,A

mijksä dk;ks± esa rhu ckrsa Li"V gSaA igyh] fo|kFkÊ ds fy, fdlh

nh xbZ rLohj] uD'ks ;k ikBîka'k dks i


Le`fr ds vkxs % lkekftd foKku esa vFkZiw.kZ vkdyu

esjh n`f"V esa lkekftd foKku ds lh[kus dk y{; nksgjk gSA ,d

rks fdlh vU; LFkku vkSj le; ds ekuoh; fØ;kdykiksa ds }kjk

gesa ;gk¡ vkSj vHkh vius ckjs esa tkuuk fl[kkuk gSA nwljs] vius

pkjksa vksj ds ekuoh;] tho&tUrqvksa ds vkSj çkd`frd ifjos'k ds

lkFk lEosnu'khy lEcU/k cukus esa gesa l{ke cukuk gSA Kku vkSj

dkS'ky rHkh ewY;oku gksrs gSa tc os fQØ vkSj ftEesnkjh ds fj'rs

esa tqM+s gq, gkasA vkSj ;g vkdyu ds ijs gSA

t;Jh ukafc;kj psébZ ds n Ldwy]d`".kewfrZ Qkm.Ms'ku vkWWQ bf.M;k esa v¡xzsth vkSj bfrgkl i


xq.koÙkk cuke ifjek.k

riL;k lkgk

rh

u cksMks± dh ijh{kkvksa ds lkekftd v/;;u çÜu i=ksa dk

foÜys"k.k & orZeku esa ge lkekftd foKku esa fdl pht

dh ijh{kk ys jgs gSa\ D;k ;gh ckr bl fo"k; dh 'kkspuh; fLFkfr

ds fy, ftEesnkj gS\

cgl dh 'kq:vkr djus ds fy, vkb, ge 2008&2009 ds

vdknfed l= ds lkekftd v/;;u ds rhu cksMks± ds çÜu i=ksa

dks /;ku ls ns[ksaA lhch,lbZ] vkbZ,llhbZ vkSj dukZVd jkT;

cksMks± ds çÜu i=ksa dk foÜys"k.k vyx&vyx laKkukRed Lrjksa

tSls Kku] le>] mi;ksx vkSj dkS'ky ij vk/kkfjr gSA

çÜu 2- kjr esa ehBs ikuh ds nks lzksr dkSu ls gSa\

çÜu 3- nks eq[; ykSg [kfutksa ds uke crk,a¡A

çÜu 4- Hkkjr esa lcls cM+k lkSj la;a= dgk¡ fLFkr

gS\¼lhch,lbZ½

jkT; cksMZ vkSj lhch,lbZ nksuksa ds çÜu i=ksa esa dqN fcUnqvksa

dks dkQh lkQ rkSj ij n'kkZ;k x;k gSA








wxksy okys Hkkx ds dsoy 30 vad gksrs gSaA

¼Hkwxksy ds½ çÜu i= esa 96 çfr'kr Hkkx fo'kq) :i ls ;kn

dh gqbZ tkudkjh dks Le`fr ls fudkydj çLrqr dj nsus ij

vk/kkfjr gS] vkSj mldk dsoy 4 çfr'kr Hkkx gh dkS'ky

ij vk/kkfjr gSA

çÜu Øekad 45- jk"Vªh; m|ku D;ksa cuk, tkrs gSa\

v- taxyksa dh j{kk djus ds fy,] c- fpfM+;ksa dh j{kk djus

ds fy,] l- oU; thou ds laj{k.k ds fy,] n- ck?kksa ds

laj{k.k ds fy, ¼dukZVd cksMZ½

os çÜu Hkh tks Le`fr ds ijs *çrhr* gksrs gSa lEHkor%

ikBîiqLrd ds çR;sd ikB ds vUr esa fn, x, vH;kl

çÜuksa esa ls fy, x, gSaA vr% ,sls çÜuksa dh blls T;knk

dksbZ ek¡x ugÈ gksrh fd lh[ks x, rF;ksa dks iqu% nksgjk fn;k

tk,A ;g rks ,d xyr çÜu gS] D;ksafd blesa tks oSdfYid

mŸkj fn, x, gSa os lHkh lgh gSaA

çÜu i= fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks *oSpkfjd çÜuksa* ds mŸkj nsus ds

fy, dksbZ volj ugÈ nsrkA çÜu i= esa iwNh xbZ çk;% gj

ckr dk jV dj lh[ks gq, Kku ls mŸkj fn;k tk ldrk gSA

[k.M % n

nksuksa gh cksMks± dh fu/kkZfjr ikBîiqLrdsa gSaA

vkbZlh,lbZ dk çÜu i= vU;

nks cksMks± ds çÜu i=ksa ls dbZ

igyqvksa esa fHké gksrk gS

çÜu Øekad 7-

v-

l-

n-

[kfut rsy dk lcls cM+k

mRiknd buesa ls dkSu lk gS\ Hkkjr ds fdUgÈ nks

rsy'kks/kd dkj[kkuksa ds uke crk,¡ac-

Hkkjr ds fdUgÈ nks leqæh rsy {ks=ksa ds uke crk,a¡-

¼i½

kjr ds lcls cM+s vkSj lcls iqjkus dks;yk

{ks= dk uke crk,¡Aa

Hkkjr esa ik, tkus okys fofHké çdkj ds ykSg

v;Ldksa ds uke crk,a¡A lcls vPNh xq.koŸkk okyk

ykSg v;Ld dkSu lk gS\ ¼vkbZlh,lbZ½

lHkh rhuksa cksMks± ds çÜu i=ksa esa ,d pht leku gS & vkdyu ds

;s vkStkj fdlh Hkh çdkj ls fo"k; ds lkj] thou ds lkFk mlds

lEcU/k] vkSj thou esa mldh t:jr dks çxV djus esa l{ke ugÈ

yxrsA

buesa ls dksbZ Hkh çÜu fdlh HkkSxksfyd vo/kkj.kk dks lEcksf/kr

ugÈ djrk] mnkgj.k ds fy,%

v- dukZVd jkT; cksMZ çÜu i=

çÜu Øekad 33- Mfy;ksa dk fuekZ.k dqVhj m|ksx dk mRikn gS]

tcfd fctyh ds ia[kksa dk fuekZ.k bl m|ksx dk mRikn gS %

¼v½ y?kq m|ksx]

¼ii½ dks;ys ls çkIr gksus okys fdUgÈ nks dPps

vkS|ksfxd inkFkks± ds uke crk,a¡A

cksMZ çÜu i=ksa dh lhek,a¡

¼c½ e>kSys m|ksx]

¼l½ o`gr m|ksx] ¼n½ fof'k"V m|ksx

çÜu Øekad 44- dqVhj vkSj y?kq m|ksx Hkkjrh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds

vuq:i D;ksa gSa\

¼v½ jkst+xkj çnku djrs gSa] ¼c½ de iw¡th dh t:jr gksrh gS]

i`"B la% 119


xq.koÙkk cuke ifjek.k

¼l½ Lons'kh lalk/kuksa ij vk/kkfjr gksrs gSa] ¼n½ de fo|qr vkiwfrZ

dh vko';drk gksrh gS

çÜu Øekad 46- dkSu lk laxBu dqVhj vkSj y?kq m|ksxksa dks dtZ

çnku dj jgk gS\

¼v½ jkT; foŸk fuxe] ¼c½ vkS|ksfxd fodkl cSad]

¼l½ jk"Vªh;r cSad]

¼n½ kjrh; LVsV cSad

rhuksa çÜuksa us dsoy dqN tkudkjh gh ek¡xh gSA fo|kFkÊ vuqeku

yxkdj vkSj la;ksx ls Hkh lgh mŸkj çkIr dj ldrs gSaA rks fQj

bu çÜuksa dks iwNus dk mís'; D;k gS\ ;gk¡ ij fdl pht dk

ijh{k.k fd;k tk jgk gS\ *m|ksx* dh vo/kkj.kk dk rks fufÜpr

:i ls ugÈA

c- lhch,lbZ çÜu i=

çÜu 2- kjr esa ehBs ikuh ds nks lzksr dkSu ls gSa\

çÜu 4- Hkkjr esa lcls cM+k lkSj la;a= dgk¡ fLFkr gS\

nksuksa gh çÜuksa us *ehBs ikuh vkSj [kkjs ikuh* ;k *lkSj ÅtkZ* tSlh

vo/kkj.kkvksa dk rks ftØ gh ugÈ fd;kA

blds ctk; dsoy uke gh iwNs x, gSaA

çÜu Øekad 16- fdlh {ks= esa m|ksxksa dh LFkkiuk dks çHkkfor

djus okys fdUgÈ rhu dkjdksa dh O;k[;k djsaA

blds ctk; ;g çÜu bl çdkj ls gks ldrk Fkk % Hkkjr ds fn,

x, uD'ks dk v/;;u djsa ftlesa mlds rhu vkS|ksfxd {ks=ksa

eqEcbZ] te'ksniqj vkSj fo'kk[kkiÍue dks n'kkZ;k x;k gSA çR;sd

{ks= dk dksbZ ,d çeq[k m|ksx gS( tSls eqEcbZ esa lwrh diM+k

m|ksx] te'ksniqj esa ykSg vkSj bLikr m|ksx rFkk fo'kk[kkiÍue

esa tgkt fuekZ.k m|ksxA vkids fopkj ls fofHké m|ksxksa dks gj

txg vkSj dgÈ Hkh D;ksa LFkkfir ugÈ fd;k tk ldrk\

bl çÜu dk mŸkj nsrs oä fo|kFkÊ dks fufÜpr rkSj ij m|ksx

dks mldh LFkkiuk dh txg ls tksM+us dk volj feysxkA fn,

x, çÜu i= dh Hkk"kk uhjl gS] fdlh Hkh rjg ds lUnHkZ ls jfgr

gS] dqN gn rd mins'kkRed gS vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, lgt

ugÈ gSA

vkb, ge dqN vkSj mnkgj.kksa dh tk¡p djsa & os esjs n`f"Vdks.k

dh iqf"V djrs gSaA

mnkgj.k %

i`"B la% 120

v- dukZVd jkT; cksMZ çÜu i=

çÜu Øekad 69- fuokZg d`f"k] O;kolkf;d d`f"k vkSj fefJr d`f"k

D;k gSa\

çÜu Øekad 73- Hkkjr d`f"k esa fiNM+k gqvk D;ksa gS\

;g çÜu **VSDLVcqd**] ist 230] çÜu Øekad IV] 2 ls fy;k x;k

gSA

c- lhch,lbZ

çÜu Øekad 21- bl rLohj dks /;ku ls ns[ksa vkSj fuEufyf[kr

çÜuksa ds mŸkj nsa% ¼21-1½ rLohj esa fn[kkbZ xbZ Qly dk uke

crk,a¡A

¼21-2½ bl Qly dh [ksrh ds fy, vko';d tyok;q dh n'kkvksa

ds ckjs esa fy[ksaA

¼21-3½ bl Qly dk çeq[k :i ls mRiknu djus okys nks jkT;ksa

ds uke crk,a¡A

blh çÜu dks dqN vyx rjg ls Hkh iwNk tk ldrk Fkk &

çÜu ¼i½ bl ikS/ks dk uke crk,a¡] ftls gks ldrk gS vkius

R;kSgkj ds nkSjku cktkj esa] ;k twl lsaVj ¼jl dh

nqdku½ ij ns[kk gksA




¼ii½ vkids fopkj ls bl Qly dks mxkus ds fy, fdl

çdkj dh tyok;q dh vko';drk gksxh\

¼iii½ dukZVd esa ;g cgqrk;r ls feyrh gS] D;k vki Hkkjr

ds fdUgÈ vU; nks jkT;ksa ds uke lq>k ldrs gSa tgk¡

;g Qly mxkbZ tkrh gks\

ukeksa vkfn dh tkudkjh ckj&ckj iwNh tkrh gS] blesa dksbZ

fofo/krk ugÈ gSA ;g mtkxj djrk gS fd Hkwxksy dks

*lkekU; Kku* ds tSlk vf/kd ekuk x;k gS] ctk; foKku

dh ,slh 'kk[kk ds ftlesa voyksdu] oxÊdj.k] x.kuk]

ekiu] ijh{k.k vkfn fofHké dkS'ky 'kkfey jgrs gSaA

çÜu i=ksa esa ,sls çÜuksa dk vHkko [kVdrk gS tks jpukRedrk]

Kku dk mi;ksx djus] vkSj foÜys"k.k djus rFkk leh{kkRed


xq.koÙkk cuke ifjek.k

mijksä foÜys"k.k ls geus D;k lh[kk\

;g çÜu i= f'k{k.k dh ,d ,slh 'kSyh dk leFkZu djrk gS tks

tkudkjh ¼T;knkrj rF;ksa vkSj vk¡dM+ksa½ ds lh/ks çlkj.k rd

lhfer gSA

bl çdkj dk çÜu i= fdlh fo|kFkÊ dks grksRlkfgr dj ldrk

gS] D;ksafd ;fn og iwNh xbZ tkudkjh@ukeksa ls vufHkK gks rks

mlds ikl mŸkj nsus ds fy, dqN ugÈ gksrkA Nk=ksa ds ikl lkspus

ds fy, vkSj Lo;a vius lEHkkfor mŸkj nsus ds fy, dksbZ xqatkb'k

ugÈ jgrhA dqy feykdj bu ewY;kadu midj.kksa ls ;g çHkko

iSnk gksrk gS fd bu çÜu i=ksa dk ,d gh mís'; gS fd dksbZ cPpk

fdruh lqxerk ls mŸkh.kZ gksus ds vad gkfly dj ldrk gSA

;g pqHkus okyh iwNrkN fd *D;k ;g ¼ewY;kadu vkStkj½ bl fo"k;

dh ekStwnk 'kkspuh; fLFkfr ds fy, ftEesnkj gS\* ,sls dbZ eqíksa dks

lq>krh gS ftudk lEcU/k Ldwy vkSj mlds Hkkxhnkjksa ls gS tSls %

1- lHkh Hkkxhnkjksa esa ,ulh,Q ds ckjs esa dksbZ Hkh Kku vkSj le>

iwjh rjg ls unkjn gS & blesa Ldwy dk utfj;k] f'k{kdksa

vkSj vfHkHkkodksa }kjk bLrseky dh tkus okyh f'k{k.k i)fr

Hkh 'kkfey gksrh gSA

2- fo"k; ds çfr Ldwy@leqnk;@vfHkHkkodksa@fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh

#fp vkSj joS;k fujk'kktud gSA

;g fo"k; ¼Hkwxksy½ dsoy ijh{kk ds fy, gh ius

dh t:jr gksrh gSA

,ulh,Q esa çLrkfor n`f"Vdks.k tgk¡ fo'ks"k fo"k; çlaxksa ¼FkhEl½]

tSls ikuh ds lUnHkZ esa lesfdr n`f"V ij tksj nsrk gS] ogÈ og

vyx&vyx fo"k;ksa dh fof'k"V igpku dks Hkh Lohdkjrk gSA

lkekftd foKku esa ikBî ppkZ ,slh xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj çkstsDVksa ij

dsfUær jgrh gS tks fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh lekt vkSj mldh laLFkkvksa ds

ifjorZu vkSj fodkl dks le>us esa enn djrs gSaA

ijh{kk ra= esa fo"k;oLrq&vk/kkfjr ijh{k.k dks cnydj ewY;kadu

dks leL;kvksa ds lek/kku vkSj ;ksX;rk ij vk/kkfjr djus dh

vko';drk gSA**

,ulh,Q esa çLrqr fd;k x;k mís'; D;k gS\





çkd`frd] lkekftd vkSj lkaLd`frd i;kZoj.k ds chp

lEcU/kksa dks fu/kkZfjr djus vkSj le>us esa cPpksa dks çf'kf{kr

djukA

,slh le> fodflr djuk tks voyksduksa vkSj n`"VkUrksa ij

vk/kkfjr gks] vkSj ft, x, vuqHkoksa rFkk thou ds HkkSfrd]

tSfod] lkekftd vkSj lkaLd`frd igyqvksa ls yh xbZ gks] u

fd vewrZ vo/kkj.kksa lsA

cPpksa dh] fo'ks"k :i ls çkd`frd i;kZoj.k ¼ftlesa yksx vkSj

fufeZr oLrq,a¡ 'kkfey jgrs gSa½ ds lEcU/k esa] ftKklk vkSj

jpukRedrk iksf"kr djukA

i;kZoj.k ls lEcfU/kr eqíksa ds ckjs esa tkx:drk fodflr

djukA

lHkh Hkkxhnkjksa ij bl ifjdYiuk dks lkdkj djus dh egrh

ftEesnkjh gSA ikBîØe bl ifjdYiuk ds vuq:i gksuk pkfg,

vkSj f'k{k.k i)fr dks bldk vuqlj.k djuk pkfg,A

bls ykxw djus esa cksMZ] Ldwy rFkk f'k{kd lHkh cgqr fu.kkZ;d

Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA cksMZ ikBîØe ds lkFk gh ikBîiqLrd vkSj

vUrr% ewY;kadu ds vkStkj Hkh fu/kkZfjr djrk gS] tcfd f'k{kd

i`"B la% 121


xq.koÙkk cuke ifjek.k

ds lkFk&lkFk Ldwy bl iwjh ifjdYiuk vkSj mís';ksa dks d{kk esa

lkdkj djus dk lcls egRoiw.kZ dk;Z djrk gSA

,ulh,Q dks lQyrkiwoZd ykxw djus dh /kqjh *f'k{k.k i)fr* gS]

ysfdu okLro esa cksMZ] Ldwy rFkk f'k{kd lHkh ,ulh,Q ls nwj gh

gSaA

vHkh Ldwy] d{kk ;k cksMZ ds çÜu i= esa ,ulh,Q ds fy, dksbZ

txg ugÈ gSA f'k{kdksa ds fdlh Hkh çf'k{k.k esa dHkh Hkh mudk bl

nLrkost vkSj bldh fo"k;oLrq ls ifjp; ugÈ djok;k tkrkA

blfy, f'k{k.k i)fr vkSj ewY;kadu ds vkStkjksa dk y{; dsoy

vad çkIr djuk gksrk gS] vkSj bl fo"k; dks thou ds fy,

vçklafxd vkSj e`r leku eku fy;k tkrk gS( vkSj ekrk&firk

rFkk loZlk/kkj.k dk n`f"Vdks.k Hkh bl 'kkspuh; fLFkfr dks c


ijh{kk,a¡ % foÜoluh;rk vkSj ifo=rk cgky djus dh vko';drk

vkj- ,l- d`".kk

es

jk ;g ekuuk gS fd Hkkjr ds fofHké Ldwyksa] ijh{kk cksMks± vkSj rLohj dk fgLlk gSa] ftls

fo"k;ksa esa ewY;kadu ewyr% ,d vkSipkfjdrk Hkj gksrs gSaA ikB~;p;kZ ifjn`'; dgk tk

mudh çeq[k fpUrk Nk=ksa dk csgrj çfr'kr ds lkFk mŸkh.kZ

gksuk lqfufÜpr djuk çrhr gksrh gSA nwljs] fo"k; dh le> vkSj

dkS'kyksa ds ijh{k.k dh vko';drk ds ctk; ewY;kadu ds lokZsifj

ekun.M] ijh{kkvksa ds ruko vkSj Mj dks de ls de djus dh

euksoSKkfud fpUrkvksa ls fu/kkZfjr gksrs çrhr gksrs gSaA ;gk¡

ewY;kadu ls esjk rkRi;Z y?kq&ijh{kk@ijh{kk dk çÜui= rS;kj

djus dh vkSj mldk vkdyu djus dh] ftlesa ;k rks vad ;k

xzsM ¼Lrj½ fn, tkrs gSa] nksuksa çfØ;kvksa ls gSA

gkyka¡fd mijksä rLohj lHkh fo"k;&{ks=ksa dh gks ldrh gS] ysfdu

;g n`'; rc vkSj Hkh vf/kd fujk'kktud fn[kkbZ nsrk gS tc ckr

lkekftd foKku dh vkrh gS ftlesa bfrgkl] Hkwxksy] jktuhfr

foKku ¼;k flQZ jktuhfr½ vkSj vFkZ'kkL= ds fo"k; 'kkfey gksrs

gSaA ,slk yxrk gS fd ;s fo"k;] [kkldj bfrgkl vkSj jktuhfr]

yxkrkj **vçklafxd**] **jVus ij dsfUær**] **,d&vk;keh** gksus

dh dVq vkykspuk,a¡ >syrs jgus ds dkj.k] ijh{kkvksa dks **ljy**

vkSj **vf/kd vad yk ldus** okyh cukdj viuk m)kj djus dh

dksf'k'k djrs gSaA vktdy tc brus vf/kd Nk= 90 çfr'kr ls

Åij vad vkSj , xzsM çkIr djrs gSa] rks og vius vki esa ,d

dgkuh dgrk gSA ij Nk=ksa dh bfrgkl ;k jktuhfr dh le>

dk blls Hkh vf/kd lPpk ladsr gekjs ;qokvksa & lekt] rFkk

jktuhfr ds çfr mnklhu] vkSj ukxfjdrk ds xq.kksa ls jfgr & ds

lkekftd vkSj jktuSfrd vkpj.kksa ls feyrk gSA bl fojks/kkHkkl

ds ckjs esa dqN vkSj dgus dh t:jr ugÈ gS] ;g okLro esa ,d

1

=klnh gS A

bl ys[k esa] eSa rhu 'kS{kf.kd cksMks±] rfeyukMq eSfVªdqys'ku cksMZ

¼Vh,u,ech½] lsUVªy cksMZ vkWWQ lSd.Mªh ,Xt+kfeus'kUl

¼lhch,lbZ½ vkSj dkSafly QkWj bf.M;u Ldwy lfVZfQdsV

,Xt+kfeus'kUl ¼lhvkbZlh,lbZ ;k la{ksi esa vkbZlh,lbZ½] }kjk

lapkfyr lkoZtfud ijh{kkvksa esa ç;ksx dh tkus okyh ewY;kadu

çfØ;kvksa ds ckjs esa dqN cM+s çÜu mBkus dh dksf'k'k d:a¡xkA

gkyk¡fd esjs }kjk mBk, tkus okys dbZ eqís vkSj çÜu lkekftd

foKku ds lHkh fo"k;ksa ij ykxw gks ldrs gSa] fdUrq bfrgkl vkSj

jktuhfr i


ijh{kk,a¡ % foÜoluh;rk vkSj ifo=rk cgky djus dh vko';drk

oSlk gh jgrk gSA çÜu Hkh dbZ ckj oSls gh gksrs gSa vkSj ijh{kk dk

tksj ewyr% Nk=ksa dh jVus dh {kerk dk ijh{k.k djus ij fn[krk

2

gS A

vc lhch,lbZ dh ckr djsa] rks ;gk¡ ifjn`'; FkksM+k cnyk gqvk

fn[krk gSA gesa ;gk¡ flQZ ;kn djus vkSj jVs gq, dks fy[k nsus ls

gVdj Nk=ksa dh le> vkSj mlds ç;ksx djus dh {kerk ds

ijh{k.k dk dqN ç;kl t:j fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ;|fi] fiNys

vdknfed o"kZ ls] dfiy flCcy ds d{kk 10 dh vfUre ijh{kk

dks LoSfPNd cukus tSls mnkjoknh dne ls çsfjr gksdj]

lhch,lbZ us dqN ifjorZu fd, gSaA ysfdu mlls igys ds pkj

o"kks± ds çÜu i=ksa dk fujh{k.k djsa rks lhch,lbZ egRoiw.kZ

fnukadksa] ukeksa vkSj ?kVukvksa dks Le`fr ls nksgjkus ds rjhds ls

NqVdkjk ikus esa ukdke jgk gSA nwljh ¼vkSj gdhdr dks vf/kd

çxV djus okyh½ ckr gS fd lhch,lbZ esa vad nsus dh i)fr ;g

lqfufÜpr djrh gS fd djhc 80 çfr'kr çÜu **ljy**vkSj

**vkSlr** ds chp gksuk pkfg,( **dfBu** çÜu 20 çfr'kr ls

3

vf/kd ugÈ gksuk pkfg,! rhljh ckr gS fd lhch,lbZ }kjk gky

gh esa ykxw fd, x, lexz vkSj lrr ewY;kadu ¼lhlhbZ½ esa 60

çfr'kr Hkkfjrk ¼osVst+½ lkekftd foKku ds lHkh fo"k;ksa dks feyk

dj fn;k tkrk gS] ftls os ;ksxkRed ewY;kadu dgrs gSaA

;ksxkRed ewY;kadu vfUre cksMZ ijh{kkvksa dh Hkk¡fr gksrs gSaA 'ks"k

Hkkx dks fuekZ.kkRed ewY;kadu dgk tkrk gS ftlesa

y?kq&ijh{kk,a¡] fofHké çkstsDV] fu;r dk;Z] x`g dk;Z] d{kk dk;Z

vkfn 'kkfey jgrs gSa ftUgsa nSfud] lkIrkfgd] ikf{kd vkSj

4

ekfld vk/kkj ij fd;k tkuk jgrk gS A ns[kus esa ;s çxfr'khy

vkSj foÜoluh; xfrfof/k;k¡ yxrh gSaA fdUrq esjk rdZ gS fd ;s

v/;;u dks le`) cukus dh n`f"V ls ugÈ mitrÈ cfYd eksVs rkSj

ij budk mís'; Nk=ksa dk ruko nwj djuk vkSj ijh{kkvksa ds Mj

5

vkSj ncko dks gVkuk gksrk gS A ¼;g vyx ckr gS fd bl çfØ;k

esa f'k{kd vf/kd ruko esa jgrs gSa vkSj mudk cgqr lk cgqewY;

le; fofHké çdkj ds vk¡dM+ksa dks rS;kj djus] mUgsa ntZ djus

6

vkSj bdÎk djus esa fudy tkrk gS½ A

ij Nk=ksa dks ruko ls eqä djus vkSj muds eu ls ijh{kk dk Mj

fudkyus dh fpUrk,a¡ lh[kus ds lkFk drbZ U;k; ugÈ dj ikrÈA

fo"k; dh Kkuehekalk dh tfVyrk vkSj xgurk ls le>kSrk

djds] ge u dsoy ijh{kkvksa dks etkd cuk nsrs gSa] cfYd Lo;a

fo"k;] lh[kus vkSj Ldwyh ius esa os mi;qä xfrfof/k;ksa] d{kkvksa esa

ppkZ vkfn ls Nk=ksa dh enn dj ldrs gSa] rkfd os vFkZ'kkL=]

[k.M % n


ijh{kk,a¡ % foÜoluh;rk vkSj ifo=rk cgky djus dh vko';drk

laLd`fr] jktuhfr ds ijLij Nwusokys igyqvksa dh [kkst dj ldsa

vkSj ;g Hkh fd fdl rjg ;s gekjh igpku vkSj n`f"Vdks.k dks

fu/kkZfjr djrs gSaA nq[k dh ckr ;g gS fd bl fLFkfr esa lq/kkj vkSj

uhfr ifjorZu ugÈ gks jgs gSaA 'kgjh Hkkjr esa v/;kiu og O;olk;

gS ftlesa vf/kd yksx ugÈ tkuk pkgrs gSa] D;ksafd blesa lcls de

osru feyrk gS] vkSj bldk migkl mM+k;k tkrk gS vkSj fuUnk Hkh

dh tkrh gS] blfy, ;g vkÜp;Z dh ckr ugÈ gS fd f'k{k.k esa

lcls vPNh çfrHkk,a¡ ;gk¡ ugÈ feyrÈA ijUrq] xzkeh.k fgLlksa esa

ifjfLFkfr;k¡ fHké gSaA ogk¡ eqík f'k{kdksa dh rS;kjh esa vkSj mUgsa

çsfjr djus esa deh dk vf/kd gSA

ij Nk=ksa dks ruko ls eqä djus vkSj muds eu

ls ijh{kk dk Mj fudkyus dh fpUrk,a¡ lh[kus ds

lkFk drbZ U;k; ugÈ dj ikrÈA fo"k; dh

Kkuehekalk dh tfVyrk vkSj xgurk ls

le>kSrk djds] ge u dsoy ijh{kkvksa dks

etkd cuk nsrs gSa] cfYd Lo;a fo"k;] lh[kus

vkSj Ldwyh is yxrk gS fd f'k{k.k&v/;;u esa

,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk djrk gSA gkyk¡fd dqN Lrjksa ij

mudk bjknk d{kkvksa esa gksus okyh i


ijh{kk,a¡ % foÜoluh;rk vkSj ifo=rk cgky djus dh vko';drk

lUnHkZ fVIif.k;k¡a

1- *vlQy ukxfjdrk* ds vf/kd mnkgj.kksa ds fy, dkafr cktis;h dk n VkbEl vkWWQ+ bf.M;k esa 29 ebZ 2010 dks çdkf'kr ys[k *n fefMy ,.M vnj

Dyklst+* ns[ksaA

2- ikBîØe vkSj fn'kk funZs'kksa ij flQZ ,d ckj n`f"V Mkyus ls ;g Li"V gks tk,xk fd Vh,u,ech vkSj vkbZlh,lbZ ijh{kk ds çÜui= cukus

ij fdl çdkj dh ikcfUn;ka¡ ykxw djrs gSaA http://www.cisce.org/data/Syllabus%20for%20ICSE%202011/history.pdf vkSj

http://www.tn.gov.in/matricsyllabus/blueprint/matric_QandB.pdf isTk 49 nsf[k,A

3- http://cbse.nic.in/ ij lkekftd foKku ds fy, *uewuk çÜu i= vkSj ewY;kadu ;kstuk* okyk [k.M nsf[k, ¼vdknfed o"kZ 2010&2011 ds fy,

bls dqN gn rd cnyk x;k gS½

4- okLro esa dksbZ cPpk d{kk ds vUnj ;k ckgj tks dqN Hkh djrk gS mldh tk¡p gksrh gSA fn, x, fn'kk funZs'kksa ls ,slk le> esa vkrk gS fd x`gdk;Z

vkSj d{kk&dk;Z dk Hkh ewY;kadu fd;k tkuk gSA ,d Lrj ij eq>s yxrk gS fd ,slk djuk vifjgk;Z gks tkrk gS] D;ksafd vkSj fdl rjg dksbZ fdlh

Nk= ds x`g dk;Z vkSj d{kk dk;Z dh miyfC/k dk yxkrkj ewY;kadu djsxk tSlk fd ubZ O;oLFkk ek¡x djrh gS\ bl vFkZ esa ;g mŸkh.kZ gksus ds

çfr'krksa dks c dh odkyr djrh gSaA dbZ f'k{kdksa dh bu lhekvksa dks ns[krs gq,] fd tc os Lo;a Nk= Fks rc mUgksaus bfrgkl dks ljyhd`r vkSj jktuSfrd

vk[;ku ds n`f"Vdks.k ls i


ijh{kk,a¡ % foÜoluh;rk vkSj ifo=rk cgky djus dh vko';drk

fyLV ds tfj, ekik tk ldsA f'k{k.k vkSj v/;;u ,d O;fäijd vuqHko tSlk vf/kd gSA ;gk¡ dksbZ bl ckr ls bUdkj ugÈ dj jgk gS

fd lh[ks gq, Kku dks ekius vkSj mlds ewY;kadu dh vko';drk gS ysfdu blds fy, ekin.M r; djus dk dke Lo;a f'k{kdksa ij gh

NksM+ fn;k tkuk pkfg,A ns[ksa http://www.historicalmind.com/2009/06/indian-exams-patently-fraudulent-and.html vkSj

http://www.historicalmind.com/2010/05/cbses-continuous-and-comprehensive.html

vkj ,l d`".kk fiNys 13 o"kks± ls caxykSj vkSj mlds vklikl ds Ldwyksa esa v/;kiu dj jgs gSaA os gky gh esa rfeyukMq ds

gkslwj esa Vhoh,l ,dsMeh pys x, gSa tgk¡ os 'kks/k ij /;ku dsfUær dj jgs gSaA vius v/;kiu dky esa mudk çeq[k tksj

bfrgkl v/;kiu dks ç;ksxe; vkSj çklafxd cukus ij jgk gSA d{kkvksa esa vius dk;Z ds vk/kkj ij mUgksaus ,d osclkbV

http://www.historicalmind.com cukbZ gS ftlesa mUgksaus Hkkjr ds Ldwyksa ds lkeus vkus okyh çeq[k pqukSfr;ksa vkSj eqíksa ij

vius fopkjksa dks Hkh 'kkfey fd;k gSA mUgksaus gSnjkckn ds dsUnzh; foÜofo|ky; ls ekWMuZ bf.M;u fgLVªh esa ekLVlZ vkSj

ubZ fnYyh ds ts,u;w ls ekWMuZ bf.M;u fgLVªh esa ,e- fQy dh mikf/k;ka¡ gkfly dh gSaA muls bl

krishna@historicalmind.com bZesy irs ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

[k.M % n

i`"B la% 127


vkdyu esa çkstsDV] {ks= dk;Z vkSj [kkst dh Hkwfedk

Jhi.kkZ

**gj egRoiw.kZ pht fxuh ugÈ tk ldrh] vkSj gj fxuh tk ldus

okyh pht egRoiw.kZ ugÈ gksrhA**

,d vuqHko

lk

& vycVZ vkbaLVhu

ekftd v/;;u dk ,d ikB 'kq: gksrk gS nl lky dh

mez ds NksVs cPpksa dh] xzkeh.k egkjk"Vª dh ml igkM+h ls

uhps dh iSny ;k=k ls] ftl ij mudk Ldwy fLFkr gSA

os uhps xk¡o dh vksj tk jgs gSa tgka¡ mUgsa ml unh dk v/;;u

djuk gS tks dbZ rjg ls muds thou dk fgLlk gSA mudk dke

d{kk esa gh 'kq: gks x;k Fkk tc muls iqLrdky; esa miyC/k

iqLrdksa ls ml unh ds lgh&lgh ekxZ dks fpfUgr djus ds fy,

dgk x;k FkkA vc mUgsa blls vf/kd utnhdh lEcU/k LFkkfir

djus dk ç;kl djuk gS% unh esa vkSj mlds vkl&ikl ekStwn

tho&tUrqvksa ¼fofHké çdkj dh eNfy;k¡] fpfM+;k,¡] mHk;pj

vkSj ljhl`i½] vkSj mu eNqvkjksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh gkfly

djuk ftudk thou bl unh ds bnZ&fxnZ ?kwerk gSA mUgsa ,d

fnypLi rF; dk irk pyrk gS fd xk¡o esa LFkkbZ rkSj ij jgus

okys LFkkuh; eNqvkjksa ds vykok] dqN ,sls eNqvkjs Hkh gSa tks gj

o"kZ vk¡/kz çns'k ls ;gk¡ vkrs gSa vkSj ikuh esa >Èxk eNfy;ka¡ vkSj

dsadM+s NksM+rs gSaA os mUgsa dqN eghus unh esa iuius nsrs gSa] vkSj

tc os iwjh rjg cM+s gks tkrs gSa rks os mUgsa idM+us okil vkrs gSa

vkSj fQj mUgsa nwljs jkT;ksa esa Hkst nsrs gSa vkSj bl rjg mUgsa cM+k

equkQk gkfly gksrk gSA bl lqulku bykds esa bl rjg

Qy&Qwy jgs m|e ds lapkyu dh O;oLFkk mu lc cPpksa ds

fy, ,d vkÜp;Ztud jgL;ksn~?kkVu gSA bu çoklh eNqvkjksa ds

ifjokjokyksa }kjk rVksa ij yxk, x, vLFkkbZ uhys rEcqvksa ls

mudh bl m|ferk dh fnypLi dgkuh ds ckjs esa cgqr de

tkudkjh feyrh gS] ftlds ckjs esa igkM+h ds Åij jg jgs yksx Hkh

vc rd vutku FksA cPps bu eNqvkjksa ds ?kjksa esa tkrs gSa( LFkku

ifjorZu djus ds nkSjku muds thou] la?k"kks± vkSj [kqf'k;ksa ds ckjs

esa irk djrs gSa tks fdlh Hkh rjg ls dksbZ ikBîiqLrd ugÈ le>k

ldrh FkhA os ;g Hkh irk djrs gSa fd nwljs jkT; ls [kkl ekSleksa

esa vkus okys bu eNqvkjksa dk LFkkuh; yksxksa ds lkekftd vkSj

vkfFkZd thou ij D;k vlj iM+rk gSA dqN cPps eNyh idM+us

ds ckjs esa uSfrd n`f"V ls çÜu iwNrs gSa] gkyka¡fd mUgsa ;g vglkl

gS fd vusd yksxksa dk thou bl ij fuHkZj djrk gSA

blds ckn] os unh ij cus ck¡/k dks utnhd ls ns[krs gSa] ;g ns[kus

ds fy, fd og fdl rjg dke djrk gSA mlds LFkkuh;

i`"B la% 128

bathfu;j ls lk{kkRdkj djus ls

mUgsa irk pyrk gS fd bl {ks= esa

bl ck¡/k dh D;k vko';drk gS]

blls fdruh fctyh iSnk gksrh

gS] xk¡o okyksa ls gq, la?k"kZ dh

nkLrku] vkSj ;g Hkh fd fdl

rjg bl ck¡/k dks cukus ds

f[kykQ nl o"kks± rd vkUnksyu pyk;k x;kA vUr esa lHkh ;g

le> tkrs gSa fd ck¡/k dh dgkuh bruh vklku ugÈ gSA ck¡/k cuus

ls vkf[kjdkj yksx foLFkkfir gq, Fks vkSj mlds dkj.k ,d iwjk

xk¡o ikuh esa lek x;k FkkA gkyk¡fd bathfu;j mUgsa ;g crkus dk

ç;kl djrk gS fd foLFkkfir yksxksa dks i;kZIr :i ls eqvkotk

fn;k x;k Fkk] vkSj bl ck¡/k dks cuk, tkus ds Qk;ns LFkkuh;

yksxksa dks gq, uqdlku ls dgÈ vf/kd Fks] fQj Hkh NksVs cPps rd

;g le> tkrs gSa fd bl dgkuh esa blds vkxs vkSj Hkh dbZ igyw

tqM+s gSaA os LFkkuh; xk¡ookyksa ls feyus dk QSlyk djrs gSa ftuesa

ls dqN muds Ldwy esa dke djus okys deZpkjh Hkh gSaA muls gqbZ

ckrphr ls mUgsa bl dgkuh dk iwjh rjg ls fHké igyw irk

pyrk gSA og dgkuh ftlesa viuk ?kj vkSj tehu [kksus dh]

ljdkj us tks oknk fd;k Fkk oSlk eqvkotk u feyus dh] ;k fQj

mudh iqjkuh tehu dh rqyuk esa de xq.koŸkk okyh tehu feyus

dh] ukjktxh vkSj grk'kk gSA utnhd cgus okyh unh ls feyh

bu ubZ tkudkfj;ksa ls mRlkfgr gksdj Nk= fu.kZ; djrs gSa fd os

viuh [kkst dks fjiksVks±] fp=ksa] çsfjr js[kkaduksa vkSj lk{kkRdkjksa ds

tfj, ckdh Ldwy ds lkFk lk>k djsaxsA

fdlh ,slh xfrfof/k dks djus dk D;k ewY; gS ftls

lgh&lgh vkSj i;kZIr :i ls ekik ugÈ tk lds\ ,d

,sls ns'k esa tgk¡ vkdyudk bfrgkl çk;% ikjEifjd

dkxt&dye okyh ijh{kk dk jgk gS] ;g iwNuk

LokHkkfod gS fd D;k çkstsDVksa] {ks= dk;Z vkSj ,sls

vU; vuqHkoksa dk vkdyudjus dh xqatkb'k gS\

bl ;k=k dh miyfC/k dks /;ku esa j[krs gq,] ml çÜu ij fopkj

djrs gq, tks fo"k; ds :i esa fy[kus dks fn;k x;k gS] eq>s ;g

vglkl gksrk gS fd eq>s viuh ckr dks Hkh lUnHkZ ls tksM+uk gksxk

D;ksafd eSa ,d ,sls lalkj esa jgrh gw¡ tgk¡ gj pht ekih tkrh gSA

[k.M % n


vkdyu esa çkstsDV] {ks= dk;Z vkSj [kkst dh Hkwfedk

fdlh ,slh xfrfof/k dks djus dk D;k ewY; gS ftls lgh&lgh

vkSj i;kZIr :i ls ekik ugÈ tk lds\ ,d ,sls ns'k esa tgk¡

vkdyu dk bfrgkl çk;% ikjEifjd dkxt&dye okyh ijh{kk

dk jgk gS] ;g iwNuk LokHkkfod gS fd D;k çkstsDVksa] {ks= dk;Z

vkSj ,sls vU; vuqHkoksa dk vkdyu djus dh xqatkb'k gS\ D;k ;g

vkdyu vkSipkfjd ijh{kkvksa ls gks ldrk gS] ;k fQj gesa vkSj

vf/kd çkekf.kd] lesfdr vkSj lexz :ih vkdyu rduhdksa dh

vko';drk gS rkfd Nk= ds lh[kus dk Bhd vkdyu gks lds\

ewY;

Åij fn, x, vuqHko ds lUnHkZ esa fopkj djsa rks ;g loky iwNk

tk ldrk gS fd blus Nk=ksa ds lh[kus ds vuqHko dks fdl rjg

le`) fd;k\ {ks= Hkze.k ls mUgsa ,d ,slk çkekf.kd vuqHko feyk

ftlus mudh #fp dks txk;k] mUgsa ck¡/ks j[kk vkSj mudh

ftKklk dks c dh çnf'kZr xgjkbZ] vkSj lh[kus dh

vuojr çfØ;k esa gq, ;ksxnkuksa dks cuk;k tk ldrk gSA Nk=ksa

dk O;fäxr rkSj ij vkdyu fd;k Hkh tk ldrk gS vkSj ugÈ

HkhA lcls egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd çkstsDV] Nk=ksa dks vius Lo;a

ds fopkjksa vkSj rdks± ij euu djus] vkykspukRed


vkdyu esa çkstsDV] {ks= dk;Z vkSj [kkst dh Hkwfedk

vkdyu dks mldh lR;rk] çLrqr fo"k;oLrq dh xgjkbZ vkSj

le>] lkexzh dh tekoV] lkspus vkSj lEçs"k.k ds dkS'ky]

ekSf[kd vkSj fyf[kr çLrqfrdj.k] foÜys"k.k vkSj mi;ksx] vkSj

vUr esa] fdUrq tks drbZ de egRoiw.kZ ugÈ gS] lewg esa dke djus

ds fy, vko';d dkS'kyksa] ds vk/kkj ij fofHké fVIif.k;ksa ds :i

esa ntZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

lh[kus ds vU; igyqvksa ds fy, blh çdkj dh fVIif.k;ksa vkSj

ekin.Mksa dk mi;ksx djds ge fdlh Hkh xfrfof/k dk dkQh

vljnkj s vkdyu ls yxHkx vifjgk;Z :i ls tqM+s ekiu ds

ckjs esa dqN nwljs cM+s çÜuksa dh vksj ys tkrk gS ftUgsa iwNuk

lkFkZd gks ldrk gS%

iwNs tkus okys çÜu




D;k ekiu ges'kk cgqr LFkwy gksrk gS\ yksxksa ds joS;ksa vkSj

n`f"Vdks.kksa dks] rFkk laosnu'khyrk] oLrqijdrk] lekuqHkwfr

tSls xq.kksa dks dksbZ dSls uki ldrk gS\D;k ,slh vewrZ phtsa

fdlh vuqHko ds rqjUr ckn lkeus vkrh gSa ;k fQj thou esa

dqN le; ckn buds lkeus vkus dh lEHkkouk jgrh gS\

vkf[kjdkj pfj= dk fodkl ,d gh fnu esa rks ugÈ gksrkA

D;k igys ls] iwjh rjg vuqekfur dksbZ ifj.kke ges'kk lEHko

gS] ;k fQj okaNuh; gS\;g ckr bl ekU;rk ds lkFk tqM+h gS

fd fdlh iw.kZr;k O;ofLFkr ;kstuk ls iwoZ vuqekfur

ifj.kke fudyuk lqfufÜpr gSA ;g /kkj.kk u rks lh[kus dh

çfØ;k esa fufgr fofHké dkjdksa ij /;ku nsrh gS] vkSj u gh

y{;ksa vkSj mís';ksa dks muds çkjEHk esa fu;ksftr Lo:i ls

dHkh&dHkkj vkxs tkus dh dksbZ xqatkb'k NksM+rh gSA

iwokZuqeku vkSj lVhd O;oLFkk ls fl[kkus ;k lh[kus dh

çfØ;k esa jpukRedrk vkSj lgt LQwrZrk ds fy, cgqr de

txg cprh gSA fcYkdqy lVhd fVIi.kh ij xkSj djrs gq,

ge vUrr% bl i'kksis'k esa iM+ tkrs gSa fd D;k okdbZ

f'k{k.k&v/;;u dh çfØ;k bruh jSf[kd gS\

i`"B la% 130







dksbZ bl lksp fopkj esa Hkh iM+ ldrk gS fd D;k gj ckr ds

fglkc&fdrkc dks bruh xEHkhjrk ls ys fy;k x;k gS fd

f'k{kd ;k fQj lh[kus okys dh {kerk ds fy, tjk Hkh

volj ugÈ NksM+k x;k fd og iwNrkN dks oSlh fn'kk vkSj

xgjkbZ ns lds tSlh og pkgrk gSA

D;k lcls vPNh fVIi.kh Hkh cPpksa ds efLr"d esa lwpukvksa

ds xzg.k fd, tkus vkSj lekfgr fd, tkus ds rjhds dh

tfVyrkvksa dks idM+ ldrh gS\dkSu tkurk gS fd lh[kus

dh çfØ;k ds nkSjku cPps ds efLr"d esa D;k py jgk gksrk

gS\

jpukRedrk **vkmV vkWWQ n ckWDl ¼lkspus ds c¡/ks&c¡/kk,

rjhdksa ls vkxs tkdj½**lkspus ls tqM+h gS] vkSj fVIi.kh

¼:fczd½ lkspus dk ,d vkSj ,slk c¡/kk gqvk rjhdk gS tks

vuqekfur vkSj okaNuh; ifj.kkeksa dks fu:fir djus ds fy,

cuk;k x;k gSA

D;k vkdyu dk lcls vPNk Lo:i Hkh dHkh fdlh

xfrfof/k dks tk;t Bgjk ldrk gS\D;k ge çkstsDV dks

lh[kus ds ,sls rjhds ds :i esa ns[krs gSa tks vius vUrfuZfgr

ewY; ds dkj.k ewY;oku gS] ;k flQZ blfy, ewY;oku gS

D;ksafd lh[kus ds lcwr ds rkSj ij bldk i;kZIr :i ls

vkdyu fd;k tk ldrk gS\ vQlksl! ge lh[kus dh

çfØ;k dks ,dne lgh 'kCnksa esa idM+us dk ftruk vf/kd

ç;kl djrs gSa mruk gh mldk tknw vkSj jgL; xqe gksrk

tkrk gS!

,d vf/kd nk'kZfud Lrj ij] ge vUr esa] tokcnsgh ds

lkFk jk"Vªh; tquwu ds ckjs esa iwN ldrs gSa% D;k ge dke ds

ifj.kke dk Bhd vkdyu djus ds fy, u,&u,


vkdyu esa çkstsDV] {ks= dk;Z vkSj [kkst dh Hkwfedk

lh[kus dh çfØ;k dk tknw vkSj peRdkj vuNqvk cp

ldrk gS\

ftczku us dgk gS] **vki mUgsa viuk I;kj ns ldrs gSa fdUrq vius

fopkj ugÈA D;ksafd muds Lo;a ds fopkj gksrs gSaA vki muds

'kjhj dks ?kj ns ldrs gSa ysfdu mudh vkRekvksa dks ugÈ D;ksafd

mudh vkRek,a¡ dy ds ?kjksa esa fuokl djrh gSa] ftlesa vki ugÈ

tk ldrs] vius LoIu esa Hkh ugÈA**

cPpksa dks muds pkjksa vksj QSys thou ds }kjk fn, tk jgs vuqHkoksa

dk lgh&lgh vkdyu djus dk ç;kl djrs le; gesa gj cPps

dh & cM+ksa] tks ifj.kkeksa dks ifjiw.kZrk ls fu;ksftr djrs gq,

çrhr gksrs gSa] ds çHkko dh enn ls ;k mlds fcuk gh & phtksa dh

viuh jrkj ls viuh le> fodflr djus dh] vkSj viuk

oSfÜod n`f"Vdks.k jpus dh lEHkkfor {kerk ds çfr viuk

efLr"d [kqyk j[kus dh l[r t:jr gSA flQZ vfUre ifj.kke ds

:Ik esa fn[kus okys vkSj iwoZ vuqekfur lcwr ds ek/;e ls ?kVus ds

ctk;] lh[kus dk mRlo mlds ekxZ ij pyus ds lkFk&lkFk

?kVrk gS!

v/;;u ds fy,

1- http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htmhttp://www.bie.org-

çkstsDV csLM yfuZax QkWj n 21LV lSapqjh

vkWWFksfUVd vlSLeSaV VwyckWDl

2-

3- http://pbl-online.org-

çkstsDV csLM yfuZax

4- http://online.org/article.asp?issue=9&article= 7- dfjdqye QkWj ,su ,sUDok;fjax ekb.M

5- http://online.org/article.asp?issue=11&article= 7- iLiSZfDVZo vkWWu VSfLVax

Jhi.kkZ ts-d`".kewfrZ Qkm.Ms'ku Ldwy esa foxr 15 o"kks± ls lkekftd v/;;u vkSj vaxzsth dk v/;kiu djrh jgh gSaA os

ikBîØe ds fodkl vkSj f'k{kdksa ds çf'k{k.k ls Hkh tqM+h jgh gSaA bl le; os vt+he çseth Qkm.Ms'ku esa ,dMsfeDl ,.M

isMkxksth lewg esa dk;Zjr gSaA gky gh esa fMftVy ek/;e ds çfr mudh #fp fodflr gqbZ gS vkSj mUgsa yxrk gS fd lh[kus ds

jpukRed lalk/kuksa ls v/;kiu&dyk esa cnyko yk;k tk ldrk gSA muls bl sriparna@azimpremjifoundation.org

bZesy ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

[k.M % n

i`"B la% 131


[k M b

dqN O;fDrxr vuqHko


^^vuqi;ksxh** gksus dk egRo

/kuoUrh uk;d

D

;k vkidks vius thou dk og le; ;kn gS tc vki ,d

pht djuk pkgrs Fks] vkSj vkidk ifjokj pkgrk Fkk fd

vki dqN vkSj djsaA vkius bl ckr dk tcjnLr çfrjks/k

fd;k] vkidks lq/kjus ds fy, etcwj fd;k x;k] vkius fQj

foæksg fd;k vkSj dM+okgV ls Hkjdj vki ;g lkspus yxs fd

lalkj vkids f[kykQ gS\ D;k vkidks nwljksa ds }kjk ;g crk;k

tkuk ;kn gS fd tks vki djuk pkgrs Fks og **vuqi;ksxh** Fkk\

fufÜpr gh vkidks ;g lc ;kn gksxk D;ksafd O;ogkfjd :i ls

ns[ksa rks blh dks fd'kksjkoLFkk dgrs gSaA

esjs vkSj esjs dbZ nksLrksa us 70 vkSj 80 ds n'kd dh rRdkyhu

cEcbZ esa cM+s gksus ds nkSj esa ftl nqfu;k dk vuqHko fd;k mlesa

lHkh rjg ds yksx 'kkfey FksA geus muds lkFk [kqf'k;k¡ eukuk

rFkk muds nq[k ck¡Vuk lh[kkA lCth cspus okys] ?kjsyw ckb;k¡]

nw/kokys] /kksch] ;s lc gekjh nsgjh ij vkrs Fks vkSj vius lkFk ml

nqfu;k dks ykrs Fks ftls ge muds fdLls&dgkfu;ksa] okrkZykiksa

vkSj laoknksa }kjk tku ikrs FksA ge lkoZtfud ;krk;kr lk/kuksa

ls Ldwy tkrs Fks vkSj jkLrs esa gesa ,slh vU; phtksa dk Hkh vuqHko

gksrk Fkk] tks lalkj esa yksxksa ds lkFk O;ogkfjd lEcU/kksa esa gekjs

fy,] [kklrkSj ij efgyk gksus ds ukrs] mruh gh egRoiw.kZ FkÈ

ftruh i


^^vuqi;ksxh** gksus dk egRo

vuqHko gkfly djrk gS] mlh çdkj] rdZ fn;k tk ldrk gS fd]

gekjs foKku vkSj mrus gh gekjs thou Hkh ekufodh ds fo"k;ksa ds

ek/;e ls gh okLro esa lkekftd vkSj xgjs vFkks± esa ekuoh; curs

gSaA

rks ,slh nqfu;k esa] tks fujUrj gesa ,d&nwljs ls

vyx djrh tk jgh gS vkSj gesa fofo/krk dk

vuqHko ugÈ djus nsrh] mnkj dykfo"k; vkSj Hkh

egRoiw.kZ gks tkrs gSaA os O;fä;ksa dh gSfl;r ls

c`gn nqfu;k ds lkFk gksus okys gekjs

fØ;kdykiksa esa gekjh enn djrs gSaA os vU;

foÜon'kZuksa vkSj fHké n`f"Vdks.kksa ls gesa ifjfpr

djkrs gSaA os gesa ;g Hkh ;kn fnykrs gSa fd

bathfu;jksa] MkWDVjksa] ys[kkdkjksa] f'k{kdksa ds :i

esa] vkSj fufÜpr gh lHkh xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj is'kksa esa]

vkSj bruk gh fo}kuksa ds :i esa Hkh] gekjs thou

ds gj iy gekjs vkSj nqfu;k ds chp ,sls vVwV

lEcU/k gksrs gSa ftUgsa vuns[kk djds ge dsoy

viuk vfu"V gh dj ldrs gSaA

mnkjoknh dyk fo"k;ksa dh c`gn Hkwfedk dh flQkfj'k vU; yksxksa

us Hkh dh gS] vkSj dkQh vPNh rjg dh gSA blds i{k esa fn, x,

rdZ gSa fd os loZ&larqfyr ukxfjd leqnk; fodflr djrs gSa]

leh{kkRed lksp vkSj lkoZtfud ppkZ dks çksRlkfgr djrs gSa vkSj

thou ds la?k"kZ esa gekjh flQZ viuh gh ugÈ cfYd nwljksa dh

vHkhIlkvksa dks Hkh le>us esa lgk;d gksrs gSaA bu lHkh 'kkunkj

[kwfc;ksa ds ckotwn] tks mnkjoknh dyk fo"k;ksa esa feyh f'k{kk ls

fodflr gksrh gSa] ;s fo"k; ekuks cM+s Hkkb;ksa foKku vkSj ;kaf=dh

¼vkSj lkSrsys HkkbZ çcU/ku½ }kjk tcju /kdsys tkdj gekjs

f'k{kkra=ksa ls ckgj fd, tk jgs gSaA gekjs ;qokvksa dks vkSj Hkh de

mez esa fof'k"V çdkj dh f'k{kk fey jgh gS & bldk lcls vPNk

¼;k lcls [kjkc] ;g vkids n`f"Vdks.k ij fuHkZj djrk gS½

mnkgj.k gS fd vc Lukrd&iwoZ Lrj ij gh O;kolkf;d çcU/ku

esa fMxzh çnku dh tk jgh gS] tks Lo;a f'k{kk dks gh ,d etkd

cuk nsrk gSA ij ;s mnkjoknh dyk fo"k; gh gSa tks fdlh u fdlh

rjhds ls f'k{kk ls ckgj fd, tk jgs gSaA tcfd ;g lkQ fn[krk

gS fd vkt gesa mudh] de ugÈ] T;knk t:jr gSA

i`"B la% 134

nqHkkZX; ls] dkedkth nqfu;k dh vko';drkvksa

dh iwfrZ djus ds ç;kl esa] f'k{kk dh nqfu;k ¼;k

vki dg ldrs gSa] fopkjksa dh nqfu;k tgk¡ Kku

dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS½ l{ke cuus ds ç;kl esa vius

Åij lkekftd :i ls vkSj Hkh vf/kd dVk gqvk

ikBîØe rFkk vkykspukjfgr f'k{kk i)fr ykxw

djds vius dks csgrj cukus dk ç;kl djrh gSA

f'k{kk esa lkekftd foKkuksa dks 'kkfey djus ds cM+s ykHk gSa]

ysfdu lkekftd foKkuksa dks i


^^vuqi;ksxh** gksus dk egRo

¼ets dh ckr ;g gS fd foKku vkSj rduhdh Lukrdksa ds ckjs esa

Hkh mldk ;gh [k;ky gksrk gS] ysfdu mUgsa fdlh rjg laxBuksa esa

[kik fy;k tkrk gS½A

mnkjoknh dyk fo"k;ksa ds cpko esa dbZ nyhysa vU; fo"k;ksa dh

i`"BHkwfe;ksa okys fo}kuksa us Hkh nh gSa] ijUrq tjk ns[ksa fd ,sls ,d

'kqHkfpUrd ysfdu Hkzfer fVIi.khdkj] fdlh NksVs&eksVs ek/;e esa

ugÈ] cfYd U;w;kWdZ VkbEl esa ekufodh fo"k;ksa dk i{k j[kus dk

ç;kl djrs gq, D;k dgrs gSa% **vkids ikl fojkV 'kfä gksxh ;fn

vki nrj esa og O;fä gSa tks ,d Li"V vkSj laf{kIr eseks fy[k

ldrk gSA** bl ckr dks

,d rjQ NksM+dj fd

dksbZ Hkh ekufodh fo"k;ksa

dk v/;;u blfy, ugÈ

djrk fd og vPNk eseks

fy[kus dk lansgkLin

dkS'ky gkfly dj lds]

cM+k eqík ;g gS fd

dkedkth nqfu;k

mnkjoknh dyk fo"k;ksa ds

fo'kky Kkuk/kkj dks

lesVdj flQZ dqN

**dkS'kyksa** ¼cfYd **gYds dkS'kyksa**] tks vkSj Hkh cqjk gS½ rd

lhfer djds gekjs çfr cgqr cM+k vU;k; djrh gSA dkedkth

nqfu;k **dkS'ky lewgksa** vkSj **ifj.kke nsus okyh** ;ksX;rk dh

ek¡x rks djrh gS] ij ;g ugÈ le>rh fd bUgsa csgrj cukus ds

fy, lHkh dks] de ugÈ] vkSj vf/kd mnkjoknh f'k{kk dh t:jr

gSA

nqHkkZX; ls] dkedkth nqfu;k dh vko';drkvksa dh iwfrZ djus ds

ç;kl esa] f'k{kk dh nqfu;k ¼;k vki dg ldrs gSa] fopkjksa dh

nqfu;k tgk¡ Kku dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS½ l{ke cuus ds ç;kl esa vius

Åij lkekftd :i ls vkSj Hkh vf/kd dVk gqvk ikBîØe rFkk

vkykspukjfgr f'k{kk i)fr ykxw djds vius dks csgrj cukus dk

ç;kl djrh gSA bl rjg dk lalkj ls dVk gqvk Kku fpfdRlk]

bathfu;fjax] çcU/ku] foKku vkfn {ks=ksa esa Hkh mruk gh O;kid

gSA ;s {ks= is'ksoj fo'ks"kK cukrs gSa tks fufÜpr :i ls fdlh ,d

fn'kk esa **çHkko'kkyh** gksrs gSa] ij ftudk Kku dbZ vU; fn'kkvksa

ls dVk gqvk vkSj vçklafxd gksrk gS & vçklafxd] D;ksafd os

yksxksa ds O;fäRo dh vkSj lekt esa lkekftd dh mis{kk djrs gSa(

vçklafxd] D;ksafd tks dqN mUgsa ius ds fy, fd, gSaA mUgsa

le>uk gksxk fd lekt ,d

tfVy ra= gS vkSj mls flQZ

bl ;k ml pht rd lhfer

dj nsuk rkRdkfyd n`f"V ls

ykHkdkjh gks ldrk gS] ij

vUrr% mlls gkfu gh gksxhA

lwpuk dh ckrs gSa] ds fy, Hkh vçklafxd gSA

pkgs gesa ftruk Hkh vçklafxd] Hkzfer djus okyk vkSj jgL;oknh

i`"B la% 135


^^vuqi;ksxh** gksus dk egRo

crk;k tk,] ij mnkjoknh dyk fo"k;ksa dh f'k{kk ds bl lalkj &

bl ØhM+ke; lalkj & esa gh fopkj tUers vkSj iksf"kr gksrs gSa]

vkn'kks± dk laj{k.k gksrk gS] vkSj çklafxdrk vkSj vçklafxdrk ds

lokyksa ij O;kid foe'kZ ds vUrxZr ppkZ vkSj cgl gksrh gS] tks

dHkh vewrZ :i ls vkSj dHkh lkoZtfud fgr ds lUnHkZ esa gksrh gSA

blh vFkZ esa tks lcls vf/kd vdknfed gS ogh lcls vf/kd

mi;ksxh Hkh gSA vc le; gS fd bl Hkkouk ds lkFk gh ge viuh

fd'kksjkoLFkk ds **vçklafxd** vkSj **vuqi;ksxh** vkn'kks± esa fQj

ls vkLFkk O;ä djsa D;ksafd 'kk;n vkt gesa mUgÈ dh t:jr gSA

/kuoUrh uk;d ,d ysf[kdk gSa ftUgksaus f'k{kk dh lh


lkekftd foKku &

thou ds fy, ,d fLizaxcksMZ

½pk Hkkoue

^l

ekt'kkL=* vkSj *euksfoKku*- bu nks 'kCnksa ds lkFk esjk

ukrk rc ls gh vkd"kZ.k vkSj lEeksgu ls Hkjk jgk gS] tc

eq>s muds ckjs esa cgqr /kqU/kyk&lk gh Kku FkkA njvly] lekt

ds ckjs esa] yksxksa ds ckjs esa rFkk muds fnekxksa] Hkkoukvksa vkSj

çfrfØ;kvksa ¼;g lc dqN@lewpk gh!½ ds ckjs esa v/;;u djus

dk [;ky dkQh csrqdk lk gSA vius thou ds çkjfEHkd 16 o"kks±

rd v¡xzsth vkSj xf.kr tSls fo"k; ius esa] vkSj fQj vius fopkjksa dks bl cqfu;knh le> ls vkxs

tkus nsus ds fy,] vkSj bl çdkj fofHké çlaxksa ds ckjs esa vius

vfHker vkSj fopkj fufeZr djus ds fy,A ;g çfØ;k ,d d{kk esa

'kq: gqbZ gkyk¡fd eq>s bldk Li"V Hkku ugÈ FkkA bl çdkj dh

lksp tks d{kk esa çkjEHk gqbZ] 'kq#vkr esa dqN ,slh Fkh ekuks fofHké

eqíksa dks vyx jks[ks esa ls >ka¡d jgh

Fkh( xgjkbZ ls lkspuk] ckrksa dks fHké jks'kfu;ksa ds ek/;e ls

ns[kuk] phtksa dks vyx p'eksa ls ns[kuk] vkSj lcls egRoiw.kZ

ckr] ;g le>uk fd fdlh Hkh ckr dks ysdj ges'kk gh cgqr lkjs

n`f"Vdks.k vkSj utfj, gksrs gSa] vkSj mu lHkh ds vius etcwr i{k

vkSj detksj i{k gksrs gSaA lkekU;r% fdlh Hkh eqís ;k ?kVuk dks

buesa ls flQZ fdlh ,d utfj, ls ns[kus ij le>k ;k le>k;k

ugÈ tk ldrkA D;ksafd ges'kk gh dksbZ nwljk utfj;k ,slk gksxk

ftlds vius ldkjkRed igyw gksaxs vkSj og Hkh mruk gh

foÜoluh; yxsxk ftruk fd igyk okykA

/khjs&/khjs] ;g n`f"Vdks.k esjh ftUnxh ds vU; fgLlksa esa Hkh ços'k

dj x;kA eSaus vius pkjksa vksj dh nqfu;k dks bl n`f"Vdks.k ds

ek/;e ls ns[kuk 'kq: dj fn;kA lM+d fdukjs clh >qfXx;k¡]

xxupqEch bekjrsa] lCth dk og Bsyk /kdkrh lCth okyh ftl

ij mldk cPpk Hkh cSBk gS] rM+d&HkM+d okys ekWy( eSa bl txr

dks mlds reke fojks/kkHkklksa ds ckotwn FkksM+k&cgqr le>us yxh

FkhA tYnh gh] eSaus bl n`f"Vdks.k ds tfj, ,slh ckrksa dks ns[kuk

i`"B la% 137


lkekftd foKku & thou ds fy, ,d fLizaxcksMZ

'kq: fd;k tks esjs fny ds T;knk djhc gSa & ?kj ds dqN igyw

ftudks eSa ges'kk fcuk dksbZ loky mBk, Lohdkj djrh vkbZ Fkh]

tSls fd fir`lŸkkRed rkdrsa] vc eq>s mHkj dj vius lkeus

fn[kus nsus yxs FksA iq#"k&ç/kku


lkekftd foKku & thou ds fy, ,d fLizaxcksMZ

gS vkSj lalkj :ih esjh ç;ksx'kkyk fcydqy lkeus gksrh gS & de

ls de bl lhek rd rks og bl :i esa dke djrh gS fd og

çs{k.k] vkSj dHkh&dHkh ikjLifjd fØ;kdyki }kjk tkudkjh

gkfly djus dh lqfo/kk nsrh gSA

lkekftd foKkuksa ls eq>esa rks fufÜpr gh

laosnu'khyrk vkbZ gSA tc eSa vius vklikl ns[krh gw¡]

rks eq>s gj rjg dh i`"BHkwfe;ksa okys yksx fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa]

vkSj lrgh s gj rjg dh i`"BHkwfe;ksa okys yksx

fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa] vkSj lrgh us esa enn feyh

gSA eq>s dkWyst esa lkekftd foKkuksa dks i


lkekftd foKkuksa us D;ksa eq>s dHkh vkdf"kZr ugh fd;k!

uhjtk jk?kou

^^b

frgkl lh[kus dk D;k mi;ksx gS\** ,d 13 o"kZ dh

yM+dh ds :i esa eSaus lcdh utjsa cpkrs gq, bl çÜu dks

çÜu cDls esa bl mEehn ds lkFk Mky fn;k fd esjh f'kf{kdk dk

bl ij jks'kuh Mkyus okyk mŸkj feysxkA muds eq¡g ij bl

çdkj dk çÜu iwNus dk nq%lkgl eq>esa ugÈ FkkA eSa vc Hkh ;kn

dj ldrh gw¡ fd dSls eSaus mRlqdrk ls cDls esa ls muds }kjk

vius çÜu ds fudkys tkus dk bUrtkj fd;k FkkA

ml fnu cDls esa us ds fy, eq>s vdsyk NksM+ fn;k x;k

Fkk( bldk ç;kl eSaus Ldwy ds vius vfUre fnuksa rd fd;k]

ysfdu dksbZ lQyrk ugÈ feyhA eSaus 13 o"kZ dh mez rd rks lHkh

fn, x, fo"k;ksa dks fouhr Hkko ls is vkxs fodYi pquus dh lEHkkouk fn[kkbZ nsus yxh rks eSaus

mudh mi;ksfxrk ij loky mBkuk 'kq: fd;kA

**tc dksbZ ckr lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj ge mlls fuiV tkrs gSa

rks fQj ge mls foLrkj lfgr ;kn djus dh ijs'kkuh D;ksa

mBk,¡a\** eSa ;g lksprh jgrhA foKku dk vkd"kZ.k bruk vf/kd

'kfä'kkyh Fkk fd fdlh dks mldh mi;ksfxrk ds ckjs esa eq>s

foÜokl fnykus dh t:jr ugÈ FkhA okdbZ esa eq>s ;kn ugÈ

iM+rk fd dHkh esjs lgikfB;ksa esa ls fdlh us Hkh foKku ds ckjs esa

;g loky iwNk gks fd **foKku is fdlh Hkh gky esas

fpfdRld ugÈ cuuk] rks eSa

esa


lkekftd foKkuksa us D;ksa eq>s dHkh vkdf"kZr ugh fd;k!

D;ksa vko';d çrhr gksrk Fkk\ ,d rks og vR;Ur çklafxd FkkA

dksbZ bl rF; dks udkj ugÈ ldrk FkkA fufÜpr gh gesa czºek.M

ds fu;eksa ds ckjs esa] yk, tk ldus okys cnykoksa ds ckjs esa] vkSj

gekjs vkl&ikl ds isM+&ikS/kksa vkSj tho&tUrqvksa ds ckjs esa tkuus

dh t:jr FkhA bldh rqyuk esa ikuhir dh yM+kbZ dh rkjh[kksa ;k

jktk v'kksd ds }kjk yk, x, ifjorZuksa ds ckjs esa lkspsa----- tEgkbZ!

geesa ls T;knk xqLrk[k Nk=ksa dks ;g iwNus dk eu gksrk Fkk fd

blds ctk; gekjh ekStwnk ljdkj ds }kjk yk, tk jgs ifjorZuksa

ds ckjs esa tkuuk D;k gekjs fy, T;knk vPNk ugÈ gksxkA

vkSj gk¡] foKku mi;ksxh FkkA mlus gesa bu lHkh phtksa dk irk

xf.kr dh fu;fer lajpuk,a¡] foKku dk lqUnj

rdkZ/kkj] vkSj mldh gekjs orZeku thouksa ls

vlfUnX/k lEc)rk( eq>s bfrgkl vkSj Hkwxksy esa

bu lHkh ckrksa dk vuqifLFkr gksuk ,dne

[kVdrk FkkA

yxkus esa enn dh] tSls nw/k [kÍk D;ksa gksrk gS] ikS/ks dSls o`f)

djrs gSa] vkSj fdlh ?kko dh iÍh dSls dh tkrh gSA mlus gesa

vf/kd O;ofLFkr vkSj vf/kd fu"d"kkZRed


lkekftd foKkuksa us D;ksa eq>s dHkh vkdf"kZr ugh fd;k!

bl çdkj bfrgkl vkSj Hkwxksy esjs fy, flQZ rF;ksa ds

,sls lewg Fks ftudks ;kn j[ks fcuk Hkh dksbZ O;fä

viuk thou dkQh vPNs ls fcrk ldrk gSA buesa

fu;fer lajpuk,a¡ dgk¡ FkÈ\ ço`fŸk;k¡\ gekjs vius

thouksa ds lkFk budk lEcU/k \ bu lc phtksa dk ;k

rks vfLrRo gh ugÈ Fkk ;k ;s mu


lkekftd foKku ds p'es ls tks eq>s feyk

fuf/k frokjh

,

d fnu] tc eSa f'keksxk ls xkM+h pykrs gq, ykSV jgh Fkh rks eSaus viuh uohure ifjdYiuk

vius ,d utnhdh fe= ls esjh FkksM+h cgl gks xbZA QylQs ds fy, lk{;ksa dh ryk'k 'kq:

ds nk;js esa ?kqlrs gq, ge yksxksa esa bl ckr ij cgl gks jgh dh

Fkh fd D;k thou esa */kwlj* tSlk dqN gksrk gSA cgl rc 'kq: gqbZ

tc eSaus mlds bl dFku ij xgjh vkifŸk trkbZ fd *esjs thou

esa */kwlj* tSlk dqN ugÈ gS] eSa ges'kk dkys vkSj lQsn esa thrk gw¡!*

blds vkxs og bl gn rd dg x;k% **eSa vius cPpksa dks dHkh

ugÈ fl[kkÅ¡xk fd thou esa /kwlj tSlk Hkh dqN gksrk gSA**

eSa vk'kk djrh gw¡ fd tc eSa */kwlj* 'kCn dk mi;ksx djrh gw¡ rks

vki mldk vFkZ le> jgs gksaxsA ;gk¡ /kwlj 'kCn ,sls fofHké

gkykrksa@lEcU/kksa@joS;ksa@vkpj.kksa dh vksj b'kkjk djrk gS tks

gekjs lkekU;r% ?kksf"kr ewY;ksa ds ?ksjs ls ckgj gksrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds

fy,] ;|fi lkoZtfud rkSj ij dksbZ Hkh ;g ugÈ dgrk fd

fjÜor ysuk lgh ckr gS] fQj Hkh fjÜor[kksjh Qy&Qwy jgh gS!

bl fojks/kkHkkl dks vki dSls nwj dj ldrs gSa\ *LoYi ,sMtLV

ekM+h-- ¼d`i;k FkksM+k lk le>kSrk dj ysa½* okyk joS;k bldk ,d

vkSj mnkgj.k gSA pkgs bls gkykrksa ij Mkysa ;k ifjfLFkfr;ksa ij

& gekjs Hkhrj dk /kwlj le;≤ ij lkeus vk tkrk gS &

pkgs ge bls Lohdkj djsa ;k u djsaA eSa ekurh gw¡ fd ;g

Lohdkjuk dfBu dke gS( blds fy, fgEer pkfg,A

eq>s ;g tkudj ?kksj vkÜp;Z gqvk fd bl nqfu;k esa ,sls O;fä Hkh

jgrs gSa tks bl ckr dks iwjh rjg ls utjvUnkt djrs gSa] ;k ,slk

foÜokl djrs gSa fd nqfu;k ds lkFk fd, tkus okys muds

vkpj.k@fopkj@esytksy esa dqN Hkh /kwlj ugÈ jgrkA vxys

200 fdeh rd eSa ekufld {kksHk esa xkM+h pykrh jgh vkSj ;g

vfoÜokl eq>s fopfyr djrk jgkA dbZ grksa ckn] vkf[kjdkj

*;wjsdk* (eSaus ik fy;k½ okyk ,d iy vk;k! D;k esjs vkSj esjs fe=

ds chp gqbZ vucu dh vlyh otg ;g rF; gks ldrk Fkk fd

og nqfu;k dks ns[kus ds fy, *foKku p'es* dk mi;ksx dj jgk

Fkk vkSj esjk p'ek lkekftd foKku dh i`"BHkwfe ls vksrçksr Fkk\

D;k vkidks ugÈ yxrk fd foKku ds fo"k; dgÈ T;knk fufÜpr]

Li"V] lgh&xyr] vkSj ,d fo'ks"k lhek rd iw.kZrk] çek.k vkSj

lekiu dh ek¡x djus okys {ks= gSa\ tcfd nwljh rjQ lkekftd

foKku esjs fglkc ls T;knk yphys] le>kSrkijd] vkSj fofHké

n`f"Vdks.kksa dks Lohdkj djus ds fy, jkth jgus okys fo"k; gSaA

eq>s yxrk gS fd ;g fo'ks"krk bl vUrtkZr foÜokl ls mitrh

gS fd dqN Hkh ije lR;@vlR; ugÈ gksrkA rks vUrj cl

vkidh vk¡[kksa ij pus ds çfr eSa csgn

ftKklq vkSj mRlqd Fkh( ;g fnekxh mFky&iqFky dkQh le;

rd ugÈ Fkeh] og esjs Ldwy rd] vkSj fQj lkekftd foKku dh

esjh f'kf{kdk rd Hkh igq¡phA vkSj mUgksaus phtksa dks lgh ifjçs{; esa

j[kus dk dke cgqr gh csgrjhu s ;g tkudj ?kksj vkÜp;Z gqvk fd bl nqfu;k esa

,sls O;fä Hkh jgrs gSa tks bl ckr dks iwjh rjg ls

utjvUnkt djrs gSa] ;k ,slk foÜokl djrs gSa fd

nqfu;k ds lkFk fd, tkus okys muds vkpj.k@

fopkj@esytksy esa dqN Hkh /kwlj ugÈ jgrkA

[k.M % b

i`"B la% 143


lkekftd foKku ds p'es ls tks eq>s feyk

mUgksaus CySdcksMZ ds dsUæ esa ,d xksyk [kÈpdj 'kq#vkr dhA

mUgksaus eq>s crk;k fd og xksyk nqfu;k FkhA fQj mUgksaus eq>ls

dgk fd eq>s tks&tks phtsa nqfu;k dk fgLlk yxrh gksa mUgsa eSa

xksys esa cuk nw¡A fdlh Hkh NksVs cPps dh rjg] eSaus ml xksys dks

ikuh] Hkwfe] igkM+ksa] yksxksa] vius ifjokj] esjs dqŸks] vkSj vU; phtksa

dks cukdj Hkj fn;kA eq>s vPNs ls ;kn gS fd eSaus ml xksys esa

Hkkjr fy[k fn;k FkkA vkSj fQj mUgksaus ml xksys dh ckbZa rjQ

,d NksVh ls vkd`fr cuk nh vkSj mldks *fuf/k* uke ns fn;kA

blds ckn mUgksaus nkbZa rjQ Hkh mlh s le>k;k fd eSa nqfu;k dk

,d gh fgLlk ns[k jgh Fkh vkSj mls mUgksaus *esjh nqfu;k* dgk]

tcfd og nwljk O;fä nqfu;k ds ,d vU; fgLls dks ns[k jgk

Fkk] vkSj bl rjg ge yksx ,d gh nqfu;k ds nks vyx&vyx

vk;ke ns[k jgs FksA os cksyÈ] fd leL;k ;gh FkhA yksx ,d gh

bekjr ¼efLtn vkSj efUnj½ esa fHké&fHké ;FkkFkZ ns[k jgs Fks vkSj

blhfy, os mls fxjkus ij vkeknk FksA ,d vkSj *;wjsdk* {k.k &

igyh ckj] eq>s vglkl gqvk fd ,d gh ?kVuk@vkpj.k dks

ysdj dfFkr rdkZ/kkjksa ds ihNs nks fcydqy vyx fopkj çfØ;k,a¡

gks ldrh gSaA

ml oä ;g ckr eq>s cgqr ?kcjk nsus okyh yxh Fkh fd ,slk Hkh

lEHko gS fd yksxksa ds nks lewg mUgÈ lR;ksa ds vius&vius

vyx&vyx laLdj.kksa dks ekurs gksa! cM+s gksus ij] vc ;g

vglkl djuk fd yksx vyx&vyx lUnHkks± ls lksprs o

vkpj.k djrs gSa] dgÈ T;knk Li"V vkSj egRoiw.kZ gks x;k gSA

gky gh esa eSa ,d usr`Ro dkslZ ds fy, vesfjdk xbZ Fkh vkSj ogk¡

gqbZ ,d ?kVuk us eq>s fQj ls chrs le; esa igq¡pk fn;kA ,d u;k

vuqHko esjs lkeus FkkA 60 fnuksa rd eSaus lqulku taxy esa dqN

vesfjdh ;qokvksa ds lkFk lq[k&lqfo/kkvksa ls jfgr dBksj ftUnxh

thA gekjs bl ny dh lkekftd xfrdh csgn pqukSrhiw.kZ FkhA

,d le; rks] os yksx esjh vknrksa vkSj esjh 'kCnkoyh ls Hkh f[ké

Fks & eSa gj ckr ds ckn *d`i;k* vkSj */kU;okn* ugÈ dgrh Fkh]

lEeku fn[kkus ds esjs s vius ny ds lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk

jgrs gq, fdlh Hkh rjg dh fnôr eglwl gksuk cUn gks xbZA eSaus

tku fy;k Fkk fd ge yksxksa ds chp njvly ,d lkaLd`frd

[kkbZ Fkh vkSj esjs ckjs esa mudh fVIif.k;ksa esa dqN Hkh O;fäxr ;k

nqHkkZoukiw.kZ ugÈ FkkA rks ;g ,d vkSj mnkgj.k gS fd fdl rjg

bl fo"k; dks i us eq>s ,slh ifjfLFkfr ds ckjs

esa Hkh iwjh rjg ls oLrqfu"B cuk fn;k tks ,d ukt+qd fLFkfr dgh

tk ldrh FkhA

oLrqfu"Brk vkSj vyx&vyx n`f"Vdks.kksa dh ckr djrs gq,] eq>s

Ldwy dh ,d thoUr Le`fr fo'ks"k :i ls ;kn vkrh gSA ukxfjd

'kkL= dh d{kk dh ,d fo'ks"krk Fkh fd vDlj fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk

csgn fooknkRed n`f"Vdks.k viuk fy, tkrs Fks & [kklrkSj ij

rc tc lalnh; yksdra= dh ckr gksrh FkhA Hkz"Vkpkj] pqukoksa]

vuSfrd jktuSfrd lkSnsckth] vkfn ds ckjs esa dfBu loky

mBk, tkrs FksA ij gekjh f'kf{kdk mu lHkh ckrksa dks cgqr

[kwclwjrh ls lEgkyrs gq, pyrh FkÈA vc lksprh gw¡ rks le> esa

vkrk gS fd mUgksaus ges'kk eqíksa dks ysdj gesa dksbZ mŸkj ugÈ fn,

cfYd ppkZvksa dks [kqyk jgus fn;kA ge vDlj] ;g dgrs gq,

mudh fuUnk djrs fd *mUgsa dksbZ u dksbZ #[k viukuk gh

pkfg,*A D;k gesa Hkh ;gh ugÈ fl[kk;k x;k Fkk\ fdlh Hkh eqís ij

,d #[k vf[r;kj dj ysuk] Ldwy esa & vkSj eSa dgw¡xh thou esa

Hkh & thfor jgus vkSj vkxs c


lkekftd foKku ds p'es ls tks eq>s feyk

vkneh D;k djrk jgrk FkkA cgqr lkjk oä rks eSa bl i'kksis'k esa

fcrkrh Fkh fd D;k iqjkus le; esa gj nwljk O;fä lSfud gqvk

djrk FkkA D;k mu fnuksa esa gekjs tSls lk/kkj.k euq"; Hkh gksrs Fks

& ;k fQj fd yksx dsoy Jsf"Btu] f'kYidkj] lSfud ;k fQj

czkEg.k gh gksrs Fks\ D;k yksx dsoy yM+kb;k¡ gh yM+rs Fks ;k fd

mUgsa 'kkfUriw.kZ thou thus dk ekSdk Hkh feyrk Fkk\ jktkvksa ds

O;fäRo ds *udkjkRed vU/ksjs* igyw ds ckjs esa bruk de D;ksa

lquus esa vkrk gS\ vDlj] bu ckrksa dks esjh dYiuk'kfä ij NksM+

fn;k tkrk Fkk vkSj esjh f'kf{kdk dh vksj ls cgqr FkksM+s ls ladsr

;k lq>ko feyrs FksA ij lqUnj ckr ;g Fkh fd esjh f'kf{kdk esjs

}kjk ubZ phtsa lh[kus vkSj muds eqrkfcd viuh fn'kk r; djus

ds çfr [kqyk joS;k j[krh FkÈA *,d lgh* vkSj *,d xyr* ds fy,

esjk etkd ugÈ cuk;k x;kA *lgh ckrksa* vkSj *xyr ckrksa* dh

;g Lohd`fr fofo/krk csgn çsj.kknk;h FkhA

eq>s viuh lkekftd v/;;u dh d{kk esa

lcls T;knk etk vkrk Fkk] D;ksafd mlesa

eq>s nks fHké vkSj ijLij fojks/kh n`f"Vdks.kksa

dk] cxSj muesa ls fdlh dh Hkh rjQnkjh

fd,] vFkZ le>us dk ekSdk feyrk FkkA

le; chrus ds lkFk] vius #[k@;k *lgh* vkSj *xyr* dh viuh

vo/kkj.kk dks mfpr Bgjkus dh t:jr de gksrh xbZA tSls tSls

o"kZ chrrs x,] vkSj eSaus dfBu çÜuksa] tSls ck¡/kksa dk fuekZ.k] ouksa

dk mUewyu] oU;thoksa dk f'kdkj] LFkkuh; yksxksa dk iquLFkkZiu

vkSj çkd`frd laj{k.k ls NsM+NkM+] ls tw>uk 'kq: fd;k rks esjh

lkekftd foKku dh is cgqr enn feyh( blls eSa

fofHké n`f"Vdks.kksa dks ljkgus vkSj mudk vknj djus esa leFkZ gks

ikbZA eSa fdlh ,d :f vkSj ij[k nsus okyh jgh gSA

fuf/k frokjh yxHkx fiNys ,d n'kd ls ehfM;k ,Moksdslh rFkk MkWD;wesaVs'ku xfrfof/k;ksa esa 'kkfey jgh gSaA Lora= ysf[kdk ds

:i esa mUgksaus i;kZoj.k] fodkl vkSj ukxfjdksa ds eqíksa ls lEc) dbZ jk"Vªh; o vUrjkZ"Vªh; çdk'kuksa esa ;ksxnku fn;k gSA orZeku esa

os vt+he çseth Qkm.Ms'ku ds ,Moksdslh ,.M dE;wfuds'ku lewg ds lkFk lykgdkj ds rkSj ij tqM+h gqbZ gSaA vius

uxj&vk/kkfjr dk;ks± ds vykok] os Lo;a ds }kjk 'kq: dh xbZ ,d ikfjfLFkfrd&i;ZVu igy ds ek/;e ls dukZVd dh 'kjkorh

?kkVh ds LFkkuh; leqnk;ksa ds lkFk fudVrk ls tqMdj dk;Z djrh gSaA muls bl nidhi@azimpremjifoundation.org bZesy irs

ij lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

[k.M % b

i`"B la% 145


frgkl us gekjh nqfu;k dks 'kDy nh gS !

xqjehr dkSj vkSj efjve lkfgc

t

c ge cPps Fks rks gekjs fcydqy fudV dk ifjos'k gh

gekjh nqfu;k FkhA os bfrgkl ds gekjs ikB gh Fks ftuds

ek/;e ls geus ml nqfu;k dh isphnfx;ksa dks tkuuk&le>uk

'kq: fd;k ftls geus dHkh ns[kk gh ugÈ FkkA NksVh mez ls gh gesa

gekjh viuh laLd`fr ls fHké lkaLd`frd] çkphu felzokfl;ksa ls

ysdj okbZfdaXt+ ¼LdSfUMusfo;kbZ leqæh yM+kds½ rd] ds ckjs esa

i


frgkl us gekjh nqfu;k dks 'kDy nh gS !

tkudkjh ij vk/kkfjr le>nkjh Hkjs fu.kZ; ys lds fd gesa

fdldk leFkZu djuk pkfg, vkSj D;ksaA

bfrgkl tSls lkekftd foKku ds v/;;u us

gesa fdlh Hkh laLFkk ds earO; ¼,tsaMs½ ij rFkk

blds pyrs muds }kjk ck¡Vh tkus okyh pqfuUnk

tkudkjh ij loky [kM+s djuk fl[kk;k gSA

gkyk¡fd] 'kq#vkrh o"kks± esa gekjh bfrgkl dh f'k{kk dk dsUæfcUnq

fczVsu gqvk djrk Fkk] ijUrq ckn ds o"kks± esa geus ;wjksisŸkj bfrgkl

Hkh i esa vk;k fd cnyko ,d egRoiw.kZ O;fä

ds dkj.k ugÈ gksrk gS] cnyko yk[kksa yksxksa ds dkj.k gks ikrk gSA

ued lR;kxzg esa 'kkfey tulSykcksa ls ysdj ekfVZu ywFkj fdax

ds okWf'kaxVu ekpZ dks leFkZu nsus okys yk[kksa yksxksa rd] geus

bfrgkl dks flQZ usrkvksa ds ckjs esa gksus okys v/;;u ds ctk;

yksxksa ds v/;;u ds :i esa rFkk mUgksaus dSlk vkpj.k djuk ilUn

fd;k] blds v/;;u ds :i esa ns[kuk 'kq: fd;kA

gesa ;g ckr lkQ gks xbZ fd bfrgkl flQZ d{kk ds Hkhrj lhfer

jgus okyk fo"k; u gksdj gekjh viuh ftUnfx;ksa esa çdV :i ls

ekStwn gSA bls ,d ,sls 'kgj esa] tgk¡ v/;;u ds lzksr o lk/ku

cgqr ljyrk ls miyC/k jgrs gSa] i


lkekftd foKku vkf[kj fdrus oSKkfud gSa\

ekul 'kekZ

lk

ekftd foKku cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ vkSj v˜qr v/;;u

{ks= gSaA lkekftd foKkuksa esa] tks foKku dk gh ,d

Hkkx gaS] ekuo 'kkL= ls ysdj lekt'kkL= rd] fofo/k

çdkj ds cgqr ls fo"k; lekfgr jgrs gSaA lkekftd foKkuksa esa

,sls


lkekftd foKku vkf[kj fdrus oSKkfud gSa\

ekul 'kekZ dk tUe yksoSy] eSlkpqlsVl esa 1994 esa gqvkA orZeku esa os Ü;wlcjh gkbZLdwy esa 11oÈ d{kk esa i


[k M Q

fQYe leh{kk vkSj lzksr fdV


kjh[kksa vkSj yM+kb;ksa ls ijs!

mek'kadj isfjvksMh

cPpksa ds fy, bfrgkl ij vk/kkfjr nhik /kujkt dh ,d

ohfM;ks 'k`a[kyk] ;ax fgLVksfj;Ul] dh leh{kk

vk

i çkFkfed Ldwy ds cPpksa dks bfrgkl dSls i


kjh[kksa vkSj yM+kb;ksa ls ijs!

yksxksa ls tkudkfj;k¡ bdÎh djus vkSj fQj vius lewg esa

ckrphr] rdZ] [k.Mu vkSj çek.ku ds }kjk mUgsa xgjkus dh

çfØ;k cgqr fnypLi gSA

iqjkrRo vkSj ewfrZdyk ¼vkfdZ;kykWth ,.M LdYipj½

¼30%40 feuV½

bldh 'kq#vkr esa lgk;d dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrs f'k{kd cPpksa ds

lkeus dqN ?kjsyw phtsa QSyk nsrs gSa vkSj muls dgrs gSa fd os muds

vk/kkj ij ?kjksa dh çd`fr] muesa jgus okys yksxksa dh la[;k] muds

O;olk;] mudh [kkus dh vknrksa vkfn ds ckjs esa lkspdj O;k[;k

djsaA blds ckn Nk=ksa esa cgqr gh tks'khyh ppkZ 'kq: gks tkrh gSA

ppkZ] pqukSrh ls tw>us] vkSj vuqeku yxkus ds }kjk os miyC/k

lcwrksa dh lgk;rk ls dqN fu"d"kks± ij igq¡prs gSaA ckn esa ,d

fo'ks"kK mŸkj ifÜpe dukZVd esa ,d LFkku ls fudkys x, iRFkj

ds vkStkjksa dh enn ls cPpksa dks gtkjksa o"kZ iwoZ jgus okys yksxksa ds

thou ds ckjs esa le>krs gSaA vfUre fgLls esa] cPps ,sgksy tkrs gSa

vkSj ogk¡ ewfrZ;ksa ds ek/;e ls bfrgkl lh[krs gSaA

f'kykys[kksa ds ek/;e ls bfrgkl dk v/;;u ¼yfuZax

fgLVªh Fkzw bafLØI'kUl½ ¼29%42 feuV½

cPps cnkeh vkSj iÍMkdYyq tkdj efUnjksa vkSj HkXu Lekjdksa esa

çkIr f'kykys[kksa ds ek/;e ls bfrgkl dks [kkstrs gSaA ,d fo'ks"kK

mUgsa dkxt ij f'kykys[k dh udy djds mls ikrk gSA vUr esa f'k{kd efUnjksa dh cgqvk;keh Hkwfedk ds ckjs

esa foLrkj ls le>krs gSaA os crkrs gSa fd fdl rjg ;s efUnj iwtk]

euksjatu] O;kikj] dkjksckj] U;k; vkSj f'k{kk ds dsUnz FksA

leqæh ekxZ ¼lh :Vl½ ¼29%59 feuV½

bl fQYe esa cPps leqæh jkLrksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh ysus rVh;

dukZVd esa tkrs gSaA ,d LFkkuh; f'k{kd Xyksc dh lgk;rk ls

iqjkus le; esa O;kikfj;ksa }kjk bLrseky fd, tkus okys jkLrksa dks

rs gSaA os

LFkkuh; tSu clknh dk Hkze.k djrs gSa vkSj çfrekvksa ds ek/;e ls

irk yxkus dh dksf'k'k djrs gSa fd muds nwljs ns'kksa] tSls phu]

vÝhdk vkSj e/; iwoZ] ds lkFk dSls lEidZ vkSj lEcU/k jgs gks

ldrs gSaA ewMkfcæh ds tSu clknh esa ,d phuh MªSxu vkSj vÝhdh

ftjkQ dh uôk'kh ns[k dj cPps cgqr mRlkfgr gksrs gSaA flôs

tek djus okyk ,d O;fä cPpksa dks flôksa ds tfj;s bfrgkl

crkrk gSA

tSu /keZ vkSj xksersÜoj ¼tSfuT+e ,.M xksersÜoj½

feuV½

¼29%00

;g fQYe ,d dFkkokpd ¼Hkokuh½ }kjk ckgqcyh dh dgkuh ds

o.kZu ls 'kq: gksrh gSA cPps Jo.kcsyxksyk esa ckgqcyh dh

fo'kkydk; iRFkj dh ewfrZ ns[kus tkrs gSa vkSj djdyk ds ,d

ewfrZdkj ls ewfrZ;ksa dks xyfd;k¡ ikrs gSaA ;g ppkZ] fd fdl rjg lkfgR; gesa bfrgkl

dks fufeZr djus ds fy, dqN ladsr nsrk gS] cgqr xgjh le>

çnku djrh gSA

tkrd dFkk,a¡ vkSj ckS) /keZ ¼tkrd VsYl ,.M cqf)T+e½

¼29%40 feuV½

bl bdkbZ dh 'kq#vkr xkSre cq) ds thou dh dgkuh ls gksrh

gSA tkrd dFkkvksa dh nks jkspd dgkfu;ksa ¼gal] rFkk xkSre vkSj

nsonŸk½ dk cgqr lqUnj fp=ksa ds ek/;e ls cPpksa ls o.kZu fd;k

tkrk gSA àSulkax ds ;k=k o`rkUr dk mi;ksx djrs gq, ukyUnk esa

çkphu le; esa fLFkr foÜofo|ky; ds ckjs esa tkudkjh nh tkrh

gSA bls cgqr lqUnj fp=ksa ls ltho cuk fn;k x;k gSA vUr esa

cPps viuh ;k=k dk fooj.k fy[krs gSa vkSj ,d vPNs ;k=ko`rkUr

ds mi;ksx vkSj mlds vko';d vaxksa ds ckjs esa ckrphr djrs gSaA

opuksa ls çxV gksus okyk bfrgkl ¼fgLVªh opUl fjohy½

¼27%59 feuV½

bl vfUre fQYe esa 12oÈ 'krkCnh ds Hkfä vkUnksyu ds

opudkjksa }kjk jfpr opuksa ls bfrgkl dks le>us dk ç;kl

fd;k x;k gSA ,d LFkkuh; e.Myh ckloék ds pqus gq, opuksa dks

xkrh gS vkSj cPps muls çÜu iwNdj bu opuksa dh i`"BHkwfe vkSj

lUnHkZ dks le>us dk ç;kl djrs gSa] rkfd os ml ifjfLFkfr dh

dYiuk dj ldsa ftlds QyLo:i lk/kkj.k yksx ,d ,sls

[k.M % Q


kjh[kksa vkSj yM+kb;ksa ls ijs!

vkUnksyu esa dwn iM+s ftlus lHkh rjg ds HksnHkko ds f[kykQ

yM+kbZ yM+h vkSj ,d ,sls lekt dks cukus dk ç;kl fd;k tks

U;k;iw.kZ] ekuoh; vkSj lerkoknh FkkA

fo"k;ksa dk p;u cgqr lko/kkuh vkSj lksp ds lkFk fd;k

x;k gSA ,sfrgkfld egRo ds LFkkuksa ij tkus vkSj

fo'ks"kKksa rFkk {ks= esa lfØ; yksxksa ds lkFk ckrphr djus

ls fQYeas cgqr le`) vkSj ykHkçn cu xbZ gSaA

iwjh fQYe 'k`a[kyk dh fo"k;oLrq cgqr mEnk


v- os laxBu tks lkekftd foKku esa ikBîØe vkSj lkexzh ds fodkl ds eqíksa ij Ldwy Lrj ij

dk;Z dj jgs gSalalk/ku

fiVkjk

;g lalk/ku fiVkjk fdlh Hkh çdkj ls vius vki esa lEiw.kZ ugÈ gSA bldk laxzg f'k{kk ds {ks= esa dk;Z dj jgs O;fä;ksa dh

enn ls fd;k x;k gSA bl gsrq viuk le; nsus vkSj ç;kl djus ds fy, ge mu lHkh dks gkfnZd /kU;okn nsrs gSaA

Øekad laxBu dk uke LFkku

1- ,dyO;

Hkksiky] e/; çns'k

2- mŸkjk[k.M lsok fuf/k

vYeksM+k] mŸkjk[k.M

3- fujUrj

ubZ fnYyh

4- [kkst

eqEcbZ

5- vosgh vckdl

eqEcbZ

6- LofuHkZj] mŸkjh 24 ijxuk esa fLFkr ,d laxBu

i- caxky

7- lger] lQnj gk'keh eseksfj;y VªLV

ubZ fnYyh

8- fo|k Hkou lkslkbVh

mn;iqj] jktLFkku

9- fnxUrj

mn;iqj] jktLFkku

10- çokg

fnYyh

c- os Ldwy ftUgksaus lkekftd foKku ds v/;kiu ds fy, vuwBs rjhds ç;ksx fd, gSa&

Øekad

Ldwy dk uke

n Ldwy

_f"k oSyh Ldwy

¼d{kk 4 ls 7 ds fy, lkekftd foKku vkSj bfrgkl dk ikBîØe½

f'k'kq ou

lsUVj QkWj yfuZax

vk/kkjf'kyk

psébZ

enukiYyS

eqEcbZ

LFkku

caxykSj] gSnjkckn

lsa/kok] e/; çns'k

buesa ls vf/kdka'k Ldwyksa dh viuh osclkbV gS tgk¡ ls lEidZ&lwpuk vkSj lkexzh çkIr dh tk ldrh gSA

l- lkekftd foKku lkexzh ds çdk'kd






xzaFkf'kYih & ubZ fnYyh

,dyO;] Hkksiky

Hkkjr Kku foKku lfefr] fnYyh

,ulhbZvkjVh] ubZ fnYyh

çdk'ku foHkkx] ubZ fnYyh

i`"B la% 154

[k.M % Q


lalk/ku fiVkjk









us'kuy cqd VªLV] ubZ fnYyh

fpYMªUl cqd VªLV] ubZ fnYyh

cqDl vkWWu lks'ky lkbal ,tqds'ku] lst ifCyds'kUl] ubZ fnYyh

cqDl ifCy'kM QkWj fpYMªu ck; vkWWDlQksMZ ;wfuoflZVh çsl] ubZ fnYyh

ihiqYl fgLVªh lhjht+] rwfydk ifCyds'kUl] psébZ

dFkk] ubZ fnYyh

rkjk] psébZ

uok;u] ubZ fnYyh

n- dqN mi;ksxh iqLrdsa























lkekftd v/;;u- 6] 7 vkSj 8 & ,dyO;] Hkksiky }kjk fodflr ,oa çdkf'kr ikBîiqLrdsa ¼fganh½

VSDLVcqd vkWWQ lks'ky lkbal d{kk 6] 7 vkSj 8 ds fy, ¼bafXy'k] 1994½% ,dyO;] Hkksiky

VSDLVcqDl vkWWQ lks'ky lkbal d{kk 6 vkSj 7 ds fy,] yksd tqfEc'k ifj"kn] jktLFkku] 1999@2000 gsrq ,dyO; }kjk fodflr

lkekftd v/;;u f'k{k.k & ,d ç;ksx] ,dyO; }kjk çdkf'kr

gekjh /kjrh] gekjk thou] d{kk 6] 7 vkSj 8 ds fy,] mŸkjk[k.M lsok fuf/k] vYeksM+k }kjk çdkf'kr ikBîiqLrd

odZcqDl QkWj jktLFkku VSDlV cqd] d{kk 6] 7 vkSj 8 ds fy,

odZcqDl vkWWQ gfj;k.kk] d{kk 6] 7 vkSj 8 ds fy, ¼2008½

VSDLVcqd vkWWQ NŸkhlx


lalk/ku fiVkjk









lks'ky lkbal yfuZax bu LdwYl & MkWD;wesaVs'ku vkWWQ n ,dyO;kt+ lks'ky lkbal ,DlifjesaV] iwue c=k }kjk lEikfnr vkSj

lst }kjk izdkf'kr

Vhfpax lks'ky lkbalst+ bu LdwYl] ys[kd% vysDl ,e tkWtZ vkSj veu enku] lst }kjk izdkf'kr

okWd fon eh & v xkbM QkWj bUlik;fjax flVht+uf'ki ,sD'ku & çokg] ubZ fnYyh

jkbfVaXl vkWWQ VhplZ vkbZfM;kt+ QkWj n Dykl:e & bZLV oSLV cqDl] eækl

lks'ky LVMht+ baLVªD'ku bu n ,syheSaVªh Ldwy] ys[kd% fjpMZ bZ lSoZs

yfuZax ÝkWe dkWfUQ+~yDV] ys[kd% çksQslj d`".k dqekj

VfuZax n ikWV fVfyax n ySaM] ys[kd% dkapk bYyS;k & uok;u cqDl

fMÝsaV VSYl lhjht+ & vUos"kh ,.M Mh-lh- cqDl] dsjy

Q- jpuk ds fy, uewus ds rkSj ij LFkkuh; lzksr iqLrdsa



















x- tuZy

voj flVh MsYgh- ukjk;.kh xqIrk & vkWWDlQMZ ;wuhoflZVh çsl

Ldwy ,aM lkslkbVh ,aM ,fj;k LVMh vkWWQ ekbykiksj-

rkjk ifCyf'kax

lanHkZ ¼f'k{kdksa ds fy,½

foe'kZ ¼f'k{kdksa ds fy,½

pded ¼cPpksa ds fy,½

daVEijsjh ,tqds'ku MkW;ykx

bdkWukfed ,.M iksfyfVdy ohdyh

Vhpj VkWd] v tuZy vkWWQ n Vhoh,l ,tqds'kuy lkslkbVh

tuZy vkWWQ n d`".kewfrZ LdwYl

g- fQYesa

n ;ax fgLVksfj;Ul & lhjht+ vkWWQ+ fQYEl] nhik /kujkt

Hkkjr dh [kkst] ';ke csusxy }kjk fufeZr vkSj funZs'kr Vsyhlhfj;y

Hkkjr dh Nki] Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ij fQYesa

ukrk ¼lkaçnkf;drk ij½ VhvkbZ,l,l eqEcbZ ¼vatfy eksaVsfj;ks½

bf.M;k vuVPM & LVkfyu ¼Hkkjr esa NqvkNwr ij½

okWj ,.M ihl & vkuUn iVo/kZu

esfdax vkWWQ n egkRek- ';ke csusxy

vEcsMdj

uSuwd vkWWQ n ukWFkZ ¼,fLdeks yksxksa ds thou ij½

i`"B la% 156

[k.M % Q


lalk/ku fiVkjk

vkb- osclkbVl


















http://www.neok12.com/History-of-India.htm ;gka¡ lkekftd foKku ds fo"k;ksa ij dbZ ohfM;ks gSa

,dyO; çdk'ku] http://www.eklavya.in

laxrh bUVj,sfDVo Vhfpax yfu±x fdVl]

eh ,.M ek; flVh & lquhrk uk/keqfu ,.M jek bZjkcsYyh

tukxzg lsUVj QkWj flVht+uf'ki ,.M MseksØslh] www.janaagraha.org

ty vk/kkfjr ifj;kstuk,¡ ,oa lalk/ku] http://schools.indiawaterportal.org

lkaLd`frd fojklr lEcfU/kr lzksr

n bf.M;u us'kuy VªLV QkWj us'kuy ,.M dYpjy gSjhVst] http://www.intach.org

ikBîØe vk/kkfjr dgkuh dh iqLrdsa % vkbZbZVh,l ifCyds'kUl

bUVjus'kuy lks'ky lkbal dkSafly dh oSclkbV

;wusLdks dk lkekftd vkSj ekuo foKku ist]

vkbZbZ, dh flfod ,tqds'ku LVMh fyad]

ck¡cs uSpqjy fgLVªh lkslkbVh]

dYio`{k ,UokW;uZesaV ,sD'ku xzqi]

lsaVj QkWj ,UokW;uZesaV ,tqds'ku] Hkkjr]

Mkmu Vw vFkZ if=dk]

lsUVj QkWj lkbal ,.M ,UokW;uZesaV] Hkkjr]

dqN vU; egRoiw.kZ osclkbVl

http://avehiabacus.org/about.htmlhttp://schools.indiawaterportal.org

http://www.ilfsets.com/solutions.asp?secid=1&menuid=3&smenuid=1&childid=1&subchildid=2&pageid=345

http://www.worldsocialscience.org

http://www.unesco.org/en/education

http://www.bnhs.org

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences

http://www.iea.nl/icces.html

http://www.kalpavriksha.org

http://www.downtoearth.org.in

http://www.school.discovery.com

http://www.nationalgeographic.com

http://www.incredibleindia.org

http://www.animalplanet.co.uk

http://www.greenpeace.org

http://www.britanica.com

http://www.arvindguptatoys.com

http://www.ceeindia.org/cee/index.html

http://www.cseindia.org

vkSj f'k{k.k ist

[k.M % Q

i`"B la% 157

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