Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei - CIRMA

cirma.unito.it

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei - CIRMA

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alculating the sense

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

CIRMA - Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Multimedialità e l'Audiovisivo - Università di Torino

Seminari CIRMA 15/04/09


Preliminary remarks

Disciplinar approaches

> Semiotics:

- what is computational semiotics?

- three ways: ICCS, Rieger, Steels

- the problem of origines and dynamics

> Computational linguistics:

- ideal speaker

- static language

- universal grammar as “faculté de language”

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


Preliminary remarks

Theoretical framework

> 3 foundational problems:

1. Grounding problem: how to build an ontology of/from the

world (Varela-Maturana)

2. Learning Paradox: how to learn concepts from concepts

(Fodor)

3. Gavagai problem: sharing the meaning (Quine)

> Assumptions:

1. Linguistic game (Wittgenstein)

2. Linguistic relativism (Sapir-Whorf)

3. Emergence and complexity: adaptativity and self-organization

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Theoretical framework

> Experimental philosophy:

- philosophical hypotheses

- tested thtough computational simulation

> Model for agent communication based on:

- perception

- conceptualization

- lexicalization

> Tested through 3 “games”: Discrimination, Naming, Guessing

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Quantitative evaluation of “Semiotic dynamics”

> Computer allows a simulation over:

- large population of agents

- long time (n communicative exchanges)

> Semiotic landscapes for the study of existing phenomena:

- synonymy

- polysemy

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

The “Semiotic square” (Borenszstejn)

> defines the elements of the simulation and their relations

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Experimental setting

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Experimental setting

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Experimental setting

> Context:

- topic

- background

> Communication:

- speaker

- hearer

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


Perception

The Talking Heads Experiment

> Operated through standard image analysis

> Information gathered from “sensory channels”:

- RGB, Gray

- HPOS, VPOS

> Defining “segmentation”

> Emphasizing “saliency”

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Conceptualisation

> The Discrimination game:

- single agent

- random topic

- determining distinguishing features: [HPOS,0.0-0.25]

> Discretisation through “discrimination trees”

- only the topic falls

in the discriminated

range

- “RED” dies out

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


m i s e n t i e n t R o b o t s

Talking Heads Example

The Talking Heads Experiment

Conceptualisation

is distinctive for the topic, but not for any other object in the

> The Discrimination context. game: The speaker in has a three multi-agent words in the lexicon context, for this: each agent

works by herself

Figure A shows an example of the Talking Heads experiment.

Table A shows the raw data that the speaker derives from the

image: X is the horizontal position of figure’s middle point, Y is

the vertical position, H the height, W the width, A the angularity,

R, G, Y, B the color opponent channels (red, green, yellow,

blue), and L the brightness.

(a)

(c)

The first object (with coordinates 0,1) is the topic. Based on

the decision trees, the agent conceptualizes this object in

terms of the blue channel. A shade of blue (between 0.25–0.5)

Xagadude (score 0.1), Nibidesu (score 0.0), and Tetipi (score

0.0). The speaker chooses the first word.

The listener does not know this word and

performs a categorization, which happens

to yield the same conceptualization. The

listener therefore adds a new association

to the lexicon.

Note that the listener might have easily

chosen another conceptualization for

this scene, such as one based on brightness

or height. This would create a divergence

in the lexicon. This divergence

would show up in a later game when the

same agents are confronted with a similarly

unclear situation.

> Different “discrimination trees”

(b)

(d)

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

Figure A. Example of a guessing game

played by two “talking heads.” (a) the

images captured by the speaker and (b)

listener. Notice that they are not exactly

the same, nor are (c) the speaker’s and (d)

listener’s decision trees. Although their

repertoires are not the same, both agents

in this case chose the same distinction.

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Example of conceptualization

Agent1: segments the scene into 4 objects:

object0, object1, object2, object3

Agent1: chooses object2 as the topic

(red, low)

Agent1: categorizes the topic as [VPOS 0.0-0.5]

The discrimination game succeeds.

Agent 1

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Lexicalization

> based on the Naming Game, aiming at alignment and innovation

> Structure:

- two agents, speaker and hearer, communicate

- the speker selects the topic and searches for (or invent) a name,

and says it

- the hearer try to guess the topic from the name

> Two cases:

1. The guess is correct: reinforcement

2. The guess is uncorrect: the speaker points the topic, the hearer

stores the correct association

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Coupling conceptualisation and lexicalisation

> Guessing Game = Discrimination game + Naming Game

> Conceptualising the world and sharing this knowledge through

language

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Coupling conceptualisation and lexicalisation

The speaker selects

a topic and

conceptualizes it,

and looks up the

words associated

with the possible

meanings in his

lexicon. He then

transmits the word

with the highest

score to the hearer.

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Coupling conceptualisation and lexicalisation

The hearer, looks up

the possible meanings

of the word in his

lexicon and then filters

the objects in the scene

according to these

meanings (applies the

meaning to the scene),

in order to pick out a

single referent. If he

finds a unique referent,

he points at it.

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Coupling conceptualisation and lexicalisation

If the game fails, e.g.

the hearer pointed to

the wrong object, then

the speaker gives

feedback by pointing to

the correct topic. In that

case, both the hearer

and the speaker repair

their lexicon and their

categories, in order to

make a better guess in

the next game.

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

The Guessing Game

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

The Guessing Game: successful example

Game 125

agent-101 is the speaker. agent-252 is the hearer.

agent-101 segments the context into 2 objects

agent-101 categorises the topic as [VPOS-0.0,0.5]

agent-101 says: "lu"

agent-252 interprets "lu" as [R-0.0,0.5]

agent-252 points to the topic

agent-101 says: "OK" agent-101 agent-252

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

The Guessing Game: failed example

Game 137

agent-1991 is the speaker. agent-32 is the hearer.

agent-1991 segments the context into 2 objects

agent-1991 categorises the topic as [VPOS-0.0,0.5]

agent-1991 says: "lu"

agent-32 interprets "lu" as [HPOS-0.0,0.5]

There is more than one such object

agent-32 says: "lu?"

agent-1991 points to the topic

agent-32 categorises the topic as [VPOS-0.0,0.5]

agent-32 stores "lu" as [VPOS-0.0,0.5]

agent-1991

agent-32

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Feedback mechanism

> Structural coupling between conceptualisation and lexicalisation:

1. Communicative success determines a positive feedback on both

conceptualization and lexicalization

2. Lexicalized concepts are prefered: language influences thought

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Semiotic (RMF) landscape

> A semiotic landscape represents the co-occurences among:

- referents (R)

object2

- meanings (M)

- forms (F)

"katapu"

[GRAY-0.0,0.25]

"tisame"

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

[HPOS-0.5,0.75]

"Calculating the sense"

"wobo"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Semiotic (RMF) landscape

> Synonymy:

- "katapu" and "tisame" both means

[GRAY-0.0,0.25]

- "tisame" and "wobo" both means

[HPOS-0.5,0.75]

object2

> Polysemy:

- "tisame" means [GRAY-0.0,0.25] and

[HPOS-0.5,0.75]

[GRAY-0.0,0.25]

"katapu"

"tisame"

[HPOS-0.5,0.75]

"wobo"

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Non coherent phenomena in N.L.

> Synonymy: different word for the same meaning:

- an agent may construct a new word not knowing that one is

already in existence

- natural languages show a clear tendency for the elimination of

synonyms: true synonyms tend to specialise

> Polysemy: the same word has different meanings:

- an agent on hearing an unknown word may incorrectly guess

its meaning

- polysemy tends to survive in natural language nly when the

contexts are sufficiently different

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Semiotic dynamics and coherence

The degree of coherence of a language can be measured by

observing the actual linguistic behavior of the agents while they play

language games: by collecting data on the frequency of cooccurrence

of items such as the possible forms of a certain referent

or all the possible meanings for a certain form

Competition diagrams:

- Success diagram

- RF diagram

- FM diagram

Results: damping synonymy and polysemy

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


ve

e

he

w

in

a-

he

ly,

of

or

laas

of

or

ce

an

s-

d.

Figure 4: This graph shows the average success per 200

games in a series of 5000 games played by 20 agents.

The agents evolve towards total success in their communication

after about 1000 games. A change in the

environment induced after 3000 games gives a decrease

in average success which rebounds quickly.

RF-diagram

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

use

(percent.)

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

The Talking Heads Experiment

DESEPU

0 1000 2000 3000

"Calculating the sense"

VA

TOGU

KUXEZO

games

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

Success-diagram

an

ree

a-

nd

is

sly

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

success

(percent.)

The referent is

moved near to

another referent

0.4

ily

ge.

in

d-

ses

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

games

5000

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


The Talking Heads Experiment

FM-diagram

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Use

(percent.)

[V-POS - 0.25, 0.5]

[RED - 0 , 0.125]

The referent is

moved near to

another referent

been

erent

that a

strap

collec

polys

6 A

0.2

0.1

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

0

0

1000

[BLUE , 0.3125-0.375]

2000

"Calculating the sense"

3000

4000

games

5000

This

ence

McIn

backb

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


Further works

From the TH Experiment

> AIBO: robotic agent

> then: Sony Dream Robot

for sustaining a dialog but also for acquiring the necessary concepts a

The emergence and evolution of a lexicon in a population of agents has

perimentally shown to arise [Steels et al., 2002].

In the present paper we will use a classification game. The classifica

is similar to the guessing game, except that there is only a single ob

classified. Because the robot’s camera does not have a very wide view a

one object is generally in view, and so the classification game is mo

for this robot than the guessing game. It is similar to the interactions

[Roy, 1999] and [Fujita et al., 2001] and so it makes comparison with o

easier. The playful objects to be classified include a ball, a small puppet

like a Smiley, a small AIBO imitation marketed as poo-chi. English w

”ball”, ”smiley”, or ”poo-chi” are used by the human mediator in interac

the robot. The main goal for the robot is to acquire the proper use of th

relation to visual images.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 3: Different views of a red ball as captured by the robot’s ca

Andrea Valle Figure - Alessandro 4: Different Mazzei steps during an"Calculating language game the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09


Conclusions

The Talking Heads Experiment

> TH exp proposes a solution for the 3 foundational problems: based

on ecological assumptions

> Does not solve the problem of non-grounded concepts: notanchored

triangulation mechanism?"

> What about emerging syntax?

> Language-based intefaces: robustness. Cf. tagging

Andrea Valle - Alessandro Mazzei

"Calculating the sense"

CIRMA Seminars 0809, 15/04/09

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