Η μεταρρύθμιση του πνεύματος και το πνεύμα της Μεταρρύθμισης

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Η μεταρρύθμιση του πνεύματος και το πνεύμα της Μεταρρύθμισης

I ÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÛÂÏ›‰Â˜

• A N A ¢ I A B A Z O N T A T H N K § A I K H M E § E T H

T O Y ∞ § E • H ¢ H M A P A

∏ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ appleÓ‡̷ÙÔ˜

Î·È ÙÔ appleÓ‡̷ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛ˘

«∏ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤ÁÈÓ» ÙÔ˘ ∞ϤÍË ¢ËÌ·Ú¿ (ÛÙÔ ÂÍ‹˜: ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË) ÂΉfiıËÎÂ

ÛÙ· 1973-74 Î·È ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È Ë appleÚÒÙË ¤Á΢ÚË -Î·È ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋ appleϤÔÓ- ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ÌÂϤÙË

ÁÈ· ÙË ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘ÛË. ∂ÎÎÈÓÒÓÙ·˜ ·applefi ÙȘ ηٷÎÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ıÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Ë

ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ·Ó·Û˘Óı¤ÙÂÈ ÙÔ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ ·ÓÙÏÒÓÙ·˜ ·applefi Ì›· ÂÓÙ˘appleˆÛÈ·-

΋ Û fiÁÎÔ Î·È appleÔÈÎÈÏ›· Û˘ÁÎÔÌȉ‹ ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÓ. ª›· appleÔÛÔÙÈο ÈÛ¯Ó‹ (68 ÌfiÏȘ ÛÂÏ›‰ˆÓ)

·ÏÏ¿ ÓÔËÌ·ÙÈο apple˘ÎÓfiÙ·ÙË Û‡ÓıÂÛË, ‰ڿ˙ÂÙ·È Û ¤Ó· ÔÁÎ҉˜ (630 ÛÂÏ›‰ˆÓ) ÛÒÌ·

ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÓ apple·Ú¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔÓ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÙË ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ‰È·ÚÎÔ‡˜ ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘ Î·È appleÔÏÏ·-

appleÏÒÓ appleÚÔÂÎÙ¿ÛˆÓ.

ÙÔ˘ X¿ÚË Aı·Ó·ÛÈ¿‰Ë*

∫ÂÓÙÚÈÎfi˜ ÛÎÔapplefi˜ Ù˘ ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ı-

ÌÈÛ˘ «Â›Ó·È Ó· apple·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛË

ÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË ÙˆÓ appleÚ·ÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ fiÛ·

Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ¿ÌÂÛ· Ì ٷ ‚·ÛÈο ¯·Ú·-

ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ÙÔ˘ [ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡] Û˘ÛÙ‹-

Ì·ÙÔ˜» (ÙfiÌ. ∞ã, ÛÂÏ. Èıã). ªÂ ÙËÓ ÂÈ-

Û·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÊÚ¿ÛË Ô ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ·ÓÈ-

¯Ó‡ÂÈ ‹‰Ë Ù· fiÚÈ· ÙÔ˘ ıÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡

ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ¯·Ú¿˙ÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi ¿ÍÔÓ·

appleÔ˘ ηıÔ‰ËÁ› ÙËÓ ÂappleÈÏÔÁ‹, ÙËÓ Ù·ÍÈ-

ÓfiÌËÛË Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿ÁÓˆÛË ÙˆÓ

ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ‰ÔÌ› ÂÓ Ù¤ÏÂÈ ÙËÓ fiÏË

Û‡ÓıÂÛË. ŒÓ· ÂapplefiÌÂÓÔ ‚‹Ì·, Ë ÚËÙ‹

apple·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ ÙˆÓ appleÔÏÏ·appleÏÒÓ ‰ÂÛÌÒÓ ÙÔ˘

apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ Ì ÙÔ apple·ÚfiÓ Î·È ÙÔ Ì¤Ï-

ÏÔÓ, ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÈ ÙË ÌÂϤÙË ÛÙȘ ÙÚԯȤ˜

Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜. ∏ ·Ó¿ÁÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘

apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ ÛÙË ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ÂÎÎÈ-

Ó¿ Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ¿ ·applefi ÙȘ ÛÙԯ‡ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘

apple·ÚfiÓÙÔ˜ Î·È ·ÓÙÏ› ·applefi ÙȘ appleÚÔÛ‰Ô-

˘ ÙÔ˘ ̤ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜: «[¯ÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È] ·applefi

ÙË ÌÈ· ÌÂÚÈ¿ Ó· appleÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛıÔ‡Ó ÌÂ

·ÎÚ›‚ÂÈ· ÔÈ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ ÂappleȉÈÒÍÂȘ

ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ, ÎÈ ·applefi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË Ó· Á›ÓË

ÌÈ· appleÚÔÛÂÎÙÈ΋ ·Ó·ÙÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙË-

ÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ appleÚÔ‚ÏËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘

apple·ÚfiÓÙÔ˜» (∞ã, È˙ã). ∏ ·Ó·ÙÔÌ›· ÙÔ˘

apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ ÂappleȯÂÈÚÂ›Ù·È Ì ÂappleÈÛÙË-

ÌÔÛ‡ÓË, fi¯È fï˜ ¯¿ÚÈÓ Ù˘ ÂappleÈÛÙ‹-

Ì˘, ·ÏÏ¿ ‰ÈfiÙÈ «¤ÙÛÈ Êı¿ÓÂÈ Î·Ó›˜

Ê˘ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈο ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ıÂ-

ÌÂÏ›ˆÓ ÛÙ· ÔappleÔ›· ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ÂΛÓÔ

appleÔ˘ appleÚ¤appleÂÈ Ó· ·ÏÏ¿ÍË» (∞ã, È˙ã).

Δ· appleÚÔÁÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚ· Ù˘ ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈ-

∞Ϥ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜: ∏ appleÔÚ›· ˆ˜ ÙË ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË

14

√ ∞Ϥ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ÁÂÓÓ‹ıËΠÛÙËÓ ∞ı‹Ó· ÙÔ 1932. °ÈÔ˜ ÙÔ˘

∫. £. ¢ËÌ·Ú¿, ÌÂÁ¿ÏˆÛ Û ¤Ó· Ûapple›ÙÈ fiappleÔ˘ Ìapple·ÈÓfi‚Á·ÈÓ·Ó ÔÈ

appleϤÔÓ ‰È·ÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔÈ ÂÎappleÚfiÛˆappleÔÈ Ù˘ ÁÂÓÈ¿˜ ÙÔ˘ ÙÚÈ¿ÓÙ·.

∞˘Ù‹ Ë appleÔÏÈÙÈο ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚË Î·È ÏÔÁÔÙ¯ÓÈο ÛÙÚ·ÙÂ˘Ì¤ÓË

ÛÙÔ ‰ËÌÔÙÈÎÈÛÌfi ÏfiÁÈ· ÌÂÚ›‰· Ù˘ ·ıËÓ·˚΋˜ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘,

fiÚÈÛ ¢ı‡˜ ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ ÙȘ ÓÔËÙÈΤ˜ Û˘ÓÙÂÙ·Á̤Ó˜ ÙÔ˘ ∞ϤÍË

¢ËÌ·Ú¿. ∏ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ Û΢‹ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·˜, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, οıÂ

¿ÏÏÔ apple·Ú¿ ‚ڋΠÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ¿ Ù˘ ÛÙÔ Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ô ÙÔ˘, ÙÔ ∫ÔϤ-

ÁÈÔ ∞ıËÓÒÓ (1943-48), ¤ÙÛÈ appleÔ˘ ÛÙ· ‰‡Ô ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ·

ÙˆÓ Á˘ÌÓ·ÛÈ·ÎÒÓ ÛappleÔ˘‰ÒÓ (1948-50), Ô Ó·Úfi˜ ∞Ϥ͢ ¢Ë-

Ì·Ú¿˜ appleÚÔÙ›ÌËÛÂ, ÌÂÙ¿ ·applefi Û‡ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ·apple·ÓÔ‡ÙÛÔ˘, Ó·

ÌÂÙ·ÁÚ·Ê› ÛÙÔ 10Ô °˘ÌÓ¿ÛÈÔ ∞ÚÚ¤ÓˆÓ ∞ıËÓÒÓ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ∞ÌappleÂ-

ÏÔ΋appleÔ˘˜. ¢È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜ ‹Ù·Ó ÂΛ Ô ·ÍÈfiÏÔÁÔ˜ £. ·apple·ÎˆÓ-

ÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˘ (ÌÂÙ¤appleÂÈÙ· ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ ∫ÔÚÁȷϤÓÂÈÔ ¯ÔÏ‹,

ÛÙȘ apple¤ÙÛ˜) Î·È Î·ıËÁËÙ‹˜ ÙˆÓ Ó¤ˆÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÒÓ Ô Â˘·›ÛıË-

ÙÔ˜ appleÔÈËÙ‹˜ Ù˘ ÁÂÓÈ¿˜ ÙÔ˘ 1930, ŸÌËÚÔ˜ ªappleÂΤ˜.

∏ ·Û˘Ì‚·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·˜ Î·È ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ıÂÛÌÒÓ Âapple·-

ÓÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÙËΠÁÈ· Ó· ÂÍÂÏȯı› Û ¯¿ÛÌ· ÛÙ· ÊÔÈÙËÙÈο ÙÔ˘

¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÛÙË ºÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋ ∞ıËÓÒÓ (1951-58). ΔÔ Ì›ÁÌ· ÊÈÏÔ-

ÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ÎÏ·ÛÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÓÙËÚËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔ-

ÌË̤ÓÔ ·applefi ÙÔÓ ÌÂÛÔapplefiÏÂÌÔ ÁÓÒÚÈ˙ ÙÒÚ· Ó¤· ¿ÓıËÛË

ÛÙÔ˘˜ «ÛÎÔÙÂÈÓÔ‡˜ ‰È·‰ÚfiÌÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ºÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋˜». 1 ÙÔ˘˜

ÊÔÈÙËÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ·ÎÏÔ˘˜ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯Ô‡Û·Ó ÔÈ «ÂÎÔʛ٘» Î·È Ù· ̤-

ÏË ÙˆÓ ¯ÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÎÒÓ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛˆÓ. Àapple·ÚÎÙÔ› ·ÏÏ¿ ÏÈÁÔÛÙÔ› ÔÈ

Ôapple·‰Ô› ÙÔ˘ appleÚÔԉ¢ÙÈÎÔ‡ ·ÛÙÈÛÌÔ‡ (Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔappleÔ›Ô˘˜ Û˘ÌappleÔ-

Ú¢fiÙ·Ó Ô ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜), ÂÓÒ ÔÈ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚÔ›, fiÛÔÈ ˘apple‹Ú¯·Ó, ÊÚfi-

ÓÙÈ˙·Ó Ó· ÌËÓ Î¿ÓÔ˘Ó È‰È·ÈÙ¤Úˆ˜ ·ÈÛıËÙ‹ ÙËÓ apple·ÚÔ˘Û›· ÙÔ˘˜.

∞Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙȘ ‰‡Ô ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ Ù˘ Û¯ÔÏ‹˜, ºÈÏÔÏÔÁ›·-ºÈÏÔ-

ÛÔÊ›· Î·È πÛÙÔÚ›·-∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·, Ô ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ Âapple¤ÏÂÍ ÙËÓ ‰Â‡-

ÙÂÚË ˆ˜ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ (Ê·ÓÂÚ¿) ÛÎÔÙ·‰ÈÛÙÈ΋ ·applefi ÙËÓ appleÚÒÙË.

∂Λ ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ‰›‰·ÛÎ·Ó ÔÈ (Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈο) appleÈÔ Î·Ù·ÍȈ̤ÓÔÈ

ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ∑·Î˘ıÈÓfi˜, μÏ¿¯Ô˜ Î·È ª·ÚÈÓ¿ÙÔ˜.


TX. 8 ñ 25 ¢EKEMBPIOY 2005

Û˘ appleÔÓ‹Ì·Ù· ÁÈ· ÙÔ apple·ÚÂÏıfiÓ Ù˘ ÓÂ-

ÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜ ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘Û˘ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ· ÌappleÔ-

ÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ıˆÚËıÔ‡Ó ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÌÂϤÙ˜,

·ÊÂÓfi˜ ÂappleÂȉ‹ ‰ÂÓ ÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ¤Ó·

Âapple·ÚΤ˜ ÛÒÌ· ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÓ, ·ÊÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘

‰ÈfiÙÈ ÛÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏfi ÙÔ˘˜ «‰ÂÓ ÂÚÌËÓ‡-

Ô˘Ó Ù· Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ·, ·ÏÏ¿ appleÂÚÈÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È

ÛÙËÓ ·appleÏ‹ ·apple·Ú›ıÌËÛË ÙˆÓ Û¯ÂÙÈÎÒÓ

΢‚ÂÚÓËÙÈÎÒÓ Ì¤ÙÚˆÓ» (∞ã, ÈËã). ∏

ÈÛÙÔÚ›· fï˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·appleÏ‹ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋

apple·Ú¿ıÂÛË ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘ apple·ÚÂÏıfi-

ÓÙÔ˜. ∂›Ó·È ÂappleÈÏÂÁ̤ӷ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· ÛÂ

ÔÚÈṲ̂ÓË ‰È¿Ù·ÍË, ¤ÙÛÈ appleÔ˘ Ó· Ê·ÓÂ-

ÚÒÓÔ˘Ó Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Î·È Ó· ·appleÔηχappleÙÔ˘Ó

ÓÔ‹Ì·Ù·. ¯¤ÛÂȘ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙ· ÂappleÈ̤-

ÚÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔȯ›· ÙÔ˘ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘-

ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ì· ΢ڛˆ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ·

Û ·˘Ùfi Î·È ÙËÓ appleÂÚÈÚÚ¤Ô˘Û· appleÚ·ÁÌ·ÙÈ-

ÎfiÙËÙ·. Èڛ˜ «Ù· apple·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ-

ο Î·È appleÔÏÈÙÈÎÔÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈο ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· ηÈ

Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· (...) ‰ÂÓ ÌappleÔÚ› Ó· ˘apple¿ÚÍË

Ô‡Ù ηٷÓfiËÛË Ô‡Ù ÂÚÌËÓ›· ÙˆÓ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ»

(∞ã, Èıã). ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ·˘ÙÔ-

ÓfiËÙË Û‹ÌÂÚ· apple·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ ·ÁÓÔ‹ıËÎÂ

·applefi fiϘ ۯ‰fiÓ ÙȘ appleÚÔÁÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚ˜

appleÚÔÛapple¿ıÂȘ, ÔÈ Ôappleԛ˜ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ·Ó Ù·

ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈο ˆ˜ Â¿Ó Ó· ÂÎÙ˘Ï›ÛÛÔÓÙ·Ó

Û appleÔÏÈÙÈÎfi, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Î·È È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÎfi

ÎÂÓfi. ∂appleȯÂÈÚÒÓÙ·˜ Î·È ÛÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ·˘-

Ùfi ÙËÓ ÙÔÌ‹, Ô ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ·ÊÂÓfi˜ ÂÓÛˆ-

Ì·ÙÒÓÂÈ ÛÙË Û‡ÓıÂÛË ÙȘ appleϤÔÓ ·Ó·-

Áη›Â˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÂȘ, ·ÊÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘ appleÚÔÙ¿Û-

ÛÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ÂÎÙÂٷ̤ÓÔ (24 ÛÂÏ›‰ˆÓ) ¯ÚÔ-

ÓÔÏÔÁÈÎfi apple›Ó·Î·, ÛÙÔÓ ÔappleÔ›Ô ÛÎÈ·ÁÚ·-

ÊÂ›Ù·È ·‰ÚÔÌÂÚÒ˜ ÙÔ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi appleÏ·›ÛÈÔ

ÙˆÓ 147 ÂÙÒÓ (1821-1967) appleÔ˘ ηχ-

appleÙÂÈ Ë ÌÂϤÙË, apple·Ú¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔÓ ·Ó·-

ÁÓÒÛÙË ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÁÈ· ÌÈ· Ù·¯Â›·

Û˘Á¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ Î·È ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈ΋

·Ó¿ÁÓˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ Ì ٷ

ÏÔÈapple¿ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Î·È Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ·.

∞applefi ÙȘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ηÈÓÔÙƠ̂˜

Ó· ÂappleÈÛËÌ¿ÓÔ˘ÌÂ, Ù¤ÏÔ˜, ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁÈ-

΋ ‰È·Û·Ê‹ÓÈÛË Ù˘ ‚·ÛÈ΋˜ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·˜,

Ë ÔappleÔ›· ·appleÔÚÚ¤ÔÓÙ·˜ ·applefi ÙÔ ÛÙfi¯Ô

Ù˘ ÌÂϤÙ˘, ÂappleÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÙËÓ appleÂÚÈÔ‰ÔÏfi-

ÁËÛË Î·È ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ‰ÔÌ‹ Ù˘: ∏

«ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË» ‰ÂÓ Â›-

Ó·È ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿ Ì›· ÔappleÔÈ·‰‹appleÔÙÂ

ÙÚÔappleÔappleÔ›ËÛË ÂappleÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ appleÙ˘¯ÒÓ ÙÔ˘

ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì›·

ÚÈ˙È΋ ÌÂÙ·‚ÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ ‚·ÛÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ¯·-

Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ: «ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘

ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Ë

ÓÔÌÔıÂÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙÈηٿÛÙ·ÛË ÌÈ·˜ ‰È‰·-

ÎÙÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Ì ÌÈ·Ó ¿ÏÏË, Ô‡Ù ÙÔ

¯Ù›ÛÈÌÔ Û¯ÔÏÈÎÒÓ ÎÙËÚ›ˆÓ, Ô‡ÙÂ Ë ·‡-

ÍËÛË ÙˆÓ ·appleÔ‰Ô¯ÒÓ ÙˆÓ ‰·ÛοψÓ,

Ô‡Ù ·ÎfiÌË Ë ÌÂÙ·‚ÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘ ˆÚÔÏÔÁ›Ô˘

Î·È ÙÔ˘ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ appleÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜.

∞˘Ù¿, fiÛÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÎÈ ·Ó ›ӷÈ, ÌappleÔ-

Ú› Ó· ·appleÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔȯ›· ÌÈ·˜ ÌÂÙ·Ú-

Ú‡ıÌÈÛ˘ ‹ Ó· Â›Ó·È ·appleϤ˜ ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ ÛÙ·

Â͈ÙÂÚÈο ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÛÙ‹-

Ì·ÙÔ˜ appleÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ Ô˘Û›· ÙÔ˘ ̤ÓÂÈ ·ÌÂ-

Ù¿‚ÏËÙÔ. ∂Îapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË

Â›Ó·È Î¿ÙÈ ‚·ı‡ÙÂÚÔ. ∂›Ó·È Ë ·ÏÏ·Á‹

appleÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌÔ‡. ∂›Ó·È Ë Î˘ÚÈ¿Ú¯ËÛË

ÂÓfi˜ Ó¤Ô˘ appleÓ‡̷ÙÔ˜» (∞ã, Îã). ΔÔ

Ô˘ÛÈ҉˜ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ «appleÓ‡̷» (Ë Ï¤ÍË

Âapple·Ó¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È ÛÙË Û‡ÓıÂÛË 35 ÊÔÚ¤˜),

Ë ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· ‰ËÏ·‰‹ appleÔ˘ ‰È·appleÓ¤ÂÈ ÙÔ

ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ·. ø˜

ÙÔÌ‹ ȉˆÌ¤ÓË, Ë «ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÌÂÙ·Ú-

Ú‡ıÌÈÛË», ¯ˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ÓÂ-

ÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜ ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙËÓ appleÂÚ›Ô‰Ô

appleÔ˘ ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÙ·È, ·Ó·appleÙ‡ÛÛÂÙ·È Î·È Î˘-

Úȷگ› ÙÔ «apple·Ï·Èfi appleÓ‡̷» (∞ã Ùfi-

ÌÔ˜) Î·È ÛÙËÓ appleÂÚ›Ô‰Ô appleÔ˘ ÂappleȯÂÈÚ›ٷÈ

Ë ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÙÔ˘ «apple·Ï·ÈÔ‡» Î·È Ë

ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ «Ó¤Ô˘ appleÓ‡̷ÙÔ˜» (μã

ÙfiÌÔ˜).

√ÏÔÎÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ ÛappleÔ˘‰¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙ· 1958 (Î·È ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÂÎappleÏËÚÒÛÂÈ

ÙȘ ÛÙÚ·ÙȈÙÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ˘appleÔ¯ÚÂÒÛÂȘ ÂÓÙfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ¯Úfi-

ÓÔ˘ ÛappleÔ˘‰ÒÓ) appleÚÔÛÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÙ·È ·applefi ÙË ¯ÔÏ‹

ªˆÚ·˝ÙË ˆ˜ ηıËÁËÙ‹˜ °˘ÌÓ·Û›Ô˘ Ì ۇÛÙ·ÛË

ÙÔ˘ ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈÛÙ‹, ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· ηıËÁËÙ‹ ÛÙÔ

·ÓÂappleÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ £ÂÛÛ·ÏÔӛ΢, ÕÏÎË ∞ÁÁ¤ÏÔ˘.

ªÂ ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË ÙË ÌÈÛ·ÏÏfi‰ÔÍË ÂıÓÈÎÔÊÚÔÛ‡ÓË

Ù˘ appleÚÒÙ˘ ÌÂÙÂÌÊ˘Ïȷ΋˜ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜, Ë Û¯Ô-

Ï‹ ªˆÚ·˝ÙË Ê¿ÓÙ·˙ ϛÎÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ‰È·ÊˆÙÈÛÌÔ‡.

∂Λ ‰›‰·ÛÎ·Ó ‹‰Ë, ÂÎÙfi˜ ·applefi ÙÔÓ ∞ÁÁ¤ÏÔ˘, Ô

°ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ∞ÏÈÛ·Ó‰Ú¿ÙÔ˜ Î·È Ô ª¿ÚÎÔ˜ ∫˘ÓËÁfi˜.

ŒÙÛÈ ÙÔ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi Û¯ÔÏ›Ô, Ì ÙÔ ÔappleÔ›Ô Ô Ó·-

Úfi˜ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ›¯Â Ì›· ‰È·Ú΋ ·Û˘Ì‚·ÙfiÙËÙ·,

¤ÌÂÏÏ ӷ ·appleÔÙÂϤÛÂÈ ÙÔÓ Âapple·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÙÔ˘

ÛÙ›‚Ô Î·È appleÔχ ÁÚ‹ÁÔÚ· ÙÔ ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÙÔ˘

apple‰›Ô. ∏ appleÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ-

·˜ Î·È È‰È·ÈÙ¤Úˆ˜ ÔÈ Ù˘appleÈΤ˜ „˘¯ÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜

‰ÈÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ Ù·‡ÙÈÛ˘-‰È·ÊÔÚÔappleÔ›ËÛ˘ ÁÈÔ˘ ηÈ

apple·Ù¤Ú· Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ¤apple·ÈÍ·Ó ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ

ÛÙÔÓ ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi appleÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ ∞ϤÍË ¢ËÌ·Ú¿.

«∂›¯· apple¿ÓÙÔÙ ÙËÓ ÂappleÈı˘Ì›· Ó· ÎÈÓËıÒ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÙÔ˘ apple·Ù¤Ú·

ÌÔ˘, Ì· Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· Ó· Â›Ì·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi˜ ·applefi

ÂΛÓÔÓ», ·Ó¤ÊÂÚ Û ̛· Û˘˙‹ÙËÛ‹ Ì·˜. ÙÔ

¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ πÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ·È‰Â›·˜, ÏÔÈapplefiÓ, fiappleˆ˜

Ô ∫. £., ·ÏÏ¿ Ì·ÎÚÈ¿ ·applefi ÙËÓ ÂȉÈ΋ appleÂÚÈÔ¯‹

Ù˘ ÏÔÁÔÙ¯ӛ·˜. ∫¿appleˆ˜ ¤ÙÛÈ, Ë ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘ÛË,

appleÚÒËÓ ‚·Û·ÓÈÛÙÈÎfi Ì·ıËÙÈÎfi ‚›ˆÌ· Î·È Ó˘Ó ÂÏappleȉÔÊfiÚÔ

Âapple·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÛÙÔ›¯ËÌ·, appleÚÔÎÚ›ıË-

Π·‚›·ÛÙ· ˆ˜ ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ.

∏ appleÚÒÈÌË Â͈ıÂÛÌÈ΋ ÂÓ·Û¯fiÏËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘ Ì ÙËÓ

πÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ∂Îapple·›‰Â˘Û˘ ·appleÔÙ˘appleÒıËΠ۠¤Ó·

appleÚÒÙÔ ‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘Ì· ÛÙ· 1965 2 ÂÓÒ apple·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ·

‰ÈÂÚ¢ÓÔ‡Û ÙȘ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Ó· ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ› appleÈÔ

Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ÛÙÔ appleÏ·›ÛÈÔ ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÌÂÙ·-

appleÙ˘¯È·ÎÒÓ ÛappleÔ˘‰ÒÓ. ∏ ¢ηÈÚ›· ‰fiıËΠÛÙȘ

19 ∞appleÚÈÏ›Ô˘ 1967: ÚÔÛÊÔÚ¿ ÌÈ·˜ ˘appleÔÙÚÔ-

O AϤ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜

ÛÂ Û˘Ó¤‰ÚÈÔ Ù˘ √π∂§∂

Ê›·˜ ·applefi ÙÔ μÚÂÙ·ÓÈÎfi ˘Ì‚Ô‡ÏÈÔ appleÔ˘ appleÚÔ¤-

‚ÏÂappleÂ Î·È ÂÚÁ·Û›· Û ۯÔÏÂ›Ô Ù˘ ̤Û˘ ÂÎ-

15


I ÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÛÂÏ›‰Â˜

 ·‰Ú¤˜ ÁÚ·Ì̤˜ ÙÔ «apple·Ï·Èfi appleÓ‡-

Ì·» ·ÓȯÓ‡ÂÙ·È Û ‰‡Ô appleÙ˘¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘

Û¯ÔÏÈÎÔ‡ ıÂÛÌÔ‡: ÙË ‰ÔÌ‹ («Ô Û˘ÁÎÂ-

ÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È Ë ÔÌÔÈÔÌÔÚÊ›·») ηÈ

ÛÙÔ appleÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ («Ô ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi˜-ÎÏ·-

ÛÈÎÈÛÙÈÎfi˜ appleÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi˜ ÙÔ˘ appleÚÔ-

ÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜»). ∏ ·˘ÛÙËÚ¿ Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆÙÈ-

΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË, Ë Ù˘appleÔappleÔ›ËÛË Î·È Ë

ÔÌÔÈÔÌÔÚÊ›· appleÚÔÎÚ›ÓÔÓÙ·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÌÂ

ÙËÓ ¤Ï¢ÛË ÙˆÓ μ·˘·ÚÒÓ (1833) ÁÈ·

Ó· ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô

ÛÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ·. ŸÙ·Ó appleÚÔ˜ Ù· Ù¤ÏË ÙÔ˘

19Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· (1892-94) ÂÈÛ¿ÁÔÓÙ·È ÙÔ

ÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎfi appleÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ·, ÙÔ ÂÓÈ-

·›Ô ‚‰ÔÌ·‰È·›Ô appleÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· Î·È ÙÔ ÌÔ-

Ó·‰ÈÎfi ‚È‚Ï›Ô ÁÈ· οı ̿ıËÌ· «Ë ÂÏ-

ÏËÓÈ΋ ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘ÛË appleÏËÛ›·Û appleÔχ ÙÔ

ȉ·ÓÈÎfi ÙÔ˘ ¡·appleÔϤÔÓÙ· appleÔ˘ η̿ڈ-

Ó appleˆ˜ ‹ÍÂÚ οı ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Ù˘ Ë̤ڷ˜

ÙÈ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÂÙ·È Û οı ٿÍË,

οı ۯÔÏ›Ԣ Ù˘ °·ÏÏ›·˜» (∞ã, ÌÂã-

ÛÙã). ∞ÎfiÌ· Î·È Ë Î·Ù¿ÚÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È-

‰¿ÎÙÚˆÓ (1885) Î·È Ë appleÏ‹Ú˘ ·Ó¿ÏË„Ë

ÙˆÓ ÂÍfi‰ˆÓ Ù˘ ÛÙÔȯÂÈÒ‰Ô˘˜ ÂÎapple·›-

‰Â˘Û˘ ·applefi ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ (1892), appleÙ˘¯¤˜

ıÂÙÈο ·ÍÈÔÏÔÁË̤Ó˜ ·applefi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋

ÛÎÔappleÈ¿, appleÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·applefi ÙÔÓ ¢ËÌ·-

Ú¿ ˆ˜ ÂappleÈÏÔÁ¤˜ appleÔ˘ ÛÙfi¯Â˘·Ó ÛÙËÓ

ÂÓ›Û¯˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È Û˘-

Ó·ÎfiÏÔ˘ı· ÛÙËÓ ¤ÓÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ·ÙÈÎÔ‡

ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘ (∞ã, ̉ã).

∂ÍÂÏÈÛÛfiÌÂÓÔ˜ Û ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¿ ÙÔ˘ Û˘-

ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ô Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÂÓÈÛ¯‡Â-

Ù·È appleÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ Û appleÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘˜ ·˘Ù·Ú¯È-

΋˜ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ Ì ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹

̤ÙÚˆÓ appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈÊ·ÓÂȷο ·apple·ÓÙÔ‡Ó ÛÂ

ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ·ÈÙ‹Ì·Ù· ‹ Û ·Ó¿ÁΘ ÂÍÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÌÔ‡

ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜. ∏ÙËÓ

›‰È· ηÙ‡ı˘ÓÛË ˘appleÔÁÚ·ÌÌ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û‡-

ÛÙÔȯ˜ ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂȘ ΢ڛˆ˜ ·˘Ù·Ú¯ÈÎÒÓ

ηıÂÛÙÒÙˆÓ fiappleˆ˜ Ë ›‰Ú˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ √ÚÁ·-

ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ ∂ΉfiÛˆ˜ ¢È‰·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ μÈ‚Ï›ˆÓ

·applefi ÙÔÓ ªÂÙ·Í¿ (μã, Óã), Ë Âapple¤ÎÙ·ÛË

Ù˘ ÂÏÏ·‰È΋˜ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ‰ÔÌ‹˜ ÛÙ·

¢ˆ‰ÂοÓËÛ· ·applefi ÙȘ ΢‚ÂÚÓ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘

ÂÌÊ˘Ï›Ô˘ (μã, Ó‰ã), Ë ˘apple·ÁˆÁ‹ Ù˘

¢ı‡Ó˘ ÁÈ· fiϘ ÙȘ Âapple·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈΤ˜

Û¯ÔϤ˜ ÛÙÔ ÀappleÔ˘ÚÁÂ›Ô ·È‰Â›·˜ ·applefi

ÙËÓ Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË Ù˘ ∂ƒ∂ (μã, ÓËã) ‹ Ù·

‰ˆÚÂ¿Ó ÂÁ¯ÂÈÚ›‰È· ÛÙËÓ ·ÓÒÙ·ÙË ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘ÛË

·applefi ÙËÓ ‰ÈÎÙ·ÙÔÚ›· ÙˆÓ Û˘-

ÓÙ·ÁÌ·Ù·Ú¯ÒÓ (μã, ͉ã) ηٷı¤ÙÔÓÙ·È

ÛÙËÓ ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ˆ˜ ·appleÔ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο

ÙÔ˘ ·ÓˆÙ¤Úˆ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÈÛÌÔ‡. ∞ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÔÈ

ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ˘ıÌÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ·

¤appleÚ·Í·Ó ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¿Ì‚Ï˘ÓÛË ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂ-

ÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÙÔÓ ÂÍÔ‚ÂÏÈÛÌfi Ù˘

ÔÌÔÈÔÌÔÚÊ›·˜. ∏ ÌÂϤÙË ÂÍ·›ÚÂÈ, ‚Â-

‚·›ˆ˜, ÙȘ ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ˜ apple·ÚÂÎÎÏ›ÛÂȘ ·applefi

ÙÔÓ Î·ÓfiÓ· fiappleˆ˜ «Ù· appleÚÔ·ÈÚÂÙÈο Ì·-

ı‹Ì·Ù·, Ù· ·appleÔÁ‡̷ٷ ÂÏ¢ı¤Ú·˜ ÂÚ-

Á·Û›·˜, ÙÔ ‰Èη›ˆÌ· ÙÔ˘ ˘ÏÏfiÁÔ˘ ÙˆÓ

ηıËÁËÙÒÓ Ó· ·˘ÍÔÌÂÈÒÓË ÙȘ ÒÚ˜ ‰È-

‰·Ûηϛ·˜ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ» appleÔ˘ appleÚÔ-

‚ϤappleÂÈ Ë ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ 1929 (μã,

ÌËã), ÂÓÒ ·ÊÈÂÚÒÓÂÈ Âapple›Û˘ ‰‡Ô ÛÂÏ›-

‰Â˜ ÁÈ· Ó· ·Ó·‰Â›ÍÂÈ (Î·È Ó· ˘appleԉ›ÍÂÈ)

ÙÔ ¢ËÌÔÙÈÎfi ·ÚıÂÓ·ÁˆÁÂ›Ô ÙÔ˘ μfiÏÔ˘

(1908-11), «ÙÔ ÌfiÓÔ ˆ˜ Û‹ÌÂÚ· Û¯Ô-

ÏÂ›Ô Ì ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi apple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi appleÚÔÛ·-

Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi ·applefi Ù· ¿ÏÏ· Û¯ÔÏ›· Ù˘

ÂappleÈÎÚ¿ÙÂÈ·˜» (μã, ÏÁã). √È ·Ó·ÌÂÓfiÌÂ-

Ó˜ fï˜ (ÁÈ· ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈ΋˜ Û˘Ó¤-

apple·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙÔ §ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ. ∏ ÛÙÈÁÌÈ·›· ·ÌÊÈı˘Ì›· (‰ÈfiÙÈ ÛÙÔ

ÌÂٷ͇ ›¯Â ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·) apple·Ú·ÌÂÚ›ÛÙËΠfiÙ·Ó

‰‡Ô Ë̤Ú˜ ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· ÎËÚ‡¯ÙËÎÂ Ë ‰ÈÎÙ·ÙÔÚ›· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ·Á-

Ì·Ù·Ú¯ÒÓ.

ÙÔ §ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ ¤ÌÂÈÓ apple¤ÓÙ ¯ÚfiÓÈ· (1967-1972). ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ·

Ì ÙËÓ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ apple·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ ÌÂÙ·appleÙ˘¯È·Îfi appleÚfiÁÚ·Ì-

Ì· ÛÙÔ Institute of Education Î·È Î·ÙfiappleÈÓ ÂÎapplefiÓËÛ ‰È‰·ÎÙÔ-

ÚÈ΋ ‰È·ÙÚÈ‚‹ ÛÙÔ Kings’ College Ì ÂappleȂϤappleÔÓÙ· ÙÔÓ ÂȉÈÎfi

ÛÙË ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Richard Clogg 3 . ∂Λ Ô ∞Ϥ͢ ¢Ë-

Ì·Ú¿˜ Ì˘‹ıËΠÛÙË Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ Î·È ÂΛ ÂÓ

Ù¤ÏÂÈ ÍÂapple¤Ú·Û ÔÚÈÛÙÈο ÙË ‰È·Ú΋ ˆ˜ ÙfiÙ ·ÓٛʷÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂ-

Û· ÛÙËÓ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·˜ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ

Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÒÓ. ∞appleÔÁÔËÙÂ˘Ì¤ÓÔ˜ ηıÒ˜ ‹Ù·Ó ·applefi ÙÔ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi

ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi apple·ÚfiÓ ÛÙÚ¿ÊËÎÂ, ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È·ÙÚÈ‚‹ ÙÔ˘, ÛÙËÓ appleÂ-

Ú›Ô‰Ô Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜ (1821-31), ÁÈ·

Ì›· ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË Î·È ÂappleÈÛٷ̤ÓË ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÎÒÓ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ

‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È ÓÔÔÙÚÔappleÈÒÓ 4 . Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ (·Ó¤Î‰Ô-

Ù˘) ‰È·ÙÚÈ‚‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒıËηÓ, ÂÎÙfi˜ ÙˆÓ ¿ÏψÓ, Û ̛·

·ÁÁÏfiʈÓË Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯‹ ÛÂ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÎfi ÙfiÌÔ Ì ÂappleÈÌÂÏËÙ‹ ÙÔÓ

Clogg 5 Î·È Û ¤Ó· ¿ÚıÚÔ ÛÙÔ appleÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi «¡¤· ∂ÛÙ›·» 6 .

∏ ÂappleÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹ ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· (1972) Û˘Óԉ‡ÙËΠ·applefi ÙËÓ ¤Î-

‰ÔÛË Ù˘ ÌÔÓÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜ «ΔÔ ∞ÏÊ·‚ËÙ¿ÚÈ Ì ÙÔÓ ◊ÏÈÔ» 7 . ŒÓ·

ÌfiÏȘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· ΢ÎÏÔÊfiÚËÛÂ Ë ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋ appleϤÔÓ ÌÂϤÙË

appleÔ˘ ·Ó·Ï‡ÂÙ·È Â‰Ò: ∏ ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤ÁÈÓÂ, Ì ÙËÓ

¢ڇÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ı¤Ì·Ùfi˜ Ù˘, ÙË Ó¤· (ÙfiÙÂ) ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Ù˘

appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, ÙËÓ Âapple·Ú΋ Î·È ¤Á΢ÚË ÙÂÎÌËÚ›ˆÛË Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÎ-

‰ÔÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ÂappleÈÙ˘¯›· ·appleÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ ηıÔÚÈÛÙÈ΋ ÙÔÌ‹ ÛÙËÓ ÂÏÏË-

ÓÈ΋ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·. 8 ∞applefi Ù· ÂapplefiÌÂÓ·, appleÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ

ÂӉȷʤÚÔ˘Ó Â‰Ò, appleÂÚÈÔÚ›˙ÔÌ·È Ó· ˘appleÔÛËÌÂÈÒÛˆ ÙȘ ‰‡Ô ÛË-

Ì·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚ˜ ·applefi ÙȘ ÌÂϤÙ˜ appleÔ˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ·Ó 9 , Î·È Ó· ·Ó·-

ʤڈ ÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ ∂Ù·ÈÚ›· appleÔ˘‰ÒÓ 10 , ÙËÓ

appleÚÔ‰ڛ· ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔ ∫¤ÓÙÚÔ ∂Îapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ŒÚ¢ӷ˜ (2000-

2004) 11 , Î·È Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙË Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ appleÚfiÛÊ·ÙË appleÔχ-

ÙÔÌË πÛÙÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ¡¤Ô˘ ∂ÏÏËÓÈÛÌÔ‡, Ë ÔappleÔ›· Û˘Ìapple˘ÎÓÒÓÂÈ ÙË

Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ˆ˜ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÂappleÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ appleÔÚ›·12 . ∏ ·Ó·Áfi-

ÚÂ˘Û‹ ÙÔ˘ Û Âapple›ÙÈÌÔ ‰È‰¿ÎÙÔÚ· ·applefi ÙÔ ·ÓÂappleÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞ıË-

ÓÒÓ (2001) ‹Úı ӷ ÂappleÈ΢ÚÒÛÂÈ ÂappleÈۋ̈˜ ÙËÓ Â˘Ú›· ·Ó·-

ÁÓÒÚÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ¤ÚÁÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ·applefi ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ-

ÎÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ.

ËÌÂÈÒÛÂȘ:

1 «·ÁˆÌ¤ÓÔ˜ ¿ÓÂÌÔ˜ appleÓ¤ÂÈ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÛÎÔÙÂÈÓÔ‡˜ ‰È·‰ÚfiÌÔ˘˜ Ù˘

ºÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋˜» (¢ÂÏÌÔ‡˙Ô˜).

16


TX. 8 ñ 25 ¢EKEMBPIOY 2005

appleÂÈ·˜) ÂÓÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ, ·appleÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ

Âapple·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈÎÒ ‰Èη›ˆ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË

ÙÔ˘ 1917-20, ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÔappleÔ›· ÔÈ ‰ËÌÔÙÈ-

ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ∂Îapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ √Ì›ÏÔ˘ ·ÍÈÔappleÔ›ËÛ·Ó

appleÔÈÎÈÏfiÙÚÔapple· ÙËÓ Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆ-

ÙÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹, ÂÓÒ ÛÙËÓ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘

1964, ·Ó Î·È ÂappleÈÎÚ›ÓÂÙ·È, Ë apple·Á›ˆÛË

ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁÂ›Ù·È ÂÓ

Ù¤ÏÂÈ, ÂÊfiÛÔÓ «ÂΛÓÔ appleÔ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ Î˘Ú›·Ú-

¯Ë ÛËÌ·Û›· Â›Ó·È appleˆ˜ Ë Ó¤· ÓÔÌÔıÂÛ›·

¿ÏÏ·Í ÙË ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚË ‰È¿ıÂÛË appleÔ˘ ÂappleÈ-

ÎÚ·ÙÔ‡Û ÛÙÔÓ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘Û˘:

√È Î·ıËÁËÙ¤˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒappleÈÛ·Ó Ì ӤÔ

ÙÚfiappleÔ Ù· Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÔÈ Ì·ıË-

Ù¤˜ ·Á¿appleËÛ·Ó Ù· Û¯ÔÏÈο ÙÔ˘˜ ‚È‚Ï›·»

(μã, Í‚ã).

∂ÊfiÛÔÓ Ô Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌfi˜, ÙÔ

«appleÓ‡̷» Ù˘ ‰ÔÌ‹˜, Á›ÓÂÙ·È ·ÓÂÎÙfi˜

fiÙ·Ó ·ÍÈÔappleÔÈÂ›Ù·È ·applefi ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ˘ı-

ÌÈÛÙ¤˜, ˘ÛÙÂÚ›, ÛÙȘ ·ÍÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘

¢ËÌ·Ú¿, Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙÔÓ «appleÓ‡̷»

ÙÔ˘ appleÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘, ÙÔÓ appleÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈ-

ÛÌfi ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙÔ˘ appleÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜ appleÔ˘

appleÚÔˆıÔ‡Û·Ó Ù· ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ˘ıÌÈÛÙÈο ÂÁ-

¯ÂÈÚ‹Ì·Ù·. Ù· appleÚÒÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ȉȷÈÙ¤-

Úˆ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÛÔappleÔϤÌÔ˘ ÙÔ appleÓ‡̷ Ù˘

ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛ˘ (fiappleˆ˜ ¿ÏψÛÙÂ Î·È Ù˘

ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛ˘) ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙ· ·apple›¯Â ·applefi

ÙÔ appleÓ‡̷ ÙÔ˘ ‰È·ÊˆÙÈÛÌÔ‡: √Úıfi˜

ÏfiÁÔ˜ ÛÙËÓ appleÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Ê˘ÛÈÎÔ‡

Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ (‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÂappleÈ-

ÛÙ‹ÌË ÛÙË ı¤ÛË Ù˘ ıÚËÛΛ·˜), ÊÈÏÂ-

Ï¢ıÂÚÈÛÌfi˜ ÛÙËÓ appleÔÏÈÙ›· (‰ËÏ·‰‹

·ÛÙÈ΋ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·) Î·È apple·È‰ÔÎÂÓÙÚÈ-

ÛÌfi˜ ÛÙË ‰È‰·ÎÙÈ΋ appleÚ·ÎÙÈ΋ (‰ËÏ·‰‹

¡¤· ∞ÁˆÁ‹). ∞Ó appleÚÔÛÙÂı› Î·È Ë ‰ËÌÔ-

ÙÈ΋ ÁÏÒÛÛ·, appleÚÔ¸applefiıÂÛË ÁÈ· Ó· ÏÂÈ-

ÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ù· appleÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ·, ¤¯Ô˘ÌÂ

fi,ÙÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÁ¯ÒÚÈ· apple·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÛΤ„Ë

ÔÓÔÌ¿ÛÙËΠ«ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi˜ ‰ËÌÔÙÈÎÈ-

ÛÌfi˜». ¢È·‚¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ηÓ›˜ ÙË ªÂÙ·Ú-

Ú‡ıÌÈÛË Ì¤ÓÂÈ Ì ÙËÓ ·›ÛıËÛË fiÙÈ Ô

¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ÂappleÈÛÎÔapple› ÂÓ¿ÌÈÛÈ ·ÈÒÓ· ÁÈ·

Ó· ÌappleÔÚ¤ÛÂÈ Ó· ÌÈÏ‹ÛÂÈ ÁÈ· ÙȘ «‚·ıȤ˜

ÙÔ̤˜ ÙˆÓ ¯ÚfiÓˆÓ 1910-1930», ÁÈ·

«ÙÔÓ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi fiÌÈÏÔ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ appleÚˆ-

ÙÂÚÁ¿Ù˜ ÙÔ˘». °È· ÙÔ˘˜ apple·È‰·ÁˆÁÔ‡˜

ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÛÔappleÔϤÌÔ˘, ‰ËÏ·‰‹, fiÛÔ˘˜ ÎÈ-

Ó‹ıËÎ·Ó ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹ appleÙ¤Ú˘Á· ÙÔ˘

appleÚÒÈÌÔ˘ ‚ÂÓÈ˙ÂÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ·ÏÏ¿ ·appleÔÌ·-

ÎÚ‡ÓıËÎ·Ó ·applefi ÙÔÓ ‡ÛÙÂÚÔ ‚ÂÓÈ˙ÂÏÈ-

ÛÌfi Ù˘ ΔÂÙÚ·ÂÙ›·˜, fiÛÔ˘˜ ·Ó‹ÎÔÓÙ·˜

ÛÙÔÓ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔ ·ÛÙÈÛÌfi Âapple¤ÙÚÂapple·Ó

ÛÙ· ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ appleÔÏÏ·appleϤ˜ ÔÛÌÒ-

ÛÂȘ ÂÓÒ ‰È·ÙËÚÔ‡Û·Ó Ù· ‰ÂÍÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜

·appleÔχو˜ ÛÙÂÁ·Ó¿. ΔÔ ·Ú¯ÈÎfi fiÚÈÔ Â›-

Ó·È ÔappleˆÛ‰‹appleÔÙÂ Ô ¢ÂÏÌÔ‡˙Ô˜ ÙÔ˘

1908. ΔÔ ÙÂÏÈÎfi fiÚÈÔ Ô ¢ÂÏÌÔ‡˙Ô˜ apple¿ÏÈ

ÙÔ˘ 1927. ∞ÏÏ¿ Û ηÌÈ¿ appleÂÚ›appleÙˆÛË Ô

¢ÂÏÌÔ‡˙Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ 1951.

∏ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ˆÛ‹ ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿ ÛÙÔÓ Û˘-

ÁÎÂÓÙÚˆÙÈÛÌfi Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÂÎÎÈÓ¿ ·applefi

ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÙÔ ÂÏÏËÓÈÎfi ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ ÛÙȘ

appleÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ÛÙÈÁ̤˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÏÏ¿ ȉȷÈÙ¤-

Úˆ˜ ηٿ ÙȘ ̤Ú˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê‹˜ Ù˘

ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛ˘ (·Ú¯¤˜ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜

ÙÔ˘ ‘70) ·appleԉ¯fiÙ·Ó ÙÔÓ ÎÏ·ÛÈÎÈÛÌfi,

ÂÓ›Û¯˘Â ÙÔÓ Û˘ÓÙËÚËÙÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔÓ ÛÎÔ-

Ù·‰ÈÛÌfi ÒÛÙ ӷ ÂϤÁ¯ÂÈ ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜

‰ÈÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜. ∏ appleÚÔۋψÛË ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿

ÛÙËÓ ·appleÔΤÓÙÚˆÛË (Ë ÔappleÔ›· ÓÔÂ›Ù·È ˆ˜

ÌÂÙ·‚›‚·ÛË Ù˘ ¢ı‡Ó˘ ÁÈ· Ï‹„Ë ·appleÔ-

Ê¿ÛÂˆÓ Û ÂappleÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜ ÊÔ-

Ú›˜ - μã, ÓËã) ‰ڿ˙ÂÙ·È ·ÊÂÓfi˜ ÛÙËÓ

ÂÎÙ›ÌËÛË fiÙÈ Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· appleÚÔappleÔÚ‡ÂÙ·È

ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜, Î·È ·ÊÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ appleÂappleÔ›-

ıËÛË fiÙÈ ÛÂ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ¿ÚÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ·ÙÈ-

ÎÔ‡ ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘ Ô ‰È·ÊˆÙÈÛÌfi˜, ÛÙËÓ ÂÏ-

ÏËÓÈ΋ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÂΉԯ‹, ‰ÂÓ

ÌappleÔÚ› apple·Ú¿ Ó· ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯‹ÛÂÈ. ÙËÓ Û˘-

Á΢ڛ· ÂΛÓË, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ›¯Â ‹‰Ë ˘appleÔ-

ÛÙ› Ì›· ·ÎfiÌË ‰ÂÈÓ‹ ‹ÙÙ·.

√È ËÙÙË̤ÓÔÈ ‰È·Ù›ÓÂÙ·È Ô ŒÚÈÎ ÃÔ-

ÌappleÛÌapple¿Ô˘Ì Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔÈ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ-

ÎÔ›. √ ∞Ϥ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ¤ÁÈÓÂ Ô appleÚÒÙÔ˜

ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi˜ Ù˘ ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜

ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘Û˘. ÿÛˆ˜ ÂappleÂȉ‹ ‹Ù·Ó Ô ÙÂ-

ÏÂ˘Ù·›Ô˜ ÁÓ‹ÛÈÔ˜ ÂÎappleÚfiÛˆappleÔ˜ ÂÓfi˜ ËÙ-

ÙË̤ÓÔ˘ (ÙfiÙÂ) apple·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎÔ‡ ÎÈÓ‹Ì·-

ÙÔ˜: ÙÔ˘ ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ ‰ËÌÔÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡.

* ·ÓÂappleÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ πˆ·ÓÓ›ÓˆÓ

2 §‹ÌÌ· «∂Îapple·›‰Â˘ÛË», ÛÙË °ÂÓÈ΋ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ∂Á΢ÎÏÔapple·›‰ÂÈ·

¿apple˘ÚÔ˜-§·ÚÔ‡˜, ÙfiÌ. Δã («∂ÏÏ¿˜»), ÛÂÏ. 376-382, ∞ı‹Ó·

1965 [Î·È Û ·Ó¿Ù˘appleÔ Ì ÙÔÓ Ù›ÙÏÔ ¡ÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ∂Îapple·›‰Â˘ÛȘ

(πÛÙÔÚÈÎfiÓ ¯Â‰›·ÛÌ·)].

3 °ÓˆÛÙfi˜ ÛÙËÓ ∂ÏÏ¿‰· ·applefi ÙȘ ÌÂϤÙ˜ ÙÔ˘, ÙË Û˘Ó‰ÚÔÌ‹ ÙÔ˘

ÛÙȘ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ·ÛȷΤ˜ appleÚÔÛapple¿ıÂȘ Âapple› ¯Ô‡ÓÙ·˜ Î·È appleÚfiÛÊ·Ù· ·applefi

ÙË ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ Sort History of Modern Greece,

1992. [˘ÓÔappleÙÈ΋ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·˜ 1770-1990, ÌÂÙ. §˘‰›·

·apple·‰¿ÎË, ∞ı‹Ó·, πÛÙÔÚËÙ‹˜, 1995].

4 Alexis Dimaras, Foreign, and Particularly English, Influences on

Educational Policies in Greece During the War of Independence

and their Development under Capodistrias (1821-1831), ·ÓÂappleÈ-

ÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ÙÔ˘ §ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ˘, 1973.

5 A. Dimaras, «The other British Philhellenes», ÛÙÔ Richard

Clogg (ed.), The Struggle for Greek Independence, §ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ 1973,

ÛÂÏ. 200-223.

6 ∞Ϥ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜, «Δ· ÂÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈο ÛÙ· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÙÔ˘ ∞ÁÒÓ·»,

appleÂÚ. ¡¤· ∂ÛÙ›·, Ù¯. 1043, 25-12-1970, ÛÂÏ. 51-59.

7 ∞ı‹Ó·, ∂ÚÌ‹˜, 1972.

8 μÏ. ÙȘ ÂÎÙÈÌ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÃÚÈÛÙ›Ó·˜ ∫Ô˘ÏÔ‡ÚË, «∏ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·

Ù˘ ÓÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜ ÂÎapple·›‰Â˘Û˘: ˘Ó¤¯ÂȘ Î·È Ú‹ÍÂȘ (1967-

2002)», ÛÙÔ ·Û¯¿Ï˘ ∫ÈÙÚÔÌËÏ›‰Ë˜ Î·È ΔÚÈ·ÓÙ¿Ê˘ÏÏÔ˜ ÎÏ·‚Â-

Ó›Ù˘ (ÂappleÈÌ.), πÛÙÔÚÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· Ù˘ ÓÂfiÙÂÚ˘ Î·È Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ∂ÏÏ¿-

‰·˜ 1833-2002, ÙfiÌ. ∞ã, ∞ı‹Ó·, ∫¤ÓÙÚÔ ¡ÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈÎÒÓ ∂Ú¢-

ÓÒÓ, 2004, ÛÂÏ. 499. Ú‚Ï. ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ˜ ÎÚ›ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÕÓÓ·˜ ºÚ·-

ÁÎÔ˘‰¿ÎË 28 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÓˆÚ›ÙÂÚ· ÛÙÔ ∂Îapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË

Î·È ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔÈ ‰È·ÓÔÔ‡ÌÂÓÔÈ, ∞ı‹Ó·, ∫¤‰ÚÔ˜, 1977, ÛÂÏ. 9.

9 AϤ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜, M›ÏÙÔ˜ KÔ˘ÓÙÔ˘Ú¿˜: KÏ›ÛÙ ٷ Û¯ÔÏ›·

(EÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈο ¿apple·ÓÙ·), Ù. AãÎ·È Bã, Aı‹Ó·, °ÓÒÛË, 1985 ηÈ

ÙÔ˘ ȉ›Ô˘, EÎapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi˜ ŸÌÈÏÔ˜. K·Ù¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ ÌÂÏÒÓ 1910-1927,

Aı‹Ó·, EÙ·ÈÚ›· appleÔ˘‰ÒÓ, 1994.

10 ∂Ù·ÈÚ›· appleÔ˘‰ÒÓ ¡ÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈÎÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È °ÂÓÈ΋˜ ·È-

‰Â›·˜ (π‰Ú˘Ù‹˜: ¯ÔÏ‹ ªˆÚ·˝ÙË). √ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ ˘apple‹ÚÍÂ È‰Ú˘ÙÈÎfi

̤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ (1972) Î·È Â›Ó·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· appleÚfi‰Úfi˜ Ù˘.

11 ∞˜ ÌÔ˘ ÂappleÈÙÚ·apple› Ó· ·Ó·Ê¤Úˆ Î·È ÙËÓ ÂΛ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›· Ì·˜ ÁÈ·

ÙË Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË Î·È ¤Î‰ÔÛË Ù˘ μÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜ ÙˆÓ ∂ÏÏËÓÈÎÒÓ

·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÒÓ: ∞Ϥ͢ ¢ËÌ·Ú¿˜ (ÂappleÔappleÙ›·), ÿÚ˘

∞ı·Ó·ÛÈ¿‰Ë˜ (ÂappleÈ̤ÏÂÈ·), ∂ÏÏËÓÈο ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈο ÂÚÈÔ‰Èο.

μÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· 1831-1974, ∞ı‹Ó·, ∫¤ÓÙÚÔ ∂Îapple·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ŒÚ¢-

Ó·˜, 2004.

12 μ·Û›Ï˘ ·Ó·ÁȈÙfiappleÔ˘ÏÔ˜ (ÂappleÈÌ.), πÛÙÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ¡¤Ô˘ ∂ÏÏËÓÈ-

ÛÌÔ‡ 1770-2000, ÙfiÌÔÈ 10, ∞ı‹Ó·, ∂ÏÏËÓÈο °Ú¿ÌÌ·Ù·, 2003-4.

17

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