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Despite this, persistent

Despite this, persistent underinvestment in women’s economic empowerment means that improvements in girls’ education have not translated into reduced gender gaps in the labour market or equal access to and control over economic resources. While legal reforms have expanded women’s economic rights and opportunities, women still face gender-based job restrictions in 100 economies around the world, and in 18 economies husbands can legally prevent their wives from working. 5 Women’s labour force participation globally has stagnated over the past 30 years. 6 Women remain concentrated in gender segregated occupations at the lower end of the employment hierarchy, 7 leading to gender pay gaps which persist both in developing and OECD countries. 8 Globally, women earn on average 24% less than men. 9 Women continue to make up the largest share of workers in informal forms of employment that are typically precarious, poorly paid and which lack basic social protections, such as unpaid family workers, subsistence farmers, homeworkers, and domestic workers. 10 This makes women disproportionately vulnerable to poverty and can render their economic contributions invisible. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides an ambitious roadmap to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development for all. Women’s economic empowerment cuts across the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets on recognising and valuing unpaid care and domestic work, women’s equal rights to economic resources, full and productive employment and decent work, and equal pay for work of equal value. 11 The Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development further commits to ensure women’s equal rights, access and opportunities for participation and leadership in the economy, recognising this as essential to achieve sustainable development. 12 Other recent international commitments include the target adopted by G20 leaders in 2014 to reduce the gender gap in labour force participation in G20 countries by 25% by 2025. 13 The OECD and ILO are working together to monitor progress in meeting this “25 by 25” target. 14 These newer commitments build on longer‐standing ones, such as those enshrined in the Beijing Platform for Action on women’s roles in and contribution to the economy. Adequate financing from all sources will be required for the full and accelerated implementation of both new and long-established commitments to empower women economically and shape economies that work for women. Methodology The OECD-DAC gender equality policy marker The OECD uses the DAC gender equality policy marker to track aid activities that target gender equality as a policy objective. Aid activities can be classified as targeting gender equality as a “principal” or “significant” objective, or as “not targeted”. • Principal means that gender equality is a primary objective of the activity and refers to stand-alone projects targeting gender equality. • Significant means that gender equality is an important but secondary objective and refers to projects that mainstream gender equality. • Not targeted means that the activity has been screened using the policy marker but was found not to be targeting gender equality. The marker contributes to strengthening transparency and accountability in donor financing for gender equality and women’s rights. For more information about the gender equality policy marker, see: 5. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group (2015), Women, Business and the Law 2016: Getting to Equal, Washington, DC. 6. The World Bank Group (2013), Gender at Work: A Companion to the World Development Report on Jobs. 7. UN Women (2015), Progress of the World’s Women 2015-16: Transforming Economies, Realising Rights. 8. OECD (2012), Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now, pp. 166-167 and OECD, International Labour Office, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group (2014), Achieving Stronger Growth by Promoting a More Gender-Balanced Economy. Report prepared for the G20 Labour and Employment Ministerial Meeting, Melbourne, Australia, 10-11 September 2014. 9. UN Women (2015), Progress of the World’s Women 2015-16: Transforming Economies, Realising Rights. 10. International Labour Office (2016), Women at Work: Trends 2016, ILO, Geneva. 11. SDGs targets on women’s economic empowerment include: equal rights to economic resources (SDG1 and SDG5), women small scale food producers (SDG2), equal access to technical and vocational education (SDG 4), unpaid care and domestic work (SDG5), women’s participation and equal opportunities, including in economic life (SDG5), full and productive employment for all women and men (SDG8). 12. Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, para. 6. 13. G20 Leaders’ Communiqué, Brisbane Summit, 15-16 November 2014. 14. OECD and ILO (2015), Monitoring progress in reducing the gender gap in labour force participation. Report prepared for the meeting of the G20 Employment Working Group, Istanbul, Turkey, 7-8 May 2015. 2 OECD DAC NETWORK ON GENDER EQUALITY (GENDERNET) TRACKING THE MONEY FOR WOMEN’S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT: STILL A DROP IN THE OCEAN

This brief examines how much bilateral aid was marked as targeting gender equality using the OECD-DAC gender equality policy marker in a selected number of economic and productive sectors and sub-sectors that are particularly relevant for women’s economic empowerment. They have been grouped into 11 categories, which form the basis of the analysis presented in this brief: agriculture and rural development; industry; mining, construction and tourism; transport; energy; communication; banking and business services; trade; public finance management; employment policy; urban development. These 11 categories cover key employment sectors (such as agriculture and rural development, industry, mining, construction and tourism), infrastructure and services which contribute to reducing women’s unpaid work and enabling them to access new economic opportunities (for example, transport, energy, communication, and banking and financial services), as well as policies at the local, national and global level which have a significant impact on women’s equal participation and well-being in labour markets (public finance management, employment policy, trade and urban development). Overview of donor support to women’s economic empowerment Women’s economic empowerment is a policy priority for the majority of DAC agencies, but until recently investments in this area remained flat. The latest figures reveal a notable increase in aid to women’s economic empowerment for the first time since 2007 – from USD 5.2 billion in 2007-08 to USD 8.8 billion on average per year in 2013-14 (Chart 1). Chart 1: Aid in support of women’s economic empowerment, 2007-2014 Commitments, USD billion, 2014 prices 10 USD billion 8 24% 21% USD 8.8 billion 20% 24% 6 USD 5.2 billion USD 5.6 billion USD 5.8 billion 4 2 0 2007-08 2009-10 2011-12 2013-14 Aid to the economic and productive sectors targeting gender equality as a significant objective Aid to the economic and productive sectors targeting gender equality as a principal objective Aid to gender equality as a share of total aid to the economic and productive sectors. 3

S14 Manual for the National Economic Development and Labour ...