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DIPLOMACY ДИПЛОМАЦИЯ

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NATION BRANDING EFFORTS

NATION BRANDING EFFORTS OF POST-SOCIALIST COUNTRIES... Bulgarians in a more populist way using politicized messages and imagery referring to Bulgarian folklore and traditions evoking the sentiment of pride. Those three social branding initiatives from Bulgarians to Bulgarians (and in the case of Like.Bulgaria – to foreign publics) cover the spectrum of Bulgarian branding efforts and replace missing or less productive official branding. As a conclusion, I would like to underline that nation-branding efforts are a long-term strategy that reveals results in the course of several years or even decades. Last but not least, it is important to engage as many key stakeholders as possible, including the nation itself, in the continuous process and make sure that pure strategic actions are backed up with real substance, positive transformation and symbolical acts. References 1. Anholt, S. (2007). Competitive identity. Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan. 2. Anholt, S. (2008) Places: Identity, Image and Reputation, Palgrave Macmillan. 3. Bobinski, K. (2004), Poland's nervous 'return' to Europe, Open Democracy April 2004, Available at: https://www. opendemocracy.net/democracy-europefuture/article_1878.jsp 4. Brand Estonia (2016), Available at: http://brand.estonia.eu/ 5. Brand Finance Journal (2012), Available at: http://www.brandfinance.com/images/upload/bfj_nation_ brands_100_2012_dp.pdf 6. David Cross, M.K. (2013), Conceptualizing European Public Diplomacy, European Public Diplomacy. Soft Power at Work, Palgrave Macmillan: 1-13 7. Estonian Development Fund (2015), Available at: http://www.arengufond.ee/en/ 8. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, N.Y. 9. Doubleday.Gregory, B. (2011). American Public Diplomacy: Enduring Characteristics, Elusive Transformation. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 6(3), pp.351-372. 10. Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall 11. Kaneva, N. (2011). Who can play this game? The rise of nation branding in Bulgaria, 2001-2005, Branding Post- Communist Nation: Marketizing National Identities in the “New” Europe, Routeledge 12. Marini, A. (2011), Poland: the transition is over and is successful, EuInside, Available at: http://www.euinside.eu/ en/news/poland-the-transition-has-been-completed-successfully 13. Melissen, J. (2011). Beyond the New Public Diplomacy. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael'. 14. Ociepka, B (2013). New members’ public diplomacy. European Public Diplomacy. Soft Power at Work, Palgrave Macmillan. 15. Ociepka, B. (2012). Polish Public Diplomacy. [online] E-International Relations. Available at: http://www.e-ir. info/2012/10/08/polish-public-diplomacy/ [Accessed 29 Apr. 2015]. 16. Ociepka, B. (2014), Public Diplomacy in the European Union: Models for Poland, The Polish Institute of International Relations. 17. Olins, W. (6 December 2004). A Brand of Poland: The Program, the Context, the Band and the Benefits, A paper presented in Warsaw 18. Ruzzier, M,, Chernatony, L. (2010) A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO BRANDING SLOVENIA, Available online at: http://www.brand-management.usi.ch/Abstracts/Tuesday/PlacebrandingII/Tuesday_PlacebrandingII_Konecnik. pdf 19. Simonanholt.com, (2015). Simon Anholt. [online] Available at: http://www.simonanholt.com [Accessed 29 Apr. 2015]. 20. Slovenia.info (2016), The brands of Slovenia. From the linden leaf to “I feel Slovenia”, Governmental communication Available at: http://www.slovenia.info/pictures/TB_board/atachments_2/2016/znamka_Slovenije_ ang_20810.pdf). 21. Surowiec, P. (2012) “Towards Corpo-Nationalism. Poland as a Brand”, Branding Post-Communist Nation: Marketizing National Identities in the “New” Europe, Routeledge 22. Szondi, G. (2007). The role and challenges of country branding in transition countries: The Central and Eastern European experience. Place branding, 3(1), pp.8-20. 23. Szondi, G. (2008). Public diplomacy and nation branding. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael'. DIPLOMACY 18/2016 133

NATION BRANDING EFFORTS OF POST-SOCIALIST COUNTRIES... 24. Trulydeeply.com.au, (2014). Place Branding – Bulgaria’s new tourism branding gets a little lost in translation | Truly Deeply/Madly. [online] Available at: http://www.trulydeeply.com.au/madly/2013/02/07/place-branding-bulgariatourism-brand-agency/ [Accessed 29 Apr. 2015]. 25. Zaharna, R. (2011). R.S Zaharna, “Strategic Stakeholder Engagement in Public Diplomacy,” paper presented at the International Studies Association Conference, Montreal, March 15-19, 2011.. [online] Academia.edu. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/541642/R.S_Zaharna_Strategic_Stakeholder_Engagement_in_Public_Diplomacy_ paper_presented_at_the_International_Studies_Association_Conference_Montreal_March_15-19_2011 [Accessed 28 Apr. 2015]. 26. Zaharna, R. (2012). The 4th Quadrant of Public Diplomacy. [online] E-International Relations. Available at: http:// www.e-ir.info/2012/11/06/the-4th-quadrant-of-public-diplomacy/ [Accessed 28 Apr. 2015]. 134 Alena Lakova-Iltcheva is an external digital marketing consultant. She graduated her Bachelor in Communication studies from Université Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris, France, and has a Master in International Communication from Hanze University of Groningen, Holland. Alena has worked as an associate with the Diplomatic Institute to the Bulgarian MFA, where she gained expertise in the field of public diplomacy. In 2016, her Master thesis “Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding: Case Study of the Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2011 in View of the Upcoming Bulgarian Presidency in 2018” won the prestigious award for Best Practical Impact in the sphere of European PR by EUPRERA, The European Public Relations Education and Research Association. ДИПЛОМАЦИЯ 18/2016

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