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AITORMA APRIL-2018 PDF

POKYATWI 2013 bisini

POKYATWI 2013 bisini December talni salba salni (5 th December 2013) horo, South Africani kwcham haktorpha Nelson Mandela thwjao. Boh thwma bagwi South Africani borokrok ‘chwng ma pha kwrwi wngkha’ hwnwi kha khamjakbaikha tei kaplaikha. Hayungni bororokbo kha khamjakbaikha. O borok kotorni mwkhang kisa nairwkna bagwi hayungni juda juda borok kotor rok Pritalia o thanglaikha. Ao! Nelson Mandela soi soino haktorni bagwi bupha haikhe samung tangwi thangkha. Bini samung kotor tangmarokno sabaiya tei swibaiya. Haiphano chwng kisaswk phano bini langma tongphruni samungrokno sina nailaiyanw. Tamoni hwnba bini samung kotor tanglangmarok ha no hamjagwi samung tangthani belaikhe khatung rwanw hwnwi kha khlai mansugu. Bisi nwichisni romwi 466/64 No. along nogo tongmani hayung-ni jotonislai mung gwnang ojama. South Africani haphang a jora bohno belaikhe sakmang twi satokkha. Along nogo tongtwtwi-no, boh haktorni borokrokno satoknai haphangni aroni yoknani khatungrwkha. Bini dophano Nelson Mandela hamjagwi, dophano phiyokna bagwi choba khwlai tongmani hayungni yaphang buchuk lilakkha. Ulo hayung haktor rokni borokrok Nelson Mandelano, phiyok di hwnwi South Africani haphangno hwnlaikha. Aboni bagwi haphang bohno phiyogwi ma rwkha. Aboni ulono Nelson Mandela South Africani puila kosom sakurni haktorpha chongjakkha. Hayungni kwbangma ha ono, sakni borokrokno, dophano hamjagwi baithangni tongthok chathokno naiyawi, satok jagwi tongnairokno phiyokna bagwi langma tongsak choba khwlailangnai borokrokni bisingni laibumao, sal haikhe chwngwi tongnai Nelson Mandelani bumung. Nelson Mandela wngkha chobani bagwi khatung rwnai rwngthoma kaisa. Hayungo obohaikhe borokrokni sakao kusupmung satokmung jephru phaio, aphru Nelson Mandela hai kotor ojamano nangmani nukjagu. Borokrok satok jagwi tongphru, kusup jagwi tongphru satoknai haphangno kebengwi Nelson Mandelani choba khwlaimano mwito khwlai rwo. Nelson Mandelani choba tongmani sakur kuphur tei kosom sakurno twi. Nelson Mandela alongo tongphru bohno belaikhe lachirwjakha, bujakha. Bono simi satokliya, bini bihik bwsa tei kiching roknobo sengkrakrok (police) satokna yakarliya. Sengkrakrok (police) Mandelani bihikno swihaikhe bisi bisi romwi rutukha. Bihikno sebukni tikhlai rwmabai belai biyalo kwlaina aitorma 20 nangkha Nelson Mandelani nukhung. Phiya along nokni yokma ulo bo satoknai sakur kuphur rokno jolijakliya, nakarma phunukha. Boh hai ojama hayungo nukthayano hwnwi mano. Nelson Mandela kwthang langma tongmao, bisi kusung thamni kwbang alongnok bisingo ma katikha. Aphru bini buma, bwsala tei bini khani sandairok thwima bagwi bini kha belai khamjakha. Kha khamjakgwi mwnak hor laio, hor phaio tei thuya katikha. Bini kha khamjakmano, khaono chobwi siring siring soikha Mandela. Tamokhe boh saimano bini hani borokrokno phiyokna bagwi boh kha kwrak wngna nangnai. Abo simiya, boh uansuk mankha bebak borokno bini nukhungnino borok hwnwi. Kubuino Nelson Mendela haktorni buphano. Boh along nogo tongphru koktwma bwlai tei T.V o bini mangpli phunukthani manakhwlaijak tongmani. Bini mungbo kebophano ma khuya. Haphang borokni bukhukni simi Nelson Mendelani bumungno huna naimani, phiyaba borokni bwkha bisingni hamjakmani aroni Nelson Mandelani bumungno hui manliya. Nelson Mandela achainani bisi kwbangma swkangno Europeni

POKYATWI kwbangma sakur kuphur borokrok South Africa o phainani chengkha. Aboni swkang South Africao sakur kosom borokrok simi se tongmani. Mai khul kaimani bisingtwi tei malmata rimani bisingtwi bohrok chalai nwnglaikhe nukhung khalai tonglaio. Phiya South Africani ha tolao eba ha bisingo kwbangma thok tongmani, abono aroni borokrok saimanya. Aroni borokrok kisa ajima baino kwchang kwchangkhe tongbaio Bohrok belaikheno kha kosong borokmang. Puila Dutch dophani borokrok South Africao phaio. Holand haktorni phainai bohrokni ojama tongmani Jan Van Riebeeck. Bini logi khorok chukuchi sebuk tongo. Bohrok jotono Dutch East India companyni sebukrok. 1652 bisi April talni saldok salo (6 April 1652) Jan Van Riebeeck puila South Africao phaio. South Africani hapung hathai tei kwkhrang awar nugwi belai naithokjakha. Aboni logi aroni borokrok nograi rokno aswk khabai lamsokma tei bohrokni kha kwchang, kha kosong tongmungno Dutch borokrok kha phurjakha. Phiyaba bohrokni o halok kaham kwbang sal tongliya. Silai patham eba rangni phanbai Africani borokrokno mechenna chengkha. Jora kisani bisingno, Dutchrok South Africao nok huk tangwi tongbaikha. Bohrokni kahamni bagwi kerong tei raidarok swnamwi African rokno satok pitok khlaina chenglaikha. A joraono, tongthai naphainairok African rokno nogo seleng khatinani kerong chengwi rwo tei joto tongthai naphainairok khoroksakhe Africanno seleng nanani phan mankha. South Africao puila phaima thaino bohrok ‘Cape Town’ hwnwi mung rwkha. Tongthai naphainairokno ‘BOERS’ hwnwi sinijago. O ‘BOERS’ bosongrok puila Cape Town o tongphano, ulo salka babai bwkhabo thangna chengo. Yang o salka babai bwkhak Africani ‘XHOSA’ bosongni borokrok tongbaio. Nelson Mandela o ‘XHOSA’ bosongni borok tongmani. Puila bwkhak ‘XHOSA’ bosongbai halok kaham tongphano, ‘XHOSA’ bosongno kebel nugui satokna chengkha Dutchrok. Kechen Africani kwcham borokrok bebak kwkha kwtwi monogwino tonglaikha. Hani kwcham borokrokni tongthok chathokni mungsa sep kwrwi, belai biyalni bisingo bohrok ma tongbaikha. 1790 bisio Holand o choba nango, aphru Holandni ha bugra England hao tongthai nao. A ha bugrani koimungbai Englad South Africano mecheno. Haikhe South Africano segwi nakha. 1803 bisio hani kwcham borokrokbai kok khalai, Englandrok South Africano Dutchrokno kiphilwi rwo. 1806 bisio England teiwaisa South Africano segwi nakha. Aphrukhe aitorma 21 Dutch tei Engladni borokrok hani kwcham borokrokno teibo satok pitok khlailaikha. Englandni thani chenwi Dutchrok Cape Town yakarwi hakchalni XHOSA tei kubuni bosongni borokrokni tongthai tei chahmungrok sekna naimabai Dutchrokbai hani kwcham borokrokni bising belaikhe choba nangkha. Englandni Engrej ojarok, Dutch tei hani kwcham borokrokno juda judakhe tongnani lam kariwi rwo. Phiya baniya khlaina hwnkhe hani kwcham borokrokno nangu. Aboni bagwi hani kwcham borokrokni thang laisuma naichomna bagwi ‘Pass law’ hinwi kerong kaisa chengwi rwjakha. O kirima singsa kerongni bagwi South Africani kosom sakurni borokrok o Pass lawni gosimung kwrwi hinkhe, thang laisui manya. O gosimung manya borok thang laisukhe belaikhe majra berjagu. Aboni ulobo kwbangma hamya kerong swnamwi aroni kosom borokrokni langmano kesebo khiklai sukha. South Africao (Diamond) heera, mukta tei rangchak kwbangma ha tolao tongo. Engrejrok ha tola kwbangma rangchakrok mankhe, South Africani tongmung belai hamchai phaikha. phiya kosomsarok, aboni kisa phano banta manliya. Yang haktorni rangni halok hamwi phairwrwk baniya bo hamwi phairwrwk. Haikhe Europeni tei Asia haktorni borok kwbangkhe South Africao, thangna chengkha. Dutchrok khe kisa borok tei Europeni khe borok kwbang wngwi thangkha. Aboni bagwi 1899 bisio bohrokni bising choba nanglaikha. A choba laibuma o ‘BOER’ Choba hinwi sinijago. A chobao Europeni borokrok kwplai wngo.

April 2018