The German Energiewende - Tamil

globalenergiewende

The Tamil version of our brochure

(n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

n[u;kd; vndu;[pntz;Nl


n[u;kd; vndu;[pntz;Nl

n[u;kdpapd; rf;jp Kiwikia cUkhw;Wjy;


02 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

vndu;[pntz;Nl -

n[u;kdpapd; rf;jp Kiwikia cUkhw;Wjy;

ey;tuT!

© dpa/Westend61/Werner Dieter

ePq;fs;> n[u;kdpapd; vjpu;fhyj;jpw;fhd kpf Kf;fpakhd nraw;jpl;lq;fspy; xd;whd

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kfpo;r;rp milfpd;Nwhk;.

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Vw;gLj;jf;$bajhfTKs;sJ.

ghJfhg;ghd> Fiwe;j tpiyapy;> ePbj;J ciof;ff;$ba rf;jp toq;fiy ehk;

vt;thW cUthf;fyhk; vd;w Nfs;tpf;fhd vkJ gjpy;jhd; vndu;[pntz;Nl!

tzpfk; kw;Wk; KjyPLfspd; mbg;gilapy;> n[u;kdpf;F Gjpa tpahghu re;jg;gq;fs;>

Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfis tsu;j;jy;> Ntiytha;g;Gfis cUthf;fy;> tsu;r;rpia

Jupjg;gLj;jy;> vupnghUs; kw;Wk; vupthA ,wf;Fkjpapy; jq;fpapUg;gij Fiwj;J

© iStock/SilviaJansenx © Paul Langrock

1971

n[u;kd; murhq;fk; Kjy; RwWr;#oy; epfo;tpid Nkw;nfhz;lJ.


© dpa/Westend61/Werner Dieter

The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 03

© iStock/SilviaJansenx © Paul Langrock

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nfhs;Sk; Mu;tkhdJ cyfkakhdJ vd;gij gy;NtW

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vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ. Mjypdhy; ehk; ngUkfpo;r;rp

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gupkhzq;fs; kw;Wk; mjd; cs;slf;fq;fs; gw;wp

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xNu ,utpy; mila rhj;jpakw;w xd;whFk;. rpf;fyhdJk;

gy khWgl;l Njitfis G+u;j;jp nra;a Ntz;baJkhd

jiyKiwfis fle;j KiwikahFk;. ehk; vLf;Fk;

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tpl;Lf;nfhLf;fhJ ,Ug;gij cWjpnra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,jdhy;>

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mikag;ngw;wjhFk;. ehk; vkJ INuhg;gpa may;ehLfs;

kw;Wk; ru;tNjr gq;fhsh;fSld; Mokhd fye;Jiuahliy

Nkw;nfhs;s miog;gJld;> NkYk; vy;iy jhz;ba

$l;LwT kw;Wk; jPu;Tfis cUthf;FtijNa Fwpf;Nfhshf

nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwhk;. cyfshtpa uPjpapy; fhgdPnuhl;irl; (CO 2

)

khriljiy Fiwj;jy;> G+Nfhs ntg;gkiljiy fl;Lg;gLj;jy;

kw;Wk; ghJfhg;ghd> epiyahd Fiwe;j tpiy nfhz;l rf;jp

toq;Fjiy Nkw;nfhs;s ehk; $l;Lj;jPu;Tfis fhzNtz;Lk;.

n[h;kdp> G+kp kw;Wk; mjd; capupdq;fSf;fhd nghWg;gpid

jd; rf;jp mikg;gpid khw;Wtjd; %yk; Kd;ndLf;fpd;wJ.

ehk; gRikrf;jp jpl;lj;jpw;F khWtjpdhy; cq;fisAk;

mjDld; ,iztjw;F miof;fpd;Nwhk;. ePq;fs; fz;fhl;rpia

fz;Lfspg;gPu;fs; vd;Wk; mJ cq;fSf;F gy tplaq;fis

fye;Jiuahlf;$ba fUg;nghUl;fis toq;Fnkd;Wk;

ek;Gfpd;Nwhk;.

1972

njw;F n[u;kdpapd; ngd;]d;ngu;f; vd;w rpwpa efuj;jpy; fl;lg;gl;l n[u;kdpapd;

Kjy; R+upa-rf;jp tPlikg;Gj; jpl;lq;fspy; xd;W.


04 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd;

rf;jpia mjpf

,af;FjpwDld;

gad;gLj;jy;

kpd;rhuk;> mdy; kw;Wk; vupnghUis ,af;FjpwDld; gad;gLj;jp gzj;ij Nrkpg;gJld;

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ghupa msT rf;jp %yq;fis ,wf;Fkjp nra;aNtz;bAs;sJ. mjd; ,wf;Fkjpfs;

fpl;lj;jl;l nkhj;j rf;jpNjitapy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L gFjpahf> 1970fspy; ,Ue;jij tpl

mz;zsthf 50 rjtPjk; tiu mjpfupj;Js;sJ. ,jdhy;jhd; rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd; kw;Wk;

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp cUthf;fk; vd;gd vndu;[pntz;Nltpd; J}zhf mikfpd;wJ.

gy jrhg;jq;fs; fle;J n[u;kdpapd; kf;fs;> rf;jpapid ,af;FjpwDld; gad;gLj;JtJ

gw;wp mjpf tpopg;Gzu;T ngw;Ws;sdh;. 1973,y; Vw;gl;l Kjy; vz;nza; neUf;fb

,jw;fhd gpujhd J}z;Ljyhf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. n[u;kd; Fbkf;fs; krF vz;nza;apy;

jq;fpapUe;jhu;fs;> ,e;j neUf;fb epiyapd; gpd;du; n[u;kd; murhq;fk; rf;jp

Nrkpg;G gw;wpa jfty; gpur;rhuj;jpy; jfty; kw;Wk; topfhl;ly;> rf;jp nfhs;tdit Fiwf;Fk; tifapy;

,yf;Ffis ,izj;jy; Mfpa %d;W Kf;fpa tplaq;fis cs;slf;fpapUe;jd.

© dpa/Jörg Carstensen © dpa/Westend61/Werner Dieter

1973

nahk; fpg;G+u; Aj;jk; (mf;Nlhgu; 1973) cyfshtpa uPjpapy; vz;nza;

neUf;fbia Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

n[h;kdpapy; rf;jp ghJfhg;gpw;fhf fhu;-mw;w QhapW jpdk;

gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 05

© dpa/Westend61/Werner Dieter

'kpfr; rpwe;j fpNyhntw;-kzpNeuk;

vd;gJ ehk; gad;gLj;jhjitNa!"

Af;jp nraw;gLfpd;wJ - n[u;kdpapd; rf;jpf;fhd Nfs;tp

1990,ypUe;J tPo;r;rpaile;jJ> vdpDk; mjd; nkhj;j cs;ehl;L

nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp fzprkhd Kiwapy; cau;tile;jJ.

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tpl 10 tpfpjj;jpw;Fk; Fiwthd rf;jpiag; gad;gLj;jp

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,f;fhuzj;jpw;fhf> md;whl tho;tpd; eilKiw khw;wq;fSk;

rf;jpia Nrkpf;fpd;wd. ,jd; fhuzkhf> n[u;kdp KOtJs;s

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flikfis ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

1975

n[u;kdpapd; rf;jp ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffs;> cau; rf;jpapid

jf;fitg;gJld; ehl;bd; tPjpfspy;

Ntff;fl;Lg;ghl;il mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ.


06 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

ntg;gk;

,jkhd R+L>

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;fJ kw;Wk;

Mw;wy; nfhz;lJ

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rf;jpia nfhs;Kjy; nra;fpwJ. ehl;bd; 40 kpy;ypad; tPl;Lg; ghtidg; nghUl;fshy;

Vwf;Fiwa %d;wpy; ,uz;L gFjp rf;jp miwfis ntg;gNkw;Wtjw;Fk; ePiu #lhf;fTk;

gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

,jdhy;jhd; n[u;kdp murhq;fk; 2050,y; tPLfspy; Vw;gLk; vupnghUs; kw;Wk; vupthAtpd;

mbg;gilj; Njitia 80 rjtpfpjj;jpw;F Fiwf;f Kw;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j ,yf;if

miltjw;F> fl;blq;fs; mjpf rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd; nfhz;ljhfTk;> ntg;gNkw;Wjy;>

Fsp&l;Ljy; Nghd;w NjitfSf;F GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpia toq;ff; $bajhfTk;

© dpa/Jacobs University Bremen

© dpa

ff

1975

n[u ;kd ; murhq ;fk ; rf;jp-Nrkpg ;G gw ;wpa t popg ;Gzu ;T

epfo ;Tfis Muk ;g pj;jJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 07

,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. kPs; Row;rp nra;af;$ba rf;jp %yk; 14

rjtpfpjkhd ntg;gNkw;Wjy; kw;Wk; Fsp&l;ly; Njitapid

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,yf;Ffis nraw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;jpd; jw;Nghija fl;blq;fspd; rf;jp

nrayhf;fFO INuhg;ghtpd; midj;J Gjpa fl;blq;fSk;

2021,ypUe;J 'Vwf;Fiwa rf;jp ghtid mw;w fl;blq;fshf"

cUthf;f tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

fl;blq;fspy; Nrkpf;f$ba rf;jpiag;gw;wp n[u;kdp tpiuthf

czu;e;Jnfhz;lJ. 1976fspy;> n[u;kd; murhq;fk; Kjy; rf;jp

ghJfhg;G eltbf;ifiaAk; ntg;gf; fhg;Gf;fl;lisiaAk;

vz;nza; neUf;fb fhuzkhf gpd;gw;wpaJ. mtu;fsJ

Kd;Ndw;ghLfs; njhluhf Nkk;gLj;jg;gl;L cau;ju njhopy;El;g

tsu;r;rpf;Nfw;g khw;wg;gl;L tUfpd;wd. GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfs;

ntg;g eltbf;ifapd; fPo;> 2009 Mk; Mz;L Kjy; midj;J

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cUz;ilahd nfhjpf;fyid cgNahfpj;J GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

ntg;gkhf;fy; rf;jpKiwikapid gpuNahfpg;gjd; %yk; mile;J

nfhs;s KbAk;. vdpDk;> n[u;kdpapy; cs;s 70 rjtPjkhd

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fhg;gplg;gltpy;iy. NkYk; gioa nfhjpg;ghd;fs;> vz;nza;

my;yJ vupthA Nghd;w krF vz;nza;apdhy; ntg;gkhf;fg;gl;ld.

rhjhuzkhf xU n[u;kd; tPL kzpj;jpahyj;jpw;F 145 fpNyhthw;

rf;jpia xU tUlj;jpy; xU rJu kPw;wu; ,lj;ij ntg;gkhf;f

gad;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,J 14.5 yPw;wu; fr;rh vz;nza;f;F rkdhFk;.

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gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. gioa fl;blq;fspYs;s mj;jpahtrpa

rf;jpj;NjitfSf;F rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd; Nkk;ghLfs; kw;Wk;

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpapid gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; 80 tPjkhd

gad;ghl;il Fiwf;f KbAk;. ,jw;F rpwe;j cl;G+r;Rf;fs;> Gjpa

fl;bl $Wfs;> etPd ntg;gkhf;fy; kw;Wk; Fsp&l;ly; Kiwikfs;>

rpwe;j fl;Lg;ghl;L njhopy;El;gk; vd;gd mtrpakhfpd;wJ. 2015,y;

mz;zsthf 53 A+Nuh gpy;ypad; gzk;> rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd;

Nkk;ghLfspy; KjyPL nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. n[u;kd; murhq;fk;

khdpaq;fisAk; Fiwe;j tl;b tPjq;fisAk; rYiffshf

toq;Ffpd;wJ. 2016,y;> rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd; Kfhikapdhy; n[u;kd;

Fbkf;fs;> mz;zsthf jiyf;F 500 A+Nuh Nrkpj;J ru;tNjr

jsq;fspy; jk;ik epiyehl;bdh;.

fhyhtjpahd ntg;gkhf;Fk; jpl;lj;ij khw;WtjpYk; krF

vz;nza;ia GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f vz;nza;f;F khw;WtJ gw;wpAk;

gpuj;jpNaf ftdk; vLf;fg;gl;lJ. 1975,y;> miuthrpf;Fk; mjpfkhd

tPLfs; vz;nza;apdhy; ntg;gkhf;fg;gl;ld> Mdhy; ,d;W

mJ ntWk; fhy;gFjpahf khwptpl;lJ. 2016,y; fl;lg;gl;l Gjpa

tPLfs; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpapdhy; ntg;gkhf;fg;gLfpd;wd. #upa

rf;jp Kiwfs;> capuZ ntg;gkhf;fy; kw;Wk; Rw;Wg;gFjpapYs;s

ntg;gj;ij gad;gLj;Jk; tpirf;Foha;fs; Nghd;wit 12

tPjkhd ntg;gkhf;fy; Njitia G+u;j;jp nra;fpd;wd. 2000 Mk;

Mz;bypUe;J n[u;kd; murhq;fk;> ntg;gkhf;Fk; Kiwapy;

khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jp Jupjg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf khdpaq;fis toq;f

Muk;gpj;jJ.

© dpa/Jacobs University Bremen

© dpa

1975

n[u;kd; murhq;fk; Kjy; rf;jp-,af;Fjpwd; juj;ij fl;blq;fspy; mjd;

ntg;g fhg;Gf; fl;lis mikg;gjd; %yk; eph;zapj;jJ.


08 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

'vz;nza; fhyj;jpd; KbT

njhlq;Ffpd;wJ"

lal;lu; n]l;N\> epiwNtw;W mjpfhhp> ilk;yu; V[P

© dpa/Paul Zinken

1979 / 1980


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 09

kpd; ,af;fk ;

kpd;rhuj;jhy; thfdj;ij nrYj;Jjy;

fhu;fs; n[u;kdpapd; kpfTk; gpujhdkhd Vw;Wkjpg; nghUshFk;.

thfd cw;gj;jpj;JiwahdJ 750>000,w;Fk; Nkyhdth;fis

Ntiyf;fku;j;jp> ehl;bd; kpfg; ngupa njhopy; toq;Fdu; Jiwahf

jpfo;fpd;wJ. mNjNtis> Nghf;Ftuj;Jg;gpupthdJ ghupastpyhd

rf;jpia> mz;zsthf n[u;kdpapd; ,Wjp Efu;Nthupd; rf;jp

gpuNahfj;jpd; %d;wpy; xU gq;fpid cgNahfpf;fpd;wJ. ,jd;

fhuzkhfNt n[u;kd; murhq;fk; Efu;tpid Fiwg;gjw;fhd

Kaw;rpapid typAWj;Jfpd;wJ.

mjpy; Vw;fdNt rhjfkhd KbTfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

cjhuzkhf> nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; gazpfs; gpuahzj;jpd;

fpNyhkPl;lupd; vz;zpf;ifahdJ 1990,w;Fk; 2017,w;Fk;

,ilg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; xt;nthU tUlKk; Rkhu; ,Uklq;fhf

mjpfupj;Js;sJ. Mdhy; nfhs;tdthdJ mNj fhyg;gFjpapy;

xd;gJ tpfpjj;jhy; kl;LNk mjpfupj;Js;sJ.

NkYk; mjpfkhd rf;jpia Nrkpg;gjw;fhf n[u;kdp> jpwikahd

thfd njhopy;El;gj;ij fhu;fspy; Nkk;gLj;JtJld; ,yFthd

tpepNahf thfdq;fs;> cs;Su; gazpfs; Nghf;Ftuj;J

thfdq;fs;> Nkhl;lhu; tz;bfs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; kpd;rhu ufj;ij

cUthf;FtJ gw;wp nrayhw;Wfpd;wJ. ,jw;fhf n[u;kd;

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mstpyhd epfo;r;rpfs+lhf Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ.

vupnghUisg; gad;gLj;Jk; thfdq;fs; kpd;fyj;jpdhy;

,aq;Fk; thfdq;fSf;F Kf;fpakhd Nru;khdkhf

fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. i`l;u[d; kw;Wk; vupnghUs; nraw;jpl;lq;fs;

khepy epjpAjtpapdhy; 2019 ,y; 1.65 A+Nuh gpy;ypad;

epjpAjtp ngw;wjhy;> i`l;u[d; i`g;upl; Ng&e;Jfs;

n[u;kdpd; ngUefuq;fspy; nghJkf;fs; Nghf;Ftuj;jpw;fhf

gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

fhyepiy rhu;e;j thfdk; nrYj;Jk; KiwikfSf;F

Nkyjpfkhf> fhu;> Nkhl;lhu; irf;fps; kw;Wk; ];$l;lu; Nghd;w

Gjpa Nghf;Ftuj;J Kiwfspd; gpurpj;jk; mjpfupj;J tUfpd;wJ.

fhu; gq;fPlhdJ tPjpapy; cs;s neupriy Fiwg;gJld;

khRgLjiyAk; Fiwf;fpd;wJ. b[pl;ly; jPu;Tfs; Nghf;Ftuj;ij

jpwikahf;FtJld; NkYk; irf;fps; ghtidf;F khWtJk;

cjtpahf mikfpd;wJ. n[u;kdpapy; 2.1 kpy;ypaDf;Fk;

mjpfkhd ghtidahsu;fs; jw;nghOJ 150 fhu; gq;fPL

toq;Fdu;fsplk; jk;ik gjpT nra;Js;sdu;.

gpw gpupTfs; Nghd;W Nghf;Ftuj;Jg; gpuptpYk; vndu;[pntz;Nl

ntw;wpfukhf ,aq;Ftij cWjpnra;Jnfhs;s> md;whl tho;T>

murpay; kw;Wk; nghUshjhuj;jpy; khw;wq;fs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd.

kf;fspd; Njitfis kl;Lg;gLj;jhky; Nghf;Ftuj;jpid NkYk;

epiyj;jpUf;fr;nra;a ,r;nray;Kiwf;F fhy mtfhrk; Njit.

© dpa/Paul Zinken

1986

cf;iud;> Nru;Nehgpy; mZrf;jp Miyapy; ghupa tpgj;J Vw;gl;lJ.

Rw;Wr;R+oy;> ,aw;if ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; mZ ghJfhg;G kj;jpa mikr;R

n[u;kdpapy; mikf;fg;gl;lJ.

1986

n[u;kdpapy; Kjy; rhiy rl;ltpjpfSf;F cl;gl;l

R+uparf;jp thfdk; nrYj;jg;gl;lJ.


10 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

© dpa

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;fit

fhw;W kw;Wk;

R+upadpypUe;J kpd;rhuk;

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfspd; mgptpUj;jpahdJ> rf;jp ,af;FjpwDld; ,ize;J

vndu;[pntz;Nltpw;F J}zhf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. fhw;W> R+upad;> ePu;rf;jp> ,aw;if

capu;rf;jp kw;Wk; Gtpntg;g rf;jp Nghd;wit fhyepiyf;F Vw;GilajhfTs;sikahy;

n[u;kdpahdJ krF vz;nza;apy; jq;fpapUf;f mtrpakpd;wp cs;ehl;bYs;s ,r;rf;jp

tsq;fis gad;gLj;jf;$bajhf ,Ug;gJld; fhyepiyia ghJfhg;gjpy; gpujhd

gq;fhw;wf;$bajhfTKs;sJ.

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpapid kpd;rhuj;Jiwapy; gad;gLj;Jjy; kpf cau;juj;jpy;

fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. 2014 Mk; Mz;L Kjy;> mit n[u;kdpapy; nfhs;Kjy; nra;ag;gl;l

nkhj;j kpd;rhuj;jpy; %d;wpy; xU gFjpf;Fk; Nkyhd rf;jpapd;> kpf Kf;fpakhd

%yg;nghUshf jpfo;fpd;wJ. gj;J tUlq;fSf;F Kd;du;> mtu;fs; xd;gJ tPjkhd

NjitiaNa mile;jdu;. ,yf;fpidf; nfhz;l epjpAjtpNa ,e;j ntw;wpf;fukhd

khw;wj;Jf;F fhuzk;. 1991,y; kpd;rhu toq;fy; rl;lk; %yk; Muk;gkhfpaJ.

epiyahd fhg;Gtupf; fl;lzk; nrYj;jy;> kw;Wk; Gjpa njhopy;El;gq;fSf;fhd re;ij

cUthf;fj;ij Nehf;fhff;nfhz;l fl;lha thq;Fjiy nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,J 2000 Mk;

Mz;L GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp %yg;nghUl;fs; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; gpd;gw;wg;gl;lJ. mjpy;

%d;W gpujhd mk;rq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. gy;tifg;gl;l njhopy;El;gq;fSf;fhd

cj;juthjk; mspf;fg;gl toq;fy; rl;lk;; Kd;Dupik mspj;jy;; kw;Wk; midj;J

kpd;ghtidahsu;fSf;fpilapy; Vw;gLk; Nkyjpf fl;lzj;ij $Ljy; fl;lz Kiwik

%yk; gfpu;e;jspj;jy; vd;gdthFk;.

© aleo solar AG/Flo Hagena

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp tsq;fs; rl;lk; mKyhf;fg;gl;lJ Kjy;> Gjpa fhw;whiyfs;

1987

Nkw;Ff; flw;fiuapy;> 30

tpirahopfs; nfhz;l

n[u;kdpapd; Kjy; fhw;whiy

cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

1990

n[u;kd; murhq;fk; Mapuk;-$iu epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ij

Nghl;NlhNthy;ilf; (PV) njhopw;$lj;jpw;fhf

mq;Fuhu;g;gzk; nra;J itj;jJ.

1990

fpof;F kw;Wk;

Nkw;F n[u;kdp

kPspizf;fg;gl;ld.


© dpa

The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 11

© aleo solar AG/Flo Hagena

kw;Wk; PV MiyfSf;fhd tUlhe;j KjyPLfspd; mjpfupg;G

epiyahf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; vupnfhs;sp kw;Wk; ,aw;if thA

MiyfspYk; KjyPLfs; ,lk;ngw;wd. mjpf Nfs;tpapd;

fhuzkhf Gjpa Ntiytha;g;Gg;gpupT cUthdJ. ,jd;

%yk; n[u;kdpapy; khj;jpuk; 338>000 njhopy;tha;g;Gfs;

toq;fg;gl;ld. mJ GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpapd; njhopy;El;gj;ij

NkYk; mjpfupj;jJld;> cyfshtpa uPjpapy; fzprkhd msT

tpiy tPo;r;rpf;Fk; fhuzkhf mike;jJ. cjhuzkhf> xU

R+uparf;jp njhFjp 2014 Mk; Mz;L Ie;J tUlq;fSf;F

Kd;dpUe;j tpiyia tpl 75 rjtPjk; Fiwe;j tpiyapy;

re;ijg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 2000 Mk; Mz;L n[u;kdpapd;

epjpj;jpl;lj;jpy; xU fpNyhtw;W-kzpj;jpahy R+upakpd; 50

A+Nuh rjj;ij nfhz;bUe;jJ. jw;nghOJ ehd;F> Ie;J

A+Nuhrjj;jpw;fpilapy; ruhrupahf kjpg;G ngWfpd;wJ. kj;jpa

INuhg;ghtpy; eLj;jukhd R+upantspr;rk; ,Ue;j NghjpYk;>

R+upa rf;jpahdJ n[u;kdpapd; kpd;rhuj;jpw;F Kf;fpakhd

tskhfptpl;lJ. PV Miyfs;> jw;nghOJ mz;zsthf

Ie;jpy; xUgFjp kpd;rhuj;ij GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfspypUe;J

tpepNahfpf;fpd;wJ.

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfspy; fhw;W rf;jp jw;nghOJ kpfTk;

Kf;fpakhd tskhf jpfo;fpd;wJ. flNyhu fhw;whiyfs;

%yk; tpepNahfpf;fg;gLk; kpd;rhukhdJ xt;nthU fpNyhthw;Wkzpj;jpahyj;jpw;Fk;

ruhrupahf 1.9 kw;Wk; 2.5 A+Nuhrjk;

nrythfpd;wJ.

fhw;W kw;Wk; R+upa rf;jpapd; tpupthf;fj;ij rPupa Kiwapy;

nfhzbUg;gNjhL ,e;j tsq;fis kypthfTk; Neu;j;jpahd

tpepNahfj;JlDk; mjpfupf;ff;$bajhf itj;jpUg;gJ

n[u;kdpf;fhd rthyhFk;. ,jd; fhuzkhfNt n[u;kdp

murhq;fk; kpd;rhuj;jpy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfSf;fhd

epjpAjtpia rPuikj;jJ. ,e;j tpupthf;fk;> fhw;W kw;Wk; R+upa

rf;jpapd; kypthd njhopy;El;gq;fspy; ftdk; nrYj;Jfpd;wJ.

tUlhe;j tpupthf;fk; jdpahu; njhypo;El;gq;fSf;F

topaikg;gJld; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfspd; mgptpUj;jpia

Neu;j;jpahf nfhz;L nry;y ,yFthfTk; mikfpd;wJ. gpw

Miy ,af;Fdu;fs; Nghy> GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp Miyfis

,af;Fgtu;fs; re;ijapy; jkJ kpd;rhuj;ij mjpfstpy;

tpw;gid nra;a Ntz;lg;gLfpd;whu;fs;> ,jdhy; rf;jp tpepNahf

Kiwikapy; ghupa nghWg;gpid vLf;fNtz;bAs;sJ.

2017 Mk; Mz;L Kjy;> 750 fpNyhtw;WFk; Nkyhd ntspaPl;il

midj;J MiyfSf;Fk; toq;fg;gl;l epjpAjtpapd; msthdJ

Fwpj;j njhopy;El;gj;jpd; xg;ge;jg;Gs;sp mwpf;if %yk;

fzf;fplg;gl;lJ. ,J 80 tPjkhd tUlhe;j tpupthf;fj;jpy; jhf;fk;

nrYj;Jfpd;wJ. tpupthf;fk; njhlu;gpy; gpuhe;jpa NtWghLfSk;

fhzg;gLfpd;wd. kpd;rhu fl;lj;jpy; gw;whf;Fiwfs; Vw;gLk;

gl;rj;jpy;> xg;ge;jg;Gs;spfspd; msTfs; Fiwfpd;wd. ,e;j

msTfs; kpd;rhu gpuptpy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfspd; ntw;wpf;fij

njhlu topaikf;fpd;wJ.jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;l epjptoq;fy;

KiwikAld; nrytpdq;fis Nrkpj;jy; njhlu;Ggl;bUg;gjdhy;

vndu;[pntz;Nltpd; nghUshjhu ed;ikfis rpwe;j gad;ghl;L

Kiwia cWjpg;gLj;j cjtpnra;fpd;wJ.

1990

fhyepiy khw;wj;jpw;fhd murhq;fq;fSf;fpilapyhd FO

(IPCC) cyfshtpa fhyepiy gw;wpa Kjy; fzpg;gPl;L

Ma;twpf;ifia ntspapl;lJ.

1991

kpd;rhuf; fl;lk; toq;fy; rl;lk;> n[u;kdpapd; midj;J rf;jp

tpepNahf];ju;fisAk; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f Kiwapy; gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;l

kpd;rhuj;ij thq;fp nghJkf;fs; ghtidf; fl;lj;jpy;

cl;GFj;JkhW gzpj;jJ.


12 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

nryTfs;

'n[u;kd; kf;fSf;F

vndu;[pntz;Nlapd; tpiyahdJ

kpf mjpfkhf fhzg;gLfpd;wjh?"

,y;iy. vjpu;fhyj;jpy; kypTtpiyapy; fpilf;ff; $ba rf;jpahf vndu;[pntz;Nlit

cUthf;FtNj xNu Nehf;fkhFk;. Ntiytha;g;Gfis cUthf;FtJld; ehl;bd; nghUshjhu

];jpuj;jd;ikia Vw;gLj;JtJ mjd; ,uz;lhk; Nehf;fkhFk;.

,U J}z;fshf> rf;jp ,af;Fjpwd; kw;Wk; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfis mgptpUj;jp nra;jy;

mikfpd;wJ. ,it n[u;kdpahdJ rf;jp ,wf;Fkjpapy; jq;fpapUg;gij Fiwj;jy;> ,yhgk;

epiyahd tsu;r;rpf; nfhs;ifia filg;gpbf;fpd;wJ.


© dpa/Jens Büttner

The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 13

© dpa/Philipp Dimitri © dpa/McPHOTO‘s

fle;j jrhg;jj;jpy; krF vz;nza;apd; tpiy fzprkhf

cau;tile;jJ. mjd; tpisthf 2016 Mk; Mz;L ghtidahsu;fs;

jkJ nkhj;j tPl;Lf; nfhs;tdT nrytpdj;jpy; 7.5 rjtpfpjk;

rf;jpf;fhf nrytpl;Ls;sdu;. 1990fspd; gpw;gFjpapy; ,Ue;jijtpl

MW rjtpfpjk; FiwthFk;. ntg;gNkw;Wjy;> RLePu;> rikj;jy; kw;Wk;

,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l fr;rh vz;nza; Nghd;w rf;jp tsq;fis

ikakhff; nfhz;l vupnghUl;fs; n[u;kdpapd; tPl;Lj; Njitf;fhd

rf;jp gw;Wfspy; ghupa ,lj;ij nfhz;bUe;jd. 2014 Mk; Mz;bd;

,Wjpg;gFjpapy; vz;nza; tpiy tPo;r;rpaile;J> n[u;kdpapd;

nfhs;tdthsu;fSf;F Xa;T fpilj;j NghjpYk;> kPz;Lk; 2018,y;

mjd; tpiyia mjpfupj;J> vjpu;T$w Kbahj epiyia Vw;gLj;jpdh;.

krF vz;nza;apd; tpiy kw;Wk; mJ fpilg;gJ tpepNahf];ju;fspd;

eydpy; jq;fpAs;sJ.

1994

INuhg;ghtpd; Kjy; njhlu; cw;gj;jpahd kpd;rhu

fhu;fs; re;ijf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld.

1995

cyfshtpa uPjpapy; gr;irtPl;L thA khriljiyf;

Fiwg;gjw;fhd fye;Jiuahliy Vw;gLj;Jk; tifapy; If;fpa

ehLfs; rigapd; KjyhtJ fhyepiy khw;w khehL ngu;ypdpy;

eilngw;wJ.


14 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

fhyepiy ghJfhg;G

gr;irtPl;L thA

khirf; Fiwj;jy;

vndu;[pntz;Nl fhyepiy khw;wj;ij kl;Lg;gLj;Jk; Kf;fpa $whFk;. fhyepiy

khw;wj;jpd; jhf;fj;ij kf;fs;> ,aw;if kw;Wk; nghUshjhuk; Mfpatw;wpy; epiyahd

kl;lj;jpy; epiyepWj;Jtij Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;Ls;sJ. fhyepiy khw;wj;jpw;fhd

murhq;fq;fSf;F ,ilapyhd FOtpd; (IPCC) kjpg;gPLfspd;gb> g+Nfhs ntg;gkiljy; 2°C

Nkyhd Kd; njhopy;Jiwfhy ntg;gepiyapy; itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mjd; nghUs;> xU

Fwpg;gpl;l msT gr;irtPl;L thAf;fs; khj;jpuNk njhlu;e;J khriljiy Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

tspkz;lyj;jpy; Vw;fdNt ,e;j njhifapy; 65 rjtPjk; ,Ug;gjhy;> gr;irtPl;L thA

khriljiyf; Fiwg;gjw;F ghupa cyfshtpa kw;Wk; Njrpa Kaw;rpfs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd.

fhgdPnuhf;irl; MdJ Kf;fpa Gijgbt vupnghUl;fis vupg;gjd; %yk; Vw;gLtjhFk;.

mJ fhyepiy khw;wj;jpy; kpfg; ngupa jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. n[u;kdpapYk;>

cyfpd; Vida ehLfspYk; gr;irtPl;L thAf;fspy; %d;wpy; xU gFjp kpd; Miyfshy;

khrilfpd;wd. vdNt> GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpia fhyepiy eLepiy tsq;fSf;F khw;WtJ

fhyepiy ghJfhg;Gf;fhd xU Kf;fpa gFjpahFk;.

© dpa/Luftbild Bertram © dpa/MiS

© iStock/ querbeet

1996

INuhg ;gh Njr pa vy ;iyfSf;F kl;Lg ;gLj ;jg ;gl;bUe;j kpd ;rhu kw ;Wk ; vu pthA

re;ijfis jhuhskakhf;f jPu ;khd pj ;jJ.

INuhg ;g pa Mizf;FO> GJg ;g pf;fj ;jf;f rf;jp tsu ;r ;r pf;F KjyhtJ $l;L INuhg ;g pa

%Nyhghaj ;ij nts pa pl;lJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 15

© iStock/ querbeet

1997Mk; Mz;by; f;NahNlh cld;gbf;ifia ifr;rhj;jpl;L>

n[u;kdp mjd; gr;irtPl;L thA khir 2012Mk; Mz;lstpy;

1990 kl;lq;fSld; xg;gpLifapy; 21 rjtPjj;jhy;

Fiwj;Jf;nfhz;lJ. gpd;du; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Kd;Ndw;wk;

Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. 2017Mk; Mz;lstpy;> n[u;kdp 28 tPjkhd

Fiwg;ig Vw;fdNt mile;jpUe;jJ. tpw;gidapy; xt;nthU

gpy;ypad; a+NuhTf;Fk;> n[u;kdpapYs;s epWtdq;fspy; 1990Mk;

Mz;Lfspy; gr;irtPl;L thAf;fspd; mstpy; miuthrp kl;LNk

cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpd;wd.

n[u;kdp 2030Mk; Mz;lhFk;NghJ gr;irtPl;L thA khir 55

rjtPjj;jhy; Fiwg;gjw;Fk; mjw;fhd Kaw;rpfis mjpfupg;gjw;Fk;

jpl;lkpl;Ls;sJ. mJ 2050Mk; Mz;lhFk; NghJ thA khir

1990Mk; Mz;L epiyAld; xg;gpLifapy; mjp$Ljyhf 80

njhlf;fk; 95 rjtPjkhf Fiwg;gij ,yf;fhf nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,e;j

Njrpa Fiwg;G ,yf;Ffs; INuhg;gpa kw;Wk; ru;tNjr fhyepiy

ghJfhg;G nfhs;iffis cs;spizj;Js;sJ. gr;irtPl;L thA

khir 2020Mk; Mz;lhFk; NghJ 20 rjtPjj;jhYk; 2030Mk;

Mz;lhFk; NghJ 40 rjtPjj;jhYk; Fiwg;gjw;F INuhg;gpa

ehLfspd; jiyikfs; kw;Wk; murhq;fq;fs; jPu;khdpj;Js;sd.

2015Mk; Mz;L brk;gu; khjj;jpy;> 195 ehLfs; gup]; xg;ge;jj;jpy;

ifr;rhj;jpl;ld. ,e;j ehLfs; Gtp ntg;gkiljiy ,e;j

E}w;whz;by; 2°C Mf kl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;F tpUk;Gfpd;wd.

thA ntspg;gLk; tu;j;jfj;jpy;> khRgLj;jypd; midj;J

gq;Fjhuu;fSk; khR ntspg;ghLfspd; nkhj;j msitf;

nfhz;bUf;Fk; KiwikNa INuhg;gh fhyepiy khw;wj;ij

vjpu;g;gjw;fhd Kf;fpa INuhg;gpa fUtpahFk;. midj;J ngupa

mstpyhd gr;irtPl;L ntspj;js;spfSk; fl;lha Kiwikapy;

gq;Fgw;w Ntz;Lk;. mJ njhopy;Jiw kw;Wk; rf;jp gpuptpy; ghupa

mstpyhd CO 2 khir cs;slf;fpaJ. mtu;fs; ntspapLfpd;w

xt;nthU nlhd; gr;irtPl;L thATf;Fk; khR nfhLg;gdTfs;

rupahd msT itj;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mtu;fsplk; Nghjpa

nfhLg;gdTfs; ,y;yhj NghJ> NkYk; nfhs;tdT nra;a my;yJ

fhyepiy ghJfhg;G njhopy;El;gq;fis KjyPL nra;ayhk;. ,J

kypthf ,Uf;Fk; CO 2 khirj;jLf;fpd;wJ. thA mikg;gpy; cs;s

vy;yh JiwfspYk; gr;irtPl;L thA khir 2005Mk; Mz;L

epiyf;F xg;ghf 2030Mk; Mz;lstpy; 43 rjtPjj;jhy; Fiwf;Fk;

,yf;iff; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

n[u;kdpa murhq;fk; fhyepiy nraw;;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; 2020 kw;Wk;

fhyepiy nraw;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; 2050 Mfpatw;iw nraw;gLj;jp mjd;

Njrpa Fiwg;G ,yf;Ffis g+u;j;jpnra;Jnfhs;s Kaw;rpf;fpd;wJ.

fhyepiy nraw;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; vuprf;jp nraw;jpwid mjpfupf;fTk;>

Nghf;Ftuj;J> njhopy;> tptrhak; Mfpatw;iw mjpf fhyepiy

el;G uPjpahf;Ftjw;Fk; gy;NtW eltbf;iffis cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.

vuprf;jp kw;Wk; cw;gj;jp Nghd;w jdpahu; Jiwfspy; CO2 msitf;

Fiwf;Fk; ePz;l fhy jpl;l ,yf;FfisAk; fhyepiy nraw;jpl;lk;

cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.

1997

gr ;irt Pl;L thAf;fs pd ; cyfsht pa Fiwg ;G gw ;wpa

f;NahNlh cld ;gbf;if Vw ;Wf;nfhs ;sg ;gl;lJ.

191 ehLfs ; cld ;gbf;iff;F xg ;Gjy ; toq ;fpAs ;sd.


16 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

mZ rf;jp

mZ rf;jpia

ntspNaw;wy;

kpd;rhuj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;F mZrf;jp Mw;wy; gad;ghL gy jrhg;jq;fshf n[u;kdpapy;

#lhd tpthjj;ij J}z;btpl;bUe;jJ. gy n[u;kdpau;fSk; njhopy;El;g mghaj;ij

kjpg;gpLtJ fbdk; vd;gijf; fz;Lgpbj;jdu;. kf;fs;> ,aw;if kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy; kPJ

mZ ciy tpgj;jhy; Vw;glf;$ba ghjpg;G Fwpj;J mtu;fs; ftiy nfhz;ldu;. 1986Mk;

Mz;L cf;iudpd; n\u;Ndhgpy; efupy; Vw;gl;l tpgj;J me;j gaj;ij cWjpg;gLj;jpaNjhL

n[u;kdpapd; gFjpfisAk; mRj;jg;gLj;jpaJ. 2000Mk; Mz;by; n[u;kdpa murhq;fk;

kpd;rhuk; cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;Fk; mZrf;jp gad;ghl;il KOtJkhf epWj;Jtjw;Fk;

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f Mjhuq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; rf;jp toq;fSf;F khWtjw;Fk; jPu;khdpj;jJ.

mZ Miy ,af;Feu;fs; %yk; mile;j cld;gbf;if Vw;fdNt ,Uf;Fk; Miyfspd;

gad;ghl;bw;fhd fhy msit mikj;J> Gjpa njhopw;rhiyfisj; jil nra;jJ.

© dpa/Uli Deck

© dpa/Jens Wolf

mZrf;jp gad;ghL KOikahf GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfSf;F khw;wg;gLk; tiu ,ilntspia

,izf;Fk; tifapy;> ,Uf;Fk; Miyfs; ePz;l fhyj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd

2010Mk; Mz;L ,e;j jpl;lk; jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;lJ. [g;ghd; Gf;Fkhtpy; 2011Mk; Mz;L

mZ ciy tpgj;Jf;Fg; gpd; ,e;j Kbit n[u;kd; murhq;fk; epuhfupj;jJ.

Vnddpd; mtu;fspd; eltbf;iffspy; ngUk; mghaq;fs; ,Ug;gjhy;> mZrf;jp

epiyaq;fSf;F mjpf fhg;gPL kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G nryTfs; cs;sd. Mifahy;> mZrf;jp

kpd; epiyaj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpyfpr; nry;tJ nghUshjhu mu;j;jj;ijj; jUfpd;wJ.

mZ rf;jpahy; kpd;rhuk; cw;gj;jp nra;tij tpiutpy; KbTf;Ff; nfhz;LtUtjw;F

1998

n[u;kdp> mjd; kpd;rhuk; kw;Wk; vupthA

re;ijfis jhuhskakhf;Ftjw;F rl;lj;ij

epiwNtw;wpaJ.

2000

INuhg ;g pa Mizf;FO INuhg ;ght py ; GJg ;g pf;fj ;jf;f rf;jp>

Mw ;wy ; jpwd ; kw ;Wk ; fhyepiy ghJfhg ;g pw ;fhd KjyhtJ

$l;L %Nyhghaj ;ij nts pa pl;lJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 17

© dpa/Uli Deck

© dpa/Jens Wolf

n[u;kdpa ghuhSkd;wk; ngUk;ghd;ikahf thf;fspj;jJ. ,e;j

rl;lk; mKYf;F te;jTld; gy;NtW kpd; cw;gj;jp epiyaq;fSk;

kpd; cw;gj;jpia epWj;jpd. 2022Mk; Mz;bd; ,Wjpapy; Vida

Miyfspd; njhopw;ghL epiwTf;Ff; nfhz;Ltug;gLk;. 7 mZ

kpd; Miyfs; njhlu;e;Jk; n[u;kdpapy; kpd;rhuj;ij toq;Ffpd;wd.

mit ehl;by; vl;by; xU gq;F kpd;rhuj;ij cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;wd.

fjpupaf;f fopTfis mfw;Wtjw;Fj; Njitahd eltbf;iffs; $l

mZ rf;jp gad;ghl;by; cs;s rthy;fis Kd;dpiyg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

kf;fs; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr; #oiyg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf> ,e;j fopTfs;

kpfTk; ePz;l fhyj;jpw;F capu;f;Nfhsj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpyf;fp

ghJfhg;ghf Nrkpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Mokhd Gtpapay; mikg;Gfspy;

mZ rf;jp fopTfis Nrkpg;gNj rpwe;j topnad;W Jiwrhu;

epGzu;fs; ek;Gfpd;wdu;.

n[u;kdp mjd; fjpupaf;f fopTfis Vw;Wkjp nra;a tpUk;gtpy;iy.

vt;thwhapDk;> ,Wjpahf mfw;Wk; jsj;jpw;fhd nghUj;jkhd

,lj;ijj; NjLtJ fbdkhdnjd;gJ ep&gpf;fg;gLfpwJ. Muhag;gl;L

rhj;jpakhd jsq;fis cs;ehl;L kf;fs; vjpu;f;fpd;wdu;.

,jd; fhuzkhfNt n[u;kdp ,g;NghJ xU Gjpa mZFKiwia

ifahs;fpd;wJ. ,J r%fj;jpd; midj;J gFjpfspYk;

ntspg;gilahd kw;Wk; tpQ;Qhd mbg;gilapyhd Njly;

nrad;Kiwia cs;slf;fpaJ. 2031Mk; Mz;by;> Fwpg;ghf

cau;kl;l fjpupaf;f fopTf;fhd ,Wjp ,lj;ij fz;Lgpbg;gJ

Nehf;fkhFk;. ,e;j jsk; xU kpy;ypad; tUl fhyg;gFjpf;fhd

rpwe;j ghJfhg;G epiyia toq;f Ntz;Lk;. vdNt> ,Wjp

foptfw;wy; Kbit mZ rf;jp nryTfNs nrYj;Jfpd;wJ.

n[u;kdpaplk; Vw;fdNt Fiwe;j kw;Wk; eLj;ju mstpyhd fjpupaf;f

fopTfis mfw;Wtjw;fhf xU mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l ,Wjp mfw;Wk;

jsk; cs;sJ. nfhd;uhl; nunghrplup vd;w jsk; 2022Mk; Mz;L

jpwe;Jitf;f jpl;lkplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

2000

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp tsq;fs ; rl;l%yk; n[u;kdpapy;

eilKiwf;F te;jJ. ,r ;rl;lkhdJ n[u;kdpapy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp tsu;r;rpf;F gpd;dhy; cs;s ce;J rf;jpahf khWk;.

2000

n[u ;kd ; murhq ;fk ; mZ rf;jpia epWj ;j

KbTnra ;jJ. mZ rf;jp Miyfs ;

mjpfgl;rkhf 32 Mz ;Lfs ; ,aq ;f

mDkj pf ;fg ;gl;lJ.


18 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

© dpa/Jens Büttner

2002

KjyhtJ rf;jp Nrkpg;G fl;lisr; rl;lk; mKYf;F te;jJ. ,r;rl;lkhdJ

Gjpa kw;Wk; ,Uf;Fk; fl;llq;fspd; xl;Lnkhj;j nraw;jpwd; juepiyfis

mikf;fpd;wJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 19

njhopy;tha;g;G kw;Wk; nghUshjhuk;

'mjpfkhd kf;fs;

vndu;[pntz;Nl fhuzkhf jk;

njhopy;fis ,og;ghh;fsh?"

,y;iy> rhjfkhd tpisTfisNa juf;$baJ. vndu;[pntz;Nl>

nghUshjhu mu;j;jq;fis cUthf;Ffpd;wJ. Rw;Wr;#oy; kw;Wk;

gr;irtPl;L thA khirf; Fiwf;fpd;wJ. fz;Lgpbg;Gfisj;

J}z;Lfpd;wJ> n[u;kdpapd; kjpg;ig mjpfupf;fpd;wJ. rf;jp ,wf;Fkjp

nryTfisj; jLf;fpd;wJ. gpuhe;jpa epWtdq;fshy; toq;fg;gLk;

epWty; kw;Wk; guhkupg;G Nghd;w cl;fl;likg;G Ntiyfshy;>

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp kw;Wk; Mw;wy;jpwd; fl;likg;G Nkk;ghLfspd;

tsu;r;rpapypUe;J mjpfkhd tUthahdJ cs;ehl;by; jq;Ffpd;wJ.

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfspd; tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; Mw;wy;jpwd; KjyPLfs;

Gjpa njhopy; JiwfisAk; vjpu;fhy tsu;r;rpj;Jiwfspy;

NtiyfisAk; cUthf;fpd;wJ. tu;j;jf> njhopy; kw;Wk; fl;blj;

Jiwfspy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l rf;jpjpwd; eltbf;iffs; khj;jpuk;

560>000 njhopy;tha;;g;Gfis cUthf;fpAs;sd. mNjNeuk;>

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp KjyPLfs; gj;J tUlq;fspy; ,j;JiwapYs;s

Copau;fspd; vz;zpf;ifia ,ul;bg;ghf;fTs;sJ.

Fwpg;ghf vz;nza;> vupthA> epyf;fup gpupj;njLj;jy; kw;Wk;

kpd;rhu cw;gj;jpapy; Gijgbt vupnghUl;fs; Kf;fpa gq;F

tfpf;Fk; njhopy;Jiwfspd; Gjpa gjtpfs; rpy njhopy;fspy;

Ntiyfis khw;Wfpd;wd. mq;Nf nghJf;fl;likg;G khw;wq;fSk;

,Ue;jd. cjhuzkhf> INuhg;ghtpd; rf;jp re;ijfspd;

jhuhskakhf;fk; Nghl;bj;jd;ikia mjpfupj;Js;sJ. ,jd;

nghUs;> epWtdq;fs; kpfTk; tpidj;jpwd; kpf;fjhf ,Uf;f

Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j fhuzpfs; midj;Jk; Ntiy nra;Ak; ,lj;jpYk;

khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd. mjd; tpisthf> mz;iika

Mz;Lfspy; tof;fkhd vuprf;jpJiwapy; Copau;fspd; vz;zpf;if

Fiwe;Jtpl;lJ.

© dpa/Jens Büttner

2003

gr;irtPl;L thAf;fSf;fhd xU gpizg;G

ckpo;T tu;;j;jf mikg;ig INuhg;gh

Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wJ.

2004

n[u;kdpapy; 160>000 kf;fs; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp Jiwapy; gzpahw;Wfpd;wdu;.


20 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

cynfq;fpYk; gRik rf;jp khw;wk;

'vndu;[pntz;Nl n[u;kdpapy;

njhopw;gLk;- vdpDk;

mjidg; Nghd;W ];jpukhd

nghUshjhuk; mw;w ehLfs;

vd;d nra;tJ?"

© dpa/epa Business Wire

© dpa

vndu;[pntz;Nl Mlk;gukhdnjhd;wy;y. khwhf Gj;jhf;fj;jpd; Clhf epiyahd

kw;Wk; ,yhgfukhd tsu;r;rpf;F Cf;fkspf;Fk;> mgptpUj;jp kw;Wk; nropg;G

Mfpatw;iw Nkk;gLj;Jk; vjpu;fhy tsu;r;rpj;Jiwfspy; Ntiyfis cUthf;Fk;

jpl;lkhFk;. vdNt mJ cynfq;fpYk; cs;s xt;nthU ehl;bYk; mjd;

rf;jp mikg;G Kiwia njhlu;e;Jk; epiyj;jpUf;fr; nra;tij nfhs;ifahf

nfhz;Ls;sJ Mr;rupaky;y.

mz;ika tUlq;fspy; cyf mstpy; fhw;W kw;Wk; #upa rf;jpapd; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

njhopy;El;gq;fspd; tpiyfs; tPo;r;rpaile;Js;sd. Muk;g fl;lj;jpy; Muha;r;rp

kw;Wk; mgptpUj;jp KjyPLfs;> mNjNghd;W GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfSf;F gy;NtW

njhopy;kakhf;fg;gl;l ehLfspy; epjpAjtp xU gpbiag; ngw cjtpdhYk;> Fwpg;ghf

n[u;kdpapy; tpiyfspd; rupT Fwpg;gplj;jf;f jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

2005

ckpo;T tu;j;jfk; INuhg;ghtpy;

Muk;gkhdJ. INuhg;gpa xd;wpa

mq;fj;Jt ehLfs; midj;Jk;

,e;j jpl;lj;jpy; gq;nfLj;jd.

2007

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp mgptpUj;jp> fhyepiy

ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; jpwd; rf;jp Mfpa ,yf;Ffs;

,ize;j 2020 fhyepiy kw;Wk; Mw;wy;

njhFg;ig INuhg;gpa xd;wpak; Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

2007

Yap]; ghku; vd;gtu; KOikahf #upa

rf;jpapy; ,aq;Fk; Nrhyhu; nlf;rp fhu;

xd;wpy; cyfj;ijr; Rw;wp te;jhu;. mtuJ

Rw;Wyh 18 khjq;fs; njhlu;e;jJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 21

© dpa/epa Business Wire

© dpa

KjyPl;L nryTfspd; rupT kw;Wk; ,af;f nryTfs;

Fiwf;fg;gl;ljw;F ed;wp. mjdhy; cyfpd; rpy gFjpfspy;

khdpaq;fs; ,d;wp GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfs; jw;NghJ

Nghl;bj; jd;ikAld; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. cjhuzkhf

tl kw;Wk; njd; mnkupf;fhtpy; Gijgbt vupnghUs;

kpd; Miyfs; Nkw;nfhs;tijtpl> kypthf fhw;whiy

kw;Wk; #upa glyq;fs; kpd;rhuj;ij toq;Ffpd;wd. rPdh>

gpNurpy;> njd;dhgpupf;fh kw;Wk; ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfs;

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfis mgptpUj;jp nra;tjpy; Kd;dzpapy;

cs;sd. vt;thwhapDk;> Efu;Nthu; tpiyfis Fiwthf

itg;gjw;F ehLfspy; Gijgbt vupnghUl;fis khdpakhf

toq;Ftjd; %yk; ,e;j tpupthf;fk; rpy Neuq;fspy;

jLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Vwj;jho xU tUlj;Jf;F 325 gpy;ypad;

mnkupf;f nlhyu;fs;> ,e;j khdpaq;fs; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jpf;fhd tplaq;fistpl ,uz;L klq;F mjpfkhdjhFk;.

rf;jpjpwd; Nkk;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fSf;F ,e;j khdpaq;fs;

gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ vd;why; %d;W klq;F mjpf epjp

fpilf;Fk;.

2008

fl;blq;fSf;fhd rf;jp flTr;rPl;il n[u;kd; mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ.

mJ fl;blq;fspd; rf;jp Efu;T kw;Wk; jpwd; Fwpj;j jfty;fis

toq;Ffpd;wJ. GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfSf;fhd rl;l%yk; Gjpa

fl;blq;fspy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f tsq;fspd; %yk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l msT

ntg;g cw;gj;jpia toq;f Ntz;Lk; vdf; $WfpwJ.

2009

ru;tNjr GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f kpd;rf;jp epWtdk;

(IRENA) 75 ehLfshy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.


22 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

kpd; tpepNahf mikg;G

];khu;l; tpepNahf mikg;G

n[u;kdpapd; rf;jp Kiwia khw;Wtjw;F etPd kw;Wk; jpwikahd cl;fl;likg;G

Njit. ,jd; nghUs;> Gjpa kpd; rf;jp kpd; Rw;Wf;fs; epWtg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

mNj Neuj;jpy; Kiwik kpfTk; nefpo;thdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. n[u;kdpapd;

mZ rf;jp epiyaq;fs; %lg;gl;Ltpl;lhy;> Fwpg;ghf tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;F

n[u;kdpapy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp Miyfs; gw;whf;Fiwia re;jpf;Fk;. njw;F

n[u;kdpapy; ,e;j rf;jp Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. ,q;Nf mike;Js;s mZ rf;jp

Miyfs; khw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. njw;Nf xU ngupa kf;fs; njhif kw;Wk; ngupa

njhopy;Jiw epWtdq;fSk; cs;sd. Gjpa kpd;rhu neLQ;rhiyfs;> Fwpg;ghf

jpwikahd njhopy;El;gj;Jld; tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;F n[u;kdpapy; fhw;whiyfshy;

cUthf;fg;gLk; kpd;rf;jp Neubahf njw;fpw;F nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk;.

INuhg;gpa cs;sf kpd; rf;jp re;ij> n[u;kdpapy; fpupl; tpupthf;fj;jpw;F gpd;dhy;

,uz;lhtJ ce;J rf;jpahf cs;sJ. kpd;rhuj;ij INuhg;gh KOtjpYk;

Rje;jpukhfTk; Efu;NthUf;F kypthdjhfTk; toq;Ftjw;F cWg;G ehLfspYk;

vy;iyfspYk; rpwe;j cl;fl;likg;G Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. INuhg;gpa xypgug;G fpupl;

,af;Fdu;fs; ,uz;L Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw $l;L kpd; tpepNahf tsu;r;rp

jpl;lj;ij Kd;itf;fpd;wdu;. ,e;j jpl;lj;jpy; midj;J n[u;kd; jpl;lq;fSk;

Nru;f;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

© dpa/Stefan Sauer

© dpa/euroluftbild.de/Hans Blossey

n[u;kdpapd; kpd;rhuk; toq;Fk; ,af;Fdu;fs; (Grid operators) jkJ nrhe;j

kjpg;gPLfis Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wdu;. mtu;fs; 10 njhlf;fk; 20 Mz;LfSf;F gpd;dhy;

ehl;Lf;F vj;jid kpd;rhu ,izg;Gfs; Njitg;gLk; vd fzpg;gpLfpd;wdu;.

mtu;fspd; jpl;l Kd;nkhopTfs; kj;jpa muR tiyaikg;G Kftu; vd;w mur

mjpfhurigapdhy; guPl;rpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;j njhlu; nrad;Kiwapy; nghJ

kf;fs; mjpf mstpy; R+oy;>

kw;Wk; nghUshjhuk; vd;gtw;wpd; Njitfis rpwg;ghf G+u;j;jp nra;af;$ba

jPu;T vJ vd;gij fz;lwpa ciuahly; mbg;gilahd mZFKiw xd;iw

gad;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

2009

gtu; fpupl; tpupthf;f rl;lk; Gjpa cau; kpd;dOj;j

kpd; toq;fSf;fhd xg;Gjy; nrad;Kiwia

Ntfg;gLj;jpaJ.

2010

n[u ;kd ; murhq ;fk ; 2050 Mk ; Mz ;L tiu n[u ;kd pa pd ; rf;jp

toq ;fSf;fhd ePz ;l fhy %Nyhghak ; vd ;w rf;jp fUJNfhis

Vw ;Wf ;nfhz ;lJ


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 23

© dpa/Stefan Sauer

© dpa/euroluftbild.de/Hans Blossey

n[u;kdpapd; rf;jp epiykhw;wy;

(Energiewende) jpl;lk; tpz;ntspf;F

kdpjid mDg;gpa jpl;lj;Jf;F xg;ghdJ

- n[u;kd; mjpgu; gpuhq;f; thy;lu;

kpd;tpepNahf tiyaikg;Gk; (Distribution Grid) GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp (Green Energy) tsq;fSf;F khw;wkilAk; Nehf;fpy;

juKau;j;jg;gl Ntz;ba Njit fhzg;gl;lJ. me;j

tiyaikg;G Efu;NthUf;F kpd;rhuj;ij khj;jpuk; toq;Fk;

xUtopg;ghij Nghd;W Muk;gj;jpy; tbtikf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

vdpDk; rk fhyj;jpy; fpl;lj;jl;l midj;J R+upa rf;jp

gpwg;ghf;fp epiyaq;fs; kw;Wk; mjpfkhd fhw;whiyfs;

vd;gd kpd;tpepNahf tiyaikg;Gf;F kpd;rhuj;ij

toq;Ffpd;wd. cs;s+Uf;F Njitaw;w Nkyjpf kpd;rhuk;

vjpu;jpirapy; nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. NkYk;> GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp cw;gj;jp fhyepiyf;F Vw;g khWgLfpd;wJ. R+upa

xsp ed;F fpilf;Fk; Neuq;fspy; R+upa rf;jp gpwg;ghf;fpfs;

cw;gj;jpj;jpwd; $badthfTs;s mNjNtis> Mfhak;

Nkf %l;lj;Jld; fhzg;gLk; Neuq;fspy; mtw;wpd; ntspaPL

tPo;r;rpailfpd;wJ. tpepNahf tiyaikg;Gfs; juKau;j;jg;gl

Ntz;Lk;. kpd;rhu cw;gj;jp $bf;FiwAk; re;ju;g;gq;fspy;

$l mit Gj;jp rhJupak; kpf;f tiyaikg;Gfshf fhzg;gl

Ntz;Lk;. Gj;jp rhJupak; kpf;f tiyaikg;G xd;wpy;

mjDld; njhlu;Ggl;l midtUf;Fkpilapy; njhlu;ghly;

fhzg;gLk;> mjhtJ egu;fs; kw;Wk; kpd;rhuj;ij cUthf;Fk;>

nfhz;L nry;Yk;> Nrkpf;Fk;> tpepNahfpf;Fk; kw;Wk; EfUk;

mikg;GfSf;fpilapyhd njhlu;ghlyhFk;. ,jd; %ykhf

cw;gj;jp tpidj;jpwDld; xUq;fpizf;fg;gLtJld; FWfpa

fhymwptpg;gpy; mit Vw;wthW mikf;fg;gl KbAk;.

(glk;: vt;thW xU Gj;jprhJupak; kpf;f tiyaikg;G

,aq;Ffpd;wJ?)

2010

INuhg ;g pa xd ;wpak ; fl;blq ;fs pd ; rf;jp nraw ;ghL

njhlu ;g py ; nghJf;fl;lis xd ;iw Vw ;Wf;nfhz ;lJ.

2021 Mk ; Mz ;L njhlf;fk ; midj ;J Gjpa

fl;blq ;fSk ; fpl;lj ;jl;l G+r ;r pa rf;jp nfhz ;l

fl;llq ;fshf ,Uf ;f Ntz ;Lk ;.

2010

n[u ;kd pa pd ; rf;jp Kftu ; mikg ;G (Dena)

n[u ;kd pa pd ; kpd ;rhu toq ;fypy ; fpl;lj ;jl;l

40% GJg ;g pf;fj ;jf;f rf;jpia toq ;f Njitahd

tiyaikg ;G mjpfu pg ;g pd ; Njit gw ;wpa Ma ;T

xd ;iw nts pa pl;lJ.


24 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

toq;fypd; ghJfhg;G

#upa rf;jp khw;Wk;

fhw;wpdhy; jug;gLk;

mjpf kpd;toq;fyhdJ

ghJfhg;ghdjh ?

n[u;khdpau;fs; vjpu;fhyj;jpy; njhlu;r;rpahd ek;gfj;jd;ik tha;e;j rf;jp toq;fypy; jq;fpapUf;f

KbAk;. me;j ehl;bd; rf;jp toq;fy; cyfpd; kpfr;rpwe;j rf;jp toq;fypy; xd;whFk;. tUlj;jpd; 8>760

kzpj;jpahyq;fspy; ruhrupahf 12.8 epkplq;fSf;F khj;jpuNk kpd; toq;fy; jilg;gLfpd;wJ. mj;Jld;

R+upa rf;jp kw;Wk; fhw;whiyfs; %yk; mjpfupj;J tUk; kpd;rhuk; cw;gj;jpahy; mz;ika tUlq;fspy;

kpd;ntl;Lfs; NkYk; Fiwtile;Js;sd.

(glk;: n[u;kdpapy; kpd; ntl;Lfs; kpfTk; mupjhdit).

© dpa/Moravic Jakub

© dpa/euroluftbild.de/Hans Blossey

kpd;rhu cw;gj;jpapy; Vw;gLk; Vw;wj;jho;T fhuzkhf cUthFk; kpd;ntl;Lfs; kpfTk; mupjhdit.

kpd;ntl;Lfs; ngUghYk; ntspaf fhuzpfs; kw;Wk; kdpjj; jtWfs; fhuzkhfNt Vw;gLfpd;wd.

fle;j etk;gu; 4> 2006 ,y; n[u;kdpapd; gFjpfspy; ,lk;ngw;w ghupa kpd;ntl;Lf;Fk; ,JNt fhuzkhf

mike;jJ. rf;jp njhFjp xd;wpd; toikahd ,af;f epWj;jk; xd;wpdhy; Vw;gl;l ,e;j kpd;ntl;L

,uz;L kzp Neuk; tiu ePbj;jJ. ,e;j ,af;f epWj;jk; Vida njhFjpfspy; Nkyjpf Rikia

Vw;gLj;jp INuhg;gpa toq;fy; tiyaikg;gpy; rq;fpypj;njhluhd jhf;fk; xd;Wf;F toptFj;jJ. ,e;j

rk;gtj;jpd; gpd;du; n[u;kdp kw;Wk; mz;ila INuhg;gpa ehLfspy; ghJfhg;G nghwpKiw NkYk;

Nkk;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

cjhuzkhf> jl;Lg;ghLfis jLf;f Nkyjpf kpd;Dw;gj;jp epiyaq;fis xJf;fp itj;Js;sJ.

,e;j epiyaq;fs; kpd; Efu;T $ba Fspu;fhy khjq;fSf;F kpfTk; mtrpakhdit. mj;Jld;

,e;jf; fhyg;gFjpapNyNa fhw;whiyfs; kpfTk; mjpfkhf kpd; cw;gj;jpia Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wd.

toq;fy; tiyaikg;G n[u;kdpapd; tlf;F gFjpapypUe;J njw;F gFjpf;F mjpfsthd kpd;rhuj;ij

flj;Jkhapd; ,e;j xJf;fg;gl;l epiyaq;fs; njw;fpy; cs;s Njitia G+u;j;jp nra;Ak;.

[g;ghdpd; GF\pkh gFjpapy; mZrf;jp epiyaj;jpy; ghupa tpgj;J xd;W ,lk;ngw;wJ.

2011

[g;ghdpd; GF\pkh gFjpapy; mZrf;jp epiyaj;jpy; ghupa tpgj;J xd;W

,lk;ngw;wJ. n[u;kdp kpd;rhu cw;gj;jpapy; mZrf;jpapd; gq;fspg;ig

2022 Mk; Mz;Lld; ePf;fpf; nfhs;s jPu;khdpj;Js;sJ. ,J Muk;gj;jpy;

jpl;lkplg;gl;ljw;F Kd;djhfNt ,lk;ngw cs;sJ. cldbahf 8 gioa

mZ kpd;rf;jp epiyaq;fs; nraypof;f nra;ag;gl;ld.

2011

INuhg;gpa xd;wpak; INuhg;ghtpy; R+oy;

ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; rf;jp toq;fy; vd;gtw;iw

fUj;jpy; nfhz;L rf;jp tPjp tiuglk; 2050

vd;w Mtzj;ij ntspapLfpd;wJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 25

© dpa/Moravic Jakub

© dpa/euroluftbild.de/Hans Blossey

n[u;kdpapd; kpd; toq;fypy; GJg;gpj;jf;f rf;jp %yq;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l

fhyq;fspy; 60% f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l gq;fspg;ig toq;Ffpd;wd. mj;Jld;

vjpu;tUk; tUlq;fspy; mjpfupj;J nry;y cs;sJ. NtWgl;l GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp %yq;fs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W Jiz Guptdthf fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

guPl;rhu;j;j jpl;lq;fs; NtWgl;l tif kpd;Dw;gj;jp epiyaq;fspypUe;J

ngwg;gLk; rf;jp cUthf;fj;ij xd;wpizf;f KbAk; vd fhz;gpf;fpd;wd.

vdNt ,jd; %ykhf kpfTk; jq;fpapUf;f $ba kpd; toq;fiy

,J rhj;jpakhf;Ffpd;wJ. R+upa ntspr;rk; my;yJ fhw;W ,y;yhj

fhyg;gFjpfspy; ghuk;gupakhd nefpo;jpwd;kpf;f kpd;Dw;gj;jp epiyaq;fspy;

Vw;gLk; ,ilntspia ePf;f cjTk;. ,t;thwhd re;ju;g;gq;fspy; vupthA

kpd;Dw;gj;jp epiyaq;fs; ed;F gzpGupfpd;wd. vdpDk; mKf;f fsQ;rpa

kw;Wk; capupay; rf;jp kpd;Dw;gj;jp epiyaq;fSk; tpiuthf rf;jpia

toq;f ,aYkhdit. vdpDk; ,q;Fs;s jpl;lk; eLj;ju kw;Wk; ePz;l

fsQ;rpa Kiwikfs; %yk; mt;thwhd fhyg;gFjpfspy; Vw;gLk;

,ilntspfis vjpu;fhyj;jpy; ePf;f cjTtjhFk;.

,e;j tplaj;jpy; kpd; rf;jp Efu;NthUk;; Kf;fpa gq;Filatu;fNs.

mtu;fSf;F mjpf fhw;W epyTjy; Nghd;w kpd;rf;jp toq;fy; mjpfk; cs;s

fhyg;gFjpfspy; kpd;rf;jpia gad;gLj;j Cf;Ftpg;Gfs; toq;fg;gl KbAk;.

njhopw;rhiyfs;> gz;lfrhiyfs; my;yJ Fsp&l;b fsQ;rpaq;fs; Nghd;w

ghupa kpd; ghtidahsu;fs; ,e;j topapy; Kiwikapd; xl;L nkhj;j

Rikia mjpf mstpy; Fiwf;f KbAk;.

,q;F fhzg;gLk; ghupa rthy; kpd;rf;jp re;ijia kPs;fl;likg;Gf;F

cl;gLj;JtjhFk;. ,e;j tplaj;jpy; rPh;jpUj;jk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;s

n[u;kdpapy; Muk;g fl;l eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. ,q;F

nefpo;jd;ik Kf;fpakhdjhf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. kpd; rf;jp re;ijapd;

midj;J ,af;Fdu;fSk; R+upa rf;jp kw;Wk; fhw;wpd; %yk; gpwg;gpf;fg;gLk;

kpd;rf;jpapd; jsk;gYf;F Vw;g nraw;gl Ntz;Lk;. mNj Neuj;jpy; xl;L

nkhj;j nryit Fiwf;f tiyaikg;Gfs; NtWgl;l rkepiyahf;Fk;

njupTfspdpilNa Nghl;bj;jd;ik nfhz;ldthf fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

epiykhWk; toq;fy; tiyaikg;G ngUf;fk; kw;Wk; Vw;fdNt INuhg;ghtpy;

fhzg;gl;l NtWgLj;jg;gl;l gpuhe;jpa kpd;rf;jp re;ijfs; vd;gd n[u;kdpf;F

ghupa jplepiy kw;Wk; nefpo;Tj;jpwd; vd;gtw;iw toq;Ffpd;wd.

(glk;: vt;thW GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp %yq;fs; jsk;gy; milfpd;wd?)

2012

Njh`htpy; ,lk;ngw;w If;fpa ehLfs;

rigapd; R+oy; khehl;by; f;Nahlh

newpKiw (Kyota Protocol) 2020 tiu

eP;bf;fg;gl;lJ.


26 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy;

Fohapy; rf;jp

© dpa/Hannibal Hanschke

© Paul Langrock

vjpu;tUk; 2050 Mk; Mz;L n[u;kdp jdJ kpd; ghtidapy; 80% I GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jpfspy;> gpujhdkhf fhw;whiyfs; kw;Wk; PV Kiwfspy; ,Ue;J toq;f tpUk;Gfpd;wJ.

Nkfq;fs; rLjpahf Njhd;Wk; my;yJ fhw;W Kd;dwptpg;G ,d;wp epw;Fk; nghOJ me;j

ehl;Lf;F tpiuthf gad;gLj;jf; $ba kw;Wk; re;ju;g;gj;Jf;F nefpo;jpwd; kpf;f kpd;rhu

Kiwik xd;W Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. rf;jp Nrkpg;G Kiwikfs; xU jPu;it toq;Ffpd;wd.

fhw;Wk; R+upa xspAk; mjpfkhf fhzg;gLk; re;ju;g;gq;fspy; mtw;why; kpd;rhuj;ij Nrkpf;f

KbAk;. mt;thW Nrkpf;fg;gl;l kpd;rhuk; Fiwe;j cw;gj;jp epfOk; fhyq;fspy;> ,Us;

R+o;e;j fhyq;fspy; my;yJ Nkf%l;lk; mjpfkhd fhyg;gFjpfspy; toq;fg;gl KbAk;.

fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy; jPu;Tfs; gy cs;sd. kpd; fyq;fs;> nfhs;sstpfs; kw;Wk; gwf;Fk;

rf;fuq;fs; (Flywheel) Kiwikfs; Nghd;wd xU ehspy; gy jlitfs; kpd; rf;jpia

cs;thq;fp ntspaplf;$bait. vdpDk; mtw;wpd; nfhs;ssT FiwthdjhFk;.

n[u;kdp vf;fp fsQ;rpa epiyaq;fis ePz;l fhyj;Jf;F kpd;rhuj;ij Nrkpf;f gpujhdkhf

gad;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,e;j epiyaq;fspy; rpy yf;]k;Ngu;f; kw;Wk; M];jpupah Mfpa

ehLfspy; fhzg;gLtJld; n[u;kdpa toq;fy; tiyaikg;Gld; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

mit rk fhyj;jpy; 9 GW kpd;rhuj;ij Nrkpf;Fk; nfhs;ssT nfhz;lit. ,J

INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;jpy; n[u;kdpf;F mjp$ba fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy; nfhs;ssit toq;fpa

NghJk; mtw;iw ngUg;gpg;gjw;F kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l gug;G vy;iyNa fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. vdNt

n[u;kdp mjpf Nrkpg;G trjpfs; nfhz;Ls;s ehLfSld; neUf;fkhf nraw;gLfpd;wJ.

me;j tifapy; mT];jpNuypah> Rtp];yhe;J kw;Wk; Nehu;Nt Mfpad Kf;fpa ehLfshFk;

fhw;iw mKf;fj;jpy; Nrkpg;gJ rf;jpia ePz;l fhyk; Nrkpf;f fhzg;gLk; ,d;ndhU

KiwahFk;. ,q;F Nkyjpf rf;jp fhw;iw epyf;fPo; ,lq;fs; kw;Wk; cg;Gf;ftpif (Salt

2013

n[u;kdp KjyhtJ kpd;rhu flj;jy; tiyaikg;gpd; tpUj;jp

njhlu;gpy; kj;jpa mur Njitfs; jpl;lkply; Njitfs;

rl;l%yj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;lJ.

2013

KjyhtJ Kw;WKOjhf Gjpjhf cUthf;fg;gl;l kpd;rf;jpapy;

,aq;Fk; fhu;fspd; ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhd cw;gj;jp

Muk;gkhdJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 27

© dpa/Hannibal Hanschke

© Paul Langrock

Dome) Nghd;w ,lq;fSf;Fs; mKf;f gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

NjitNaw;gbd; ,e;j mKf;fg;gl;l fhw;wpd; rf;jp xU gpwg;ghf;fpia

,af;f itj;J kpd;rf;jpia cUthf;Ffpd;wJ.

thAf;F rf;jp toq;Fjy; ePz;l fhy rf;jp Nrkpg;Gf;F mjpfk;

rhj;jpak; kpf;f fUJNfhshf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,q;F GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

kpd;rf;jp kpd;gFg;G %yk; Ijurd; my;yJ njhFf;fg;gLk; ,aw;if

thAf;fshf khw;w gad;gLfpd;wJ. ,q;Fs;s mD$yk; ahnjdpy;

Ijurd; kw;Wk; ,aw;if thAf;fs; vd;gd fsQ;rpag;gLj;jg;gl>

cldbahf gad;gLj;jg;gl my;yJ ,aw;if thA

tiyaikg;Gf;Fs; GFj;jg;gl KbAk;> ,e;j thAf;fs; ,yFthf

nfhz;L nry;yg;gl kw;Wk; nefpo;j;jpwDld; gad;gLj;jgg;l KbAk;.

rf;jp epiyaq;fs; Njitf;F Vw;g mtw;iw kpd;rhukhfNth

my;yJ ntg;gkhfNth khw;w KbAk;. mj;Jld; Efu;Nthu; mij

rikaYf;F> ntg;gk; toq;f my;yJ jkJ fhu;fSf;F rf;jp toq;f

gad;gLj;jyhk;.

vdNt n[u;kd; murhq;fk; fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy; nryitf; Fiwf;Fk;

toptiffis fz;L gpbf;Fk; Ma;Tfis Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ. fle;j

2011 njhlf;fk; muR fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy; epjp toq;fy; Kd;ndLg;G

xd;iw Nkw;nfhz;L tUfpd;wJ. fle;j 2013 Kjy; mJ rpwpa

kw;Wk; gutyhf;fg;gl;l PV KiwikAld; ,izf;fg;gl;l fsQ;rpa

KiwikfSf;F epjp toq;fp tUfpd;wJ. kpd; tiyaikg;Gfspy;

Vw;gLk; rpwpa rkepiy mw;w jd;ikfis tpiuthf rkg;gLj;jy;

kpd;fyq;fis gad;gLj;Jk; Gjpa topKiwahFk;. ,jd; nghUs;

gad;ghl;by; ,y;yhj kpd;rhuj;jpy; ,aq;Fk; thfdq;fs; kpd;

toq;fiy Mw;Wg;gLj;j gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. ,t;thwhd kpd;fy

Kiwikfspd; re;ij mwpKfk; Ma;T> Gj;jhf;fk; vd;gtw;iw

Vw;gLj;JtNjhL nryitAk; Fiwf;Fk;.

vjpu;tUk; tUlq;fspy; kpd;rhu Nrkpg;Gf;fhd Nfs;tp tpNrlkhf

kpd;rf;jp %yk; ,aq;Fk; thfdq;fspd; fhuzkhf mjpfupf;Fk;.

kpd;rhu $l;biztpy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfs; ngUk; gq;F tfpf;Fk;

epiyapy; tiyaikg;gpy; midj;J Nrkpg;G njhopy;El;gq;fSf;Fk;

nryT Fiwe;j KiwikfNs rhj;jpakhd xNunahU topahFk;.

FWfpa kw;Wk; eLj;ju fhy mbg;gilapy; Vida njupTfs; nryT

Fiwe;jdthf fhzg;gLk;. ,tw;wpy; tiyaikg;G ePl;rp my;yJ

tpidj;jpwd; kpf;f rf;jp gad;ghl;Lf;fhf cw;gj;jp kw;Wk; ghtid

vd;gd cs;slq;Ffpd;wd.

2014

n[u;kdp GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp %yq;fs; rl;l%yj;jpy; rPu;jpUj;jq;fis Nkw;nfhz;lJ. ,e;j rl;l%yj;jpy; jw;nghOJ tUlhe;j

mgptpUj;jp ,yf;Ffs; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; re;ij ,izg;G tpjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

INuhg;gpa xd;wpak; 2030f;fhd rf;jp kw;Wk; fhyepiy ,yf;Ffis Vw;fpd;wJ. ,e;j ,yf;Ffspy; gr;ir tPl;L thA ntspNaw;wj;ij

40% My; Fiwj;jy;> GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpapd; gq;if Fiwe;jJ 27% Mff;nfhz;bUj;jy; kw;Wk; rf;jp Efu;it Fiwe;jJ 27%

My; Fiwj;jy; vd;gd cs;slq;Ffpd;wd.


28 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

kf;fs; kw;Wk; rf;jp epiykhw;wk

'rf;jp epiykhw;wk; %yk;

nghJ kf;fs; vt;thW

gadiltu;?"

dpa/Marc Ollivier

rf;jp epiykhw;wy; jpl;lk; kf;fs; Mjuitg; ngWk; re;ju;g;gj;jpy; khj;jpuNk

ntw;wpailAk;. mJ kf;fs; nrYj;jf; $ba fl;lq;fspy; rf;jpia ngw;Wf;nfhs;s

Kbtjpy; jq;fpAs;sJ. vdpDk; ,e;j rf;jp toq;fy; kPs fl;likf;fg;gLtjpy; kf;fSk;

Neubahf ed;ikailtu;. mjpfkhd kf;fs; vt;thW jkJ tPLfspy; rf;jpia

Nrkpf;f KbAk; vd mwpTiu Nfl;fpd;wdu;. jkJ tPLfspy; gioa ntg;gkhf;fy;

Kiwikfis khw;wpaikf;Fk; my;yJ rf;jp tpidj;jpwd; Nkk;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;s

Fiwe;j tl;bAldhd fld;fs; mj;Jld; mur epjpfis ngWtu;. Gjpjhf mLf;Fkhb

FbapUg;nghd;iw thliff;F vLf;f tpUk;Gk; egu;fs; mq;F vt;tsT rf;jp Efug;gLk;

kw;Wk; mjd; nryT vd;d Nghd;w jfty;fis cldbahf ngw;Wf; nfhs;tu;.

mj;Jld; mtu;fs; Gjpa ryit ,ae;jpuk;> fzzp my;yJ kpd;tpsf;F xd;iw

nfhs;tdT nra;Ak;NghJ me;j nghUspd; rf;jp tpidj;jpwd; jutupir nghUspd;

tpiyg;gl;baypy; mr;rplg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

© dpa/Westend61/Tom Chance © dpa/Bodo Marks

2015

n[u;kdp Njrpa rf;jp tpidj;jpwd; nraw;ghl;L jpl;lj;ij

Vw;Wf;nfhz;lJld; 2020 R+oy; nraw;ghl;L epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ij

mwpKfk; nra;jJ. Kjy; jlitahf n[u;kdpapy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jpfs; rf;jpapd; Kf;fpa %ykhf khw;wkilfpd;wJ. rf;jp re;ijapy;

mit 27.4% Mf fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

2016

If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; fhyepiy khw;w khehL ghup]py;>

,lk;ngw;wJ. 195 ehLfs; cyf ntg;gkhjiy mjpf gl;rk;

2°C Mf kl;Lg;gLj;j ,zq;fpd.


dpa/Marc Ollivier

The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 29

nghJkf;fs; ghuk;gupa rf;jp Jiwapy; fhw;whiyfspy; KjyPL nra;Js;s kw;Wk;

capu;thA cw;gj;jp epiyaq;fis nfhz;Ls;s nghJkf;fshYk;

cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. n[u;kdpapy; nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;s 1.5

kpy;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhd PV njhFjpfspy; ngUk;ghyhdit

Ntwhf;fg;gl;Ls;s tPLfspd; $iufspNyNa nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;sd.

n[u;kdpapy; cs;s fhw;whiyfspy; miuthrpf;Fk;

mjpfkhdtw;wpy; nghJ kf;fs; KjyPLfis Nkw;nfhz;Ls;sdu;.

miuthrpf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l capupay; rf;jp KjyPLfs;

tptrhapfshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ.

jkJ nrhe;j GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp njhopy;El;gj;ij nghUj;j

my;yJ epjpapl trjpaw;wtu;fs; Vidatu;fSld; ,ize;J

nraw;gl KbAk;. rf;jp epiykhw;wy; jpl;lj;jpy; fpl;lj;jl;l

850 rf;jp $l;LwT rq;fq;fis Nru;e;j 180>000 cWg;gpdu;fs;

KjyPLfis Nkw;nfhz;Ls;sdu;. ,e;j KjyPLfs; 100

A+Nuhf;fspy; ,Ue;J Muk;gkhfpd;wd.

Nkyjpfkhf rf;jp epiykhw;wy; jpl;lj;jpd; jplkhd tplaq;fspy;

nghJkf;fs; jkJ fUj;Jf;fis $w KbAk;. cjhuzkhf

mtu;fspd; gpuNjrj;jpy; xU Gjpa fhw;whiy epWtg;gl

cs;sjhapd; mJ gw;wpa mtu;fsJ fupridfs; kw;Wk;

tpUg;Gfis mtu;fs; ntspapl KbAk;. n[u;kdp KOtJk;

ghupa msTfspy; kpd;rhuj;ij flj;j epu;khzpf;fg;gl cs;s

jpl;lkplg;gl;Ls;s Gjpa flj;jpfs; njhlu;gpy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;

fye;Jiuahly;fspy; nghJkf;fs; capu;g;ghd tfpghfk; xd;iwf;

nfhz;Ls;sdu;. nghJkf;fs; tiyaikg;G ePl;rp Njitfs;

fzf;fplg;gl;l re;ju;g;gq;fspy; jkJ Nehf;Ffis $Wtjw;fhf

,e;j fye;Jiuahly;fspd; Muk;gj;jpNyNa gq;F nfhs;s

miof;fg;gl;ldu;. mj;Jld; mtu;fs; flj;Jk; fk;gpfspd; rupahd

ghijia jPu;khdpj;jy; cl;gl midj;J Vida jpl;lkply;

eltbf;iffspYk; gq;Nfw;wdu;. ,jw;F Nkyjpfkhf kj;jpa

murpd; tiyaikg;G Kftu; mikg;G kw;Wk; tiyaikg;G

,aq;Fdu;fsplk; ,Ue;J flj;jy; fk;gpfs; jpl;lk; gw;wpa

jfty;fis Kiwrhu; xOq;FKiwfs; Muk;gkhtjw;F Kd;dNu

ngWfpd;wdu;.

,e;j eltbf;iffs; rf;jp tiyaikg;G nghJkf;fs;

ciuahlYf;F Jiz Guptjhf mike;jd. ,e;j nghJ kf;fs;

ciuahlYf;F cs;s+u; mYtyfq;fs; fhzg;gLtJld; mit

ePl;rp jpl;lq;fs; jpl;lkplg;gLk; gpuNjrq;fspy; nghJ kf;fSf;F

epfo;Tfis Vw;ghL nra;fpd;wJ. ,e;j ciuahly;fs; Muk;g

fl;lq;fspy; elj;jgg;Ltjd; %yk; jpl;lj;ij Kd;nfhz;L

nry;tJ ,yFthf fhzg;gLtJld; nghJ kf;fs; mtw;iw

Vw;Fk; jd;ik mjpfupf;fpd;wJ.

2016

ghup]; cld;ghL etk;gu; 4 Mk; jpfjp mKYf;F te;jJ. n[u;kdp

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpfSf;fhd epjp toq;fiy kPs; fl;likg;G nra;jJ.

2017 njhlf;fk; midj;J tif njhopy;El;gq;fSf;Fk; tpiykDf;fs;

Nfhug;gl;ld.

2018

INuhg;gpa fTd;rpy; kw;Wk; INuhg;gpa ghuhSkd;wk; vd;gd

INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;jpy; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jpapd; cUthf;fk;

kw;Wk; gad;ghL vd;gtw;Wf;F Mjutspf;Fk; Ml;rp

Kiwikf;fhd cj;juT xd;Wf;F ,zq;fpaJ.


30 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

mUQ ;nrhy ; t psf;fk ;

Vy tpw;gid

2017 Mz;L Kjy;> Vy

tpw;gidfshdit Gjpa

fhw;Wg; G+q;fhf; fUj;jpl;lq;fs;

my;yJ ghupa xsp kpd;dOj;j

trjpfSf;fhd MjuTj; jPu;itfis

epz;zapg;gjw;fhf eilngWk;. gy

fUj;jpl;lq;fs; xNu Neuj;jpy; Vy

tpw;gidf;fhf tplg;gLtJld;> cj;Njr

mf;fiwAs;s jug;gpdu; Muk;gj;

jPu;it epu;zapg;gjw;fhf Fwpj;j

fUj;jpl;lj;jpw;F tpiy kDnthd;wpidr;

rku;g;gpg;gu;. GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp

%yq;fspypUe;jhd kpd;rhuj;jpw;F

rl;luPjpahd fl;lzj;jpw;Fg; gjpyhf

,t;thW xU epahakhd re;ij tpiy

epu;zapf;fg;glyhk;. 2015 Mk; Mz;L

nra;Kiwiag; guprPypg;gjw;fhfTk;

Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhfTk; %d;W xsp

kpd;dOj;jf; fUj;jpl;lq;fSf;fhd

Vytpw;gidfs; eilngw;wd.

fhg;Gg; gpujp rf;jpg; nghwp

rf;jp toq;fypy; jPBu; neUf;fbfs;

Vw;gLifapy; fhg;Gg; gpujp rf;jpg;

nghwpfs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. mit

tpiuthf vupa+l;lg;gl;L %lg;gl

Ntz;bAs;sikahy; thA rf;jpg;

nghwpfs; ,e;Nehf;fj;jpw;F kpfTk;

nghUj;jkhditahFk;.

kpd;fyk;

kpd;fyq;fs; kpd; ,urhaz Nrkpg;Gr;

rhjdq;fshFk;. mit kpd; Rw;Wld;

,izf;fg;gl;lhy;> mit mtw;wpd; kpd;

tpirr;Nru;tpiaAk; kpd; gha;r;riyAk;

ntsptpLk;. ifalf;fj;njhiyNgrpfs;

kw;Wk; kpd;rhu thfdq;fs; Nghd;w

rhjdq;fspy; kPs; kpd;tpir

Nru;tpf;ff; $ba kpd;fyq;fs;

gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. kPs; kpd;tpir

Nru;tpf;ff; $ba kpd;fyq;fSk;

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp %yq;fSld;

njhlu;Ggl;Lg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

cjhuzkhf xsp kpd;dOj;j trjpfisf;

Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,q;F mit kpd;fy

Nrkpg;G Kiwnad tpgupf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

kpd;fyq;fs; mtw;wpd; ,ay;jpwdpw;Nfw;g

(mk;gpau; kzpj;jpahyaq;fspy;

mstplg;gLk;) tiuaWj;j msT

kpd; tpirr;Nru;tpapidNa Nrkpf;ff;

$bajhfTs;sd.

fl;bl Nkk;gLj;jy;fs;

fl;blq;fspy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk;

rf;jp nraw;wpwd; eltbf;iffspy;

jw;Nghija njhopy;El;gj;jpd;

ghu;itapy;> Njitf;fjpkhf

rf;jp tpuakhf;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd

mtjhdpf;fg;gLk; gytPdkhd ,lq;fis

mfw;Wk; nraw;ghLk; cs;slq;Ffpd;wJ.

fhg;gplg;gl;l Rtu;fs; kw;Wk;

$iufs;> ntg;gj;jpdhy; fhg;gplg;gl;l

[d;dy;fisg; nghUj;Jjy; Mfpad

cj;Njr Nkk;gLj;jy; eltbf;iffspy;

cs;slq;Ffpd;wd. ntg;gkhf;fy;

Kiwikia etPdkag;gLj;Jjy;

kw;nwhU tpUg;gj; njupthFk;.

kpd; Njf;fpfs;

kpd; Njf;fpfs; kpd;rhuj;ij FWfpa

fhyj;jpw;F Nrkpj;J itf;ff;

$badthFk;. xU Njf;fpahdJ

cNyhff; Fz;Lfs; my;yJ

jl;Lfs; Nghd;w ,uz;L $Wfisf;

nfhz;bUf;Fk;. xU $wpy; Neu;kiwahd

kpd;Nru;tpAk; kw;iwajpy; vjpu;kiwahd

kpd;Nru;tpAk; fhzg;gLk;. ,itapuz;Lk;

,izf;fg;gl;lhy;> kpd;Nru;tpfs;

rkg;gLj;jggLk; tiuapy; kpd;rhuk; ghAk;.

thfdg; gfpu;T

ghtidahsu;fs; xNu thfdj;ijg;

gfpu;e;J nfhs;tJ thfdg; gfpu;thFk;.

mtu;fs; fk;gdpf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd

thfdq;fspd; thbf;ifahsuhfg;

nghJthf khWthu;fs;. mtu;fSf;F

fhnuhd;W Ntz;Lkhapd; mtu;fs;

xd;wpid thliff;F vLf;fyhk;. thfdg;

gfpu;thdJ ghuk;gupa thfdq;fis

thliff;F vLf;Fk; Nritia tpl

NtWgl;ljhFk;. Vnddpy;> ,jpy;

thfdnkhd;iw 30 epkplq;fs; Nghd;w

FWfpa fhy mwptpj;jypy; thliff;F

mku;j;j KbAk;. gy rKjhaq;fs; ,e;j

thfdg; gfpu;T NritfSf;F tpNrl

thfdj; jupg;gplq;fis cUthf;fpAs;sd.

mtu;fs; thfdg; gfpu;T thfdq;fSf;F

NgUe;ij $l mDkjpg;gu;.

CO2 - rkkhdJ

CO2 rkkhdJ vd;gJ

fhgdPnuhl;irl;bdJ ngWkhdk;

xd;whftpUf;ifapy;> 100 tUlj;jpw;Fk;

Nkw;gl;l fhykhf gr;ir tPl;L

tpistpid Vw;gLj;Jk; xU ,urhazf;

fyitj; jhf;fj;jpd; xg;gPl;Lg;

ngWkjpnahd;whFk;. xU nghUspy; CO 2

rkkhdJ 25 fhzg;gl;lhy;> ,g;nghUspd;

xU fpNyhfpuhkpypUe;J ntspNaw;wg;gLk;

GifahdJ> CO 2 xU fpNyhfpuhkpypUe;J

ntspNaw;wg;gLk; Gifia tpl 25 klq;F

mjpf mghakhdjhFk;. gpw;Fwpg;G: CO 2

rkkhdJ vd;gJ fhyepiy khw;wk;

kPJ xU fyitapdJ cz;ikahd

gq;fspg;gpidj; jtpu Ntwpy;iy.

RUf;fg;gl;l fhw;W Nrkpg;G

xU epyf;fPo; Fif mikg;gpy; tspapid

mKf;fj;jpd; fPo; Nrkpg;gjw;F kpd;

rf;jpia RUf;fg;gl;l fhw;W Nrkpg;ghdJ

gad;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. RUf;fg;gl;l

fhw;whdJ xU kpd;gpwg;ghf;fp %yk;

Njitf;Nfw;wthW ntsptplg;gl;L

kpd;rf;jp cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

,e;jj; njhopy;El;gkhdJ ,Jtiu

Fiwe;jstpNyNa gad;gLj;jg;gl;L

tUfpd;wJ. vt;thwhapDk; mJ

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp %yq;fspy;

cUthf;fg;gl;l kpifr; rf;jpapidr;

Nrkpj;J itg;gjw;F cfe;j topahff;

fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. Njhz;lg;gl;l>

fhw;Wg;Gfhj cg;Gf; Fiffshdit

Nrkpg;Gf;fhd ghJfhg;ghd

cUthf;fq;fshff; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.

,e;j epWTifahdJ ntw;wpnfhs;s gy

Gtpapay; rthy;fSf;F Kfq;nfhLf;f


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 31

Ntz;bAs;sJ. KiwikahdJ

njhlu;r;rpahf epiyaw;wnjd

ep&gpf;fg;gl;lhy; mij epiyg;gLj;j

topfs; vJTkpy;iy. NkYk;>

Rw;waypYs;s ghiwapy; fhzg;gLk;

gjw;wj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;glhJ vd;gJ

Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.

,Uz;l fl;lq;fs;

fhw;W tY kw;Wk; xsp kpd;dOj;j

trjpfshy; kpd; gpwg;ghf;f Kbahj

jsq;fNs ,Uz;l fl;lq;fs; vdg;gLk;.

Gjpa epyT nfhz;l fhw;wpy;yhj Kfpy;

%ba ,uT ,t;tplaj;jpy; kpf Nkhrkhd

epiyikahFk;. ,e;jf; fl;lq;fspy;

Vida rf;jp %yq;fs; my;yJ Vw;fdNt

Nrkpf;fg;gl;l rf;jpahdJ kpd;rhuj;jpw;fhd

Njitia epiwNtw;Wtjw;Fg;

gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

khR ntspg;ghL jzpg;G tzpfk;

INuhg;ghtpy; ntspNaw;wg;gLk;

CO 2 ,w;Fr; re;ij tpiynahd;W

fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. mtu;fs; ntspNaw;Wk;

xt;nthU nlhd; gr;ir tPl;L

thAf;fSf;Fk; tYj;Jiw kw;Wk; ghupa

ifj;njhopy; Jiwfs; rhd;wpjnohd;iwr;

rku;g;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtu;fsplk;

NghjpasT fhzg;glhtpl;lhy;> mtu;fs;

mtw;iw tpNrl re;ijfspypUe;J

ngw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Gif

ntspNaw;wj;ij mtu;fs; Fiwj;Jf;

nfhz;lhy; ve;jnthU Nkyjpf

rhd;wpjioAk; mtu;fs; tpw;gid

nra;a KbAk;. xt;nthU tUlKk;

rhd;wpjo;fspd; nkhj;j vz;zpf;if

tPo;r;rpailtjw;Nfw;g> fk;gdpfs;

rf;jp- Nrkpg;G eltbf;iffspy; xU

Cf;fj;njhifiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.

my;yJ #oYf;Ff; Fiwthd ghjpg;gpid

Vw;gLj;Jk; Vida rf;jp %yq;fisg;

gad;gLj;jyhk;.

rf;jp $l;LwTfs;

19 Mk; Ehw;whz;L KjNy n[u;kdpapy;

ed;F epWtg;gl;l vz;zf;fUnthd;whf

$l;LwT vz;zf;fU epyTtjid

ehkwpNthk;. gpnul;upr; tpy;nfk; nugp]d;

kw;Wk; #y; nlyp]; Mfpa ,UtuplKk;

KjyhtJ n[u;kdpa $l;Lwtpid

cUthf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w xUkpj;j

fUj;J epytpaJ. ,e;j vz;zj;jpy;;

xUkpj;j tpahghu mf;fiw nfhz;l

gy jdpg;gl;ltu;fs; ,ize;J mjd;

%ykhf ghupanjhU re;ijg; gyj;ijg;

ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjhFk;. cjhuzkhf

nfhs;tdTf; $l;Lwtpidf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.

n[u;kdpapy; ,e;j tpNrl tpahghu

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xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;lJ. rf;jpj; Jiwapy;

$l;LwT epWtdq;fs; rpyfhyk;

fhzg;gl;ld. n[u;kdpapy; kpd;rhu

kakhf;fypd; Muk;g fl;lj;jpd; NghJ>

fpuhkg;Gwq;fspdhy; tpNrl ghupa

efuq;fspd; Ntfj;Jld; nrayhw;wy; kl;lk; my;yJ

Fwpj;j kl;l nrayhw;wiy miltjw;F

vt;tsT rf;jpia xUtu; KjyPL nra;a

Ntz;bAs;sJ vd;gij tpgupf;fpd;wJ.

rf;jp tpidj;jpwd; mjpfupf;ifapy;

mg;ngWNgw;wpid miltjw;F Fiwthd

rf;jpNa Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf

$Ljyhd rf;jp tpidj;jpwd; nfhz;l

fl;blkhdJ> mNjasthd Fiwe;j rf;jp

tpidj;jpwd; nfhz;l fl;blnkhd;Wld;

xg;gpLifapy; ntg;gkhf;fy; my;yJ

Fsp&l;lYf;F Fiwe;jsT rf;jpNa

Ntz;Lk;. ifj;njhopy; cw;gj;jp

kw;Wk; Nghf;Ftuj;jhdJ rf;jp

tpidj;jpwd; mjpfsT Kf;fpaj;Jtk;

ngWk; Vida JiwfshFk;. rf;jp

tpidj;jpwid eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;F

nrytspj;jjidtpl mjd; %ykhff;

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tpidj;jpwd; kpfTk; Rthurpakhdjhf

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tpidj;jpwd; fUtpfisg; gad;gLj;jp

jdpg;gl;l Efu;NthUk; rf;jpia Nrkpf;f

KbAk;. gy ehLfspy;> cgfuzkhdJ

vj;jifa rf;jp tpidj;jpwd; nfhz;lJ

vd;gij xNu ghu;itapy;> fz;L

nfhs;tjw;fhf Fspu;rhjdg; ngl;bfs;>

njhiyf;fhl;rpfs;> Jzp fOTk;

,ae;jpuq;fspy; rf;jp Efu;T gl;bay;fs;

xl;lg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

rf;jp cw;gj;jpj;jpwd;

rf;jp cw;gj;jpj; jpwdhdJ

gad;gLj;jg;gl;l rf;jp myfpdhy;

Nrkpf;fg;gl;l nghUshjhug; ngWkjpiaf;

(nkhj;j cs;ehl;L cw;gj;jpapd;

tpfpjhrhukhf) Fwpf;fpd;wJ.

nghUshjhuj;jpy;> fzpg;gPl;bw;fhd

mbg;gilahf mbg;gilr; rf;jpahdJ

gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

tpupthf;fj; jho;thuk;

tpupthf;fj; jho;thuq;fs; GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp %yq;fspd; mgptpUj;jpia NkYk;

vjpu;T$wj;jf;fjhf khw;Wtjw;Fk;>


32 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

rf;jpf; fl;lj;jpy; xUq;fpizg;gpid

Vw;gLj;jTk;> thbf;ifahsuJ Nkyjpf

nryTfis Kfhik nra;aj;jf;fjhf

khw;Wtjw;Fk; cjTfpd;wd.

GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp %yr; rl;lkhdJ

xt;nthU tpjkhd GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f

rf;jp %y njhopy;El;gj;jpw;Fk; xU

tpNrlkhd ,yf;Fj; jho;thukhf

tiuaWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Gjpjhfg;

nghUj;jg;gl;l ,ay;jpwdhdJ xU

tUlj;jpDs; cau;e;jstpid tpl

mjpfupf;Fkhapd;> mLj;j tUlj;jpy;

Fiwe;j khdpaq;fs; gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk;.

jho;thuk; jpl;lkpl;lijtplf; Fiwthd

tpupthf;fNk eilngWkhdhy;> MjuTf;

fl;lzq;fs; Fiwf;fg;gLk; my;yJ

,y;yhnjhopf;fg;gLk;.

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fhw;W kw;Wk; #upa rf;jp kpd;

epiya nray;gLj;Jeu;fSf;F

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xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyg;gFjpf;F mtu;fs;

gpwg;ghf;fk; nra;Ak; kpd;rhuj;jpw;F

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mwtpLtjhf cj;juthjk; toq;Ffpd;wd.

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njhopy;El;g tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; njhopy;El;g

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nrytpidf; Fiwg;gjhy; tUlj;jpw;F

tUlk; jPu;it FiwAk;. n[u;kdpapy;

Vy tpw;gidr; nra;KiwahdJ (Vy

tpw;gid vd;gijg; ghu;f;fTk;) vjpu;tUk;

tUlq;fSf;fhd jw;Nghija Cl;lg;gLk;

jPu;itfis khw;wPL nra;Ak;.

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thbf;ifahu; KbtpNyNa el;lq;fs;

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mjid kPsg;ngWtjw;F> Njitahd

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GJg;gpf;fj;jf;f rf;jp tsq;fs; %ykhf

cw;gj;jp nra;ag;glyhk;. (rf;fpapypUe;J

thAtiu vd;gijg; ghu;f;fTk;).

vt;thwhapDk;> nkjNdhy; Nghd;w

NtWgl;l %yg; nghUl;fisAk;

gad;gLj;Jfpd;w vupnghUs; fyq;fs;

fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

gr;irtPl;L thAf;fs;

G+kpapd; Nkw;gug;gpd;kPJ tpOk; #upa

xspahdJ kPz;Lk; tpz;ntspf;Fj;

jpUk;ghJ tspkz;lj;jpy;

gpujpgyp;g;Gr; nra;ag;gl;L G+kpf;Fj;

jpUk;Gtjdhy; gr;irtPl;L thAf;fs;

Fwpg;gplj;jf;fsT Gtp ntg;gkiljypy;

gq;fspg;Gr; nra;fpd;wJ. ,J

gr;irtPl;L vz;zf;fUitAk; Gtp

ntg;gkiljiyAk; xj;jjhFk;.

ed;fwpag;gl;l gr;irtPl;L thAthdJ

fhgdPnuhl;irl;lhFk;. ,J gpujhdkhf

gbk vupnghUs;fshfpa vz;nza;>

thA kw;Wk; epyf;fupapypUe;J

ntspNaw;wg;gLfpd;wJ. Vida gr;ir

tPl;L thAf;fshtd nkNjDk; FNshNuh

GNshuhf;fhgDk; (CFC) MFk;.

nkhj;j kpd;rhu Efu;T

ehl;bdJ nkhj;j kpd;rhu Efu;tpidf;

fzpg;gpLtjw;F> ehl;by; cw;gj;jp

nra;ag;gLk; kpd;rhuk; kw;Wk;

ntspehLfspypUe;J ,wf;Fkjp

nra;ag;gLk; kpd;rhuk; $l;lg;gLk;.

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ehl;by; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; kpd;rhuk;

+ ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gLk; kpd;rhuk;

- Vw;Wkjp nra;ag;gLk; kpd;rhuk;

----------------------------------------------

nkhj;j kpd;rhu Efu;T

ntg;g gk;gp

ntg;g gk;gpfs; cjhuzkhf

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cwpQ;Rk;. ,e;j ntg;gkhdJ RL ePu;

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mit cl;Gwj;ij Fspu;tpg;gJld;

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1997 Mk; Mz;by; [g;ghdpYs;s

fpNahNlhtpy; fhyepiy

khw;wj;jpw;fhd If;fpa ehLfs;


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 33

$l;likg;Gr; rkthakhdJ 2012

Mk; Mz;lhFk; NghJ gr;ir

tPl;L thA ntspNaw;wq;fis

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nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. fpNahlh rkthakhdJ>

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Kd;NdhbahFk;.

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nfhz;l fl;blq;fshFk;. 2021 Kjy;>

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rfy epUgzq;fSk; xU epiyahd

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caupa rf;jp Mw;wiyf; nfhLf;fpd;wJ.

vdpDk;> mit gyiftpl Fiwe;j

Nrkpg;G ,lj;ijNa ngWfpd;wd.

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fhyepiy eLepiyahdit. xU

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(230 my;yJ 400 V). Fiwe;j

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fjpupaf;ff; fopT

rf;jpia cUthf;Ftjw;F mZr; rf;jp

gad;gLj;jg;gLifapy;> fjpupaf;ff;


34 |The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl)

fopT cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

fjpupaf;fg; nghUl;fshdit vupnghUs;

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,g;nghUl;fs; kPz;Lk; gad;gLj;j

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nra;ag;gLk;. ,f;fopTfshdit kdpju;fs;

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fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.

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my;yJ tprhykhd fl;blq;fSf;F

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KO kpiftpjpg;gdtpid nrYj;j

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kw;Wk; kpif cw;gj;jp Nghd;wtw;iwj;

jtpu;f;fTk; rfy mf;fiwAs;NshupdJk;

rf;jp toq;fy; NjitfSld;

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kpd; Cl;lkhdJ tpNrlkhfj; jPu;T

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Neuk; ];khu;l; fl;lkhdJ nefpo;Tkpf;f

kpd;rhu tpiyaply; khjpupfs; %ykhf

Nfs;tpapidf; fl;Lg;gLj;JtjhfTs;sJ.


The German Energiewende (n[u ;kd ; vndu ;[pntz ;Nl) | 35

Quellenverzeichnis

AG Energiebilanzen e.V. (2017):

Energieverbrauch in Deutschland im Jahr 2016.

Agora Energiewende (2017): Agorameter –

Stromerzeugung und Stromverbrauch.

Auswärtiges Amt (2015): Rede von Frank-

Walter Steinmeier zur Eröffnung des Berlin

Energy Transition Dialogue 2015.

BMWi und BMBF: Energiespeicher –

Forschung für die Energiewende.

Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (2016):

Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland:

Meldepflichtige Ereignisse seit Inbetriebnahme.

Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz,

Bau und Reaktorsicherheit (2015):

Atomenergie – Strahlenschutz.

Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz

und nukleare Sicherheit (2018): Klimaschutz

in Zahlen.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2014): Die Energie der Zukunft.

Erster Fortschrittsbericht zur Energiewende.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2014): Zweiter Monitoring-Bericht

„Energie der Zukunft“.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2015): Die Energie der Zukunft.

Fünfter Monitoringbericht zur Energiewende.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2015): Eckpunkte Energieeffizienz.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2015): Erneuerbare Energien

in Zahlen. Nationale und Internationale

Entwicklung im Jahr 2014.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2015): EU-Energieeffizienz-Richtlinie.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2016): Bruttobeschäftigung durch

erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland und

verringerte fossile Brennstoffimporte durch

erneuerbare Energien und Energieffizienz.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2016): Energiedaten: Gesamtausgabe.

Stand November 2016.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2016): Erneuerbare Energien auf

einen Blick.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2017): Energieeffizienz zahlt sich für

deutsche Haushalte aus.

Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und

Energie (2018): Energie der Zukunft – Sechster

Monitoringbericht zur Energiewende.

Bundesnetzagentur (2015): EEG-Fördersätze

für PV-Anlagen. Degressions- und Vergütungssätze

Oktober bis Dezember 2015.

Bundesnetzagentur (2017): EEG in Zahlen.

Bundesnetzagentur; Bundeskartellamt (2016):

Monitoringbericht 2016.

Bundesregierung (2015): Die Automobilindustrie:

eine Schlüsselindustrie unseres

Landes.

Bundesverband CarSharing (2018):

Aktuelle Zahlen und Daten zum CarSharing in

Deutschland.

Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft

(2014): Stromnetzlänge entspricht

45facher Erdumrundung.

Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft

e.V. (2016): BDEW zum Strompreis der

Haushalte. Strompreisanalyse Mai 2016.

Council of European Energy Regulators (2015):

CEER Benchmarking Report 5.2 on the

Continuity of Electricity Supply – Data update.

BSW-Solar (2018): Meilenstein der Energie -

wende: 100.000ster Solarstromspeicher

installiert.

Deutsche Energie Agentur GmbH (2012):

Der dena-Gebäudereport 2012. Statistiken

und Analysen zur Energieeffizienz im

Gebäudebestand.

Deutsche Energie Agentur GmbH (2018):

Der dena-Gebäudereport 2018. Statistiken

und Analysen zur Energieeffizienz im

Gebäudebestand.

Deutsche Energie-Agentur (2013): Power to

Gas. Eine innovative Systemlösung auf dem Weg

zur Marktreife.

Deutsche Energie-Agentur (2015):

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© dpa/Catrinus Van Der Veen

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