Gaelic book

ben.rankin

Gàidheil an Albainn Nuaidh

Gaelic Nova Scotia

Iomadh Slighe

gus Fileantas

‘ s a’ Ghàidhlig a

Ruigheachd

The Many Ways to

Gaelic Language

Fluency


Ro-ràdh

Preface

Teachdaireachd a’ Mhinisteir:

Slighean gus a’ Ghàidhlig a Thogail

Tha mi glé thoilichte an obair a tha seo air slighean gus a’ Ghàidhlig

a thogail an Albainn Nuaidh ’fhaicinn. Tha i a’ cur romhann

puing-iomraidh feumail a thaobh far an robh sinn an là an diugh

ann a bhi a’ togail agus a’ cur gu feum na Gàidhlig is dh’fhaodadhi

cur ri còmhraidhean air mar a ’s urrainn dhan a’ Ghàidhlig-’s an

dòigh as fhèarr-a bhi air a togail is air a cur gu feum is air a cur an

co-theacsa cultur nan Gàidheal an Albainn Nuaidh.

Tha na tha Colaisde Ealain agus Dhealbhaidh na h-Albann Nuaidh

a’ cur ri leasachadh na Gàidhlig is a cultuir ’s a’ mhór-roinn

làn dì-bheathte agus air a mheasadh gu mór. Tha an oidhirp a tha

seo a’ ceangal co-obrachadh, tuigse agus meas na coimhearsnachd

ri dealbhadh sgoilearach agus sgilean-fiosrachaidh ann

an taisbeanadh, a’ togail gu h-àrd mothachadh air fear dhe na

cinnich sònraichte an Albainn Nuaidh, na Gàidheil.

M’fhìor thaing dhan Bhan-Ollamh Mairlìn Ivey agus dha na

h-oileanaich ’s a’ Chùrsa do Dhealbhadh airson Athbheòthachadh

Culturach aig CEDAN is mealaibh ur naidheachd oribh. Gun teagamh,

théid iomradh a thoirt air cairteachadh-léirsinne dhen fhiosrachadh

a tha seo a-rithist is a-rithist fhad ’s a bhios sinn a’ cumail

oirnn leis an obair chudthromaich a bhi ag ath-bhuannachadh

agus ag ùrachadh na Gàidhlig is a cultuir ’s a’ mhór-roinn againn.

Minister’s Message:

Gaelic Language Pathways

I am very pleased to see this work on pathways to Gaelic

language learning in Nova Scotia. It presents a useful reference

point for where we are today in terms of learning and using the

Gaelic language, and may contribute to ongoing discussions on

how Gaelic language can best be acquired, used and placed in

the context of Gaelic cultural expression in Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia College of Art and Design’s contribution to

supporting Gaelic language and cultural development in the

province is welcomed and very much valued. This effort connects

community collaboration, understanding and appreciation with

academic design and presentation knowledge skills, raising

awareness of one of Nova Scotia’s unique ethnocultural groups,

the Gaels.

My sincere thanks and congratulations to Professor MarleneIvey

and all students in the Design for Cultural Revitalization course

at NSCAD. The visual charting of this data will no doubt be

referenced again and again as we continue the important work

of Gaelic language and cultural reclamation and renewal in our

province.

Sinceramente,

Sincerely,

Randy Delorey

Ministro de asuntos gaélicos

Minister of Gaelic Affairs


Teachdaireachd a’ Cheannaird

Tha fìrinn anns an dà sheanfhacal, na chì na bige ‘s e nì na

bige agus na chluinneas iad ‘s e a chanas iad. Tha seo fìor

do dh’inbhich gu ìre mhór a tha air an cuid shlighean gus a’

Ghàidhlig a thogail cuideachd. Tha an rannsachadh a rinn

oileanaich na Ban-Ollaimh Mairlìn Ivey ’s a’ chùrsa, Dealbhadh

airson Ath-bheòthachadh Culturach a’ sealltuinn gur e rud

cudthromach na chì agus na cluinneas feadhainn a tha ris an

obair dhùbhlanach gus fileantas ’s a’ Ghàidhlig a ruigheachd.

Bidh na slighean a dhealbhaich na h-oileanaich cudthromach

a thaobh nan rathaidean a dh’fhaodadh a bhi as éifeachdaiche

gus a’ Ghàidhlig ionnsachadh an co-theacsa culturach agus

’s e dh’fhaodte as cudthromaiche fhathast gu dé an luchdgoireis

riantanach a th’ann dhaibh a tha a’ dèanadh cinnteach

gu bheil na théid am fiosrachadh ’na dheagh ionnsachadh

a’ toirt a-staigh oideas is forfhais an cuide ri ceangailichean

blàtha, càirdeas is dàimh far am bi caidreabhan daingeann

’gan cur air bhonn thro thàilleabhachd, chruinneachaidhean

agus chéilidhean dualchasach. ’S e an dà chuid, slighean

ionnsachaidh agus na dh’fhiosraich feadhainn air an cuid

shlighean na bhios a’ cur tuilleadh ri togail na coimhearsnachd

Ghàidhealaich, a’ cur ri daltachadh féin-aithne nan

Gàidheal ’s an àm a thig. Gu dearra fhéin, cuiridh an leabhran

a rinn na h-oileanaich ris a’ sin as leth a phàirt fhéin. M’fhìor

thaing do ghach duine aca airson na h-obrach cuideachail seo.

Executive Director’s Message

There are truisms in the two Gaelic proverbs, na chì na bige ’s

e nì na bige what the little ones see, the little ones do and na

chluinneas iad ’s e a chanas iad what they (the little ones) hear,

they say. This is largely true for adults who are on their respective

pathways to learning Gaelic language as well. The research

that students in Professor Marlene Ivey’s course, Design for

Cultural Revitalization demonstrates that what individuals who

are engaged in the challenging work of achieving fluency in

Gaelic language see and hear is important. The pathways that

students have designed will be important regarding the paths that

could be most effective to learning Gaelic language in a cultural

context and just as important are the essential resource persons

who are there for learners, who ensure that what is experienced

is positive learning, encompassing mentoring and knowledge

along with warm connections, friendship and kinship where firm

social groups are built through apprenticeship, gatherings and

traditional visits. It is both learning pathways and that which

individuals experience on these pathways that contributes to

the further building of the Gaelic community in Nova Scotia,

contributing to a Gaels’ identity of tomorrow. Indeed, for its part,

this booklet the students created will contribute to that. My

sincere thanks to each of them for this helpful work.

Lodaidh MacFhionghain

Lewis MacKinnon

Ceannard, Oifis Iomairtean na Gàidhlig

Executive Director, Office of Gaelic Affairs


Clàr-innse

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 01 - 02

Amasan a’ Phròiseict

Our Project Goal

CHAPTER 2 03 - 04

Togail Nàisean nan

Gaidheal an Albainn Nuaidh

Building A Nova Scotia

Gaelic Cultural Nation

CHAPTER 3 05 - 07

Luchd-taisbeanaidh ’s a’ Chlas

Guest Speakers


CHAPTER 4 08 - 11

Rannsachadh

Research

CHAPTER 5 12 - 26

Na Dealbhanan-léirsinne

The Visualizations

CHAPTER 6 27 - 28

Eàrrlainn

Conclusion

CHAPTER 7 29 - 34

Gluais briathrachas Gàidhlig

Glossary of Gaelic terms


Amasan a’ Phròiseict

Our Project Goal

CHAPTER 1

1


In Design for Cultural Revitalization at NSCAD University, Halifax,

Nova Scotia, Professor Marlene Ivey and students focused on

Gaelic Nova Scotia working together with community partners

to address issues relevant to their community. The aim was to

explore, engage and develop an understanding of a culture that,

for the most part, we had no experience. In our future careers

as designers we hope to apply the outcome of this learning

experience in our work for and with other communities. We

are most grateful to Gaelic community members who lent their

support to the class, contributing to our experience of working

with the needs of a particular community.

Ultimately, we determined to create a publication as a

contribution from our NSCAD University class to 2020 Mios nan

Gàidheal (Month of the Gaels) in May. This publication is one of

several iterations designed by the students. What did we wish to

communicate and how did we get here?

Everything started with a short project, intended as an

introduction to Nova Scotia Gaelic culture, but later this gave

rise to the concept for this booklet. In a previous workshop held

at Baile nan Gàidheal (Highland Village) some members of the

Gaelic community documented their paths to Gaelic fluency.

This documentation was summarized to give us an idea of the

resources that supported their path. Individually we analysed and

synthesised the data – not particularly an easy task- and each of

us used our outcomes to combine and visualize the participants

pathways to Gaelic fluency. In the end, even though we all had the

same information, our infographics differed from each other as

each of us had a different approach to telling this story.

When we saw the outcomes and the high diversity of our

infographics, we decided that we would like to make them

accessible to people who are interested in the Gaelic culture and

may wish to see/understand how people before them reached

Gaelic fluency.

At the same time as we were continuing this project, we were

welcoming guests from the Gaelic community to our course and

had the pleasure of gaining insight into different characteristics of

the Gaelic culture from our delightful visitors: Lewis MacKinnon,

Leanne Aucoin, Mary Jane Lamond and Shay MacMullin.

Thanks to these valuable contributions from our guests and our

own intense research about the province’s Gaelic culture, each of

us were able to experience the value of the Gaelic culture as well

as its historic and present importance in Nova Scotia.

With this booklet we wish to summarize our research and give

every interested person examples to explore their own pathway to

Gaelic fluency and to reference the valuable resources available

to them.

2


Togail Nàisean nan

Gaidheal an Albainn Nuaidh

Building A Nova Scotia

Gaelic Cultural Nation

CHAPTER 2

Seumas Watson was integral to the

development of NSCAD’s Designing

for Cultural Revitalization course.

He visited the class on numerous

occasions sharing his robust

knowledge, powerful songs, wicked

humor and gentle but rigorous

critique. The passage to the right

was first published in An Rubha, 15,

(1):5 Iona, Baile nan Gaidheal/ Nova

Scotia Highland Village Museum.

3


Tha crìochan Nàisean Gàidhlig Alba Nuadh a ’leudachadh

thairis air fàire a tha a’ gabhail a-steach grunn ìrean ùidh

agus sgilean. Chan eil saoranachd air a mhìneachadh a rèir

comas cànain, ach co-aontachd gu bheilear a ’cur luach air

leantainneachd faireachdainn cultarail a tha an urra ri cànan

airson a sgaoileadh agus a chudromachd ginealach.

Chan e rud furasta a th ’ann an togail nàisean. Tha

na riatanasan aige mòran. Tha làmh seasmhach air an stiùir

air a stiùireadh le dìteadh agus buanseasmhachdeileamaideach.

Mar sin cuideachd tha feum air lèirsinn farsaing a tha a

’tighinn còmhla ris a h-uile strì gus ballrachd a ghabhail ann

am prionnsapalan stèidheachaidh.

Tha dùthaich Ghàidhlig Alba Nuadh air a bhith a ’briseadh

agus a’ làimhseachadh nan riochdachaidhean cultarach aice

airson co-dhiù ceud bliadhna. Chan eil an suidheachadh

a-nis cho èiginneach, leis gu bheil sinn a ’dol a-steach do

linn le uidheamachd taice agus ìre de dh’ aithneachadh nach

eil fios againn faisg air làimh. Agus, mar sin tha a ’cheist ag

èirigh, ciamar a chruinnicheas sinn ar goireasan gus dùthaich

chultarail Gàidhlig a thogail le taic uile-choitcheann?

Is dòcha gum bi e feumail a bhith a ’daingneachadh gu bheil

cultar Gàidhlig an urra ri cànan airson a chomharran sòisealta

a nochdadh. Às aonais cànan, chan eil litreachas dùthchasach

ann agus na raointean air fad a tha na bhroinn.

Às aonais eadar-dhealachaidhean cultarach bourn cànain, tha

dearbh-aithne, air dhòigh eile, na chùis dualchais ri fhaicinn

dìreach anns na h-amannan a dh ’fhalbh. Tha cultar Gàidhlig

mar mheud sòisealta beò, tomhaiseil, an urra ris an fhacal.

Ach, chan eil am prìomhachas a ’feuchainn ri cànan a

ghleidheadh air a shon fhèin, ach a bhith a’ cumail suas

sluagh a dh ’aithnichear leis an dòigh chultarail aca fhèin mar

Albannaich Nuadh.

Is e cànan am prìomh inneal airson na h-iomairtean Gàidhlig

againn agus feumar làimhseachadh mar sin. Chan e, ge-tà,

an geama deireannach a th ’ann fhèin, ach siostam lìbhrigidh

airson a bhith a’ cumail suas stuth cultarail nan daoine: toradh

am faireachdainn sòisealta. Dh ’fhaodadh aon a ràdh gun

deach a’ chultar a chall airson dìth cànain. Airson dìth cultair

chaidh an cànan air chall. Bhiodh e cliché a chomharrachadh

nach e cùisean fa leth a tha seo. Aig a ’cheann thall is e cridhe

làidir na cùise gu bheil dìth dhaoine air chall ...

The boundaries of a Nova Scotia Gaelic Nation extend over

horizons that encompass multiple levels of interest and skills.

Citizenship is not defined by language ability, but rather a

consensus that continuity of language dependent cultural

expression is valued for its transmission and generational

significance. Nation building is not an easy thing to do. Its

requirements are many. A steady hand on the rudder guided by

conviction and perseverance is elemental. So too is the need

for an encompassing vision that joins all stripes to subscribe to

foundational tenets.

Nova Scotia’s Gaelic nation has experienced rupture and

manipulation of its cultural representations for at least a

century. The situation is now less dire, as we enter an era with

supporting apparatus and a degree of acknow-ledgement

unknown in the near past. And, so the ques-tion arises, how

do we muster our resources to build a Gaelic-speaking cultural

nation with universal support?

It may be helpful to underscore that Gaelic culture is language

dependent for expression of its social mar-kers. In the absence

of language, there is no indige-nous literature and all the

domains it comprises.

In the absence of language bourn cultural distinctions, identity

is, otherwise, a matter of heritage manifest only in times gone

by. Gaelic culture as a living, mea-surable, social quantity rests

on the word.

However, the priority isn’t trying to conserve a lan-guage for its

own sake, but rather maintain a people identifiable by way of

their own cultural expression as Nova Scotians.

Language is the primary tool for our Gaelic initiatives and

requires treatment as such. It is not, however, the end game of

itself, but rather a delivery system for maintaining the people’s

cultural stuffing: the product of their social expression. One

could say that for the want of a language the culture was lost.

For the want of a culture the language was lost. It would be

cliché to point out that these are not separate issues. The

beat-ing heart of the matter ultimately becomes that for the

want of both a people is lost ...

4


Luchd-taisbeanaidh ’s a’ Chlas

Guest Speakers

CHAPTER 3

5


Lewis MacKinnon

Lewis MacKinnon, Executive Director of the Office of Gaelic

Affairs, a Division of the Department of Communities, Culture and

Heritage, Government of Nova Scotia, was a visitor to NSCADs

Designing for Cultural Revitalization class on Thursday 13th

February 2020. Lewis, a Gaelic language and culture advocate

is involved in initiatives at the community, institutional and

government levels supporting Gaelic language and cultural

renewal. A musician and a published poet, An Comunn

Gàidhealach, the Gaelic Society (Scotland), crowned Lewis the

poet laureate of the Gaelic National Mòd in 2011, a historically

unique and highly prestigious appointment. During his visit to

NSCAD, Lewis spoke of the unique marks of identity specific to

Gaels in Nova Scotia and continued his involvement with the

class in support of this project

Leanne Aucoin

Leanne is a multi-talented musician from Sydney Mines, Cape

Breton who has performed in many parts of Canada, the U.S.

and Ireland. Leanne released her debut album, All Set in 2006, a

traditional album featuring Tracey Dares-MacNeil, Dave MacIsaac

and members of her family. It was recognized by the East Coast

Music Awards and was nominated in the category of Roots/

Traditional Solo Recording of the Year in 2008). On Thursday 6th

February 2020, Leanne presented on the Nova Scotia Gaelic step

dance tradition and taught the students two square sets. Dance is

one of the main arts traditions of Gaelic Nova Scotia and is often

a portal through which people embark on a culture based Gaelic

language learning path

6


Mary Jane Lammond

“A sharing of gold is but brief, but a sharing of song lasts long.”–

Gaelic Proverb

Mary Jane Lamond is a sharer of songs, stories and spirit. This

sharing has garnered Mary Jane numerous JUNO and East Coast

Music award nominations, criti-cal acclaim, and a worldwide

audience.

On Thursday 23 January 2020, Mary Jane was a visitor to NSCAD

University Designing for Cultural Revitaliza-tion class to present

characteristics of the song tradi-tion of the Nova Scotia Gaels.

Tapadh leat!

Shay MacMullin

Shay MacMullin is an advocate for Gaelic Nova Scotia. She rose to

fluency in her Grandfather’s language through Gaelic immersion

and mentoring with Gaelic Tradition Bearers. She sees herself

as a bridge for the learner into the world of the Nova Scotia Gael

and is a dedicated professional, passionate about sharing Gaelic

arts traditions. She is making it her personal mission to revive

the céilidh/visiting tradition and visited the Designing for Cultural

Revitalization class on Thursday 12th March 2020 to speak

about the Gaelic storytelling tradition - essential knowledge for

understanding the world of the Gàidhlig.

7


Rannsachadh

Research

CHAPTER 4

8


Eachdraidh

Rannsachadh

History

In the mid-nineteenth century the third most spoken

language in the whole of Canada was Gaelic. The eastern

counties of the province of Nova Scotia and the greater

portion of Cape Breton Island (excepting Loyalist, Acadian

and Mi’ kmaq districts) were predominantly Gaelic speaking

from the early decades of the 19th century to the turn

of the 20th century. During the 1920s Gaelic language and

culture in eastern Nova Scotia began to decline. Following

WWII , Gaelic Nova Scotia became a source of exploitation

for cultural tourism by way of the British army and

Victorian romanticism.

30

%

Nova Scotians

indicated Scottish

ethnic origin

0.2%

Nova Scotians are

fluent Gaelic speakers.

9


Eachdraidh

Rannsachadh

History

During the 1980s, it became clear to the Gaels themselves,

that there needed to be some interface between their

remaining tradition bearers, collected and archived materials,

and an entire generation of the Gaelic community

who were, in essence, culturally orphaned. There began

a concentrated effort by Gaelic advocates and activists

to renew Gaelic culture and language in Nova Scotia –

most specifically in Cape Breton Island. Today the eastern

province of Nova Scotia, has an estimated population

of 940,600, 230,000 of whom are descendants of Gaelic

settlers from the Highlands and Islands of Scotland along

with approximately 2000 Gaelic speakers. Clearly, the

Nova Scotia Gaelic cultural nation faces a number of challenges.

However, it also holds opportunity for the social,

economic and future cultural landscape of the province.

Mapa de dh’Alba Nuadh

Map of Nova Scotia

Inverness County

North Shore

Bras d’or Lakes

Cape Breton South

Antigonish & Pictou

Halifax

10


Fiosrachadh

Data

8.

9.

10. 11.

1.

7.

6.

2.

5.

4.

3.

A workshop held at Baile nan Gàidheal (Highland Village)

posed a question to fluent Gaelic speakers: how did you

become fluent in Gaelic?

The participants’ reflections amalgamated over 100

learning pathways, the categories among them including:

books,learning institutions, recordings, friends and family,

social gatherings, museums, and more.

The data above and to the right serve as visual summaries

of the various streams that participants stated as Gaelic

language learning resources.

1. Digital Technology

2. Books/Papers/Newspapers

3. Social Event

4. Social Learning

5. Tradition Bearers

6. Formal Education

7. Music

8. Family/Friends/Community

9. Location

10. Organizations

11. Physical Technology

20%

14%

12%

10%

9%

8%

7%

7%

7%

4%

2%

11


Na Dealbhanan-léirsinne

The Visualizations

CHAPTER 5

12


Beathan MacFhraing

Ben Rankin

Slighean gus a’ Ghàidhlig a Thogail

Gaelic Language Pathways

Ben’s data visualization aims to simplify and express the complexities

found within the data, Gaelic culture, and individuals of this

project. Each answer given by the participants was categorized

into eleven groups –then further simplified into percentages and

placed into the circular graph. The text around the circle is the

many answers that make up the various categories.

20%

14%

12%

10%

9%

8%

7%

7%

7%

4%

2%

Digital Technology

Books/Papers/Newspapers

Social Event

Social Learning

Tradition Bearers

Formal Education

Music

Family/Friends/Community

Location

Organizations

Physical Technology

13


Annabel and Alasdair

Pàdraig, my son

Community Ties

My Great Grandmother Sadie Mae Mac Innis

Cairdean Friends

An Drochaid, Mabou

Scotland

Daltachas

NS

PEI

Judique Music Hall

Brèigh nan h-Aibhneadh

Eilean Na Nollaig (feis)

Ireland

7%

Doing: Singing, music

Sessions

7%

Creighton Collection

Song Recordings

Song Circles

Gaelic Research Conferences

Song Books

7%

Connemara Conference

Sydney Gaelic Society

An Cliath Clis

4%

Working on Am Bràighe

Recording device

2%

Sruth nan Gàidheal

Tobar an Dualchai

An Drochaid Eadarainn

learngaelic.net

Duolingo

Cainnt mo Mhàthair

WWW: An Cùrsa Bogaidh (ean)

20%

Online Resources

Google Drive Nosabhaile

Gael Stream

Faclair

Facebook

Digital archives

Mac Talla

Mosgladh

Fear na Céilidh

Cainnt mo Mhathair

MacEdward Leach

Tobar an Dualchais

BBC Radio

Books

Academic papers

Language Books: Dwelly Grammar

Folklore Books

Shay

Blue Mountains

Sabhal Mór Ostaig

14%

Tales Til Dawn

Tales of West Highlands

Colaisde na Gàidhlig

Gaelic texts

Mickey bean Nilleag

Am Bràighe

Christie MacNeil

Rear Iona

Meusaidh bheag

An Rubha

8%

Designing for Cultural Revitilization

Gaelic College

St FX

R Cox

MJ

9%

Visits

Brigh an Òran

Nam Beanntaichen Gorma

Mosgladh

Seumas Watson

Lileag

Lili and Angus

Anna Mackinnon

Lauchi

Joe Neil

Sgialachdan is Naidheachdan

Jim Watson

Stories

History

Stòras a Bhaile

10%

Na Cleaischeen

Bàile nan Gàidheal

Gaelic Weekendss

Bun is Bàr

Gàidhlig aig Baile

Gaelic classes

Fear na Céilidh

Social interaction w fluent speakers

Parties

12%

Library Events

Ceilidhs

Phone

Book club frolics

Work – some conversations

Glendale Hall

Speaking Gaelic with other Gaelic speakers

Mios nan Gàidheal

14


Millicent Webb

Millicent Webb

A’ comharradh nan Slighean gu bhi a’ dol an sàs ’s a’ Ghàidhlig

Tracing Journeys of Gaelic Experience

Through the use of colours, numbers and dots, this data visualization,

created by Millicent Webb, demonstrates the means by

which participants became involved in Gaelic culture. The colours

are used to identify categories, while numbers are used to identify

specifics. Each dot represents a person, indicating the popularity of

each experience listed.

15


16


Emma Thoma

Emma Thoma

Na h-Ìrean Diofraichte gus a’ Ghàidhlig a Thogail

The Different Parts of Gaelic Learning

This infographic uses font size to delineate more frequently

mentioned resources from the ones that were not mentioned

that often. By being more prominent, the bigger resources attract

more attention, but still let the other topics be at their side.

Nova Scotia and places that are related to the province were

mentioned 9 times, which increased the font size of the term.

Sruth nan Gáidheal, on the other side, was only mentioned 4

times. Although it is a valuable resource, it was not cited as

frequently.

Each participant is different and so were their paths to fluency,

if they did not mention a resource, it doesn’t mean that they

didn’t use it or don’t think it’s valuable, it was just not primarily

on their mind when they were asked.

17


18


Zhixin Kong

Zhixin Kong

Ag ionnsachadh Cànan thro Chultur nan Gàidheal

Gaelic Culture-Based Language Learning

This infographic, created by Jasmine Kong, explores intercultural

communication in an era characteristic of global integration. It

studies the differences in value orientation and thinking styles

formed by different cultural backgrounds, the differences in role

relationships and behavioral norms caused by different social

structures, and the cultural symbols accumulated by different

national customs. As such, learning Gaelic can help understand

different cultures and characteristics.

19


20


Zhaoyu Jiang

Zhaoyu Jiang

Slighean-ionnsachaidh gus Fileantas ’s a’ Ghàidhlig a Ruigheachd

Learning Paths to Gaelic Fluency

This project, created by Zhaoyu Jiang, demonstrates a socalled

horizontal view of language learning. Each colour represents one

type of language learning. The learning methods are conveyed

with coloured rectangles. For each method, the different sizes

of the rectangles illustrate the importance of the various ways of

learning the language. The rationale behind this overall sunburst

effect is to put emphasis on the resurgence of Gaelic culture.

21


22


Jennifer Bliss

Jennifer Bliss

Ceangailichean gus a’ Ghàidhlig Ionnsachadh

Gaelic Learning Connections

This visualization of Gaelic learning pathways focuses on increasing

understanding through data development and connections.

From this, viewers can understand how different individuals focus

their learning within different areas of focus. It also shows the

breadth of relationships between each of the language learning

resources to help give context to each.

23


24


Natalie Laurin

Natalie Laurin

An t-Slighe gus a’ Ghàidhlig Ionnsachadh

The Road to Learning Gaelic

This interactive online presentation was created by Natalie

Laurin as a means for those seeking to further their knowledge

of the Gaelic language. The inclusion of categories and photos

aid in the road to learning Gaelic, and its subsequent path

to fluency. Users may interact with the presentation, freely

navigating between topics and learning styles.

Follow the link below, or scan the QR code to access the

presentation.

https://prezi.com/view/IqV3GsX0aGaNU1HmwoWA/

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Eàrrlainn

Conclusion

CHAPTER 6

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“ Dèanaibh fianais, Fàirichibh, Rachaibh an sàs ann, Thigibh

gu bhi...”

A’ bruidhinn anns a’ Bhaile Mhór, Alba Nuadh ’s a’ Chéitean

2011, thug an cànanaiche, a’ Bhan-Ollamh Leanne Hinton

iomradh air mar a théid aig daoine a bhi air an tarruing a

dhol an sàs ann an culturan aig a bheil cànanan beò. Thuirt

i, “ bidh roinn do dhaoine ’ga fhàireachdainn is iad a bhios

’ga fhaicinn fhad ’s a bhios e a’ tachairt’. Chum i oirre ag

ràdhainn, ‘’s urrainn dhuinn ciall a dhèanadh dheth, ach ’s

e gur ann a-mhàin nuair a bhios daoine a’ faireachdainn a’

cheangail gun rachadh am misneachadh gu ionnsachadh’.

’Gan dlùth-ghabhail dàimh agus ’gan sònrachadh fhéin thro

dhualchas beò Ghàidhealach gu bhi a’ tighinn gu buil gu

culturach. ’S e truacantas, fàireachdainn agus fiosrachadh

a cheangailicheas oghaichean Ghàidheal na h-Albann

Nuaidhe r’ an cultur agus is e a-réir coltais a mhisnicheas

feadhainn a bhi a’ dol an sàs anns a’ chruth-thìre inntinneil

is iad gu bhi mar phàirt dheth. Dèanaibh fianais, fàirichibh,

rachaibh an sàs, thigibh gu bhi – sin agaibh an rathad gu bhi

ag ath-cheangal ris an fhéin-aithne shoisio-chulturaich aig

neach.

’S e an dearg-fhìrinn gur e obair dhuilich a th’ann a bhi ri

ath-cheangal. Tha feum air adhbhar suidhichte, dealas

domhan, agus misneach air an t-slighe gus fileantas a

ruigheachd – gabhaidh e ùine. Tha na duaisean lìonmhoire

ged tà. Is thig tuigse do dh’fhéin aithne an uachdar.

“Witness, Feel, Engage, Become...”

Speaking in Antigonish, Nova Scotia in May 2011, linguist Dr Lee

Anne Hinton referred to how people are drawn to engage with

living language cultures. She said ‘lots of people feel it by seeing it

in action’ and went on to say, ‘we can intellectualize it, but it is only

when people feel the connection that they are motivated to learn’.

Embracing kinship and identifying through living Gaelic tradition

to become culturally complete. Empathy, feeling and experience

connects the grandchildren of Nova Scotia Gaels to their culture

and appears to motivate individuals to engage with the mental

landscape and become part of it. Witness, feel, engage, become – a

process of re-connecting with one’s socio-cultural identity.

The stark reality is that re-connecting is difficult work. Firm resolve,

deep commitment and courage are needed along the path to

fluency – it takes time. However, the rewards are rich. A sense of

identity begins to emerge.

‘... little by little, this is us, this is me. Once I have language I have self.

My identity is established, I know who I am ... I am drawn to be in a

live experience with a higher register of Gaelic ... social experience ...

working on traditional skills. Living culture, sharing your stories and

songs and having people who care about them listen.’

‘... eang air eang, ’s e seo sinne, ’s e seo mise. An uair a bhios

an cànan againn agam, tha mi fhìn ann. Théid m’ fhéin-aithne

a stéidheachadh, tha fhios’m có mi ... ’s e mo tharruing a bhi

ann an suidheachadh beò le ìre nas àirde do Ghàidhlig ...

suidheachadh sòisealta ... ag obair air sgilean traidiseanta.

Cultur beò, a’ compàirteachadh ur naidheachdan agus ur

n-òran agus le daoine ann aig an cùram orra, ag éisdeachd

riutha.

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Gluais briathrachas Gàidhlig

Glossary of Gaelic terms

CHAPTER 7

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A

Am Bràighe = “ The Higher Ground”

A Scottish Gaelic cultural newspaper that was headquartered

in Mabou, Nova Scotia 1993–2003. The content

reflected the authentic Scottish Gaelic Highland

immigrant settler tradition of Cape Breton Island in

its historical and contemporary forms.

Am Mosgladh = “ The Awakening”

A periodical produced by the Scottish Catholic Society

of Canada and published in North Sydney.

An Cliath Clis

Halifax Gaelic Milling Group.

An Cùrsa Bogaidh(ean)

Immersion Class at the Gaelic College that combines

conversation and active based learning with reading,

writing, and grammar lessons. During the four weeks,

students may take part in cultural activities.

An Drochaid = “ The Bridge”

History Museum in Mabou

An Drochaid Eadarainn = “ The Bridge Between Us”

A web portal that serves as a model for online transmission

of intangible cultural assets. The site has the

capacity to teach users about living Gaelic culture, life,

history, arts traditions and tradition bearers.

An Rubha= “ The Point”

The official newsletter of Baile nan Gàidheal (Nova

Scotia Highland Village).

Anna MacKinnon

Anna is a Gaelic Tradition Bearer from Inverness

County. She was honored by the Office of Gaelic Affairs

Dualchas air Urram awards for her significant

contribution to the Bun ´is Bàrr.

B

Baile nan Gàidheal = “ City of the Gaels”

A living history museum and a cultural centre that

celebrates the Gaelic experience in Nova Scotia. Sometimes

Bernie Cameron

Bernie from Inverness County is a fluent Gaelic

speaker and teacher.

Bràigh na h-Aibhneadh = “ Glendale”

Glendale is a small community in Inverness County on

Cape Breton Island , Nova Scotia.

Brígh an Òrain = “A Story in every song”

A songbook by Lauchie MacLellan with forty-eight

songs and nine folktales. They are transcribed from

field recordings and presented as the singer performed

them, with an English translation provided. All the

songs are accompanied by musical transcriptions.

Bun ´is Bàrr = “ Root and Branch”

A mentoring program managed by Gaelic Affairs, a division

of Communities, Culture and Heritage with the

Province of Nova Scotia. It provides Gaelic learners the

opportunity to work with Gaelic-speaking elders.

C

Cainnt mom Mhatair = “ My Mother’s Tongue”

An online archive showcasing video and audio recordings

of native Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia.

Càirdean = “ Friends”

Calum MacLeod = Angus MacLeod

A Gaelic teacher, actor, singer living in Goose Cove,

Cape Breton. He was the star in the film “ The Wake of

Calum MacLeod”.

Céilidh

In its traditional form it is simply a social visit. Today,

it usually involves dancing, fiddle tunes and storytelling

either at a house party or a larger concert at a social

hall or other community gathering place.

Christie MacNeil

Christina MacNeil is a former employee of Féis an Eilein, a community-based

festival designed to promote the Gaelic language

and culture. She graduated with Public Relations and is now a

Public Policy & Social Action Consultant at Nova Scotia Health

Authority on Christmas Island .

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Colaisde na Gàidhlig = “ The Gaelic College”

The Gaelic College is dedicated to the promotion and

preservation of traditional Gaelic culture, offering instruction

in over ten disciplines and year-round learning

and fun. As a cultural destination, it will delight visitors

with the unique opportunity to experience first-hand

the living culture of the Nova Scotia Gaels.

Connemara Conference

Connemara (Irish: Conamara) is a cultural region in the

County Galway, Ireland.

Creighton Collection

Digital Archive of Gaelic Recordings.

D

Daltachas= “ Fosterage”

Daltachas is an immersion program targeted at learners

at the intermediate and advanced language levels.

Designing for Cultural Revitalization

A class at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design

in Halifax in which this project was realized. The

class is taught by Marlene Ivey.

Duolingo

A free language-learning website & app where you can

learn over 30 different languages, including Gaelic.

Dwelly

Dwelly Dictionary Grammar

E

Eilean Na Nollaig = “Christmas Island”

Christmas Island is a Canadian community in Cape

Breton, Nova Scotia. Christmas Island got its name

because of a native that lived there whose surname

was Christmas.

F

Faclair= “ Dictionary”

An English/Scottish Gaelic online dictionary incorporating

Dwelly.

Fear na Céilidh = “ The Entertainer”

Gaelic periodical from the 1920s, digitized and available

online from the Nova Scotia Archives. It was published

in Sydney , Nova Scotia.

G

Gàidhlig aig Baile

Immersion Classes

Glendale Hall

A Community Hall in Glendale , Inverness County in

Nova Scotia.

Google Drive Nòs a’Bhaile = “ News of the Village”

An digital archive and inhouse online sharing space

for Na Cleasaichen at Baile nan Gàidheal (Nova Scotia

Highland Village).

I

Iomairtean na Gàidhlig = “Gaelic Affairs”

Iona Rear

A small community in Nova Scotia, located in Victoria

County on Cape Breton Island.

J

Joe Neil MacNeil

The author of “ Tales Until Dawn” and one of the most

widely known Gaelic tradition bearer in Nova Scotia.

Judique Music Center

The Music Center is a not-for-profit society and a oneofa-kind

facility located in village of Judique , Cape

Breton Island.

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L

Lauchie MacLellan

A Gaelic singer, songwriter and storyteller.

M

Mabou

A small Canadian rural community located in Inverness

County on the west coast of Nova Scotia̕s Cape Breton Island.

Mac-Talla = “ The Echo”

A Scottish Gaelic bi-weekly periodical published by Jonathon

MacKinnon out of Sydney , Nova Scotia, Canada. It ran 12

volumes between 1892 and 1904.

MacEdward Leach

Dr. MacEdward Leach is a Secretary-Treasurer of the American

Folklore Society. He recorded songs in both Newfoundland and

Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

Mary Jane Lamond

Mary Jane is a Canadian Gaelic singer and one of the

visitors of our class.

Meusaidh Bheag = “ Maisie MacKenzie”

An animated children̕s cartoon about a cat named Maisie

MacKenzie.

Mickey bean Nilleag

Mickey is a Gaelic Tradition Bearer in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

Milling Frolic

A social event that was born of necessity, and is carried on today

for enjoyment. After wool cloth is woven on a loom, it is necessary

to shrink the cloth in order to make it warmer and more watertight.

In the Scottish Highlands in pre-industrial times, cleansing

and shrinking the newly-woven cloth was done by hand in

local communities. It was a social event of shared labour, made

enjoyable by singing songs which maintained the work rhythm,

preserved traditions, and encouraged original compositions with

jokes about local events and personalities.

Misneachd = “Confidence”

Also a politically engaged group in Scotland, that has been

established to normalise and embolden the use of our Scottish

Gaelic language. The grassroots group aims to foster confidence,

‘Misneachd’ to be proud of the unique language and culture.

MOU = “ Memorandum of Understanding”

A document between Nova Scotia and Scotland setting out

rules of engagement for Gaelic experiential learning.

N

Na Cleasaichean

Cultural actors that are part of the Baile nan Gàidheal/

Highland Museum program.

Nam Beanntachean Gorma = “ The Blue Mountains”

A book by John Shaw, who has been documenting

Cape Breton’s Gaelic traditions since the 1960s.

P

Pàdraig = “ Peter”

PEI = “ Prince Edward Island”

One of the three Maritime Provinces of Canada. Prince

Edward Island is the smallest province in both land

area and population, but the most densely populated.

R

Richard Cox

Richard is a Scottish academic and author.

Mios nan Gàidheal = “ The Month of the Gaels”

The Gaelic awareness month in Nova Scotia (May).

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S

Seumas Watson = “James Watson”

Seumas Watson was an advocate and longstanding activist

in Nova Scotia Gaelic cultural restoration and language acquisition.

Well known as a Gaelic singer, he conducted extensive

fieldwork with tradition bearers in Cape Breton and contributed

to BBC programs and conducted workshops on the Cape Breton

Gaelic tradition internationally. He was Gaelic editor for Am

Bràighe and was both independent consultant (Green Gael) and

Manager of Interpretation for the Nova Scotia Highland Village

Museum. He worked closely with the Provincial Office of Gaelic

Affairs to develop language acquisition programs based in social

learning.

Sgialachdan is Naidheachdan = “ Stories and news”

Sgialachdan are usually longer tales like Fenians or Wondertales.

Naidheachdan are normally shorter and often humourous.

Shay MacMullin

Shay is a member of the Nova Scotia Gaelic community, a mentor

for the Bun is Bàrr program, and one of the Na Cleasaichen

at Baile nan Gàidheal. She has developed a series of innovative

immersion programs for Gaelic learners and was one of the

visitors of our class.

Stòras a Bhaile

A 4 day Gaelic Immersion Folklife School.

T

Tales ‘ Till Dawn / Tales Until Dawn

A book by Joe MacNeil that describes his early years in

a Gaelic-speaking rural community.

Tales of West Highlands

A four-volume collection of fairy tales, collected and

published by John Francis Campbell, and often translated

from Gaelic.

Tobar an Dualchais

A website that contains oral recordings made in Scotland

and further afield, from the 1930s onwards. The

number of recordings is now approaching 50,000.

Sister Margaret Beaton

A native of Inverness County, Sister Beaton was steeped in the

Gaelic culture and was a fluent speaker of the language. She

collected a wealth of Gaelic materials that would otherwise have

been lost. Sister Margaret Beaton’s life and work were cut short

by a car accident. Not long after, to honour all she had accomplished

to preserve culture and history, the collection she called

Cape Bretoniana was re-named in her honour as the Beaton

Institute of Cape Breton Studies, Cape Breton University.

Sruth nan Gàidheal = “Gael Stream”

An online archive hosted by StFX which contains nearly 2000

audio and video recordings and text pieces from Cape Breton

Gaels collected in the 1970s.

StFX = Saint Francis Xavier University

A public undergraduate liberal arts university located

in Antigonish , Nova Scotia, Canada.

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c

Designed by Ben Rankin

Published April 2020

Design for Cultural Revitalization

with Marlene Ivey

Nova Scotia College of Art and Design

Halifax, Nova Scotia | Canada

Conclusion pg 27 - 28 c copyright 2017 Marlene Ivey

Ivey, M. (2017). Designing For Nova Scotia Gaelic Cultural

Revitalization: Collaborating, Designing & Transmitting

Cultural Meaning, Chapter 6 (pp. 130 – 152).

“Relate North: Culture, Community and Communication.

Eds. Timo Jokela & Glen Coutts, Lapland University Press:

Rovaniemi Available Online: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-

952-310-958-2”

Features images, texts and infographics of

Marlene Ivey, Ben Rankin, Millicent Webb, Zhaoyu Jiang,

Zhixin Kong, Jennifer Bliss, Emma Thoma,

Natalie Laurin

Photo of Natalie Laurin c Melissa Lile Photography (2017)

Photo of Emma Thoma c Teresa Herzog (2017)

Realized in close cooperation with the

Office of Gaelic Affairs, Nova Scotia

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