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Somoi Ekush Shatak Newspaper February 2020

A Standard Bengali Newspaper

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!mï˛#Î˚ Ó£Ï≈ • ˛õM˛Èü §Çáƒy • ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020 • üy!§Ü˛ ˛õ!eܲy • 5 ê˛yܲy

§¡õyòܲ#Î˚ÈÙÙÙÈ

!Ó!öˆÏÎ˚yà •ˆÏÓ ˆÜ˛yö û˛Ó˚§yÎ˚

xÌ≈üsf# !¢“ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe !Ó!öˆÏÎẙˆÏàÓ˚ çöƒ §!öÓ≈rô xö%ˆÏÓẙô çyöyˆÏFåÈö–

Î!òÄ öàˆÏòÓ˚ ˆçyàyö Ä ã˛y!•òyÓ˚ âyê˛!ï˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!Ó˚ˆÏ≤Ã!«˛ˆÏï˛ !öܲê˛

û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛ ï˛y x§Ω˛Ó ӈϰ•z üˆÏö •ˆÏFåÈ– §Ó˚ܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ï˛•!ӈϰ xÌ≈

ˆö•z– ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚ê˛ Ü˛ƒy¢ÈÙȈúœ˛y §ÇÜ%˛!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ– ~ö!˛õ~ÈÙÈÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî

xˆÏöܲ ÓƒyLjÏܲÓ˚Ä ÎˆÏÌT˛ ü)°ôö ˆçyàyˆÏöyÓ˚ «˛üï˛y ˆö•z ~ÓÇ

xöƒ xˆÏöܲ xy!Ì≈ܲ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆòí˛z!°Î˚y •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ xÓfiÌy–

~ ÓåÈÓ˚ §Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ Ó˚yçfl∫ xyòyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÎ °«˛ƒüyey ˆòÄÎ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ï˛y

ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ˛õ)Ó˚î •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ §!ë˛Ü˛ !ò¢y ˆö•zñ xyÓ˚ Î!òÈÙÈÓy ˆ§•z

°«˛ƒüyeyÎ˚ ˆ˛õÑÔåÈyˆÏöy §Ω˛ÓÄ •Î˚ ï˛y•ˆÏ°Ä âyê˛!ï˛ !üê˛ˆÏÓ öy–

ï˛y•ˆÏ° û˛Ó˚§y ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚⁄

xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê˛y °«˛î#Î˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ñ !òˆÏö !òˆÏö ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚ê˛ }î@ˇÃ•#ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚

à%îüyö !ö¡¨àyü#– ï˛y•z ÓƒyÇܲà%ˆÏ°yÄ ÓˆÏí˛¸y }î !òˆÏï˛ û˛Ó˚§y ˛õyˆÏFåÈ

öy– ˆÜ˛yÌy ˆÌˆÏܲ ï˛yÓẙ û˛yˆÏ°y }î@ˇÃ•#ï˛y á%шÏç ˛õyˆÏÓ ˆ§ê˛y•z ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚

ܲyˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏí˛¸y ≤ß¿– ï˛yÓ˚y ï%˛°öyü)°Ü˛û˛yˆÏÓ Ü˛ü éÑ˛%!ܲ˛õ)î≈ ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y

}î@ˇÃ•#ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ÓƒÓ§yÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü ÓƒyˆÏ° !¢ê˛ §yü°yˆÏöyÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y

ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– !ܲv xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ ˛õ!Ó˚!fiÌ!ï˛ ~ï˛ê˛y•z áyÓẙ˛õ ˆÎ Óy!í˛¸

˜ï˛!Ó˚ñ ày!í˛¸ ˆÜ˛öy ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ Óƒ!=˛àï˛ §¡õ!_Ó˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏeÄ }îˆÏá°y!˛õ

Óyí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– ˆÓ˚!ê˛Ç ~ˆÏç!ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏï˛ñ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Ÿ’Ìï˛yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî

xöyòy!Î˚ }ˆÏîÓ˚ ˆÓyé˛y xyÓ˚Ä ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ Äë˛yÓ˚•z §Ω˛yÓöy–

ˆÜ˛ˆÏwÓ˚ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ÎyˆÏܲ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Ÿ’Ìï˛y Ó°ˆÏåÈñ xˆÏöܲ

xÌ≈ö#!ï˛!Óò ï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ~ܲüï˛ •ˆÏFåÈö öy– Ó°ˆÏåÈö Ÿ’Ìï˛y öÎ˚ñ

~•z ü%•)ˆÏï≈˛ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ ˆû˛ˆÏä ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– Ó•% ˆÜ˛y¡õy!ö•z

ˆ°yܲ§yˆÏöÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– ˆÎ ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚y °yû˛ ˆòáyˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏåÈñ

ï˛yÓẙÄ xˆÏöˆÏܲ ܲƒy¢ÈÙȈúœ˛y ܲüyÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî áÓ˚ã˛ Ü˛!üˆÏÎ˚ xyÎ˚ Óyí˛¸yˆÏöyÓ˚

ˆã˛T˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– xyÓ˚ Óƒ!=˛àï˛ hflÏÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ !¢“ˆÏ«˛eñ §Ó çyÎ˚àyˆÏï˛•z

áÓ˚ã˛ Ü˛ü ܲÓẙÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛yê˛y•z §Ó˚ܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏí˛¸y §ü§ƒy •ˆÏÎ˚ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

ã˛y!•òy ܲˆÏü ÎyÄÎẙÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî !¢“ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe Ó,!Âô âê˛ˆÏåÈ öy– öï%˛ö !Ó!öˆÏÎẙà

§Ω˛yÓöy x°#ܲ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ– öï%˛ö ܲü≈§ÇfiÌyˆÏöÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ò)ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

ܲÌyñ Óï≈˛üyö ܲü≈#Óẙ•z ܲyç •yÓẙˆÏFåÈö–

ã˛y!•òy Óyí˛¸yˆÏöyÓ˚ çöƒ ˆ°yˆÏܲÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ ê˛yܲy xy§y òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ ï˛y

fl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ÓyˆÏçê˛ÈÙÈÓ=+˛ï˛yÓ˚ ¢%Ó˚%ˆÏï˛•z xÌ≈üsf# çyöyˆÏ°öñ

§Ó≈§yôyÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ í˛z˛õyç≈ö ~ÓÇ Ü ˛Î˚«˛üï˛y Óyí˛¸yˆÏöy•z ~•z ÓyˆÏçˆÏê˛Ó˚

≤Ãôyö °«˛ƒ– ï˛yÓ˚ çöƒ üôƒ!ÓˆÏ_Ó˚ xyÎ˚ܲˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÓyé˛y ܲüyˆÏöyÓ˚ ܲÌy

ˆây£Ïîy ܲÓ˚y •°– öï%˛ö xyÓ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöy ò%ÈÙÈÓ˚ܲü ܲÓ˚ÈÙÈÓƒÓfiÌy•z ã˛y°%

ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ï˛y ˆÓˆÏåÈ ˆöÄÎ˚y ˙!FåÈܲ ܲÓ˚y •°– ~Ó˚ ú˛ˆÏ° ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ §ühflÏ

üôƒ!Ó_ ܲÓ˚òyï˛yÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ ˆÓ!¢ ê˛yܲy xy§ˆÏÓ !ܲöy ï˛y ~áöÄ flõT˛

öÎ˚– xyÓ˚ ü%!T˛ˆÏüÎ˚ !ܲå%È ˆ°yˆÏܲÓ˚ Î!ò xyÎ˚ ÓyˆÏí˛¸ ï˛y•ˆÏ°Ä ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚

ã˛y!•òyÓ˚ á%Ó ~ܲê˛y ˆ•Ó˚ˆÏú˛Ó˚ •ˆÏÓ ~üö §Ω˛yÓöy ܲü– ï˛yÓ˚ çöƒ

≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö ܲü≈§ÇfiÌyˆÏöÓ˚ §Ω˛yÓöy §,!T˛ ܲÓ˚y– @ˇÃyü#î xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ §Ó°

ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö !åÈ° xyÓ˚Ä çöܲ°ƒyîü%á# ≤ÃܲˆÏ“Ó˚ ÓƒÓfiÌy

ܲÓ˚y ~ÓÇ ~ܲˆÏ¢y !òˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyˆÏçÓ˚ ≤ÃܲˆÏ“Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ÓƒÓfiÌyÎ˚

xÌ≈§ÇfiÌyö Óyí˛¸yˆÏöy– !ܲv xyÿ˛ˆÏÎ≈Ó˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ñ @ˇÃyü#î ܲü≈§ÇfiÌyˆÏöÓ˚

xÌ≈ÈÙÈï˛•!ӈϰÓ˚ !öòyÓ˚%î §ÇܲˆÏê˛Ó˚ üˆÏôƒÄ ÚˆÓ˚àyÛÎ˚ xÌ≈ÓÓẙj xyÓ˚Ä

ܲüyˆÏöy •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– àï˛ ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ 71002 ˆÜ˛y!ê˛ ê˛yܲy ΈÏÌT˛ öÎ˚

ˆÓyé˛y ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ä Óï≈˛üyö ÓåȈÏÓ˚ ôyÎ≈ ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ 61500

ˆÜ˛y!ê˛ ê˛yܲy– àï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲ ÓåÈÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚ @ˇÃyü#î xÌ≈ö#!ï˛Ó˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe

ˆò¢ç%ˆÏí˛¸ ò%à≈!ï˛ flõT˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛ẑ Ïë˛ˆÏåÈ– Óẙçƒà%!°Ó˚ !•§yÓ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆòáy

ÎyˆÏFåÈ Ó˚%Ó˚y° ~ü≤’Î˚ˆÏürê˛ ˆçöyˆÏÓ˚¢ö !flÒˆÏüÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ Ü ˛ü¢ ˆÓ!¢

§ÇáƒÜ˛ üyö%£Ï !öû≈˛Ó˚¢#° •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– !ܲv xˆÏöܲ Ó˚yˆÏçƒ ÓÓ˚yj

ê˛yܲy ˆ¢£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî ~ܲˆÏ¢y !òˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyˆÏçÓ˚ ≤ÃܲˆÏ“

ܲü≈§ÇfiÌyˆÏöÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà Órô •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ– ~•z xÓfiÌyÎ˚ §Ó˚ܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

xÌ≈§ÇܲˆÏê˛Ó˚ çöƒ ~•z áyˆÏï˛ ÓÓ˚yj ܲüyˆÏöy •°– ~!òˆÏܲ !ܲå%È!òö

xyˆÏà ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚ê˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓˆÏí˛¸yÓ˚ܲü åÈyí˛¸ ˆòÄÎ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ï˛yÓ˚ ú˛ˆÏ°

Ó˚yçfl∫ xyòyÎ˚ ܲˆÏüˆÏåÈ– xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ ˆû˛ˆÏä ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî ˛õˆÏÓ˚y«˛ ܲÓ˚

ˆÌˆÏܲ xyÎ˚Ä Ü˛ˆÏü ˆàˆÏåÈñ !ç~§!ê˛ Ä xyüòy!ö ¢%ÕÒ ˆÌˆÏܲ xyòyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

˛õ!Ó˚üyî ܲˆÏüˆÏåÈ– xy!Ì≈ܲ ü®yÎ˚ Ó˚Æy!öˆÏ«˛eÄ à!ï˛ •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

áÓ˚ã˛ ã˛y°yˆÏöyÓ˚ çöƒ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ˆÏܲ ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚ }î !öˆÏï˛ •ˆÏFåÈñ ú˛ˆÏ° §%ˆÏòÓ˚

ˆÓyé˛y xyÓ˚Ä Óyí˛¸ˆÏåÈ–

§ÇÜ˛ê˛ !¢à!à!Ó˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛ ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy °«˛î ˆö•z– í˛z˛õÎ%=˛

˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öyÄ ˆöÄÎ˚y •Î˚!ö– xÌã˛ ò%ÈÙÈÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ Ü,˛£ÏˆÏܲÓ˚

ˆÓẙçàyÓ˚ !mà%î ܲÓẙÓ˚ fl∫≤¿ ˆòáyˆÏöy •ˆÏFåÈ– @ˇÃyü#î xÌ≈ö#!ï˛Ó˚ !Óܲy¢

öy •ˆÏ° ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ !Óܲy¢ •ˆÏÓ öy ï˛y §Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ ˆây£ÏîyˆÏï˛Ä Ó°y •ˆÏFåÈñ

!ܲv Ú§Ó Ü˛y §yÌ §Ó ܲy !Óܲy¢Û ˆÜ˛Ó°üye ˆû˛yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ≤Ãã˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

úÑ˛yܲy Ó%!° •ˆÏÎ˚ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏAà Ú§Ó Ü˛y !ÓŸªy§Û !öï˛yhsˇ•z

≤Õ§ˆÏö ˛õ!Ó˚îï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

~ö!˛õxyÓ˚ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ܲyç ã˛°ˆÏåÈñ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏFåÈ !í˛ˆÏê˛ö¢ö ˆ§rê˛yÓ˚

xˆÏô≈®% ˆ§ö

1948 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ 30 çyö%Î˚y!Ó˚ ày!rô!çÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ •Î˚

öyÌ%Óẙü àí˛ˆÏ§Ó˚ à%!°ˆÏï˛– ày!rô!çÓ˚ öyï˛!ö !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö

ˆ§!òö à%çÓ˚yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ܲy!ÌÎ˚yÓyí˛¸ ˆÌˆÏܲ ~ˆÏ§ ò%çö ˆòáy

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰö ïÖ˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏAà– ày!rô!ç ӈϰö ~áö

öÎ˚ñ ≤ÃyÌ≈öyÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáy ܲÓ˚%ܲ– ӈϰ•z ӈϰöñ Î!ò

ˆÓшÏã˛ Ìy!ܲ– ≤ÃyÌ≈öyfïϰ ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÌ•z ü,ï%˛ƒ •°

ïÑ˛yÓ˚– üö% ˆÓˆÏöÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ ò%çö àÑyRyˆÏàyRy ˆ°yܲ

xöƒˆÏòÓ˚ ˆë˛ˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ ~!àˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ñ ˆÎö ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ

≤Ãîyü ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚– ~ܲòü ܲyˆÏåÈ ~ˆÏ§ ˛õˆÏÎ˚rê˛ ÓœƒyÇܲ

à%!°– !ï˛öÓyÓ˚–

ày!rô!ç !ܲ û˛yÓˆÏï˛ö ܲˆÏÓ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ üˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÓ ï˛yÓ˚

!ë˛Ü˛ ܲ#⁄ û˛yÓy fl∫yû˛y!Óܲñ ܲyÓ˚î ~Ó˚ xyˆÏà ˛õÑyã˛ê˛y

xƒyˆÏê˛ü˛õê˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ üyÓẙÓ˚– 1934 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ ç%ö

üyˆÏ§ñ ÎyˆÏFåÈö ˛õ%ˆÏö ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ˆÏöÓ˚ •°âˆÏÓ˚ !ü!ê˛Ç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ñ

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ày!í˛¸ê˛y ˆÓ˚ˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!§ÇȈÏÎ˚ xyê˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸– ~ܲ•z Ó˚ܲü

ˆòáˆÏï˛ §yüˆÏöÓ˚ ày!í˛¸ê˛y ~!àˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– ˆ§•z ày!í˛¸ˆÏï˛

ˆÓyüy ˛õˆÏí˛¸– 11 çˆÏöÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ •Î˚– ày!rô!ç ӈϰöñ xy!ü

~áöÄ üÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ≤Ã›ï˛ ö•z Îáö üÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ üÓ˚Óñ ~Óẙ

xyüyÓ˚ §Aà#§y!̈ÏòÓ˚ üyÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÜ˛ö⁄

ò¢ ÓåÈÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ 1944 §yˆÏ° ˛õ%ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆç° ˆÌˆÏܲ

ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !ï˛!ö ˛õyã˛ày!öˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏåÈö §yˆÏfĩyÂôyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛–

18ÈÙÈ20 çö !üˆÏ° ˆ§áyˆÏö •yü°y– ˆ§áyˆÏöÄ àí˛ˆÏ§–

ï˛yˆÏܲ xyê˛Ü˛yÎ˚ Óy˛õ%Ó˚ fiê˛yú˛– Óy˛õ% ï˛yˆÏܲ ӈϰöñ ï%˛!ü

!ܲå%È!òö ÌyˆÏܲy xyüyÓ˚ §ˆÏAà– xy!ü Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z ˆï˛yüÓẙ

ˆÜ˛ö xyüyˆÏܲ üyÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÄ– öyÌ%Óẙü Óẙ!ç •Î˚ öy ÌyܲˆÏï˛–

ày!rô!ç ï˛yˆÏܲ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˆòö–

~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ 1946– ï˛áö ày!rôÈÙÈ!çߨy xyˆÏ°yã˛öy

ã˛°ˆÏåÈ– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ 48ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ 20 çyö%Î˚y!Ó˚– ˆ§ÓyÓ˚

üòö°y° öyˆÏü ~ܲçö ôÓẙ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ !ܲv xöƒÓẙ ˛õy!°ˆÏÎ˚

ÎyÎ˚– åÈÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓyÓ˚ §yú˛°ƒ– xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ ày!rôÓẙ ˆÎÓ˚ܲü

!§!ܲí˛z!Ó˚!ê˛ ˛õyÎ˚ ày!rô!ç ï˛y ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy !òö ˛õyö!ö–

Ó˚yT˛Δ#Î˚ fl∫Î˚LjϧÓܲ §Çâ ˆÜ˛ö ~ï˛ í˛zò@ˇÃ#Ó !åÈ°

ày!rô!çˆÏܲ üyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ çöƒ⁄ ~ê˛y !åÈ° ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !•®%Ó˚yT˛Δ

fiÌy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Û!ï˛– ï˛yÓ˚y çyöï˛ ˆÎ ày!rôÓ˚ ü)!ï≈˛ öy

§Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏ° §yû˛yÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ ˆày°ÄÎ˚y°Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ü)!ï≈˛

Ó§yˆÏöy ÎyˆÏÓ öy– Ó•%Î%à ˛õˆÏÓ˚ xyÓyÓ˚ xyüÓ˚y ˆòá!åÈ

!•®%Ó˚yT˛Δ fiÌy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y– ~ÓyÓ˚ ˆòá°yü ~ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

~ܲ §yú˛°ƒ– 2019ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ §Ç§ò !öÓ≈yã˛ˆÏö §yú˛°ƒ–

300ÈÙÈÓ˚ ˆÓ!¢ xy§ö !çˆÏï˛ !ÓˆÏç!˛õÓ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§y–

§Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ àë˛ˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !òö ˆ•yü !ü!ö!fiê˛Δ ˆÌˆÏܲ !öˆÏò≈¢

ˆà° Ó˚yˆÏçƒÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ !í˛ˆÏê˛ö¢ö ˆ§rê˛yÓ˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛

•ˆÏÓ– ç!üÓ˚ ˆáÑyç ܲˆÏÓ˚y– ê˛yܲy xyüÓ˚y ˆòÓ– ˆÎ ˆòˆÏ¢

ã˛yܲ!Ó˚ ˆö•z ӈϰ •y•yܲyÓ˚ñ Ó,!ÂôÓ˚ •yÓ˚ öyüˆÏåÈ •%•% ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ

ã˛y!£ÏÓ˚y !ü!åÈ° ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ú˛§ˆÏ°Ó˚ öƒy΃ òyˆÏüÓ˚ çöƒñ

ˆ§áyˆÏö §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ã˛yÎ˚ !í˛ˆÏê˛ö¢ö ˆ§rê˛yÓ˚– !•ê˛°yÓ˚

ӈϰ!åȈϰöñ §Ó §ü§ƒyÓ˚ §üyôyö •ˆÏÓ Î!ò ˆò¢ ˆÌˆÏܲ

•z•%!ò xyÓ˚ ܲ!üí˛z!öfiê˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛yí˛¸yˆÏöy ÎyÎ˚– ˆ§•z ˆÎ

üyÌyÎ˚ ì%˛ˆÏܲˆÏåÈ ~ˆÏòÓ˚ñ !ܲå%ȈÏï˛•z ˆÓˆÏÓ˚yˆÏFåÈ öy–

ˆüy!òÓ˚ §yú˛ˆÏ°ƒÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚î ã˛üܲ– ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy Óƒyáƒy

öÎ˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy öÎ˚– ~ï˛ o%ï˛ Ü˛yç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ ˆÎ

!ÓˆÏÓ˚yô#Ó˚y û˛yÓˆÏï˛ §üÎ˚ öy ˛õyÎ˚– ܲyŸ¬#Ó˚ !ܲ ˆüˆÏö

!öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ üyö%£Ï⁄ xˆÏÎyôƒy ÓẙÎ˚ !ܲ ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ üyö%£Ï⁄

~ï˛ o%ï˛ âˆÏê˛ˆÏåÈ âê˛öyà%ˆÏ°y ˆÎ ≤Ã!ï˛Óyò òyöy ÓÑyôˆÏï˛

˛õyˆÏÓ˚!ö– ï˛y•z öyà!Ó˚ܲï˛yÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿ xyˆÏ®y°ö ˆòˆÏá

≤Ã̈Ïü !ÓŸªy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚!ö ˆüy!òÈÙÈx!üï˛– ˆû˛ˆÏÓˆÏåÈ

ò%ˆÏÎ˚ܲ !òˆÏöÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚– ~áö ˆÓyô •Î˚ Ó%ˆÏé˛ˆÏåÈ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚

§%!ÓˆÏôÓ˚ öÎ˚– ï˛y•z ¢%Ó˚% •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˛õÓ˚flõÓ˚!ÓˆÏÓ˚yô#

ܲÌyÓyï≈˛y– ˆàyê˛y ˆòˆÏ¢ ~öxyÓ˚!§ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ܲÌy öy!ܲ

ܲáˆÏöy•z •Î˚!ö– !í˛ˆÏê˛ö¢ö ˆ§rê˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆö•z–

ˆüy!ò Ó°ˆÏåÈö xyüÓẙ ܲÓ˚!åÈ ¢%ô% !§~~ xyÓ˚ !ÓˆÏÓẙô#Óẙ

ˆ˛õÑÔˆÏåÈ ˆà° ~öxyÓ˚!§ÈÙȈï˛⁄ ˆÜ˛ö⁄ í˛z!ö Îï˛«˛î öy

~öxyÓ˚!§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ï˛ï˛«˛î xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ã%˛˛õã˛y˛õ ӈϧ

ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ⁄ ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y !åÈ°yü Îáöñ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ~ܲ

í˛y=˛yÓ˚ÓyÓ% xy§ˆÏï˛ö– !§!Ó˚Oê˛y Óƒyà ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÓˆÏÓ˚y°–

í˛y=˛yÓ˚ÓyÓ% Ó°ˆÏ°ö xyçˆÏܲ •zöˆÏçܲ¢ö ˆòÓ öy– xyç

¢%ô% ˆòáˆÏï˛ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ !§!Ó˚ˆÏO å%ÈÑã˛ °yàyˆÏöy

•°– í˛y=˛yÓ˚ÓyÓ% ï˛áöÄ Ó°ˆÏåÈö •zöˆÏçܲ¢ö ˆòˆÏÓö

öy– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ !¢!¢ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ä£Ï%ô ì%˛Ü˛° !§!Ó˚ˆO– ~•z

ˆòá ˆÓyܲy ˆåȈϰ ܲyߨyܲy!ê˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ Ó°!åÈ ˆï˛y

•zöˆÏçܲ¢ö öÎ˚– xyüÓẙ ˆï˛y çy!ö Óƒyà ˆÌˆÏܲ !§!Ó˚O

ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ üyˆÏö•z •zöˆÏçܲ¢ö– !§~~ üyˆÏö•z

~ö!˛õxyÓ˚ñ ~ö!˛õxyÓ˚ üyˆÏö•z ~öxyÓ˚!§– xyüÓẙ ˆï˛y

û˛Î˚ ˛õyÓ•z– xyüÓ˚y ˆï˛y ã˛ƒÑyã˛yˆÏü!ã˛ Ü˛Ó˚Ó•z–

ï˛ˆÏÓ ~ ܲÌyÄ !ë˛Ü˛ ˆÎ ~ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ~ï˛ ï˛#Ó

xyˆÏ®y°ö xyüÓ˚y xyˆÏà ˆò!á!ö– !ò!Õ‘Ó˚ ¢y!•öÓyˆÏà

≤Ãçyï˛sf !òӈϧ ˛õï˛yܲy í˛zˆÏ_y°ö ˆòˆÏá û˛Î˚ê˛y xˆÏöܲ

ܲˆÏüˆÏåÈ– ~ xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ !ܲå%È §%!ÓôyÄ ˆÎüö xyˆÏåÈ

ˆï˛üö x§%!ÓôyÄ xyˆÏåÈ– xyˆÏ®y°ö ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ

ˆÜ˛yö!òˆÏܲ ÎyˆÏÓñ ï˛yˆÏܲ !ë˛Ü˛˛õˆÏÌ Ó˚yáyÓ˚ ܲ# í˛z˛õyÎ˚ñ

ï˛y ˆÓyé˛yÓ˚ òy!Î˚c ï˛y!_¥Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚– xy¢y ܲ!Ó˚ ï˛ÑyÓ˚y ˆ§

!ӣψÏÎ˚ §ˆÏã˛T˛ xyˆÏåÈö–

x!ï˛ §¡±!ï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲçö !Ó!¢T˛ öyà!Ó˚ܲ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚

üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ~ܲê˛y xyˆÏÓòö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ïÑ˛yÓ˚y

ӈϰˆÏåÈöÈÙÙÙÈ

Ú§_Ó˚ ÓåÈÓ˚ xyˆÏà xyüÓ˚y xAà#ܲyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó˚ ˆòˆÏ¢

≤ÈÏï˛ƒÜ˛ öyà!Ó˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆû˛yê˛y!ôܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !û˛!_ˆÏï˛ ~üö

~ܲ!ê˛ fl∫Î˚Ç¢y!§ï˛ ≤Ãçyï˛sf fiÌy˛õö ܲÓ˚Ó ˆÎáyˆÏö

öyà!Ó˚ܲ ˛õyˆÏÓö öƒyÎ˚!Óã˛yÓ˚ fl∫yô#öï˛y ~ÓÇ §üï˛y–

ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ xyüÓ˚y xˆÏöܲê˛y ˛õÌ x!ï˛Ü ˛ü ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ÎÑyÓ˚y

ӈϰ!åȈϰö ~ˆÏòˆÏ¢ àîï˛sf ã˛°ˆÏÓ öyñ ï˛ÑyÓ˚y û%˛°

≤Ãüy!îï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö– ò#â≈ x!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚ !û˛!_ˆÏï˛ xyüÓ˚y

ˆÎüö !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ !˛õë˛ ã˛y˛õí˛¸yˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ ˆï˛üö•z ˛õy!Ó˚

xyd§üyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ û%˛°e%!ê˛ ˆ¢yôÓ˚yˆÏï˛–

àîï˛ˆÏsfÓ˚ xÌ≈ •° !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ !ÓÓyˆÏòÓ˚ ¢y!hsˇ˛õ)î≈

!ö‹õ!_ñ àë˛öü)°Ü˛ ï˛Ü≈˛È!Óï≈˛Ü˛ñ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ~ÓÇ

!Ó˛õˆÏ«˛Ó˚ üï˛ˆÏܲ §¡øyö çyöyˆÏöy– xyüÓ˚y ܲï˛ò)Ó˚ ï˛y

§üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˛õ!eܲyÎ˚

ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà ≠

!ÓŸªò#˛õ ò_ 9433463083

xÓ˚&î Ü%˛[%˛ 9830294649

email :

samayekushshatak@gmail.com

~Ó˚˛ õÓ˚ 2 ˛õyï˛yÎ˚


2 §üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020

§ÓˆÏ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈÓ˚ xy§ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xyhsˇç≈y!ï˛Ü˛ !¢!ÓÓ˚ •° Ó˚y!öàˆÏO

ˆ§yˆÏü¢ û%˛Ñ•z~èy

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62ï˛ü xyhsˇç≈y!ï˛Ü˛ !¢!ÓÓ˚ §¡õߨ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ

2019ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ 24 ˆÌˆÏܲ 30 !í˛ˆÏ§¡∫Ó˚–

§Æy•Óƒy˛õ# ~•z xyÓy!§Ü˛ !¢¢%ÈÙÈ!ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚

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xy§ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢yáy §Çàë˛ö ˆÌˆÏܲ– §ˆÏAà !åÈ°

ÓyÇ°yˆÏò¢ ˆÜ˛w#Î˚ ˆá°yâÓ˚ xy§ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ä

ˆö˛õyˆÏ°Ó˚ xyü!sfï˛Ó˚y– ˛õÑ!ã˛¢ !í˛ˆÏ§¡∫Ó˚

!Ü ˛§üyˆÏ§Ó˚ §Ü˛yˆÏ° Ó˚y!öàO Ó˚Ó#ö ˆ§ö

ˆfiê˛!í˛Î˚yˆÏü ~•z !¢!ÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ í˛zò‰ˆÏÓyôö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö

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!åȈϰö !Ó!û˛ß¨ ôˆÏü≈Ó˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y!•ï˛Ó˚y– ˛õ!ÿ˛ü

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flø,!ï˛ !Óç!í˛¸ï˛ !¢Î˚y°ˆÏ§y° Ó˚yç fl%҈ϰ

≤ÃÌü ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

ܲ!Ó˚ ˆ§ê˛y ˛õÎ≈yˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáy òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚–

~Ä ˆòáy òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ñ Óy˛õ%Ó˚ !≤ÃÎ˚ Ú§ï˛ƒÛ ~ÓÇ

Úx!•Ç§yÛ §!ï˛ƒ•z !ܲ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õÌ ˆòáyÎ˚⁄

xˆÏöܲ üyö%£Ï çyï˛ ˛õyï˛ ôˆÏü≈Ó˚ |ˆÏôù≈ í˛zˆÏë˛

Ó˚ã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ §Ç!Óôyö– ˆòáˆÏï˛

•ˆÏÓ ~ ˆÎö «˛üï˛y x˛õÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ò!°ˆÏ°

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≤Ãçyï˛ˆÏsfÓ˚ §_Ó˚ï˛ü §yˆÏ° xy§%ö xyüÓ˚y

ˆöï˛y!çÓ˚ çß√!òÓ§ñ !öÓ≈yã˛ö ܲ!ü¢ˆÏöÓ˚

çß√!òÓ§ ï˛Ìy çyï˛#Î˚ ˆû˛yê˛yÓ˚ !òÓ§ñ ≤Ãçyï˛sf

!òÓ§ ~ÓÇ ày!rô!çÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ!òÓ§ ˛õy°ö ܲ!Ó˚

~•z í˛zˆÏj¢ƒ !öˆÏÎ˚–Û

ˆÜ˛ö ~•z xyˆÏÓòö⁄ ˆÜ˛ö «˛üï˛yÓ˚

x˛õÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲÌy⁄ xyd§üyˆÏ°yã˛öyÓ˚ ܲÌy⁄

ï˛yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚î xyüÓ˚y ~áö ~ܲê˛y xû)˛ï˛˛õ)Ó≈

˛õ!Ó˚!fiÌ!ï˛Ó˚ §¡ø%á#ö– ˆÎ àîï˛sf fiÌy˛õˆÏöÓ˚

fl∫≤¿ xyüÓẙ ˆòˆÏá!åÈ°yüñ üˆÏö •ˆÏFåÈ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ

ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ~ܲÈÙÈï,˛ï˛#Î˚yÇ¢ üyö%£Ï Óyò ˛õˆÏí˛¸

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ܲÓ˚%ܲ ˆÎ ï˛yÓẙ öyà!Ó˚ܲ– ò!Ó˚o üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y

ÓˆÏí˛¸y xÇ¢ñ ÎyÓ˚y ~ܲy!ôܲÓyÓ˚ fiÌyöyhsˇ!Ó˚ï˛

•ÓyÓ˚ ú˛ˆÏ° ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ ܲyàç˛õe •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚

ˆú˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈöñ öyà!Ó˚ܲˆÏcÓ˚ ≤Ãüyî !òˆÏï˛ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚

xÓfiÌy ˆÜ˛üö •ˆÏÓ ï˛y §•ˆÏç•z xö%üyö ܲÓ˚y

ÎyÎ˚–

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öyà!Ó˚ܲ˛õ!O ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ¢%Ó˚% •ˆÏ° ˆÎ Óƒy˛õܲ

x¢y!hsˇÓ˚ §,!T˛ •ˆÏÓ ï˛yˆÏï˛ xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ ü%á Ì%ÓˆÏí˛¸

˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ xy¢Aܲy– ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyüÓ˚y ~ˆÏ§

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!Óò?ôçöÓ˚y !ܲ ï˛y•z Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö⁄

àîï˛sf üyˆÏö ¢%ô% ˆû˛yê˛ öÎ˚– ˆû˛yê˛ ˆï˛y

ÌyܲˆÏÓ•z– ˛õÑyã˛ ÓåȈÏÓ˚ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚

≤ÃyÆÓÎ˚flÒ öyà!Ó˚ܲ çy!ï˛ ôü≈ !ö!Ó≈ˆÏ¢ˆÏ£Ï ôö#

ò!Ó˚o ~ܲ °y•zˆÏö òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆû˛yê˛ !òˆÏÎ˚

ˆçï˛yˆÏÓö ï˛yÓẙ•z ¢y§ö ã˛y°yˆÏÓ– !ܲv §yôyÓ˚î

üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ üˆÏöÓ˚ ܲÌy !ܲ ˆû˛yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ÓyˆÏ:

ˆ˛õÑÔåÈÎ˚⁄ ˆû˛yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆÓ˚çyˆÏŒê˛ ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛!°ï˛ •Î˚⁄

Î!òÄÈÙÈÓy •°ñ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ !ܲ ã˛ˆÏ° ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚

•zFåÈyüˆÏï˛y⁄ xyüÓ˚y ˆï˛y ˆòá!åÈ xyçˆÏܲÓ˚

§Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ü!®Ó˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ Îï˛ê˛y ÓƒhflÏñ ã˛yܲ!Ó˚

ˆòÄÎ˚yÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲ ¢ï˛yÇ¢Ä öÎ˚–

!ç!ö§˛õˆÏeÓ˚ òyü !öÎ˚sfî ˆï˛y ò)ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲÌyñ ~

!ӣψÏÎ˚ !ÓÓ,!ï˛ !òˆÏï˛Ä üsf#Ó˚y Ó˚y!ç öö–

§yôyÓ˚î üyö%£Ï !ܲ ï˛y•z ã˛yÎ˚⁄ ï˛yÓ˚y !ܲ á%!¢⁄

ÎyÓ˚y á%!¢ öö ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !ܲ !ܲå%È Ü˛Ó˚î#Î˚ xyˆÏåÈ⁄

xÓ¢ƒ•z xyˆÏåÈ– ˆû˛yê˛ ˆòÄÎ˚y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

ܲï˛≈Óƒ !ܲv ˆû˛yê˛ !òˆÏ°•z xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ öyà!Ó˚ܲ

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•#Ó˚y°y° ˆ§öˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚Ä ~ ≤çˆÏAà ~ܲê˛y

!Óï˛Ü≈˛ xyˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏ°Ä ï˛ÑyÓ˚ x!û˛üï˛– ÓyÇ°y

ã˛°!Fã˛ˆÏeÓ˚ Óy!î!çƒÜ˛#ܲÓ˚ˆÏî Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ

§Ó˚ܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ü!hflÏ‹Ò Ü˛yÎ≈ï˛ Ú!Ó≤’ÓÛ §,!T˛

ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°– åÈyÎ˚yåÈ!ÓÄ ˆÎ Óy!îˆÏçƒÓ˚ í˛z˛õܲÓ˚î

•ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ ï˛y !ï˛!ö ≤ÃÌü ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáyö–

Óy!°Ü˛yÓô)ñ ˛õ°yï˛Ü˛ñ ◊#üyö ˛õ,Ì#Ó˚yçñ òyòyÓ˚

ܲ#!ï≈˛ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ Ó•% çö!≤ÃÎ˚ ÓyÇ°y !§ˆÏöüyÓ˚

!öü≈yï˛y ~•z ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛y°ˆÏܲÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá !öí˛z!̈ÏÎ˚ê˛yˆÏ§≈Ó˚

í˛zòˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õˆÏÌ åÈ!Ó!ê˛ ˜ï˛!Ó˚Ó˚ ˆö˛õÌƒÜ˛y!•!ö

¢%ˆÏö ã˛üÍÜ,˛ï˛ •ö ˆ◊yï˛yÓ˚y– flõT˛Óyܲ

ï˛Ó˚%îÓyÓ%Ó˚ ˛õÎ≈ˆÏÓ«˛îñ ~áöܲyÓ˚ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà

!Ó!û˛ß¨ ˛õ!eܲy ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ í˛zˆÏòƒyà ˆöö–

xhsˇÉ§yÓ˚ ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ §¡õyòܲ Ó˚byÇ¢% Óà#≈ ïÑ˛yÓ˚

û˛y£ÏˆÏî ÓyˆÏÓẙüy§ ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ !Ó!¢T˛ï˛yÓ˚

ܲÌy í˛zˆÏÕ‘á ܲˆÏÓ˚öÈÙÙÙÈÈ!ӈϢ£Ï ܲˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚¢•z

§ü§yü!Î˚ܲ âê˛öyÓ!° !öˆÏÎ˚ ÓƒAà åÈí˛¸yà%!°ñ

ˆÎà%!°ˆÏï˛ Ó˚ã˛!Î˚ï˛yÓ˚ öyü ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •ï˛ öy–

xöƒï˛ü Ó=˛y xô,£Ïƒ Ü%˛üyÓ˚ ï˛ÑyÓ˚ Ó=+˛ï˛yˆÏï˛

çÓ˚%!Ó˚ xÓfiÌy ˛õÓ˚Óï≈˛# í˛z_y° Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛

˛õ!Ó˚!fiÌ!ï˛ ÓyˆÏÓẙüyˆÏ§Ó˚ ≤Û!ï˛˛õÓ≈ˆÏܲ ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ

≤Ãû˛y!Óï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°ñ ï˛y çyöyö– ˆ§•z §üÎ˚ܲyÓ˚

Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ~ܲ ò° ï˛Ó˚%ˆÏîÓ˚ xòüƒ

í˛zͧyˆÏ• ˛õ!eܲy åÈy˛õyˆÏöy ˆÌˆÏܲ !Ó!°

!Óï˛Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ܲyˆÏçÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yüyM˛Ü˛Ó˚ flø,!ï˛Ä

ˆÓ˚yürÌö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– xö%¤˛yˆÏö ˆ§ÔÓ˚#ö û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈

Ä ˆòˆÏÓ¢ Ó˚yÎ˚Ä ï˛ÑyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó=˛Óƒ ˆ˛õ¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

§ü@ˇÃ xö%¤˛yö!ê˛ §M˛y°öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ˆòÛç

˛õyÓ!°!¢ÇˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ ¢%û˛AܲÓ˚ ˆò–

≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •° öÓö#ï˛y ˆòӈϧˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öyÓ!°Ó˚ !mï˛#Î˚ á[˛

˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ ≤Ãyã˛#ö ≤ß¿à%!°Ó˚ ï˛yͲõÎ≈ xyˆÏà

flõT˛û˛yˆÏÓ xyˆÏ°y!ã˛ï˛ •Î˚!ö– Óï≈˛üyö Î%ˆÏà

öï%˛ö §Ω˛yÓöy ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöy

ò,!T˛û˛!Aà !Óã˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xÓòyö xyˆÏåÈ– §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚

ˆÓ!¢ ˆçyÓ˚ !òˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yô# Î%!=˛Ó˚

§,!T˛«˛üï˛yÓ˚ §yüy!çܲ ü)°ƒ fl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛–

!ÓˆÏÓ˚yô# Î%!=˛ˆÏܲ Î!ò ¢%ô% !ôE˛yÓ˚˛õ)î≈ ܲ°•

!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆòáy •Î˚ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ~ܲê˛y ÓˆÏí˛¸y

Ó˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ û%˛° •ˆÏÓ–

àû˛#Ó˚ !ӣψÏÎ˚Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy§û˛yÄ xüï≈˛ƒ

ˆ§ˆÏöÓ˚ í˛zIμ° Ó˚§ˆÏÓyˆÏô •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ°

•y§ƒü%áÓ˚– xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÓ˚ ¢%Ó˚%ˆÏï˛ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ

ܲ!Óï˛y §¡∫ˆÏrô K˛yöÓ%!Âô•#ö çy!öˆÏÎ˚ñ ~ÓÇ

ܲ!Ó öÓö#ï˛yÓ˚ xö%˛õ!fiÌ!ï˛ˆÏï˛ ~ܲ !ÓˆÏò!¢

ܲ!ÓÓ˚ K˛yöÓ%!Âô•#ö ˆ°yˆÏܲˆÏòÓ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ°áy

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xy@ˇÃˆÏ• ˆòí˛¸ˆÏ¢y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ áyï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ӈϧ

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xyÓyÓ˚ •zLjÏÓ˚!ç ÓyöyˆÏö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xüï≈˛ƒ öyˆÏüÓ˚

ˆ¢£Ï x«˛Ó˚ ˆòˆÏá ï˛ÑyˆÏܲ öyÓ˚# ӈϰ û%˛° ܲˆÏÓ˚

!ÓˆÏò!¢ ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ï˛ÑyˆÏܲ Ú!í˛Î˚yÓ˚ !ü§ ˆ§öÛ

!°ˆÏá !ã˛!ë˛ ˛õyë˛yˆÏöyÓ˚ àˆÏ“ Ä xyÓ˚Ä öyöy

Ó%!Âôò#Æ ühsˇˆÏÓƒ !ï˛!ö xyܲ£Ï≈î#Î˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚

ï%˛ˆÏ°!åȈϰö ˆ§!òˆÏöÓ˚ §yrôƒ xö%¤˛yö–

≤ÃîˆÏÓ¢ ˆ§ö fløyÓ˚ܲ Ó=+˛ï˛y !òˆÏ°ö ï˛Ó˚%î üç%üòyÓ˚

çÎ˚hsˇ §y•y

!ã˛e§yÇÓy!òܲ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ !ÓŸªy§ˆÏÎyàƒï˛yˆÏܲ

Órôܲ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ܲyˆÏ°yˆÏܲ §yòy ~ÓÇ §yòyˆÏܲ

ܲyˆÏ°y Ó°ˆÏåÈö– !ܲv ~Ó˚ܲü xyˆÏà !åÈ° öy–

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!¢ˆÏÓẙöyˆÏü ï˛Ó˚%î üç%üòyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó=+˛ï˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏà

§¡±!ï˛ ≤ÃÎ˚yï˛ ˆÓï˛yÓ˚ §yÇÓy!òܲ í˛zˆÏ˛õö

ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ˆÏܲ fløÓ˚î ܲÓẙ •Î˚– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ò#â≈ ã˛!Õ‘¢

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!Ó!ã˛eï˛yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎyçܲ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ÓyÇ°yˆÏò¢ÈÙÈ

Ó•z!ã˛ˆÏeÓ˚ xö%¤˛yö

2 ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

ôƒyöôyÓ˚îyÙÙÙÈ~§Ó !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ¢ !ܲå%È ˜ö!ï˛Ü˛ï˛yÓ˚

!òܲ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°öñ ȧy¡±!ï˛Ü˛ öyöy áÓÓ˚

Óy âê˛öy ï%˛ˆÏ° ôˆÏÓ˚– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ üï˛ÙÙÙ !ã˛!ܲͧܲ Ä

ˆÓ˚yà# Óy û%˛=˛ˆÏû˛yà#ñ §Ü˛ˆÏ°Ó˚È !òܲ ˆÌˆÏܲ•zÈ

!ã˛!ܲͧy Óy fl∫yfĩÓ˚«˛yÎ˚ ˜ö!ï˛Ü˛ï˛yÓ˚ xÓ«˛Î˚

ã˛yÓ˚˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ §üyˆÏç ˆòáy ÎyˆÏFåÈ– !ã˛!ܲͧܲ

!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ xï˛ƒhsˇ ÓƒhflÏÈ •ÄÎ˚y §ˆÏ_¥Ä í˛. x§#ü

ã˛ƒyê˛yç#≈ Èàyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö Ä åÈ!ÓÄ xÑyˆÏܲö– ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚

í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚ !ï˛!ö ӈϰöñ ~•z !¢“ã˛ã≈˛y ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ

üyö!Óܲ§_y ôˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ §y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚–

ˆÓ˚yà#Ó˚ ܲT˛ Îsfîy Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ñ ã˛y•z !ã˛!ܲͧˆÏܲÓ˚

üyö!Óܲ üö Ä xö%û˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ «˛üï˛y– í˛. ã˛ƒyê˛yç#≈Ó˚

xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÎ˚ ˆÎ§Ó öï%˛ö !òܲ Óy ≤ß¿ í˛ẑ Ïë˛!åÈ°ñ

Ó•zÈÙÈ!ã˛e ï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ xöƒ!òö xyÓ˚Ä xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÓ˚

ÓƒÓfiÌy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚Èñ çyöyˆÏ°ö §M˛y°Ü˛–

~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ ¢%Ó˚% •° í˛. òy¢à%ˆÏÆÓ˚ Ó=˛Óƒ ˆ˛õ¢–

ܲƒyö§yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yà §¡∫ˆÏrô Ú~ܲê%˛ !ӈϢ£Ï üï˛yüï˛Û

§Óy•zˆÏܲ çyöyˆÏï˛ ã˛yö í˛. fiÌ!ÓÓ˚– ~•z üï˛!ê˛

•°ÙÙÙÈÓƒyܲˆÏê˛!Ó˚Î˚yñ û˛y•zÓ˚y§ñ ˛õƒyÓ˚y§y•zˆÏê˛Ó˚

üˆÏï˛y Óy•zˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy !ܲå%È Ü˛ƒyö§yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yˆÏàÓ˚

ܲyÓ˚î öÎ˚– ÓÓ˚Ç ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ܲå%È !Ü ˛Î˚y

≤Ã!Ü ˛Î˚yÎ˚ ~•z ˆÓ˚yˆÏàÓ˚ §,!T˛ •Î˚ñ È~ê˛y ˆòáy

ˆàˆÏåÈ– ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ~•z ˆÓ˚yà §,!T˛ •Î˚ Ä o%ï˛

Ó,!Âô ˛õyÎ˚ ï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ¢ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ ò¢Ü˛ ôˆÏÓ˚

ˆÎ ˜ÓK˛y!öܲ Úüï˛yüï˛Ûñ ˆÎ àˆÏÓ£Ïîy

Ú§yú˛°ƒÛ !öˆÏÎ˚ ì˛yܲ ˆ˛õê˛yˆÏöy •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ï˛y

fl∫yô#öï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲy_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !òöà%!°ˆÏï˛ í˛zˆÏ˛õö

ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ û)˛!üܲyÓ˚ ≤çAàÄ ÄˆÏë˛ flø,!ï˛ã˛yÓ˚ˆÏî–

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ°áy ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õyë˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ö §ÇÓyò˛õy!ë˛Ü˛y

§%!fløï˛y ˆ§ö– ≤ÃîˆÏÓ¢ ˆ§ˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öy ˆÌˆÏܲÄ

˛õyë˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ¢yöy ˆà° §ÇÓyò ˛õy!ë˛Ü˛y §ÇÎ%=˛y

!§ö‰•yˆÏܲ– ܲï˛!òö xyˆÏàÓ˚ ˆ°áyÊ !ܲv ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚

Ó˚ã˛öyÎ˚ •y°!ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚•z ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛°ö

âê˛°– ï˛ÑyÓ˚y ˆ§•z §üÎ˚•z ôˆÏ§Ó˚ ü%ˆÏá ÓÑyô

ˆòÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– xö%¤˛yˆÏö

§)ã˛öy§Çà#ï˛ ˆàˆÏÎ˚ ˆ¢yöyö Ó%Ó% ˆ§öà%Æ–

xyÓyÓ˚ ã˛y˛õy ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˆàˆÏåÈ– ܲƒyö§yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚y!çï˛

öy •ˆÏ°Äñ Èxyô%!öܲ !ã˛!ܲͧyÓ˚ !ï˛ö!ê˛

˛õÂô!ï˛ˆÏï˛ ˆÓ˚yà!ê˛ˆÏܲ !öÎ˚sfî ܲÓ˚y Óy

ÎsfîyÈÙÈܲT˛ ܲüyˆÏöy §Ω˛Ó •ˆÏFåÈ– §yç≈y!Ó˚ñ

ˆÓ˚!í˛ˆÏÎ˚¢ö ˆÌÓ˚y!˛õ Ä ˆÜ˛ˆÏüyÈÙȈÌÓ˚y!˛õñ ~•z

!ï˛ö !ã˛!ܲͧy˛õÂô!ï˛ Ü˛#û˛yˆÏÓ !òˆÏö !òˆÏö

xˆÏöܲ í˛zß¨ï˛ •ˆÏFåÈñ í˛zòy•Ó˚ ï˛y ˆÓyé˛yö

í˛. òy¢à%Æ– ï˛ˆÏÓ È~Ó˚ ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢

ܲƒyö§yÓ˚ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ !¢ˆÏ“yß¨ï˛ ˆòˆÏ¢ ≤Ã̈Ïü

Ä ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ !ÓŸªç%ˆÏí˛¸ ˆÎ ÚÓƒÓ§y!Î˚ܲ Ó˚üÓ˚üyÛÈñ

È~Ó˚ !Ó˛õˆÏ«˛ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ §üyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ö !ï˛!ö–

öyöyÓ˚ܲü x˛õ!Ó˚!«˛ï˛ ï˛_¥ñ ܲ“ܲÌy Ä

x˜ÏÓK˛y!öܲ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ȧƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ üòï˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ¢

!ܲå%È Úfl∫yÌ≈yˆÏß∫£Ï#Û ü%öyú˛yÓ˚ ˛õy•yí˛¸ àí˛¸ˆÏåÈ

üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ x§•yÎ˚ xÓfiÌyÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà !öˆÏÎ˚–

x˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ~•z ã˛ã≈˛yˆÏܲ È!ôE˛yÓ˚ çyöyö !ï˛!ö– ~

≤çˆÏAà í˛. òy¢à%ˆÏÆÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÎ˚ xyˆÏ§

ü%¡∫y•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ í˛. üö% ˆÜ˛yë˛y!Ó˚Ó˚ ܲƒyö§yÓ˚ !ӣψÏÎ˚

!Óܲ“ û˛yÓöyÓ˚ ã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ ܲÌyÈñ Îy ܲƒyö§yÓ˚ˆÏܲ

!âˆÏÓ˚ x¢%û˛ fl∫yÌ≈yˆÏß∫£Ï# ã˛Ü ˛ˆÏܲ xyâyï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚–

ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ ~ !ӣψÏÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ó•zÄ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö í˛.

fiÌ!ÓÓ˚ òy¢à%Æ– ˆ˛õ¢yàï˛ ç#ÓˆÏö í˛. òy¢à%Æ

~ܲçö §ú˛° Ä ≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛ ܲƒyö§yÓ˚ !ӈϢ£ÏK˛ñ

ÈÎÑyÓ˚ üyö!Óܲ ܲü≈ôyÓ˚y Ä §•çû˛y£ÏyÎ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚

ò«˛ï˛y !ӈϢ£Ï í˛zˆÏÕ‘áˆÏÎyàƒ–

xy¢#£Ï °y!•í˛¸#ñ §!°° !ÓŸªy§ Ä xöƒˆÏòÓ˚

!ܲå%È ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚È ≤ÃÓ#Ó˚ ü%áyç≈#

Ó=˛y Ä ˆ◊yï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ôöƒÓyò çy!öˆÏÎ˚ Èxö%¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚

§üy!Æ ˆây£Ïîy ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–


4 §üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020

ã˛°!Fã˛Ïe ı òƒ •zÎ˚Ç Ü˛y°≈ üyÜ≈˛§

Î%Óܲ üyÜ≈˛§ Ä •z!ï˛•yˆÏ§Ó˚ ˛õ%öç≈ß√

ˆ§yüöyÌ à%•

§ö 1844ñ ˛õƒy!Ó˚§– ≤Ãy!¢Î˚yÓ˚ ~ܲ

ôöÜ%˛ˆÏÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õ%e ˆú ˛í˛!Ó˚á ~ˆÏAà°§ ïÑ˛yÓ˚

≤Ãܲy¢ˆÏܲÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ à“ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏåÈö–

≤Ãܲy¢Ü˛ ӈϰö xy˛õöyˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy §ü§ƒy

ˆö•zñ !ܲv ~•z ˆÎ !ܲå%È ˆ°áܲ xyˆÏåÈ öy...–

ˆÜ˛ ú˛ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚Óyá⁄ ~ˆÏAà°§ !çK˛y§y ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

öy öyñ ≤Ãܲy¢Ü˛ ӈϰöñ Ä•z ˆÎ üyÜ≈˛§Ê ܲáöÄ

ˆ°áy §üÎ˚üˆÏï˛y ˆòÎ˚ öyñ !òˆÏ°Ä ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ ˆ§ê˛y

˛õ!Ó˚üy!ç≈ï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚– üyÜ≈˛ˆÏ§Ó˚ í˛ẑ ÏÕ‘á ¢%ˆÏö

~ˆÏAà°§ ˆÎö ~ܲê%˛ x≤Ûï˛ñ Ü%˛!Z˛ï˛– •ë˛yÍ

~ܲ ü!•°y ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˆú˛yí˛¸ö ܲyˆÏê˛öñ üyÜ≈˛§ñ ˆ§

ˆï˛y ~ܲê˛y ˆàшÏÎ˚yÊ ≤Ãܲy¢Ü˛ !çK˛y§y ܲˆÏÓ˚öñ

ˆã˛ˆÏöö öy!ܲ ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ– ~ˆÏAà°§ ˆã˛yá !öã%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚

çÓyÓ ˆòöñ Ä•z ò% ~ܲÓyÓ˚...– •z!ï˛üˆÏôƒ ˆ§•z

≤ÃÓyò≤Ã!ï˛ü Óƒ!=˛ òÓ˚çy ˆë˛ˆÏ° ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈöñ

ã˛y!Ó˚˛õy¢ê˛y ~ܲê%˛ ˆòˆÏá §Ó˚y§!Ó˚ ≤Ãܲy¢ˆÏܲÓ˚

IJõÓ˚ ã˛í˛¸yÄ– ˛õÎ˚§y ã˛y•zñ ~«%˛!ö ˛õÎ˚§y !òˆÏï˛

•ˆÏÓ– Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ flf# §Ç§yÓ˚ñ xÌã˛ ˛õˆÏܲˆÏê˛

ܲyöyܲ!í˛¸Ä ˆö•z...– ≤Ãܲy¢ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆï˛y !û˛Ó˚!ü

áyÄÎẙÓ˚ ˆçyàyí˛¸– ˆ°áy çüy !òˆÏFåÈö öyñ ˆÜ˛ö

ê˛yܲy ˆòÓ xy˛õöyˆÏܲ⁄ üyÜ≈˛§ öyˆÏåÈyí˛¸Óy®y–

!öÓ˚%˛õyÎ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ û˛oˆÏ°yܲ !û˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° Îyö ê˛yܲy

xyöˆÏï˛– ü%ˆÏáyü%!áñ üyÜ≈˛§ ~ÓÇ ~ˆÏAà°§Ê

•z!ï˛•y§ flÀT˛yܲyÓ˚# Î%à°Ê ˆ•ˆÏàˆÏ°Ó˚ ò¢≈ˆÏöÓ˚

§üyˆÏ°yã˛öy ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ~ˆÏAà°§ ü%?ô– ӈϰöñ

xy˛õ!ö ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆ◊¤˛ Ó›Óyò# òy¢≈!öܲ–

xyÓ˚ xy˛õöyÓ˚ Úܲ!u˛¢ö xú˛ òƒ ÄÎ˚y!ܲ≈Ç Üœ˛y§

•zö •zÇ°ƒyu˛Ûñ !Ó˛õ%°ñ §#üy•#ö ˆ§•z Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

!ÓhflÏyÓ˚– üyܲ≈§ í˛zFå¥È!§ï˛– !ܲå%È«˛î ÓyˆÏò

≤Ãܲy¢Ü˛ ê˛yܲy à%öˆÏï˛ à%öˆÏï˛ Óy•ẑ ÏÓ˚Ó˚ âˆÏÓ˚ ì%˛ˆÏܲ

ˆòˆÏáö úÑ˛yܲyñ ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆö•z– ò%•z Órô% ï˛áö Ó˚yhflÏy

!òˆÏÎ˚ •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÎ˚ ü¢à%°– •ë˛yÍ

ˆòˆÏáö §yüˆÏö ˛õ%!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚ ôÓ˚˛õyÜ˛í˛¸ ã˛°ˆÏåÈ–

ˆÜ˛yˆÏöyÓ˚ܲˆÏü ˆ§•z Óy!•ö#ˆÏܲ ~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ò%çˆÏö

~ˆÏ§ !ü!°ï˛ •ö ~ܲ ¢%Ñ!í˛¸áyöyÎ˚– òyÓy ˆáˆÏ°ö

~ÓÇ ˆò¢ò%!öÎ˚y !öˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

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üyÜ≈˛§ ï˛áö ˆ§•z Î%àyhsˇÜ˛yÓ˚# ܲÌyà%!° ӈϰöñ

Îy ~áö ~ܲ ≤ÃÓyòÓyˆÏܲƒ Ó˚)˛õyhsˇ!Ó˚ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ı

Ú~ï˛!òö òy¢≈!öܲÓ˚y áy!° çàÍê˛yˆÏܲ Óƒyáƒy

ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈöñ xy§° Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ •° ˆ§ê˛y ˛õy°ê˛yˆÏöyÛ–

åÈ!ÓÓ˚ öyü Úòƒ •zÎ˚Ç Ü˛y°≈ üyÜ≈˛§Û– 2017

§yˆÏ° !ö!ü≈ï˛ ~•z åÈ!ÓÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛y°Ü˛ Ó˚yí˛z°

ˆ˛õܲ– üyÜ≈˛ˆÏ§Ó˚ !m¢ï˛çß√Óy!£Ï≈ܲ#ˆÏï˛ ~ê˛y ï˛ÑyÓ˚

◊Âôyâ≈ƒ– í˛zö!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ ã˛ï%˛Ì≈ ò¢Ü˛– ˆ§ê˛y

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ˆû˛ˆÏä ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– •zÇ°ƒyˆÏu˛ !¢“ !Ó≤’Óñ §Ó≈•yÓ˚y

ˆ◊!îÓ˚ í˛zqÓ– ~ܲ!ê˛ ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ üyÜ≈˛§

Ä ïÑ˛yÓ˚ flf# ˆç!ö ~ÓÇ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏòƒyçyï˛ Ü˛öƒy–

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üyÜ≈˛§ˆÏܲ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ÓyÓy üy ò%ÈÙÈã˛ˆÏ«˛ ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚

öy– ày!° ˆòÎ˚ ïÑ˛yˆÏܲÙÙÙÈ•z•%!òñ öy!hflÏܲñ

ˆ§y¢ƒy!°fiê˛– ˆç!öÓ˚ xÓ¢ƒ ï˛yˆÏï˛ !ܲå%È ÎyÎ˚

xyˆÏ§ öy– ~ܲ•z §üˆÏÎ˚ ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚ ~ˆÏAà°§ˆÏܲ

•zÇ°ƒyˆÏu˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ÓyÓyÓ˚ !Ó¢y° ܲyÓ˚áyöyÎ˚

ܲü≈Ó˚ï˛– ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ §yüˆÏö !ï˛!ö ˆòˆÏáö

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ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ÓyÓy ~ܲ ü!•°yˆÏܲ

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Ó˚=˛ã˛«%˛Ó˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚yÎ˚y öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ Îyö

ܲyÓ˚áyöy ˆÌˆÏܲ– â%Ó˚ˆÏï˛ â%Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛ˆÏ° Îyö

◊!üܲÓ!hflψÏï˛– !í˛ˆÏܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§ Ó!î≈ï˛

•zÇ°ƒyu˛– ¢ï˛!FåÈߨ ˆ˛õy¢yˆÏܲ Ó%û%˛«%˛ öyÓ˚#˛õ%Ó˚%£Ïñ

ç#î≈ ˆû˛ˆÏä ˛õí˛¸y á%˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏï˛ öÓ˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ#ˆÏê˛Ó˚

üˆÏï˛y àyòyày!ò Óy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚– ~ˆÏܲ xˆÏöƒÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ

áyÓyÓ˚ ܲyí˛¸yܲy!í˛¸ ܲˆÏÓ˚ áyÎ˚ñ §yÓ˚y«˛î

üyÓ˚òyAàyñ üòƒ˛õyöñ ˆÓˆÏ°Õ‘y˛õöy–

~ˆÏAà°§ˆÏܲ §Óy•z !ã˛öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚öñ üy!°ˆÏܲÓ˚

ˆåÈˆÏ°Ê ~ˆÏAà°§ ӈϰöñ !ï˛!ö Ó•z !°áˆÏåÈö

~ÓÇ ˆ§•z ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈö– ˆÜ˛í˛z !ÓŸªy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚

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ïÑ˛yÓ˚ •yï˛ ˆòáyöñ ¢=˛ˆÏ˛õy=˛ñ ÜÑ˛yê˛yˆÏåÈí˛¸yñ

˛õyܲyˆÏöy ܲy!åÈÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ◊!üˆÏܲÓ˚ •yï˛– ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚

ÎyÄ ~áyö ˆÌˆÏܲ öy •ˆÏ°...– ~ˆÏAà°§

!ö!Ó≈ܲyÓ˚– òüy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y â%!£Ï ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá–

Îáö K˛yö ˆú˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆòˆÏáö ˆ§•z ܲü≈ã%˛ƒï˛ ˆüˆÏÎ˚!ê˛

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§üyçï˛_¥!ÓòˆÏòÓ˚ ˆê˛E˛y !òˆÏï˛ ÌyˆÏܲö– üyÜ≈˛§

ˆÓ˛õˆÏÓ˚yÎ˚yñ !ܲ!M˛Í Ó˚àã˛ê˛yñ ܲÌyÓyï≈˛y

ã˛ÑyåÈyˆÏåÈy°y– !ï˛!ö ò%ô≈£Ï≈ ï˛y!Ü≈˛Ü˛ñ !û˛ß¨ üï˛

!öò≈Î˚û˛yˆÏÓ òüö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– ~ˆÏAà°§ ¢yhsˇñ

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xê˛°– ≤Ã%ˆÏôÑyñ ÓyÜ%˛!ööˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ò%шÏò

!ã˛hsˇy!ÓòÓ˚yÄ ï˛ÑyˆÏòÓ˚ §ü#• ܲˆÏÓ˚öñ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏ°

~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Îyö– üyܲ≈ˆÏ§Ó˚ §ü§ƒy xöƒ– òy!Ó˚oƒ

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!Ó˛õIöܲ üˆÏö ܲˆÏÓ˚– Ó°y ˆö•z ܲÄÎ˚y ˆö•zñ

˛õ%!°¢ ~ˆÏ§ •y!çÓ˚ ~ܲ!òö Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛– ã˛!Óù¢

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•yï˛ ò¡õ!ï˛Ó˚ñ ï˛yÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ˆç!ö àû≈˛Óï˛#–

ˆÜ˛yˆÏöyÓ˚ܲˆÏü ÓyˆÏ§°ˆÏ§ ~ˆÏ§ ˆ˛õÑÔˆÏåÈyö ïÑ˛yÓẙ–

üyÜ≈˛§ˆÏܲ Ó°y •Î˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛

ܲyÎ≈ܲ°y˛õ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓö öy !ï˛!ö– •ˆÏöƒ

•ˆÏÎ˚ !ï˛!ö ã˛yܲ!Ó˚ á%шÏç ˆÓí˛¸yö– ~ˆÏAà°§ ê˛yܲy

˛õyë˛yöñ ï˛yˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöyÓ˚ܲˆÏü !òö à%çÓ˚yö •Î˚–

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á !ܲv x!ÓÓ˚yü ã˛°ˆÏï˛ ÌyˆÏܲ–

≤Ã&ˆÏôÑyÓ˚ Ú!ú˛ˆÏ°y§!ú˛ xú˛ ˛õû˛y!ê≈˛Û Ó•z!ê˛ˆÏܲ

ö§yÍ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ !ï˛!ö ˆ°ˆÏáö Ú˛õû˛y!ê≈˛ xú˛

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Órô% Ú!°à xú˛ çyfiê˛ÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ §ˆÏAà Î%=˛ •ö–

≤ÃÓ° !ÓˆÏÓ˚y!ôï˛y §ˆÏ_¥Ä ~•z §Çàë˛ˆÏö ïÑ˛yÓ˚y

≤Ãû˛yÓ !ÓhflÏyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ¢%Ó˚% ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– !°ˆÏàÓ˚

~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛öú˛yˆÏÓ˚ˆÏ ◊!üܲÓ˚y xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏö ܲ#

˛õrÌy xÓ°¡∫ö ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö ï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ï%˛ü%°

ï˛Ü≈˛!Óï˛Ü≈˛ •Î˚– Ú§Ó≈çö#ö ºyï≈˛,cÛ ÚܲÓ˚%îyÛ

•zï˛ƒy!ò í˛zFã˛yÓ˚î •ˆÏï˛•z üyÜ≈˛§ úÑ˛%ˆÏ§ ĈÏë˛ö–

ӈϰöñ ˆÎÈÙÈfl∫yô#öï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó%ˆÏç≈yÎ˚yÓ˚y Ó°ˆÏåÈ

ˆ§ê˛y ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ fl∫yô#öï˛yñ ◊!üܲˆÏòÓ˚ öÎ˚– ܲÓ˚%îy

!òˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏòÓ˚ üö çÎ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö xy˛õöyÓ˚yÊ

x!ôܲyÇ¢ ◊!üܲ §¢flf xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ IJõÓ˚

ˆçyÓ˚ ˆòöñ !°ˆÏàÓ˚ Ó˚)˛õyhsˇÓ˚ âˆÏê˛ñ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚

Úòƒ ܲ!üí˛z!öfiê˛ !°àÛ– ˆü!Ó˚ Ä ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §Aà#Ó˚y

ÓƒyöyÓ˚ ê˛y!öˆÏÎ˚ ˆòö ı ò%!öÎẙÓ˚ üçò%Ó˚ ~ܲ •Ä–

!°ˆÏàÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚Óï≈˛# ܲü≈§)!ã˛ !ë˛Ü˛ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ò%•z

Órô%ˆÏܲ òy!Î˚c ˆòÄÎ˚y •Î˚–

§ü%o˛õyˆÏí˛¸ ò%•z Órô%ñ ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ӈϧ ï˛ÑyˆÏòÓ˚

§!Aàö#Ó˚y– üyÜ≈˛§ Üœ˛yhsˇ– òy!Ó˚oƒñ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yô#ˆÏòÓ˚

°yàyüåÈyí˛¸y xyÜ ˛üîñ §Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ öçÓ˚òy!Ó˚Ó˚

ú˛ˆÏ° !ï˛!ö •Î˚Óẙö– ¢Ó˚#Ó˚Ä !òˆÏFåÈ öy– ï˛yåÈyí˛¸y

áy!° ≤Ãã˛yÓ˚˛õe ˆ°áy ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xy§ˆÏåÈ öyñ !ï˛!ö

Ó•z !°áˆÏï˛ ã˛yö– ~ˆÏAà°§ ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ ˆÓyé˛yöñ

ܲü≈§)!ã˛ê˛y ˆÎû˛yˆÏÓ•z ˆ•yܲ !°áˆÏï˛•z •ˆÏÓ– xyÓ˚

ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ !òö üye §üÎ˚ñ ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ !°à xöƒ

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ÓyàyˆÏöÓ˚ ç!üˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ ~ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ°áy ¢%Ó˚%

ܲÓ˚!åÈ– flø,!ï˛ˆÏܲ Ó°!åÈ §y° ï˛y!Ó˚á üˆÏö

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!ܲv ˆã˛öy ˛õy!áÓ˚ ò° ܲyˆÏåÈÓ˚ ÓˆÏí˛¸y xyüàyˆÏåÈÓ˚

í˛yˆÏ° ӈϧ àyö ˆàˆÏÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ– xyüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚

çyÎ˚ày ˆòˆÏá ˆÓyô•Î˚ á%!¢ •ˆÏÎ˚ Ó°°ñ

˛õyï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyåÈyܲy!åÈ ÓˆÏ§ ˆ°ˆÏáy– ܲyˆÏåÈÓ˚

ÓÕ‘û˛˛õ%Ó˚ xû˛Î˚ xÓ˚ˆÏîƒ üy°ï˛# ü%ü%≈ Ä ï˛yÓ˚

ˆÓyö ¢%ܲˆÏöy í˛y°˛õyï˛y xyöˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏåÈ– !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚

~° ӈϰ– ï˛áö öy •Î˚ !çˆÏK˛§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öÄ–

~üö §üˆÏÎ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ •ï˛Óyܲ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ã˛[˛#

•Ñy§òyÓ˚ xy!Óû≈˛yÓÊ ~ˆÏ§ §Ü˛yˆÏ° ܲÓẙ Óö˛õˆÏÌ

üy°ï˛#ˆÏòÓ˚ í»˛•zÇ ˆòˆÏá Ó°°ñ òyòy xy˛õ!ö

xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ !ë˛Ü˛ çyˆÏöö– ܲy° §Ü˛yˆÏ° ~ˆÏ§

!öˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÓ xÓ˚ˆÏîƒÓ˚ !û˛ï˛Ó˚ !é˛ˆÏ°ñ ò)Ó˚ÈÙÈò)ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

xˆÏöܲ ˛õy!áÓ˚y ~ˆÏ§ ӈϧˆÏåÈ ~•z ¢#ˆÏï˛–

üˆÏö üˆÏö xyüyÓ˚ ï˛Ó˚ §•z!åÈ° öy– •yˆÏï˛

ˆÎö Óö˛õ%°Ü˛ ˆ˛õ°yüÙÙÙÈã˛[˛#Ê ≤ÃyÎ˚ ≤ÃÌü!òö

ˆ§•z 2000 §y° ˆÌˆÏܲ•z xyçÄ ã˛[˛#

~ܲ§ˆÏAà ܲyåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§ˆÏåÈ– ~ï˛ û˛yˆÏ°y

flø,!ï˛ñ ~ˆÏòÓ˚ ï%˛°öy •Î˚ öy– ã˛[˛# Ó°°

xy!òÓy§# !¢“@ˇÃyüñ xy˛õöyÓ˚ ¢y!hsˇ!öˆÏÜ˛ï˛ˆÏö

Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y°åÈ!ÓÙÙÙÈ~üö §Ó ܲyˆÏçÓ˚

˛õÓ˚˛õÓ˚•z §,çö# •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ï˛áö xy˛õ!ö !òˆÏöÓ˚

ˆÓ°y !ÓŸªû˛yÓ˚ï˛#Ó˚ ܲyˆÏç ˆÎˆÏï˛ö– §Ü˛yˆÏ°

!ÓˆÏܲˆÏ° §,çö#Ó˚ ܲyˆÏç– ï˛y ôÓ˚%ö 2003ÈÙÈ04

§y° •ˆÏÓ•z– ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚•z xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

§ÑyÄï˛y°@ˇÃyü ˆÌˆÏܲ xyüÓẙ ò° ˆÓшÏô xy˛õöyÓ˚

§ˆÏAà §,çö#Ó˚ üyˆÏë˛ ˆÎï˛yü–

ˆÎö ˆflÀyˆÏï˛Ó˚ üï˛ö ˆ§!òˆÏöÓ˚ ܲÌy üˆÏö

˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ °yà°– ܲ°yû˛ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÃÓ#Ó˚òy ¢%ܲ°

Ä §%ܲyhsˇÈÙÈÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ˛õÓẙü¢≈ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !¢“#ò° ˜ï˛!Ó˚

•°– ˛õ)Ó≈yM˛° §Çfl,Ò!ï˛ˆÏܲwˆÏܲ çyöyˆÏöy •°–

ˆòˆÏá ¢%ˆÏö Ó°ˆÏ°öñ Ú!ë˛Ü˛ xyˆÏåÈñ òy!Î˚c !ܲv

xy˛õöyÓ˚– xy˛õ!ö fiÌy˛õï˛ƒÈÙÈܲö‰§y°ˆÏê˛rê˛–

~ˆòÓ˚ xyüÓ˚y !ܲv !ã˛!ö öy–Û

ï˛ˆÏÓ •Ñƒyñ Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ !¢“§üyçˆÏܲ çyˆÏö–

Ä!òˆÏܲ ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö Ó˚â%Ó˚yç˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

!ã˛eܲˆÏÓ˚Ó˚y xyÓ˚ !öü≈yî!¢“#Ó˚ ò° ܲyˆÏç

ˆ°ˆÏàˆÏåÈö §,çö#@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ !û˛ï˛Ó˚ Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚

IJõyˆÏÓ˚– ~˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ¢y!hsˇ!öˆÏÜ˛ï˛ˆÏöÓ˚ xy!òÓy§#

@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ã˛[˛#ñ Ó%!í˛¸ñ ˆ°yˆÏòy ܲyˆÏ°yü!îñ ü%!ߨ

üyí˛¸y!u˛ñ í˛!° ü%ü≈%ñ Ó˚!Ó ˆ•üÓ≈ü Ä à%Ó˚%˛õ!Õ‘Ó˚

ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ xy§y ˆ°yܲ!¢“# ã˛®ö– ˆÎö

˛õˆÏòƒÓ˚ üï˛ö öyüà%ˆÏ°y ӈϰ ˆà° ã˛[˛#Ê

xyÿ˛Î≈ ≤Ã!ï˛û˛y ~ˆÏòÓ˚– ÎÌyÌ≈ û)˛!ü Ä û)˛üyÓ˚

§hsˇyö– flø,!ï˛¢!=˛ ˆòˆÏá xÓyܲ ••z xyçÄ–

•Ñƒy !ë˛Ü˛•z– §Ü˛ˆÏ° !üˆÏ° ˆ°ˆÏà ˛õˆÏí˛¸!åÈ°yü

!öü≈yîܲyˆÏç– ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ @ˇÃyü àí˛¸ˆÏï˛ñ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •°

!ï˛ö!ê˛ ÓˆÏí˛¸y ã˛yÓ˚ã˛y°y– üyÌy áˆÏí˛¸Ó˚– ˆòÄÎ˚y°

≤ÃyÌ!üܲû˛yˆÏÓ •zˆÏê˛Ó˚ñ !û˛ï˛Ó˚ÈÙÈÓy•zˆÏÓ˚ !§ˆÏürê˛

Ä ˆüyÓ˚yü åÈÑyã˛y üy!ê˛Ó˚ xyhflÏÓ˚î– §yüˆÏöñ @ˇÃyˆÏü

ˆÎüö •Î˚ñ ˆï˛üö í˛zˆÏë˛yö Ä òyÄÎ˚y– üyˆÏé˛

ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ï%˛°§#üM˛– !˛õåȈÏö•z àyåÈ

ˆÓ˚y˛õî ܲÓ˚y •°– ˆÜ˛ˆÏwÓ˚ x!ôܲï≈˛y fl∫Î˚Ç àyåÈ

˛õ%шÏï˛!åȈϰö– ~áö í˛y°˛õyï˛y ˆüˆÏ° í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ–

≤ÃÌü û˛yˆÏà ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚

fiÌy˛õï˛ƒÙÙÙˆòÄÎ˚y°ñ ≤ÈÏÓ¢˛õÌñ òÓ˚çy–

ˆòÄÎ˚yˆÏ°Ó˚ üyÌyÎ˚ áˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ˆòyã˛y°y– ÓÑyˆÏ¢Ó˚

ˆú ˛ü– ã˛yÓ˚ã˛y°y âÓ˚ !ï˛ö!ê˛Ó˚ üy˛õ !ï˛ö Ó˚ܲü–

ˆì˛yܲÓyÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá !§Ö!í˛¸– °¡∫y ÓyÓ˚y®y– ~ܲã˛y°y

ÓyÓ˚y®y– ˛õÑyã˛ã˛y°yÓ˚ ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ Ü%˛!ë˛Ó˚ àí˛¸y •°–

òÓ˚çyñ çyö°yñ !û˛ï˛Ó˚ÈÙÈxy§ÓyÓ §Ó•z @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚

ܲyˆÏë˛Ó˚ !¢“#ˆÏòÓ˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚– ì%˛ˆÏܲ ÓÑy!òˆÏܲ

§ÑyÄï˛y°@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ Ü%˛!ê˛Ó˚– üyˆÏé˛ ü%!¢≈òyÓyòñ

Ó•Ó˚ü˛õ%Ó˚ xM˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ xyòˆÏ°– í˛yö!òˆÏܲ

òƒ ܲ!üí˛z!öfiê˛ üƒy!öˆÏú˛ˆÏfiê˛y– ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚

1848ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ !Ó≤’Óñ ˆû˛ˆÏä ˛õí˛¸y ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöy

§üyˆÏçÓ˚ àû≈˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ öï%˛ˆÏöÓ˚ í˛zayö– Óy!ܲê˛y

•z!ï˛•y§–

~•z åÈ!Ó!ê˛ àï˛ 28 !í˛ˆÏ§¡∫Ó˚ñ ö®öÈÙÈ3

ˆ≤ë˛yà,ˆÏ• ≤Ãò!¢≈ï˛ •Î˚– xyˆÏÎ˚yçܲ

!åȈϰöÙÙÙÈöyÜ˛ï˛°y Ä §Ç°@¿ xM˛ˆÏ°Ó˚

ã˛°!Fã˛eˆÏ≤Ãü#ˆÏòÓ˚ §Çàë˛ö Ú!§ˆÏö §yí˛zÌÛ–

ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸yñ !Ó£÷$˛õ%Ó˚ xM˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ fiÌy˛õï˛ƒ !Óöƒy§–

Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ !§ˆÏürê˛ üy!ê˛ ˆ°˛õy ˆòÄÎ˚yˆÏ°ñ

ˆòyüy!ê˛Ó˚ ˛õÓ˚ ¢%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ã›ï˛ •°

ˆòÄÎ˚y°åÈ!ÓÓ˚ ˛õê˛– ï˛ˆÏÓ §Ó•z !Ó˚!°ú˛

!ã˛eÈÙÈû˛yflÒÎ≈– ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ !òˆÏܲñ

í˛zÍ§Ó xö%¤˛yˆÏö ÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öyöyö xy°˛õöyñ

ˆòÄÎ˚y°åÈ!ÓÓ˚ öܲ¢y !ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ âÓ˚à%ˆÏ°yÓ˚

ã˛yÓ˚˛õy¢ñ ≤ÈÏÓ¢˛õÌñ ï%˛°§#üM˛ !ã˛!eï˛ •ˆÏï˛

°yà° @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ !¢“#ˆÏòÓ˚ í˛zˆÏòƒyˆÏà Ä !ö¤˛yÎ˚–

~•z ܲyˆÏçÈ ÎÌyÌ≈ ˆÓ˚ú˛yˆÏÓ˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚y !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°

@ˇÃyˆÏü @ˇÃyˆÏü !àˆÏÎ˚ñ xÓö#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ ÚÓyÇ°yÓ˚

Ó ï˛Ü˛ÌyÛÈÙÈÓ˚ !¢“!öò¢≈öÄ Ü˛yˆÏçÈ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°–

!ë˛Ü˛ •°ñ fiÌy˛õ!ï˛ƒÜ˛ xyòˆÏ° ÓyÇ°yÓ˚

Ü%˛!ê˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ï˛öÈÙÈxÇ¢ àí˛¸yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ñ

x®Ó˚ÈÙÈfiÌy˛õï˛ƒ ˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆú˛°ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ–

˛õ!Õ‘@ˇÃyˆÏü Óy!•Ó˚ Ä x®Ó˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ•z fl∫yû˛y!Óܲ

åȈϮ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ !¢“#Ó˚y àˆÏí˛¸ ˆï˛yˆÏ°– !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚

Óy!í˛¸ !öˆÏçÓ˚y•z àí˛¸ˆÏï˛ çyˆÏö– 2003ÈÙÈ04

§yˆÏ° ˛õ!Ó˚§Çáƒyö ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yüñ ï˛áöÄ

ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ §_Ó˚ ¢ï˛yÇ¢ üyö%£Ï !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚

Óy!í˛¸ñ !öˆÏçÓẙ•z àˆÏí˛¸ ˆï˛yˆÏ°– ~ ܲyˆÏç §y•y΃

xyˆÏ§ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ò§ƒˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyåÈ

ˆÌˆÏܲ– ˛õ%Ó˚%£Ï öyÓ˚#ÈÙÙÙÈ≤ÃyÎ˚ §Ü˛ˆÏ°•z !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚

Óy!í˛¸ ˜ï˛!Ó˚Ó˚ ܲyç !öˆÏçÓ˚y•z ܲˆÏÓ˚– §üˆÏÓï˛

§üyˆÏç âÓ˚ âÓ˚ !üˆÏ°!üˆÏ¢ Óy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ӈϰñ

Îáö ≤ÈÏÎẙçö •Î˚ ï˛áö ˛õyyí˛¸yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ•z !ӈϢ£Ï

ò«˛ ˆÜ˛í˛z ~ˆÏ§ •yï˛ °yàyÎ˚– !ë˛Ü˛ ܲÓẙ üç%!Ó˚Ó˚

§ˆÏAàñ ˆ§•z Óy!í˛¸Ó˚•z áyÓyÓ˚ áyÎ˚– x!ôܲyÇ¢

§üˆÏÎ˚ âˆÏÓ˚ ÓyöyˆÏöy ü%!í˛¸ñ ï˛Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚– ã˛y°y

åÈyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆáÑyê˛y ÓÑyôyñ ã˛y°yÓ˚ ÓÑyô!ö àí˛¸ˆÏï˛

ò«˛ï˛yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö– ˛õyí˛¸yÎ˚ ˛õyí˛¸yÎ˚ ˆï˛üö

Ü%˛¢°# !öü≈yî!¢“#Ó˚y ï˛áöÄ !åÈ°– ~ˆÏܲ

x˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §y•yˆÏ΃ ~!àˆÏÎ˚ xy§ï˛ñ !Óöy !môyÎ˚–

ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ò!í˛¸ñ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ܲ ܲü ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°ñ

ܲyˆÏåÈÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z !öˆÏÎ˚ xy§ï˛– ÓÑy¢ñ ÓˆÏöÓ˚

ÓÑy¢ xyöï˛ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˆüyí˛¸°ˆÏܲ ӈϰ– òyü xyˆÏà

ˆÌˆÏܲ•z !ë˛Ü˛ ܲÓ˚y ÌyÜ˛ï˛– §Ü˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ çöƒ

§üÓyÎ˚ ü)°ƒ– ï˛ˆÏÓ •Ñƒyñ xyàyü# !òˆÏö ÓÑy¢àyåÈ

˛õ%шÏï˛ !òˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ Îï˛à%ˆÏ°y ˆöÄÎ˚y •°

ï˛ï˛à%ˆÏ°y– ˆÓ!¢ •ˆÏ° xyÓ˚Ä û˛yˆÏ°y– ï˛áöÄ

ˆòˆÏá!åÈ @ˇÃyˆÏü @ˇÃyˆÏü ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ñ í˛z!í˛¸£ÏƒyÎ˚ñ

xy§yˆÏü Ä xöƒyöƒ Ó˚yˆÏçƒ âÓ˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏç

§üˆÏÓï˛ ≤ÃÎ˚y§ ˆçˆÏà !åÈ°ñ çy!ï˛ ôü≈

!ö!Ó≈ˆÏ¢ˆÏ£Ï– Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ ¢y!hsˇ!öˆÏܲï˛öÈÙÈ

◊#!öˆÏܲï˛ö ~•z ã˛°üyö Ó•üyö xyò¢≈ˆÏܲ @ˇÃ•î

ܲˆÏÓ˚•z ~!àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– xy◊ü !öü≈yˆÏîÓ˚ ˆàyí˛¸yÓ˚

ܲÌy !åÈ° ~•z– §,çö#ȈÏï˛ xyüÓ˚y ~•z xyò¢≈•z

ܲyˆÏç °y!àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü–

ú˛° !üˆÏ°!åÈ° •yˆÏï˛ •yˆÏï˛– 1901ÈÙÈ02

§y° ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ Úöï%˛ö Óy!í˛¸Û Ä xöƒyöƒ

xy◊üfiÌy˛õï˛ƒñ Ó˚yhflÏyñ ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ñ Óyàyöñ Üœ˛y§âÓ˚

!öü≈yîܲyˆÏç fiÌyö#Î˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˜¢°# Ä

!¢“§üyçˆÏܲ Î%=˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– §,çö#Ó˚ ܲyç

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆ§•z ˙!ï˛•y!§Ü˛ ˛õÓ˚#!«˛ï˛

§ï˛ƒˆÏܲ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲˆÏ¢y ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓƒÓôyˆÏö ≤ÈÏÎẙà

ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ܲyç •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– !öåÈܲ ¢%ô% âÓ˚

Óy!í˛¸ ˛õÌ öÎ˚ñ fiÌy˛õï˛ƒ Ä ò,¢ƒ!¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ !üˆÏ¢ˆÏ°

àˆÏí˛¸ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ °yà°ñ ~˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ !¢“@ˇÃyü

IJõyˆÏÓ˚ í˛z!í˛¸£ÏƒyÓ˚ !¢“@ˇÃyü– ï˛áöÄ Ü˛yç

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆòˆÏá!åÈñ ü)° §%Ó˚ !åÈ° ˙ܲƒÓ˚ã˛öy–

åÈ!Óñ àyö !öÿ˛Î˚•z à%ˆÏîÓ˚ !¢“– !ܲv fiÌy˛õï˛ƒ

xyÓ˚Ä àû˛#ˆÏÓ˚– üy˛õˆÏçyܲñ fiÌy!Î˚cñ âöcñ

!öü≈yî í˛z˛õyòyö !ë˛Ü˛!ë˛Ü˛ öy •ˆÏ°ñ ˆû˛ˆÏä

˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ é˛ˆÏí˛¸ ܲyÓ% •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– ˜Ó¢yá

˜çƒ¤˛ üyˆÏ§ Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ ã˛y°yÓ˚ xy§°

fl∫yfĩ˛õÓ˚#«˛y– ܲy°˜ÏÓ¢yá#Ó˚ òy˛õê˛ §yüˆÏ°

Î!ò !ê˛ˆÏܲ ÌyˆÏܲ ï˛ˆÏÓ•z ˛õy¢üyÜ≈˛– Ä!òˆÏܲ

xyÓyÓ˚ ◊yÓˆÏîÓ˚È é˛í˛¸ÈÙÈçˆÏ°Ó˚ ê˛yˆÏö åÈyò ˆÌˆÏܲ

ç° ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°•z §Ó ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ÎyˆÏÓ– !ë˛Ü˛ !ë˛Ü˛

ã˛y°yÈÙÈüyÌyÓ˚ åÈyí˛z!ö ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÈ@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ Ü%˛¢°#

˛õ!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ Ä !¢“#ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyç– âÓ˚ˆÏòyÓ˚ òyÄÎ˚y

!ê˛Ü˛ˆÏ° ï˛ˆÏÓ ï%˛°§#ï˛°yÓ˚ ≤Ãò#˛õ Óy xyˆÏ°y

ˆòáy ÎyˆÏÓ– ï˛áö x®Ó˚ÈÙÈxy§ÓyÓ !öˆÏÎ˚ üyö%£Ï

ˆÓшÏã˛ ÌyˆÏܲ– ã˛y°yÓ˚ Ó,!T˛ˆÏôyÎ˚y ç°

ˆÜ˛üöû˛yˆÏÓ Ü˛yˆÏåÈÓ˚ öy°y !òˆÏÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ñ ܲyˆÏåÈÓ˚

üyˆÏë˛ Óy ˛õ%Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆ§ÈÙÈܲyçÄ @ˇÃyü#î fiÌ˛õ!ï˛ˆÏòÓ˚

çyöy– ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ ܲyê˛y •Î˚ñ âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üy!ê˛ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ˆÏï˛–

xyÓyÓ˚ ˆüˆÏâÓ˚ çˆÏ° ˆçˆÏà ĈÏë˛ ç°ˆÏò•ñ

ç°§eñ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ܲyˆÏçÓ˚ñ üyåÈñ •ÑyˆÏ§ˆÏòÓ˚ñ

˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚–

§,çö#ˆÏï˛ é˛í˛¸ÈÙÈç° ˛õyÓ˚ •ÓyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

üˆÏö fl∫!hflÏ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°– ˆÎö Ó° °yû˛

ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü– ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛Ó˚ ˛õÓ˚#«˛yÎ˚ í˛z_#î≈ •ÓyÓ˚

˛õÓ˚ §y•§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ x®Ó˚ÈÙÈfiÌy˛õï˛ƒ§IyÓ˚ û˛y£Ïy

àí˛¸ˆÏï˛ xyÓ˚Ω˛ ܲÓ˚y •°– §Çfl,Ò!ï˛ˆÏܲˆÏwÓ˚

ܲï,˛≈˛õ«˛ !ë˛Ü˛•z ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö ≤ÈÏï˛ƒÜ˛ Ü%˛!ê˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

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ܲˆÏÓ˚ üyöyö§•z ≤Ãò¢≈ö#ܲ«˛ !öü≈yî ܲÓ˚y •°–

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~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ 8 ˛õyï˛yÎ˚


!Óܲ“ôyÓ˚yÓ˚ §rôyˆÏö öyê˛ƒyˆÏ°yã˛öy

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{ŸªˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xÓfiÌyö– ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ ≤ÃÓyˆÏ• ~ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚

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ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ° x°ê˛yÓ˚ˆÏö!ê˛û˛ !̈ÏÎ˚ê˛yÓ˚ xy@ˇÃ•#ˆÏòÓ˚–

!˛õê˛yÓ˚ Ó %ܲñ ˆ¢áöyÓ˚ xyÓ˚Ä Ó•% öyê˛ƒ!Óò

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§Ó§üÎ˚•z •ˆÏÓ ˆò¢ ܲy° Ä §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆ≤Ã!«˛ˆÏï˛–

˛õ!Ó˚ã˛y°ˆÏܲÓ˚ !̈ÏÎ˚ê˛yÓ˚ñ x!û˛ˆÏöï˛yÓ˚ !̈ÏÎ˚ê˛yÓ˚ñ

Ìyí≈˛ !̈ÏÎ˚ê˛yÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈÈ~ !Óï˛Ü≈˛ê˛yÄ ã˛°ˆÏÓ !ã˛Ó˚!òö–

ˆ¢£Ï Ó=˛y !ò!Õ‘Ó˚ çööyê˛ƒ §ÇfiÌyÎ˚ ܲyç ܲÓẙ

xy!¢§ ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ ӈϰöñ Úˆ◊!îÓ˚

≤ÈÏÎ˚yçˆÏöñ §üyˆÏçÓ˚ ã˛y!•òy ˆüê˛yˆÏï˛•z öyöyö

ú˛ü≈ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° !̈ÏÎ˚ê˛yˆÏÓ˚– §ú˛òÓ˚ •y¢!ü

ܲáˆÏöy•z ~ܲܲ üöˆÏö öyê˛Ü˛ §,çö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ö

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~ܲ ~ܲ!ê˛ öyê˛Ü˛– xy§ˆÏ° öï%˛ö !ܲå%È Ü˛Ó˚yÓ˚

§y•§ê˛y•z •° ÓˆÏí˛¸y ܲÌy–Û ˆ◊yï˛yò¢≈ˆÏܲÓ˚

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˙ܲƒï˛yö üˆÏM˛ Úí˛zqy§ÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ !mï˛#Î˚ӈϣÏ≈Ó˚ 9

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!Ó˛õ%° §ÇáƒÜ˛ åÈyeåÈye# !ö¡¨!Ó_ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚

ˆÌˆÏܲ xyˆÏ§ö– ~шÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ 40%ÈÙÈ~Ó˚

˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xyÎ˚ üyˆÏ§ 10000 ê˛yܲyÓ˚ ܲüñ

ÎyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ 27%ÙÈ~Ó˚ xyÎ˚ üyˆÏ§ 6000 ê˛yܲyÓ˚

ܲü– §üyˆÏçÓ˚ xû˛yÓ# ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

ˆåȈϰˆÏüˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y ÎyˆÏï˛ í˛zFã˛!¢«˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó!M˛ï˛

öy •Î˚ ˆ§•z ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z ˆç~ö•zí˛zñ xy•zxy•z!ê˛ÈÙÈÓ˚

üï˛ö ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yöà%ˆÏ°y !ö!ü≈ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ≤ÃÌü

ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ~•z ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yöà%!°ˆÏï˛ !ê˛í˛z¢ö !ú˛ñ

ˆ•yˆÏfiê˛° !ú˛ xï˛ƒhsˇ ܲü– ˆÎüö §üyç!ÓK˛yˆÏö

fl¨yï˛Ü˛ Óy fl¨yï˛ˆÏܲy_ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ çöƒ

Óy!£Ï≈ܲ !ú˛ñ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ĈÏÎ˚Ó§y•zê˛

xö%ÎyÎ˚# 216 ê˛yܲy– xy•zxy•z!ê˛ÈÙÈˆï˛ !ú˛ üyˆÏé˛

ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ÌyܲˆÏ°Äñ ~ê˛y §!ï˛ƒ ˆÎ ˆç~ö•zí˛zÈÙȈï˛

Ó•% ÓåÈÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚ !ú˛ ~ܲ•z xyˆÏåÈ– ~ܲê˛y

˛õ!Ó˚§Çáƒyö xö%ÎyÎ˚# •ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ° ˆÌˆÏܲ

ˆç~ö•zí˛zÈÙÈˆï˛ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆÎáyˆÏö

~áö Óy!£Ï≈ܲ 32000 ê˛yܲy °yˆÏàñ xöƒ

§Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ !¢«˛y ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏö ˆ§ê˛y 50000 ê˛yܲy–

üyöÓ§¡õò í˛zߨÎ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÜ˛w#Î˚ üsf# Ó°ˆÏåÈö

áÓ˚ã˛ ˆÎÈÙÈ•yˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ˆàˆÏåÈ ï˛yˆÏï˛ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö

ã˛y°yˆÏöy ÓƒÎ˚Ó•%° •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈñ ï˛y•z !ú˛ öy

Óy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ í˛z˛õyÎ˚ ˆö•z– ~Ó˚ ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢ ~ê˛yÄ

xyüÓ˚y çy!öñ !¢«˛yÓ˚ x!ôܲyÓ˚

§Ç!Óôyöfl∫#Ü,˛ï˛– ≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ ÓyˆÏçˆÏê˛•z ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚

!¢«˛yÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚y!çï˛ xAܲ Ü ˛üyàï˛ !ö¡¨àyü#–

•yçyÓ˚ •yçyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛y!ê˛ ÓƒyAܲ çy!°Î˚y!ï˛ •ˆÏFåÈ

ˆ§ê˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy §%Ó˚y•y ˆö•z– °yû˛çöܲ

§Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ §ÇfiÌy çˆÏ°Ó˚ òˆÏÓ˚ !Ó!Ü ˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y

•ˆÏFåÈ– ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚ê˛ˆÏòÓ˚ §%ˆÏò åÈyí˛¸ ˆòÄÎ˚y •ˆÏFåÈ–

xÌã˛ !¢«˛yáyˆÏï˛ ÓÓ˚yj Óyí˛¸yˆÏï˛ Ó°ˆÏ°•z Ó°y

•Î˚ ûÑ˛yí˛¸yÓ˚ ¢)öƒ–

ˆç~ö•zí˛z åÈye •zí˛z!öÎ˚yˆÏöÓ˚ xyˆÏ®y°ö

xÓ¢ƒ•z •ˆÏfiê˛° Ä xöƒyöƒ xyö%£Ï!Aàܲ !ú˛

Ó,!ÂôÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚%ˆÏÂô– ~åÈyí˛¸yÄ ~•z xyˆÏ®y°ö

•ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ x!í˛ê˛ ã˛y°% ܲÓẙ ~ÓÇ §yü!@ˇÃܲû˛yˆÏÓ

!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚ ã˛cˆÏÓ˚ fl∫yô#öñ ˆáy°yˆÏü°y ˆÎ

˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ !åÈ° ˆ§ê˛y áÓ≈ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ x˛õˆÏã˛T˛yÓ˚

!ÓÓ˚%ˆÏÂô– ~ÓyÓ˚ ˆòáy Îyܲ !ú˛ ܲ# •yˆÏÓ˚ Ó,!Âô

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– •ˆÏfiê˛° !ú˛ !§Aà° Ó˚%ˆÏüÓ˚ !åÈ° 20

ê˛yܲyñ ˆ§ê˛y ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° 600 ê˛yܲy– í˛Ó°

Ó˚%ˆÏüÓ˚ !åÈ° 10 ê˛yܲyñ ˆ§ê˛y ܲÓẙ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° 300

ê˛yܲy– ˆüˆÏ§Ó˚ çöƒ çüy Sˆú˛Ó˚ï˛ˆÏÎyàƒV !åÈ°

5000 ê˛yܲyñ ˆ§ê˛y ~ܲ °yˆÏú˛ ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°

12000 ê˛yܲy– ~Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏ£ÏÓyÈÙÈü)°ƒ

!•§yˆÏÓ ˆÎyà ܲÓ˚y •Î˚ 1700 ê˛yܲy– xyÓ˚

xyˆÏåÈ öï%˛ö xyüòy!ö ܲÓ˚y ~ܲê˛y Ú•zí˛z!ê˛!°!ê˛

ã˛yç≈Ûñ ˆ§ê˛y ˆÎ ܲ#ñ ˆÜ˛ö ~ÓÇ ˆ§ê˛y xˆÏAܲÓ˚

!•§yˆÏÓ Ü˛ï˛ñ ˆ§ê˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy Óƒyáƒy ܲï≈˛,˛õˆÏ«˛Ó˚

ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚!ö– °yàyï˛yÓ˚

xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ ú˛ˆÏ° ~•z !ú˛ òy!Ó˚oƒ§#üyÓ˚ !öˆÏã˛

åÈyeåÈye#ˆÏòÓ˚ çöƒ ܲüyˆÏöy •Î˚– ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe

í˛Ó° Ó˚%ü 300 ê˛yܲy ~ÓÇ !§Aà° 150 ê˛yܲy

ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ˆüˆÏ§Ó˚ çöƒ xyˆÏà Îy !åÈ°ñ

5000 ê˛yܲy ï˛y•z Ó˚yáy •Î˚– ܲï≈˛,˛õ«˛ Ó°ˆÏåÈö

˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏ£ÏÓyÈÙÈü)°ƒ ~ÓÇ ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ Ú•zí˛z!ê˛!°!ê˛

ã˛yç≈Û ï˛ÑyÓ˚y ≤Ãï˛ƒy•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈöñ xyÓyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ

ˆòáy ÎyˆÏFåÈ ïÑ˛yÓ˚y Ó°ˆÏåÈö ~Ó˚ 75% ïÑ˛yÓ˚y

Ó•ö ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö– !ú˛ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ •yÓ˚ Î!ò ÓyhflψÏÓ ~ê˛y•z

òÑyí˛¸yÎ˚ñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ˆòáy ÎyˆÏFåÈ üy!§Ü˛ xyÎ˚

10000 ê˛yܲy ~Ó˚ܲü ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

§hsˇyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆç~ö•zí˛zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ •ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ° ˆÌˆÏܲ

˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ áÓ˚ã˛ ÓåȈÏÓ˚ 32000 ê˛yܲy ˆÌˆÏܲ

56000 ê˛yܲy òÑyí˛¸yˆÏÓñ Îy ˆ§•z ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

Óyͧ!Ó˚ܲ xyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ Ü%˛!í˛¸ ¢ï˛yÇ¢– ~ܲ ò#öò!Ó˚o

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xö%˛õyˆÏï˛ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ⁄ ~åÈyí˛¸yÄ öï%˛ö !ܲå%È

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!•§yˆÏÓÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ˆö•z– ˆÎüö •ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ öï˛%ö

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ܲÓ˚ˆÏ° 50000 ê˛yܲy ç!Ó˚üyöy •ˆÏÓ– !•ê˛yÓ˚

§• ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ˜Óò%!ï˛ö ÓƒÓ•yÎ≈ âˆÏÓ˚ ÌyܲˆÏ°

10000 ê˛yܲy ç!Ó˚üyöy •ˆÏÓ– ˆüˆÏ§Ó˚ !ú˛

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ˆç~ö•zí˛z ≤Ãy=˛ö#ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏï˛ñ àï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲ ÓåȈÏÓ˚

!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚ ã˛cˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆáy°yˆÏü°y ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢

˛õ!Ó˚ܲ!“ï˛û˛yˆÏÓ öT˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÄÎẙ •ˆÏFåÈ– ˆÎüö

ˆüˆÏÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ˛õy¢yˆÏܲÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ !Ó!ô!öˆÏ£Ïô

xyˆÏÓ˚y˛õ ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏFåÈñ ˆåȈϰˆÏòÓ˚ •ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ°

ˆüˆÏÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ Îyï˛yÎ˚yˆÏï˛ öyöy !öˆÏ£ÏôyK˛y çy!Ó˚

ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– •ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ° Óy•zˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyí˛zˆÏܲ

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xyˆÏ®y°ö ~•z §yü!@ˇÃܲ !ã˛eê˛yÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚%ˆÏÂôñ !ú˛

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çyö%Î˚y!Ó˚ 2016ˆï˛ ~ü çàò#¢ Ü%˛üyÓ˚

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!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆüôyÓ# åÈye ˆÓ˚y!•ï˛ ˆû˛ü%°y

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•ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ˆç~ö•zí˛zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ åÈyeåÈye#Ó˚yÄ

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ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Îyöñ ˆò¢!ÓˆÏÓ˚yô# ˆŸ’yàyö ˆòÄÎ˚yÓ˚

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çüyˆÏÎ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆò¢!ÓˆÏÓẙô# ˆŸ’yàyö ˆòÄÎẙ •ˆÏFåÈ

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öyüܲÓ˚î ܲˆÏÓ˚ Úê%˛Ü˛ˆÏí˛¸ ê%˛Ü˛ˆÏí˛¸ àƒyÇÛ–

§üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020 5

ˆç~ö•zí˛z ı ~ܲ!ê˛ û˛yÓöyˆÏܲ ôùLjϧÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y

ˆ§yüöyÌ à%•

~•z âê˛öyÓ˚ öÎ˚ üy§ ÓyˆÏòñ xˆÏQyÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ 15

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ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÓüy°%ü àyˆÏÎ˚Ó •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– öy!çÓ üye

§Æy•áyˆÏöܲ xyˆÏà !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚

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~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ ~•z åÈyeÓ˚y ï˛yˆÏܲ òú˛yÎ˚ òú˛yÎ˚ üyÓ˚ôÓ˚

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Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ˆ§ ï˛yÓ˚ üyˆÏܲ ˆú˛yö ܲˆÏÓ˚– ï˛yÓ˚ üy

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!öÎ˚üÓ˚«˛yˆÏÌ≈ ~ܲ!ê˛ ï˛òhsˇÜ˛yÓ˚# ò° •Î˚ ~ÓÇ

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üˆÏôƒ 2017 §yˆÏ° ≤ây§!öܲ û˛ÓˆÏöÓ˚

xyˆÏ¢˛õyˆÏ¢ ≤Ã!ï˛Óyòñ !ӈϫ˛yˆÏû˛Ó˚ IJõÓ˚

!öˆÏ£ÏôyK˛y çy!Ó˚ •Î˚– 2019ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ üyˆÏã≈˛

åÈyeåÈye#Ó˚y í˛z˛õyã˛yÎ≈Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ §yüˆÏö !ӈϫ˛yû˛

ˆòáyö– !ï˛!ö x!û˛ˆÏÎyà ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ˆÎ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸

xyܲüî ܲÓẙ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° ~ÓÇ flf#ˆÏܲ xÓÓ˚%Âô ܲˆÏÓ˚

Ó˚yáy •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– !ú˛ Ó,!ÂôÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚%ˆÏÂô xyˆÏ®y°ö

¢%Ó˚% •Î˚ àï˛ xˆÏQyÓÓ˚ üy§ ˆÌˆÏܲ– üyöÓ§¡õò

üsfܲ ò%ÓyÓ˚ •zí˛z!öÎ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ôˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏAà

xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ §üyôyö §)e ÓyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚– ò%ÓyÓ˚•z

í˛z˛õyã˛yÎ≈ ï˛y üyöˆÏï˛ xfl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– !ï˛!ö

•zí˛z!öÎ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ôˆÏòÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÎ˚

Ó§ˆÏï˛•z Óẙ!ç öö– åÈyeåÈye#ˆÏòÓ˚ myÓẙ !öÓ≈y!ã˛ï˛

~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ 8 ˛õyï˛yÎ˚


6 §üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020

ܲ!Óï˛y ≠ §%Ó ï˛ Ó˚%o

xy•ùyö

xyüÓ˚y•z ~ˆÏܲ x˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚y!ê˛Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢ ¢yòy ç!üˆÏï˛

˛õÓ˚flõˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ åÈ!Ó ÓˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓí˛¸y•z–

xˆÏöܲܲy° ˛õÓ˚ ï%˛!ü Órô%ˆÏܲ ˆòˆÏá

º)ÈÙÈÎ%à° ~ܲ ˛õ°Ü˛ IJõˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ°•z öy!üˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏ°

§•§y •y!§ü%ááy!ö ˆï˛yüyÓ˚

≤ÃÌü Ó£Ï≈yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ã˛yÓ˚˛õy¢ ˆû˛çyˆÏ°y

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xyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ !ü!öê˛ Óy!ܲÙÙÙÈ

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ܲ# ˆ¢yöyÓ˚ çˆÏöƒ ˆÎ

ܲyˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ˛õÎ˚y°yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ •yï˛ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá xyˆÏåÈ ˆ§ÙÙÙÈ

ˆÜ˛yö §%ôy û˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ÓƒyÜ%˛°Ê

ï˛yˆÏï˛ öï%˛ö ~ܲê˛y ú%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ çß√ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°–

¢)ˆÏöƒÄ !ܲå%È ~ܲê˛y xÑyܲˆÏí˛¸ ôÓ˚y ˆ§•z xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸

ܲyåÈåÈyí˛¸y •ÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ ~ˆÏܲÓyˆÏÓ˚ åÈyí˛¸y ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ñ

áy!°•z Óy ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚Ê

•!Ó˚î

§yÓ˚y!òö ôˆÏÓ˚ xyܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ Ó˚Ç Óò°yÎ˚

ˆÓ°y Óyí˛¸yÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yÎ˚ xyܲyˆÏ¢ •!Ó˚î •!Ó˚î# ˆòá!åÈ

ˆüˆÏâÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ •!Ó˚î#Ó˚ |zÓ˚%Ó˚ ˆ˛õ!¢ñ !û˛ˆÏç ˆÜÑ˛ˆÏ˛õ Äë˛y

ï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚%ˆÏ˛õy!° !Óò%ƒÍ 鲰ܲ

˛õy[%˛Ó˚yçyÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ xyˆÏà ˆ¢£ÏÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ÿªy§ ˆöÄÎ˚yÙÙÙÈ

Îy ÓyhflÏÓ ï˛y•z §!ï˛ƒ öÎ˚–

§!ï˛ƒ •ˆÏ°y •!Ó˚îê˛y ˛õy[%˛Ó˚yçy

ܲyüyï≈˛ ÓÑyôy ˛õˆÏí˛¸ xyˆÏåÈ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛Ó˚ Ó#îyÓ˚ ï˛yˆÏÓ˚

ˆÎ «˛üï˛y ~ï˛«˛î !åÈ° â%!üˆÏÎ˚ ï˛y ˆÎö •ë˛yÍ í˛zë˛ˆÏ°y ˆçˆÏà–

!§ˆÏöüy xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ Ü˛!Óï˛y Ä §Çà#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ üyé˛áyˆÏö xÓ!fiÌï˛ ~ܲê˛y üyôƒüÈı Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%Æ

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Úܲy°˛õ%Ó˚%£ÏÛñ ÚÓyâ Óy•yò%Ó˚Ûñ Úï˛y•yˆÏòÓ˚ ܲÌyÛ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Ó•% ã˛°!Fã˛e çyï˛#Î˚ Ä xyhsˇç≈y!ï˛Ü˛ hflψÏÓ˚ öyöy ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyˆÏÓ˚ §ü,Âô •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%ˆÏÆÓ˚ ~•z §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚!ê˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö çÎ˚hsˇ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚–

çÎ˚hsˇ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ı Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓòyñ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö

§üÎ˚ê˛yÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ xy˛õ!ö Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö ˆÎ

xy˛õöyˆÏܲ ܲ!Óñ ˆ°áܲ Óy !ã˛e˛õ!Ó˚ã˛y°Ü˛ •ˆÏï˛

•ˆÏÓ⁄ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆ≤ë˛y˛õê˛ Î!ò ˛õyë˛Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ӈϰöÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%Æ ı á%Ó ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yˆÏÓ°yÎ˚ñ Îáö

xyüyÓ˚ ˛õˆÏöˆÏÓ˚yÈÙȈ£ÏyˆÏ°y ÓåÈÓ˚ ÓÎ˚§ñ ï˛áö

ˆÌˆÏܲ•z xy!ü !§ˆÏöüyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ xy@ˇÃ•# •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õ!í˛¸–

ܲ!Óï˛yÄ !°áˆÏï˛ ¢%Ó˚% ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ ï˛áö ˆÌˆÏܲ–

xyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y !ç!öˆÏ§Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§y !åÈ°–

ˆ§ê˛y •° •zܲö!ü:– ~•z !Ó£ÏÎ˚ê˛y !öˆÏÎ˚Ä ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚

˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ï˛ˆÏÓ ~ܲ•z §ˆÏAà ܲ!Óï˛y

ˆ°áy xyÓ˚ !§ˆÏöüy !öˆÏÎ˚ üyï˛yüy!ï˛Èñ ˆÓ¢

é˛Ñ%!ܲÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ !åÈ°– ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ !¢«˛Ü˛ï˛yÓ˚

ã˛yܲ!Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ì%˛ˆÏܲñ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏï˛ÈÙÈ˛õí˛¸yˆÏï˛•z xy!ü ˆÓ¢

ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ í˛Ü%˛ˆÏürê˛y!Ó˚ åÈ!Ó ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲ!Ó˚– ~Ó˚ !ܲå%È

!òö ˛õˆÏÓ˚ Îáö Úò)Ó˚cÛ åÈ!Óê˛y ¢%Ó˚% ܲÓ˚°yü ï˛áö

ã˛yܲ!Ó˚ê˛y ˆåȈÏí˛¸ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– á%Ó Ü˛T˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ä•z

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öï%˛ö ~ܲê˛y !§ˆÏöüyÓ˚ û˛y£Ïy §,!T˛ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y

ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü– ï˛y•z ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ xyÓ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ ˆ˛õåȈÏö

ï˛yܲyˆÏï˛ •Î˚!ö–

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ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚– Ú~«˛îÛ ˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ à“ê˛y

ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ò%!ê˛ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆ≤ÈÏüÓ˚ à“– !ܲå%È

öy ˆû˛ˆÏÓ•z !fl;≤Wz !°áˆÏï˛ ¢%Ó˚% ܲˆÏÓ˚

!òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– !fl;≤Wz ˆ¢£Ï ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ã˛yܲ!Ó˚

ˆåȈÏí˛¸ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ §ÓyÓ˚ xüï˛ !åÈ°ñ

!ܲv xy!ü ˆï˛yÎ˚yE˛y ܲ!Ó˚!ö– •yçyÓ˚ !eˆÏ¢Ü˛

ê˛yܲy ˆçyàyí˛¸ ܲˆÏÓ˚ üüï˛y ¢ÇܲÓ˚ Ä ≤Ãò#˛õ

ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ åÈ!ÓÓ˚ ¢%!ê˛Ç ¢%Ó˚% ܲ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚

!òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– xyüyÓ˚ Órô% xyÎ˚yö Ó˚!¢ò áyö

xyÓ˚ Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ S≤Ãy=˛ö ü%áƒüsf#ñ

˛õ!ÿ˛üÓAà §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚V ï˛áö xyüyˆÏܲ á%Ó

xy°˛õöy

§y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– Ä•z åÈ!Óê˛y öyÈÙÈ•ˆÏ° xy!ü

ˆ¢£Ï ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yü öy–

çÎ˚hsˇ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ı ~•z §,!T˛¢#° çàˆÏï˛

≤ÈÏӈϢÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe xy˛õöyÓ˚ !¢«˛yÓ˚ Ó%!öÎ˚yòê˛y

ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%Æ ı xyüyÓ˚ ÓyÓy ˆÓ˚ˆÏ°Ó˚ í˛y=˛yÓ˚

!åȈϰö– ï˛ÑyÓ˚ !åÈ° Óò!°Ó˚ ã˛yܲ!Ó˚– ˆ§•z §)ˆÏe

ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yˆÏÓ°yÎ˚ xyüÓ˚y Ó•% çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ â%ˆÏÓ˚!åÈ–

ˆÎüö áí˛¸à˛õ%Ó˚ñ xô%öy åÈ!e¢àí˛¸ ˆç°yÓ˚

üˆÏöwàí˛¸– ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛Ó˚ öyöy Ó˚)ˆÏ˛õÓ˚ §y!ߨˆÏôƒ

~ˆÏ§!åÈ– Ü˛ï˛ Ó˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ x!û˛K˛ï˛y §Ó– §y˛õ

ôÓ˚yñ §yˆÏ˛õÓ˚ !˛õåȈÏö ˆòÔí˛¸yˆÏöy– ÓyÓy

ã˛yܲ!Ó˚§)ˆÏe ~üö ~üö çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈö

ˆÎáyˆÏö •zˆÏ°!Q…!§!ê˛ !åÈ° öy– °Z˛ˆÏöÓ˚

xyˆÏ°yˆÏï˛•z xyüÓ˚y ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ Ó§ï˛yü– üy àyö

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•ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎï˛yü– xyüyÓ˚ !§ˆÏöüyÎ˚ñ ˆ°áyÎ˚

ˆ§•z§Ó !òöà%ˆÏ°y Óy ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛ ≤ÃFåÈߨû˛yˆÏÓ

Ó•%ÓyÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ– ~åÈyí˛¸y Ä•z§Ó çyÎ˚àyÓ˚

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˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° xyüyÓ˚– ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §y•ã˛Î≈ }Âô

ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ xyüyˆÏܲ– ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢ Ó•z ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ˆö¢y

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ˆÓ˚çyŒê˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ï˛y•z §y!•ï˛ƒã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe

Óy!í˛¸ ˆÌˆÏܲ á%Ó ˆÓ!¢ Óyôy ˛õy•z!ö– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe

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ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yüyüyñ §üˆÏÓ˚w ˆ§öà%Æ– í˛z!ö !åȈϰö

Ó!í˛!Ó”˛yÓ˚ñ àyÎ˚ܲ Ä ÓˆÏí˛¸yüyˆÏ˛õÓ˚ ~ܲçö

ܲ!Ó– ÄöyÓ˚ §òƒ ˆ°áy ܲ!Óï˛yà%ˆÏ°y xyüyˆÏܲ

˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˆ¢yöyˆÏï˛ö– ˆ§•z ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛

xyüyÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§y ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–

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ã˛Äí˛¸y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ Óy•z¢ÓåÈÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛ ˆà°

~ܲ Ó%ˆÏí˛¸y Óy˛õ ë˛yÜ%˛Ó˚òyÓ˚ xyü° ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó!°Ó˚ áÑyí˛¸y

˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ xy§ˆÏåÈ

ÓˆÏôƒÓ˚ âyˆÏí˛¸ ˆ°ˆÏà ï˛yÓ˚ áÑyí˛¸y ܲáˆÏöy !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§ öy

~ܲ!òö •ë˛yÍ !é˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏí˛¸ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòá°

Ó˚yç•ÑyˆÏ§Ó˚ í˛yöyÎ˚ ¢#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˛õí˛¸hsˇ ˆÓ˚yòÙÙÙÈ

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xyüàyˆÏåÈ Óy§y ˆÓшÏô xyˆÏåÈ

~áö ï˛yÓ˚ ÓˆÏÎ˚§ !ï˛Ó˚y!¢

ӈϰñ !ܲå%È ã˛yÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆö•z

~•z§Ó !Ó®% !Ó®% ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ üyˆÏö •y°Ü˛y •yÄÎ˚yÎ˚

Ó%ˆÏí˛¸yÓ˚y öò#Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y xy°˛õöy ~шÏܲ ~шÏܲ

ÓˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚

ˆüâÓ,!T˛

xrô !ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚# Ó°ˆÏåÈ xrô !ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚ˆÏܲ Ó,!T˛ •ˆÏ° çy!ö§ xq$ï˛ ~ܲê˛y ܲy[˛ •Î˚

xyüyÓ˚ àyåÈà%ˆÏ°y ô܉˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ áy!öܲê˛y ÓyˆÏí˛¸

ˆÓ˚yç ç° !ò!FåÈ ï˛yˆÏï˛ !ܲåÈ% •Î˚ öy ï˛yˆÏï˛ ~ܲê%˛ ÓyˆÏí˛¸

Ó,!T˛Ó˚ ç° ˆ˛õˆÏ°•z ã˛ê˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ áyÓyÓ˚ ˛õyܲ xyÓ˚ öy ˛õyܲ

¢%ˆÏö xrô !ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚ Ó°ˆÏåÈñ ˆï˛yˆÏܲ å%Èшϰ•z ôÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ ܲáö xy§ˆÏÓ ˆüˆÏâÓ˚ í˛yܲ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ˆéÑ˛yܲê˛y xyüyÓ˚ ÓÓ˚yÓÓ˚•z

!åÈ°– û˛yÓï˛yü ÓˆÏí˛¸y •ˆÏ° üyfiê˛yÓ˚ü¢y•z •Ó–

!ܲv Îáö xôƒy˛õöy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ¢%Ó˚% ܲÓ˚°yü ï˛áö

!§ˆÏöüy Ä Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ xy!ü í%˛!Ó ˆà!åÈ–

ï˛áöܲyÓ˚ !òˆÏö !§ˆÏöüy ˆòáy ~ï˛ §•ç

Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ !åÈ° öy– xyüyÓ˚ üyüy §üˆÏÓẘ ˆ§öà%Æ

!åȈϰö ܲƒy°Ü˛yê˛y !ú˛Õ√ ˆ§y§y•z!ê˛Ó˚ ˆü¡∫yÓ˚–

ÄáyˆÏö ˆü¡∫yÓ˚ •ˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏ° ≤ÃyÆÓÎ˚flÒ •ˆÏï˛

•Î˚– ÓÎ˚§ ûÑ˛y!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ xy!ü ˆ£ÏyˆÏ°y ÓåÈÓ˚ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§•z

ÄáyöܲyÓ˚ ˆü¡∫yÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– ˆ§ê˛y

xyüyÓ˚ á%Ó í˛z˛õܲyˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°– x“ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§•z

!Óáƒyï˛ §Ó x!û˛ˆÏöï˛y Óy ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛y°Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚

ܲyçܲˆÏü≈Ó˚ §ˆÏAà ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü–

ˆÎüö ã˛y!°≈ ã˛ƒy˛õ!°öñ xy!ܲÓ˚y Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚y¢yÄÎ˚yñ

!í˛ˆÏ_y!Ó˚Ä !í˛ !§Ü˛yñ xyˆÏhsˇy!öÄ!öñ Óyà≈üƒyöñ

Ó˚ÓyˆÏï≈˛y ˆÓ˚yˆÏ§y!°!ö– ~åÈyí˛¸y §ï˛ƒ!çÍ Ó˚yÎ˚ñ

ü,îy° ˆ§öñ }!cܲ âê˛Ü˛ñ ÓyÓ˚#ö §y•yÓ˚

!§ˆÏöüyÓ˚ xy!ü xö%Ó˚yà# !åÈ°yü– ï˛ˆÏÓ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚

ܲyí˛zˆÏܲ•z xy!ü xö%ܲÓ˚î ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲ!Ó˚!ö–

~ܲê˛y !òˆÏöÓ˚ ܲÌy á%Ó üˆÏö ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ–

üƒy!ç!fiê˛Ü˛ •ˆÏ° ~ܲÓyÓ˚ Óyà≈üƒyˆÏöÓ˚ åÈ!Ó

ˆòáyˆÏöy •ˆÏÓ– ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yüyüy ~ܲê˛y ܲyí≈˛ !òˆÏ°ö–

ˆ§•z ܲyˆÏí≈˛Ó˚ ˆòÔ°ˆÏï˛ Óyà≈üƒyˆÏöÓ˚ åÈ!Ó ˆòˆÏá

xy!ü ü%?ô •ˆÏÎ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– ~ï˛ û˛yˆÏ°y

ˆ°ˆÏà!åÈ° ˆÎ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!òö ˆÜ˛üö ~ܲê˛y ˆâyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

üˆÏôƒ !åÈ°yü– ~•z û˛yˆÏ°y°yàyà%ˆÏ°y ˛õˆÏÓ˚

û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§yÎ˚ Ó˚)˛õyhsˇ!Ó˚ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚

!§ˆÏöüyÈÙÈ˛õyà° ~ܲê˛y üyö%£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ°yü–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xyüÓ˚y çy!ö ˆÎ xy˛õ!ö ~ܲ§üÎ˚

ˆÓyˆÏ•!üÎ˚yö ç#Óö ܲy!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö– ˆ§•z

x!û˛K˛ï˛y xy˛õöyˆÏܲ }Âô ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy

ܲƒy!Ó˚Î˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ «˛!ï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı «˛!ï˛ !ܲå%È Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚!ö– §!ï˛ƒ ܲÌy

§%Ó ï˛ Ó˚%ˆÏoÓ˚ çß√ 19 xyàfiê˛ 1947ñ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚– ~•z ܲ!Ó §Ó≈«˛ˆÏîÓ˚

çöƒ §y!•ï˛ƒüöflÒ– §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ çöƒ•z !ï˛!ö xöƒ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ç#!ÓܲyÓ˚ §rôyöÄ

ܲˆÏÓ˚ö!ö– ≤Ãôyöï˛ Ü˛!Ó– ܲ!Óï˛yñ ≤ÃÓrôñ xö%Óyò xyÓ˚ §¡õy!òï˛ Ó•zñ §Ó

!ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §Çáƒy ~ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ– xˆÏöܲà%!° ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

üˆÏôƒ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ •° ı ˆÓшÏã˛ ÌyܲˆÏÓ ˆÜ˛öñ Îü˛õ%Ó˚#ˆÏï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yñ •y§ˆÏï˛

!¢ˆÏáˆÏåÈ à¡∫%çñ xyà%ˆÏö ˆÜ˛ ˆ˛õyí˛¸yˆÏÓ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲñ !˛õë˛ˆÏú˛Ó˚yˆÏöy üÎ˚)Ó˚ñ

xydy•%!ï˛Ó˚ !òöñ ˆò¢ ˆï˛y ~ܲê˛y Óy!í˛¸ñ ç°ú˛!í˛¸ˆÏäÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáñ Ä•z ˆòáy

ÎyÎ˚ Óy!í˛¸ xyüyÓ˚ñ •y!§ÈÙÈ•y!§ ÓyçyÓ˚ñ ˛õyÜ%˛í˛¸˛õyï˛yÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ˛õòƒñ ~ܲê˛y

û%˛Ó˚%Ó˚ °!°ï˛ í˛zˆÏÏ_y°ö–

≤ÃÓˆÏrôÓ˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘áˆÏÎyàƒ Ó•z ı ܲyò¡∫Ó˚# ˆòÓ#ñ «˛îܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ åÈ®ñ ≤ÃÓrôܲyÓ˚

ç#Óöyö®ñ ≤ÃüˆÏÌ¢ ÓXÈ%ˇ¸Î˚yÓ˚ ç#Óöã˛!Ó˚ï˛–

§y!•ï˛ƒ xܲyˆÏò!üÓ˚ ÚÓ˚y•zê˛yÓ˚§ •zö ˆÓ˚!§ˆÏí˛!ÛÓ˚ §¡õ)î≈ xy!Ì≈ܲ

§•yÎ˚ï˛yÎ˚ ï˛ÑyÓ˚ Úܲ!Óï˛y§Ç@ˇÃ•Û ≤Ãܲy¢ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ 2018 §yˆÏ°– x!ï˛ §¡±!ï˛

≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ !§àˆÏöê˛ ˆ≤ç ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆ¢£Ï ܲÈÙÈÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ 71!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚

§Çܲ°ö ÚÓrôöÓ˚I%!ê˛Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ !ã˛Ó˚}î#Û–

Ó°ˆÏï˛ !ܲ xy!ü áy°y!§ˆÏê˛y°yÎ˚ ˆÎï˛yü

ï˛áöܲyÓ˚ !òˆÏöÓ˚ áƒyï˛öyüy ܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ §Aà

˛õyÓyÓ˚ çöƒ– §%ö#° àˆÏAày˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ¢!=˛òyñ

ï˛ß√Î˚ ò_ñ í˛zͲõ°Ü%˛üyÓ˚ Ó§%ñ •zwöyÌ

üç%üòyÓ˚ñ ~ˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ˆü°yˆÏü¢y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎ

x!û˛K˛ï˛y xç≈ö ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü ï˛y xyüyˆÏܲ

}Âô•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–

xyÓyÓ˚ ôÓ˚%ö §%Ó ï˛ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈ñ û˛yflÒÓ˚ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈ñ

ˆòÓy!¢§Ï ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ܲü°Ü%˛üyÓ˚ üç%üòyÓ˚ñ

¢yüˆÏ¢Ó˚ xyˆÏöyÎ˚yÓ˚ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛Ó˚ §ˆÏAà Órô%ˆÏcÓ˚

Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y– üò ˆáˆÏÎ˚Ä xyüÓẙ xyFåÈߨ ˆÌˆÏܲ!åÈ

ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚– ܲˆÏ°ˆÏç ˛õí˛¸yï˛yü ï˛áö– üy§ ˆàˆÏ°

360 ê˛yܲy üy•zˆÏö– ܲ!ú˛ñ üò áyÄÎ˚yñ Ó•z

ˆÜ˛öyñ !§ˆÏöüy ˆòáyÙÙÙÈÈ~•z !åÈ° xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

ç#Óö– Îy üö ã˛y•zï˛ ï˛y•zÈÙÈ•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎï˛yü–

˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÎ˚ û˛yˆÏ°y•z !åÈ°yü– !Ó£ÏÎ˚ !åÈ°

üƒÿÏü!ê˛Ü˛ƒy° •zܲö!ü:– !ë˛Ü˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü

•yû≈˛yˆÏí≈˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲÓ˚Ó– !ܲv ˆ§ê˛y

ÓyhflψÏÓ §Ω˛Ó˛õÓ˚ •Î˚!ö– ~ܲ!òܲ !òˆÏÎ˚ û˛yˆÏ°y•z

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– xy!ü xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ç#Óöê˛yˆÏܲ

ܲyê˛yˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ܲyˆÏÓẙ ܲyˆÏåÈ üyÌy ˆéÑ˛yܲyˆÏï˛

•Î˚!ö– ~ê˛y ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe•z •Î˚

öy–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ~ÓyÓ˚ ~ܲê%˛ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌyÎ˚ xy!§–

xyüyÓ˚ ≤ß¿ÙÙÙÈܲ!Óï˛y ܲ#⁄ ò%ÈÙÈ~ܲ ܲÌyÎ˚ Î!ò

ˆ§ ≤çˆÏAà !ܲå%È ÓˆÏ°öÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı Îy xy˛õöyÓ˚ üöñ ôƒyöôyÓ˚îyˆÏܲ

ˆüy•üÎ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛%°ˆÏï˛ §y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y•zÈÙÈ•z

ܲ!Óï˛y–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı §yÌ≈ܲ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ܲ# ܲ# à%î Ìyܲy

òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ ӈϰ xy˛õöyÓ˚ üˆÏö •Î˚⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı Äû˛yˆÏÓ Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚Ó öy– ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆÎÈÙÈ

ܲ!Óï˛y xyüyˆÏܲ flõ¢≈ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y•z §yÌ≈ܲ

ܲ!Óï˛y– ˆÎüö ç#ÓöyöˆÏ®Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yñ ¢C

ˆâyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xy˛õöyÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü !òܲܲyÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á

!öˆÏÎ˚ !ܲå%È Ó°%ö–

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı Îáö xy!ü Üœ˛y§ •zˆÏ°ˆÏû˛ˆÏöÓ˚ åÈyeñ

ï˛áö xy!ü xyüyÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü Ó•z Úàû˛#Ó˚

~!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏ°ÛÈÙÈÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yà%ˆÏ°y !°ˆÏá!åÈ– ܲ!Óï˛y

xyüyÓ˚ ç#ÓöˆÏܲ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆòáyÓ˚ ˆã˛yáê˛y

˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–

Ä•z §üÎ˚ê˛yÎ˚ Ü˛ï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y !°ˆÏá!åÈñ !åÈшÏí˛¸

ˆú˛ˆÏ°!åÈ– xyÓyÓ˚ !°ˆÏá!åÈ– xyˆÏhflÏ xyˆÏhflÏ

!Ó!û˛ß¨ ˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ í˛yˆÏܲ ˆ°áy ˛õyë˛yˆÏï˛

°yà°yü– ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà•z xüˆÏöyö#ï˛ •ï˛–

~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ ˆÜ˛üö ~ܲê˛y !çò ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°–

ˆ°áyÎ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚y üˆÏöy!öˆÏÓ¢ ܲÓ˚°yü– ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚

ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ˆ°áy ≤Ãܲy¢ ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ °yà°– öçÓ˚

ܲyí˛¸° §Ü˛ˆÏ°Ó˚– ˛õˆÏöˆÏÓ˚y ÓåÈÓ˚ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§ Úˆò¢Û

˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ܲ!Óï˛y ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •Î˚–

~áyˆÏö ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy Ó°y òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚

üyüy §üˆÏÓ˚w ˆ§öà%ÆÓ˚ ˆòÔ°ˆÏï˛ xy!ü

xˆÏöܲ ܲ!ÓÓ˚ §y!ߨôƒ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– üyüyÓ˚

•yçÓ˚y ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ï˛yÓ˚y˛õò Ó˚yÎ˚ñ

≤ÃîÓÜ%˛üyÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ¢!=˛ ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ

≤ÃîˆÏÓ®% òy¢à%Æñ §%ö#° àˆÏAày˛õyôƒyÎ˚ ≤Ãü%á

ܲ!ÓÓ˚y xy§ˆÏï˛ö– üyüyÓ˚ §ˆÏAà !Ó!û˛ß¨

çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˛õyˆÏë˛Ó˚ xy§ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎï˛yü–

~•zû˛yˆÏÓ•z ~•z§Ó áƒy!ï˛üyö ܲ!ÓÓ˚ §ˆÏAà

xyüyÓ˚ xy°y˛õ Ä Óƒ!=˛àï˛ §áƒ àˆÏí˛¸

í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ°–

xyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ §üÓÎ˚!§ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ !åȈϰö

û˛yflÒÓ˚ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈ñ §%Ó ï˛ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈ñ ¢yüˆÏ¢Ó˚

xyˆÏöyÎ˚yÓ˚– ï˛áö ܲƒy°Ü˛yê˛y •zí˛z!öû˛y!§≈!ê˛ˆÏï˛

~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ 7 ˛õyï˛yÎ˚


ˆÜ˛yçyàÓ˚

Ó£Ï≈ 6 §Çáƒy 2 ñ ˆ§ˆÏ≤Wz¡∫Ó˚ 2019ñ 80‡ÈÙÈ˛

76‡1 ˛õyö˛õyí˛¸y ú˛yfiê≈˛ ˆ°ö

ï˛y°˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ñ !˛õöÈÙÈ700123

ÓyÓ˚yܲ˛õ%Ó˚ñ í˛z_Ó˚ 24 ˛õÓ˚àöy

S9433176659V

¢ƒyü° ˜üeñ §yôö ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ã˛®ö ˆ§öñ

Ó˚Ì#wöyÌ ˆû˛Ô!üܲ ~ÓÇ ˆòÓy!¢§

ˆû˛Ô!üܲˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ à!ë˛ï˛ §¡õyòܲü[˛°# ˆÎ

˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ òy!Î˚c Ó•ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ à%îüyö

≤çˆÏAà ≤ß¿ ˆï˛y°yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy xÓܲy¢ ÌyˆÏܲ

öy– åÈÛÓåÈÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ !ö!ò≈T˛ û)˛á[˛ SÓyÓẙܲ˛õ%Ó˚

ü•Ü%˛üy xM˛°V ˆÜ˛!wܲ ˆ°áܲˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲ!eï˛

ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yçyàÓ˚–

˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ !Óû˛yà Óy ˛õÓ≈ !Óöƒy§ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÓyé˛y

ÎyÎ˚ ˆüôy Ä üöˆÏöÓ˚ §¡õߨ !ü° âˆÏê˛ˆÏåÈ ~•z

˛õ!eܲyÎ˚– ˙!ï˛•ƒ §rôyö !Óû˛yˆÏà û˛y£Ïy!Óò

•!Ó˚öyÌ ˆò ~ÓÇ Ó˚yáy° òy§ ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚

≤çˆÏAà ò%!ê˛ ≤ÃÓrô– !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö xüÓ˚öyÌ

û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ Ä ï˛˛õö ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚–

§¡õyòܲü[˛°#Ó˚ §ò§ƒ öyê˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ ã˛®ö ˆ§ö

§òƒ≤ÃÎ˚yï˛ öyê˛ƒ Ä §y!•ï˛ƒ Óƒ!=˛c !à!Ó˚¢

ܲyÓ˚öyí˛ ≤çˆÏAà xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö–

§Ç!«˛Æ ˛õ!Ó˚§ˆÏÓ˚ á%Ó•z §yôyÓ˚î xyˆÏ°yã˛öy–

ü)°ï˛ fløÓ˚î–

!Ó!¢T˛ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ ~ÓÇ §¡õyòܲü[˛°#Ó˚

§ò§ƒ §yôö ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ çß√¢ï˛ÓÏ£Ï≈

í˛z˛õ°ˆÏ«˛ƒ ˆ§yˆÏüö ã˛® ≤çˆÏAà !öÓrô

!°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö– Ó•%ã˛!ã≈˛ï˛ !ӣψÏÎ˚Ó˚ ~ܲe#ܲÓ˚îñ

öï%˛ö !ܲå%È ˆö•z–

2019 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ Ó•zˆÏü°yÎ˚ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ

Ü,˛£÷y Ó§%Ó˚ ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃrÌ xy!ï≈˛û˛Ó˚y í˛zFã˛yÓ˚îüy°y–

§_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ò¢ˆÏܲÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü §y!Ó˚Ó˚ ܲ!Ó Ü,˛£÷y Ó§%Ó˚

~•z ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃˆÏrÌ 56!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y xyˆÏåÈ–

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛ñ §¡õÜ≈˛ñ ˆ¢y!£Ïï˛

§üyç–

≤ÃyÎ˚ §Ó ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏï˛•z ò%Éá ~ܲy!ܲˆÏcÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚y

@ˇÃy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏåÈ– xyˆÏåÈ öyÓ˚#ˆÏòÓ˚ ÓM˛öy

ˆ¢y£ÏˆÏîÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚%ˆÏÂô ï˛#Ó ˆŸ’£Ï–

Ú§yÓẙ Óẙ!_Ó˚ çyöy°yê˛y ôˆÏÓ˚ ӈϧ xyåÈ ˆÜ˛ö

ë˛yÎ˚⁄‡ ˆ§ ã˛ˆÏ° !àˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ï%˛•z â%ˆÏüy!Ó öy⁄ Óẙï˛

àyì˛¸ •°ñ xyÎ˚–‡üyǧ !Ó˛õ!î ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚

Üœ˛yhsˇ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆ§ ˆú˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ‡ˆ§ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ°Äñ ï˛yÓ˚

§Óê%˛Ü%˛ ˆú˛ˆÏÓ˚ öy !öˆÏçÓ˚ âˆÏÓ˚–‡Ó˚yï˛ ˆçˆÏà

xyˆÏåÈyñ ~ܲy §%Ü%˛üyÓ˚#ñ Ü˛ï˛ Óẙï˛ ˆçˆÏà xyˆÏåÈy⁄

û%˛° üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˛õÌ ã˛yÄ ˆÜ˛ö⁄ !öˆÏçÓ˚ çöƒ

ÓÑyˆÏã˛y– Söï%˛ö ˛õ%Ó˚yîV

xÌÓy xyÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y

ÚĈÏày ˛õ)Ó≈öyÓ˚#Û Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ !ï˛!ö !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ

Ú....§yÓ˚y!òöüyö ôˆÏÓ˚ §Ü˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆ§Óy ܲˆÏÓ˚

ÎyˆÏÓ– ˆï˛yÎ˚yç ˆï˛y£ÏîÈ !òˆÏÎ˚ á%!¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚y

§Ü˛°ˆÏܲ ï%˛!üñ §yÓ˚y!òö ܲyˆÏê˛ ◊ˆÏü Ä

ˆ§ÓyÎ˚....§ÓyÓ˚ ˆï˛yÎ˚yç ܲˆÏÓ˚yñ ˆï˛yüyÎ˚

ˆï˛yÎ˚yç ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z⁄Û

Úü%!=˛ÛÓ˚ çöƒ ï˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏÓòö

Úܲï˛!òö åÈyˆÏò ÎyÄ!ö ï%˛!ü–‡Ü˛ï˛!òö

xyܲy¢ ˆòˆÏáy!ö‡âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ç∑ •ˆÏÎ˚

xyˆÏåÈy‡Ü˛ï˛!òö ö«˛e ˆòˆÏáy!ö

xyܲyˆÏ¢‡Ü˛ï˛!òö ã˛wy•ï˛ •Ä!öˆÏï˛y Ó˚yˆÏï˛–

....üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ åÈyˆÏò ÎyÄñ xyܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚

ï˛°yÎ˚–

~•z§Ó ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢ ˜¢¢ˆÏÓÓ˚ !òö

!ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ xy!ï≈˛Ä xyˆÏåÈ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚–

˜¢¢Ó•z ˆï˛y fl∫≤¿ ˆòáyÎ˚ ˜¢¢Ó•z ˆòÎ˚

xyˆÏ°y‡ flø,!ï˛Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˜¢¢ˆÏÓÓ˚•z !Óò%ƒÍ

ã˛üܲyˆÏ°y–‡˜¢¢Ó•z ˆï˛y ¢y§ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÓÎ˚flÒ §Ó

!òöñ‡˜¢¢ˆÏÓÓ˚•z ܲyˆÏåÈ xyˆÏåÈ xöhsˇ ~ܲ }î–

SxyÉ ˜¢¢Ó– ÓyÉ ˜¢¢ÓV

xyÓ˚Ä Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ û˛yˆÏ°y°yày ܲ!Óï˛yñ ≤ÃÓy§#

˛õ%eˆÏܲ üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !ã˛!ë˛ñ ÓÑyã˛y xyüyÓ˚ ò%Éá# •,òÎ˚ñ

ˆû˛ˆÏä ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ñ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛–

~•z ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃˆÏrÌÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yà%!° ˛õyë˛Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚

û˛yˆÏ°y °yàˆÏÓ– ≤ÃÓ#Ó˚ xyã˛yˆÏÎ≈Ó˚ ≤ÃFåÈò

xyܲ£Ï≈î#Î˚– Ó•z!ê˛Ó˚ ≤Ãܲy¢Ü˛ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛–

òyü 100 ê˛yܲy–

öï%˛ö ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ Ó•z

í˛zòÎ˚ö û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈

§¡±!ï˛ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛˛ !°ê˛° üƒyày!çö

ˆ§Ô!üe °y!•í˛¸#

xü,ï˛y ≤Ã#ï˛ˆÏüÓ˚Ä çß√¢ï˛Ó£Ï≈ !åÈ° ~ÓyÓ˚–

˛õyOy!Ó Ä !•!® §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ x§yüyöƒ ˆ°!áܲy

xü,ï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ◊Âôy çyöyˆÏï˛ ï˛ÑyÓ˚•z ~ܲ!ê˛ ˆ°áy

Ú!•®%Ó˚ ç° ü%§°üyˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õy!öÛ xö%Óyò

ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö §üÓ˚ ã˛®– §üÓ˚ !•!® ˆÌˆÏܲ !öÎ˚!üï˛

ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ xö%Óyò ܲˆÏÓ˚ ΈÏÌT˛ §¡øyö •z!ï˛üˆÏôƒ•z

xç≈ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– x!ï˛ §Ç!«˛Æ !ܲvÈ

≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ ˆ°áy!ê˛Ó˚ xö%Óyò §üˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

xö%ÓyòÈÙÈò«˛ï˛yÓ˚ fl∫y«˛Ó˚ Ó•ö ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–

2019 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ öˆÏû˛¡∫Ó˚ üyˆÏ§ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ¢ÇܲÓ˚ Ó§%Ó˚ £Ï¤˛ ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃrÌ hflÏkôï˛yÓ˚

àyö ˆ¢yˆÏöy– ï˛ÑyÓ˚ Ó•%üy!eܲ ≤Ã!ï˛û˛y !òˆÏÎ˚

!ï˛!ö Ó˚ã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ò%!ê˛ Ü˛yÓƒ@ˇÃrÌñ ã˛yÓ˚!ê˛

à“@ˇÃrÌ ~ÓÇ !ï˛ö!ê˛ í˛z˛õöƒy§– 56!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y

!öˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃˆÏrÌ xˆÏöܲ ܲ!Óï˛y•z

˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ üöˆÏܲ flõ¢≈ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓ–

ÚÎ%ÂôˆÏ¢£ÏÛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ !ï˛!ö !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ Ú§!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚

ˆÓ˚ˆÏá!åÈ §Ü˛° ܲ°ü‡§yòy ˛õ,¤˛yÎ˚ åÈ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !åÈ!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚

•yçyˆÏÓ˚y flø,!ï˛‡ˆê˛!ӈϰÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ç#Óöyö®

ÎÌyÓ˚#!ï˛– ...û˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ Ó%ܲ ≤Ãï˛ƒyáƒyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ§ÔÓ˚ˆÏû˛

ï˛Ó% ï˛yÓ˚•z ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆÎˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ‡ˆã˛yÓẙˆÏflÀyˆÏï˛ ¢%ˆÏÎ˚

xyˆÏåÈ §Ç§yÓ˚ ¢ÎƒyÎ˚‡≤Ãy˜Ïà!ï˛•y!§Ü˛ ܲFåÈˆÏ˛õÓ˚

!˛õˆÏë˛ û˛yÓöy !àˆÏ° áyÎ˚Û–

§ü§yü!Î˚ܲ !Ó£ÏÎ˚à%!° xˆÏöܲ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚

!ï˛!ö ï%˛ˆÏ° ôˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– Ú•zí˛z!öÎ˚öÛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ñ

Óyï˛yˆÏ§ í˛zí˛¸ˆÏåÈ x!ÓŸªyˆÏ§Ó˚ !ӣχˆüˆÏâÓ˚ Óy‹õ

ö#°Ü˛Z˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벇üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚

!ã˛ï˛yÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈȈ§y¢ƒy° !ü!í˛Î˚y ã%Ñ˛•zˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸‡ê˛yê˛Ü˛y

@ˇÃ#î ܲ!Ó˚í˛ˆÏÓ˚–‡Ó˚ˆÏ=˛ ˆû˛çy xyë˛yˆÏÓ˚yÓ˚

•zí˛z§%ú˛‡¢%ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ í˛z˛õã˛yˆÏöy Ó˚ˆÏ§Ó˚

!ӈϣχӃyÜ%˛° ≤ÃyˆÏîÓ˚ xyܲyˆÏ¢‡ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ĈÏë˛

ˆÎÔÓˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü xyˆÏ°y–

~•z Ó˚ܲü•z xyÓ˚Ä ~ܲ!ê˛ xyˆÏ°y!ã˛ï˛ !Ó£ÏÎ˚

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ°ˆÏüñ ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ ò)£Ïî–

ˆú˛fiê%˛ö !°ú˛ˆÏ°ˆÏê˛Ó˚ Óî≈üy°yÎ˚‡≤Ã!ï˛!òö

ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ ò)£Ïî– ˆú˛fiê%˛ö‡ˆüˆÏâñ

í˛zã%˛òˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓL˛õyï˛ xyÓ˚‡ã˛ü≈ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏà

xyˆÏ§≈!öˆÏܲÓ˚ ≤Ãû˛yÓ‡!üˆÏ°!üˆÏ¢ á°öyÎ˚ˆÏܲÓ˚

!ÓˆÏfl≥˛yÓ˚îÙÙÙ‡ˆê˛!ö§ ӈϰÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y

!¢°yÓ,!T˛‡ˆá!òˆÏÎ˚ !ò° ܲyˆÏ°y ˆüˆÏâÓ˚ ühflÏy!ö–

àÎ˚öyÓ˚ Óy:Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ çˆÏü Ìyܲy §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

ô%ˆÏ°y §!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !§®%ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ !ï˛!ö á%шÏç

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö â%!üˆÏÎ˚ Ìyܲy üö xyÓ˚ !§®%ܲ á%ˆÏ°

ˆòˆÏáˆÏåÈö !òö ÓòˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õy°yñ ô)§Ó˚ÓˆÏî≈Ó˚

ˆ≤ÃÔì˛¸yÓ˚ ò#â≈Ÿªy§ñ xy¢yÈÙÈ!öÓẙ¢yÓ˚ fl∫≤¿ñ ÓyˆÏ:Ó˚

ày ˆÓˆÏÎ˚ à!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ Ó˚=˛öò#Ó˚ ôyÓ˚y–

xyÓ˚Ä Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚Ïܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÙÙÙÈ!ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§y ÓyÇ°y

û˛y£Ïyñ ˆ¢£Ï ˆ•üˆÏhsˇÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚yñ à%°üyˆÏà≈ §rôƒyñ

˛õy˛õ#ñ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ §Ó ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚•z û˛yˆÏ°y

°yàˆÏÓ– ¢∑ã˛Î˚ˆÏö ˆÜ˛yˆÏöyÓ˚ܲü ˛õy![˛ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚

˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚ öy !òˆÏÎ˚ §•ˆÏç ˆÓyôàüƒ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚

ܲ!Óï˛y Ó˚ã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ≤ÃFåÈò!ê˛Ä §%®Ó˚–

~шÏܲˆÏåÈö ≤ÃÓ#Ó˚ xyã˛yÎ≈– Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ≤Ãܲy¢Ü˛

~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛– òyü 100 ê˛yܲy–

§%Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ àyÎ˚ܲ Óyäy!°Ó˚ !ã˛Ó˚fløÓ˚î#Î˚ !¢“#

ˆ•ühsˇ ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ¢ï˛Ó£Ï≈ í˛z˛õ°ˆÏ«˛ƒÄ

~ܲ!ê˛ !öÓrô !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö x§#ü ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚–

!ï˛!ö !öˆÏçÄ !¢“# ~ÓÇ àîöyê˛ƒ xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚

ˆöï˛yñ ï˛y•z ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy xöƒ üyey

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

Úˆ°!öö 150Û !¢ˆÏÓ˚yöyüyÎ˚ xöƒï˛ü

§¡õyòܲ ¢ƒyü° ˜üe !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö ~ܲ!ê˛

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!§Âô•hflÏ– ~•z Ó˚ã˛öyÎ˚ ï˛ÑyÓ˚ ü%ö!¢Î˚yöy öï%˛ö

ܲˆÏÓ˚ ôÓ˚y ˛õˆÏí˛¸– ˆ°!öˆÏöÓ˚ !Ó˛õ%°

Ó˚ã˛öy§Ω˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ xyÎ˚ï˛ö ˆÓyé˛yˆÏï˛ ˆ°áܲ

Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öyÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ öçÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö–

~ܲê%˛ xfl∫!hflÏܲÓ˚ üˆÏö •ˆÏ°Ä §yôyÓ˚î ˛õyë˛Ü˛

!ܲv §!ï˛ƒ•z xy®yç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓö–

!ӈϢ£Ï í˛z˛õ°ˆÏ«˛ƒÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ öê˛ öyê˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚

!à!Ó˚¢ã˛wÓ˚ 175 ÓåÈÓ˚Ä §ÇˆÏÎy!çï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

~•z !ӣψÏÎ˚ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö öyê˛ƒ§üyˆÏ°yã˛Ü˛ x˛õ)Ó≈

ˆò– ÄÎẙŒê˛ •%•zê˛üƒyöÈÙÈ~Ó˚ !m¢ï˛ Ó£Ï≈ í˛z˛õ°ˆÏ«˛ƒ

xöƒ xyˆÏü!Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó !¢ˆÏÓ˚yöyˆÏü !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö

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Î%ÂôÓyç åÈ!Ó xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ĈÏ벖

!ܲv xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ Ó˚ܲü xyˆÏü!Ó˚ܲyÄ ˆï˛y xyˆÏåÈñ

ˆÎ üyö!Óܲ •,òÎ˚Óyö ~ÓÇ üyöÓ§û˛ƒï˛yÓ˚

x@ˇÃà!ï˛ˆÏï˛ xööƒñ K˛yöï˛˛õ§ƒyÎ˚ ü@¿– ˆ§•z

xyˆÏü!Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó •%•zê˛üƒyö ≤çˆÏAà xyˆÏ°yã˛öy

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ˆÜ˛yçyàÓ˚ ˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ öÓ#ö Ä ≤ÃÓ#î Ó•%

!Ó!¢T˛ à“ܲyÓ˚ Ä Ü˛!ÓÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öyÓ˚ §ˆÏAà

˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà âˆÏê˛– ~ÓyÓ˚Ä ï˛yÓ˚

Óƒ!ï˛Ü˛ü âˆÏê˛!ö– ~ÓyÓ˚ à“ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö û˛à#Ó˚Ì

!ü◊ñ §%ö#° ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ˆòÓy!¢§ ˆû˛Ô!üܲñ

Óy§Ó òy¢à%Æñ í˛zIμ° Ó˚yÎ˚ñ ˛õÓ˚üy ˆû˛Ô!üܲñ

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§®#˛õ Ó˚yÎ˚ñ ˆòÓy!¢§ ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ≤Ãà!ï˛

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!Ó≤Ãï˛#˛õ ˆòñ ≤ÃÓ#Ó˚ ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ çàß√Î˚

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~•z §ÇáƒyˆÏï˛Ä ºüîñ ˛õyë˛ ≤Ã!ï˛!Ü ˛Î˚yñ §Çfl,Ò!ï˛

§ÇÓyò çyï˛#Î˚ !ܲå%È á%ã˛ˆÏÓ˚y ˆ°áy §ÇˆÏÎy!çï˛

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ˆÜ˛yçyàÓ˚ ˆ°áܲ ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛!ï˛ ˆòÄÎ˚yÓ˚

Ó˚#!ï˛ ã˛y°% ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ≤ÃÌü ˆÌˆÏܲ•z– ~ ÓåÈÓ˚Ä

xyˆÏåÈ– ~•z §ÇˆÏÎyçö á%Ó•z ü)°ƒÓyö ~ÓÇ

≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚– Ó•% ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ˆ°áˆÏܲÓ˚ §ˆÏAà

§ÇˆÏÎyˆÏàÓ˚ §)e ˛õyˆÏÓö–

ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ xyû˛y£Ï

¢yÓ˚ò §Çáƒy 1426ñ 100‡ÈÙÈ

§¡õyòܲ ı xy!¢§ ˛õyˆÏ[˛

¢%û˛AܲÓ˚ §Ó˚!îñ ≤Ãï˛y˛õÓyàyöñ ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸y

[email : avas2004@rediffmail.com]

ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸y ¢•Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ !öÎ˚!üï˛ ÓˆÏí˛¸y xyܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

üöö¢#° ˛õ!eܲy ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ xyû˛y£Ï ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛

•Î˚– ˆÓ¢ û˛yˆÏ°y ˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öy ˆÎ ˆö˛õˆÏ̃

!Ü ˛Î˚y¢#° ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛y Ó°yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö •Î˚ öy–

~ ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢yÓ˚ò §ÇáƒyÓ˚ xyܲ£Ï≈î#Î˚ §¡õò

Ó˚yüyö® !Ó£ÏÎ˚ܲ ~ܲà%FåÈ ≤ÃÓrô– xyô í˛çö

≤ÃyÓ!rôܲ öyöy !òܲ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó˚yüyö®

ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §üÎ˚ ~ÓÇ ˆ§•z §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

§yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ §yüy!çܲ ˛õ!Ó˚ü[˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ IJõÓ˚

xyˆÏ°y ˆú˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈöñ Îy Óẙüyö®

ã˛ã≈˛yÎ˚ á%Ó•z à%Ó˚%c˛õ)î≈–

Ó˚yüyö® ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸yÓ˚•z üyö%£Ï

!åȈϰö– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ üí≈˛yî !Ó˚!û˛í˛z ˛õ!eܲy !ÓÇ¢

¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ xöƒï˛ü fløÓ˚îˆÏÎyàƒ ≤Ãܲy¢öy !åÈ°–

ܲ!Ó Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ x§Çრˆ°áy üí≈˛yî !Ó˚!û˛í˛z

˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ à%î#çˆÏöÓ˚ öçˆÏÓ˚

~ˆÏ§!åÈ°– ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸y Ä Ó˚yüyö® ≤ÃÓˆÏrô

xôƒy˛õܲ xˆÏ°yܲ Ó˚yÎ˚ Ó˚yüyö®

ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ à%Ó˚%c˛õ)î≈ ï˛Ìƒ

˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ xôƒÎ˚ö Ä

xôƒy˛õöyÓ˚ §üÎ˚ üye 12 ÓåÈÓ˚

S1883ÈÙÈ95V ~°y•yÓyò ܲˆÏ°ˆÏç xôƒ«˛ï˛y

Ä §yÇÓy!òܲï˛yÎ˚ ܲyˆÏê˛ 13 ÓåÈÓ˚

S1895ÈÙÈ1908V– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y•z ïÑ˛yÓ˚

ܲü≈fiÌ°– ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲÓyÓ˚ •zí˛zˆÏÓ˚y˛õ ~ÓÇ §ü@ˇÃ

û˛yÓ˚ï˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ºüî ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸yÎ˚ §Ó

!ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ 18 ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÓ!¢ !ï˛!ö ÌyˆÏܲö!ö–

çß√§)ˆÏe !ï˛!ö ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸yÓ˚ üyö%£Ïñ ï˛y•z ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸y

ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ àÓ≈ ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ öyöy ≤çˆÏAà

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy í˛zˆÏë˛ xyˆÏ§– Óï≈˛üyö ≤ÃÓrôà%ˆÏFåÈ

xˆÏ°yܲ Ó˚yÎ˚ åÈyí˛¸yÄ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö Óy!Ó˚òÓÓ˚î

ˆây£Ïñ §%ˆÏ¢yû˛ö x!ôܲyÓ˚#ñ §®#˛õ ò_ñ

x!ã˛hsˇƒ Ó˚yÎ˚ñ Ó˚!Óö ˛õy° ~ÓÇ çÎ˚ò#˛õ

ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚– ¢yÓ˚ò §ÇáƒyÎ˚ ~ܲˆÏe ~ï˛à%!°

ˆ°áy ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎÈÙÈˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ˆ§•z §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

•z!ï˛•y§ Ä í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ~•z à%Ó˚%c˛õ)î≈

üyö%£Ï!ê˛ˆÏܲ xyÓ˚Ä àû˛#Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ çyöˆÏï˛

xy@ˇÃ•# •ˆÏÓö–

§üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020 7

~•z §ÇáƒyÎ˚ ≤ÃÓrô xyÓ˚Ä xyˆÏåÈ– ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ

ÓåÈÓ˚ xyˆÏà ≤ÃÎ˚yï˛ Ü˛!Ó ö#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈Ó˚

ܲ!Óï˛y Ä Ü˛yÓƒÓ˚#!ï˛ ≤çˆÏAà xyˆÏ°yܲ˛õyï˛

ܲˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÃÓrô !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö ü,îy°Ü˛y!hsˇ ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚

~ÓÇ ã˛®ö ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#– xôƒy˛õܲ §%fl¨yï˛ òy¢

çy!°Î˚yöÄÎ˚y°yÓyà •ï˛ƒyܲy[˛Ó˚ ¢ï˛Ó£Ï≈

≤çˆÏAà ò#â≈ï˛ü !öÓrô!ê˛ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö ~•z

˛õ!eܲyÎ˚– !ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ !mï˛#Î˚ Ä ï,˛ï˛#Î˚

ò¢ˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚yçö#!ï˛Ó˚ ˆ≤Ã!«˛ï˛ñ !Ó !ê˛¢ˆÏòÓ˚

àî•ï˛ƒyÓ˚ ÓÓ≈Ó˚ï˛y Ä •z!ï˛•yˆÏ§Ó˚ ˛õÎ≈yˆÏ°yã˛öy

!ï˛!ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö •z!ï˛•yˆÏ§Ó˚ ~ܲçö àˆÏÓ£Ïܲ

!•§yˆÏÓ– xÓ˚!Ó® ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

ÚçAà°ü•ˆÏ° xy!òÓy§#ˆÏòÓ˚ ò%à≈y˛õ)çyÓ˚

≤Ãbï˛y!_¥Ü˛ ¢%°%ܲ §rôyöÛ ≤ÃÓrô!ê˛ x!ï˛

ü)°ƒÓyö §ÇˆÏÎyçö– ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ xyÎ˚ï˛ˆÏöÓ˚

ï%˛°öyÎ˚ à“ÈÙÈí˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚ ˛õ!Ó˚üyî ܲü•z– üye

!ï˛ö!ê˛ à“– !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö xüÓ˚ !üeñ ï%˛£ÏyÓ˚

ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ ~ÓÇ Ü˛y!°òy§ ≤Ãyüy!îܲ– ~ܲ!ê˛

üye ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y í˛z˛õöƒy§ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö ÓÑyÜ%˛í˛¸yÓ˚ ≤ÃÓ#î

ˆ°áܲ ö® ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#– ºüî !Óû˛yˆÏà !Ó!¢T˛

öyê˛ƒÓƒ!=˛c §ü%o à%• ïÑ˛yÓ˚ •zï˛y!° ºüî ܲy!•!ö

!°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö– ܲ!Óï˛yà%FåÈÄ xöƒyöƒ ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚

ï%˛°öyÎ˚ §Ç!«˛Æ ˛õ!Ó˚§ˆÏÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

!°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö ü®yÜ ˛yhsˇy ˆ§öñ x!üÎ˚Ü%˛üyÓ˚

ˆ§öà%Æñ ˆ§Ô!üe ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ xyˆÏ°yܲ

ü[˛°ñ í˛zͲõ° ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ˆày˛õy° Ü%˛Ω˛Ü˛yÓ˚ñ

¢ƒyü° ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ΈϢyÓhsˇ Ó§%ñ ¢#ï˛°

!ÓŸªy§ñ ö#°yOö àAàyôÓ˚ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ñ ã˛®ö

ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚# ~ÓÇ û˛çö ò_–

ã˛°!Fã˛e !Ó£ÏÎ˚ܲ ≤ÃÓrô ÚÓyü˛õrÌyÓ˚

˙!ï˛ˆÏ•ƒÓ˚ ˆ¢Ü˛í˛¸ÈÙÙÙÈü,îy° ˆ§öˆÏòÓ˚ §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛

í˛z_Ó˚y!ôܲyÓ˚Û !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö xô,£Ïƒ Ü%˛üyÓ˚– ü,îy°

ˆ§ˆÏöÓ˚ â!ö¤˛ï˛ü Óƒ!=˛ˆÏòÓ˚ xöƒï˛ü xô,£Ïƒ

Ü%˛üyÓ˚ñ ü,îy° ˆ§ö ≤çˆÏAà ~ï˛ àû˛#Ó˚

xyˆÏ°yã˛öy xyˆÏà ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òö •Î˚ˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ö!ö–

!Üv ü,îy°òyÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §ÇˆÏܲyã˛ ò)Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚

ˆáy°§ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˆÓÓ˚ •ˆÏï˛ Óyôƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–

ÚÓ˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ !ã˛hsˇyÛ ˆ˛õÔöɲõ%!öܲ

Üœ˛y!hsˇÜ˛Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÎ˚ !Üœ˛T˛– Ó˚yüÜ%˛üyÓ˚

ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ Ó˚Ó#w ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yàˆÏ“ öyÓ˚# ≤çˆÏAà

!°á!åȈϰö öyöy !Óû˛ˆÏAà– ~•z !öÓrô ï˛yÓ˚•z

á[˛ xÇ¢ üye– ˛õ!Ó˚FåÈߨ åÈy˛õy ~ÓÇ §%®Ó˚

ܲyàç ˆòÄÎ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ~•z ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ çöƒ–

ˆ§ ï%˛°öyÎ˚ òyü ܲü–

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%ˆÏÆÓ˚ §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚

6 ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

•zܲö!ü: ˛õ!í˛¸– ܲˆÏ°çê˛y !åÈ° ÓÓ˚yöàˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

ÜÑ˛yê˛yܲˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ– xyÓ˚ û˛yflÒˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ !åÈ°

!§Ö!ÌÓ˚ ˆüyˆÏí˛¸– xy!ü xyÓ˚ û˛yflÒÓ˚ •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛È

È•Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ Ü˛!ú˛•yí˛ẑ ϧ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆÎï˛yü– xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ Órô%

§%Ó ï˛ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ !åÈ° Óô≈üyˆÏö– Óô≈üyö

ˆÌˆÏܲ Ä ≤ÃyÎ˚•z ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° xy§ï˛– §Óy•z

!üˆÏ° ˛õÓ˚flõˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ°áy ˛õí˛¸ï˛yüñ à“Èà%çÓ

ܲÓ˚ï˛yü– á%Ó §%®Ó˚ !åÈ° ˆ§§Ó !òöà%ˆÏ°yÈÙÈ

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xy˛õöyÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃrÌ ÈÚàû˛#Ó˚

~!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏ°Û– !mï˛#Î˚ ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃrÌ ÈÚܲ!ú˛ö !ܲÇÓy

§%ê˛ˆÏܲ¢Û– ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ §üÎ˚ ÓƒÓôyöê˛y xˆÏöܲê˛y

!åÈ°– ܲyÓ˚îê˛y Î!ò ӈϰöÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı xy!ü Îáö Üœ˛y§ •zˆÏ°ˆÏû˛ˆÏöÓ˚ åÈye

ï˛áö ≤ÃÌü ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ Ó•z Úàû˛#Ó˚ ~!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏ°ÛÈÙÈÓ˚

ܲ!Óï˛yà%!° !°ˆÏá!åÈ– ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó•zê˛y xÌ≈yÍ

Úܲ!ú˛ö !ܲÇÓy §%ê˛ˆÏܲ¢Û ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° §Ω˛Óï˛

1972 §yˆÏ°– üyé˛áyˆÏöÓ˚ §üÎ˚ê˛y xy!ü

˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÎ˚ ÓƒhflÏ !åÈ°yü–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy xyˆÏåÈ ˆÎ !§ˆÏöüyñ öyê˛Ü˛ñ

àyöñ !ã˛eܲ°yñ àòƒÓ˚ã˛öy ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ ܲ!Óï˛y

•ˆÏFåÈ §Ó≈ˆÏ◊¤˛ !¢“üyôƒü– xy˛õöyÓ˚ üï˛yüï˛ÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı öyñ üy!ö öy– ~ܲê˛y üˆÏö Ó˚yáyÓ˚

üˆÏï˛y !¢“ܲü≈ §Ó!ܲå%ÈÓ˚ §Ç!ü◊ˆÏî ˜ï˛!Ó˚

•Î˚– ï˛ˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ~üö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÎñ

xy!ü ¢%!ê˛ÇflõˆÏê˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åÈñ xyüyÓ˚ •zí˛z!öˆÏê˛Ó˚

~ܲˆÏ¢y ˆ°yܲ ܲü≈ÓƒhflÏñ ~Ó˚ üyˆÏé˛ •ë˛yÍÈ•z

~ܲê˛y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !ܲå%È °y•zö xyüyÓ˚ üyÌyÎ˚

ã˛ˆÏ° ~°– ~ï˛ ˆ°yܲçˆÏöÓ˚ üyˆÏé˛Ä xy!ü

!ܲå%È«˛ˆÏîÓ˚ çöƒ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ ˆÎö •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚

ˆà°yü– ~ܲê%˛ àû˛#Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ û˛yӈϰ !§ˆÏöüy

xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ Ü˛!Óï˛y Ä §Çà#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ üyé˛áyˆÏö

xÓ!fiÌï˛ ~ܲê˛y üyôƒü–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xy˛õöyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ ~ܲê˛y í˛zÂô,!ï˛

!ò!FåÈÈÙÈ

ÚxyüyÓ˚ ˆú˛yˆÏê˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xyüyˆÏܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy

xyçܲy°ñ ï˛Ó% ï%˛!ü

1960ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ܲ!˛õ ˛õy!ë˛ˆÏÎ˚åÈ ï˛yˆÏܲñ ܲ# !Ó£Ïü

•y!§ ˆ˛õˆÏ°yÛ ...

SxyüyˆÏܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öyó ܲ!ú˛ö !ܲÇÓy §%ê˛ˆÏܲ§V

xy˛õöyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ° üˆÏö •Î˚ ˆÎö ~ܲܲ

üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ~ܲܲ ܲ!Óï˛y ˛õí˛¸!åÈ– ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ ˆÎö

ܲ!Óï˛yô!ü≈ï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ §ˆÏÓ˚ xy§yÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ≤ÃÎẙ§

ÌyˆÏܲ ܲ!Óï˛yà%ˆÏ°yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒÈÙÙÙÈ~ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ !ܲå%È

Ó°ˆÏÓö⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı ~ê˛y xy˛õöyÓ˚ üï˛yüï˛– ~ܲçö

˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ üï˛yüï˛– xy§ˆÏ° xy!ü ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚

~ܲê˛y !öçfl∫ àí˛¸ö ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲÓẙÓ˚ ≤ÃÎẙ§ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ–

ˆ§ê˛y xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ á%Ó çÓ˚%!Ó˚ !åÈ°– ˆã˛T˛y

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •Î˚!öñ xy˛õöy ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ˆ§ê˛y ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ–

≤ÈÏï˛ƒÜ˛ ܲ!ÓÓ˚•z í˛z!ã˛ï˛ fl∫ï˛sf fl∫ˆÏÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó°y–

öy •ˆÏ° çyˆÏï˛Ó˚ !ܲå%È •ÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ öy– ˆÎüö

¢C ˆây£Ï– ~•z ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§Ä Îy ˆ°ˆÏáö ï˛yˆÏï˛

!öçfl∫ fl∫Ó˚ ÌyˆÏܲ– !öçfl∫ ˆÓyô ÌyˆÏܲ– ˆÎüö

üö#w à%Æñ û˛yflÒÓ˚ ã˛Ü ˛Óï˛#≈ñ öyü öy ܲˆÏÓ˚Ä

û˛yflÒˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y Î!ò ˆÜ˛í˛z ˛õyë˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y•ˆÏ°

ˆ◊yï˛y ӈϰ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ Äê˛y û˛yflÒˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

ܲ!Óï˛y–

~ܲê˛y !öçfl∫ fl∫Ó˚ñ !öçfl∫ ≤Ãܲy¢û˛!AàÈñ

ȈÎÈÙÈˆÜ˛yˆÏöy !Ü ˛ˆÏÎ˚!ê˛û˛ °y•zˆÏö òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚– ï˛yˆÏï˛

xy˛õ!ö !û˛ˆÏí˛¸ •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓö öy–

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fl∫!ÓˆÏÓ˚y!ôï˛yñ §ü§yü!Î˚ܲ öyöy âê˛öy ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚˚

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~Ó˚˛ õÓ˚ 10 ˛õyï˛yÎ˚


8 §üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020

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àyçö ˆü°yÛÎ˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚– ~åÈyí˛¸y @ˇÃyˆÏü

àˆÏOñ üú˛§‰§ˆÏ° ˛õˆÏÌÓ˚ ôyˆÏÓ˚ xfiÌyÎ˚# ˆí˛Ó˚y

ˆÓшÏô ~Ó˚y ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòö öyöy ˆòÓÈÙȈòÓ#Ó˚

ü)!ï≈˛– Óy!í˛¸ ˆÌˆÏܲ xƒy°%!ü!öÎẙˆÏüÓ˚ !ç!ö§˛õe

!öˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏ° ï˛y à!°ˆÏÎ˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòö

ú˛Ó˚üyˆÏÎ˚§ üy!ú˛Ü˛ !ç!ö§˛õe– xˆÏöˆÏܲ

ˆ§yöyÈÙÈÓ˚%˛õy !òˆÏÎ˚ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚

ˆöÎ˚ ˛õåÈ®üˆÏï˛y !ç!ö§–

xƒy°%!ü!öÎẙü !òˆÏÎ˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ˆí˛yܲÓẙÓ˚ ܲyç ≤ÃyÎ˚

ÓˆÏrôÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá– Órô •ÄÎẙÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚î çyöy

ˆà°ñ ï˛y •° ˛õ%!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚ •Î˚Óẙ!ö– ~Óẙ xyˆÏà

ÓyçyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöy Óy x≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚

xƒy°%!ü!öÎẙü !ܲöˆÏï˛ö– üyˆÏé˛üˆÏôƒ ˆÜ˛öy •ˆÏÎ˚

ˆÎï˛ ˆã˛yÓẙ•z xƒy°%!ü!öÎẙü– ï˛yåÈyí˛¸y •y•ẑ Ïê˛ö¢ö

!Óò%ƒÍ °y•ẑ ÏöÓ˚ xƒy°%!ü!öÎẙˆÏüÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛

ˆã˛yˆÏÓ˚Óẙ !Ó!ܲ ܲÓ˚ï˛ ~ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ– ~ÓẙÄ §hflÏyÎ˚

ܲÑyã˛yüyˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆ°yˆÏû˛ !ܲˆÏö !öï˛– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ~ÓẙÄ

xy•ẑ ÏöÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆã˛yÓẙ•züy° @ˇÃ•îܲyÓ˚# !•§yˆÏÓ

àîƒ •ˆÏï˛ °yà°– ˆ@ˇÃú˛ï˛yÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆç° áyê˛ˆÏï˛

•ï˛– ~§Ó ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî ~Óẙ xˆÏöˆÏܲ ܲyç ˆåȈÏí˛¸

ˆòÎ˚– xˆÏöˆÏܲ ¢%ô% ú˛Ó˚üyÎ˚!¢ ܲyç ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÜÑ˛yã˛yüy°

!òˆÏ°– ~ˆÏòÓ˚ çöƒ §%§Ç•ï˛ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ÓƒÓfiÌy ܲˆÏÓ˚

!òˆÏ° xyüÓ˚y §hflÏyÎ˚ Ó˚%˛õy!° Ó˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚ Úxöƒ

ˆí˛yܲÓẙÛ ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚–

•ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà° •Î˚ ˆò¢ˆÏoy•#ñ öÎ˚ ˛õy!ܲhflÏy!öñ

xyÓ˚Óyö öܲ¢y°ñ !ç•y!ò •zï˛ƒy!ò– ˆç~ö•zí˛z

§üyç!ÓK˛yö ã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ ˛õ#ë˛fiÌyö– •z!ï˛•y§ñ

xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ñ ò¢≈ö •zï˛ƒy!ò !Óû˛yˆÏàÓ˚ Ó•% !òܲ˛õy°

~áyˆÏö ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈöñ xôƒy˛õöy

ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ~шÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xˆÏöˆÏܲ•z xyhsˇç≈y!ï˛Ü˛

hflψÏÓ˚ fl∫#Ü,˛ï˛ Ä Ó!®ï˛– ~•z ˆüôy ¢%ô% Üœ˛y§Ó˚%ˆÏü

ü%á Ó%ˆÏç ˛õˆÏí˛¸ •Î˚ öy– ˆç~ö•zí˛zȈÏÎ˚Ó˚

åÈyeåÈye#Ó˚y ≤Ãï˛ƒ• ~•z ˆüôyÎ˚ ¢yö ˆòö– ~•z

!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚ˆÏܲ ¢%ô%üye Óyü˛õrÌ#ˆÏòÓ˚ àí˛¸y

û˛yÓy û%˛°– x!ôܲyÇ¢ åÈyeåÈye# ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy

Óẙç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ òˆÏ°Ó˚ §üÌ≈ܲ öö– Ó•% üï˛˛õyÌ≈ܲƒ

!öˆÏÎ˚ ïÑ˛yÓẙ Óyü˛õrÌ#– !ܲv «˛üï˛y Îáö ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚

òüö ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛áö ïÑ˛yÓ˚y !ö!m≈ôyÎ˚

~ܲˆÏçyê˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ñ •yˆÏï˛ •yï˛ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá Ó˚%ˆÏá òÑyí˛¸yö–

~åÈyí˛¸yÄ xyˆÏåÈ x!ï˛ Óyü ˆÌˆÏܲ ò!«˛îñ öyöy

ˆày¤˛#– ~•z §Ó öyöy üï˛yÓ°¡∫#ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ

ï˛Ü≈˛!Óï˛Ü≈˛ñ üˆÏï˛Ó˚ xyòyö≤Ãòyö ã˛°ˆÏï˛•z ÌyˆÏܲ–

åÈyeåÈye#ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~•z ≤ÃÓîï˛y

˛õÓ˚¡õÓ˚yàï˛û˛yˆÏÓ Ü˛ƒy¡õyˆÏ§ ~ܲê˛y fl∫yô#ö

üï˛≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ xyÓ• ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– Óï≈˛üyö

§Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ ~•z ˆüôyñ !û˛ß¨ üï˛≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ~•z

fl∫yô#öï˛yñ «˛üï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆã˛yá ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ܲÌy Ó°y

ÓÓ˚òyhflÏ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy– ï˛yÓ˚y ~•z flõô≈yˆÏܲ

à%Ñ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚– •zòyö#ÇܲyˆÏ° !Ó!û˛ß¨

xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ≤Ãôyö !òܲ •°ñ ˆüˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y

≤Ã!ï˛ÓyˆÏòÓ˚ ü%á •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈö– ~•z§Ó

xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏö ˆüˆÏÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ xÇ¢@ˇÃ•î °«˛î#Î˚– ~•z

≤ÃÓîï˛yê˛yÄ ˜à!Ó˚ܲ Óy!•ö#Ó˚ ã˛«%˛¢)°– ü%ˆÏá

ï˛ÑyÓ˚y Ó°ˆÏÓ ÚˆÓ!ê˛ ÓÑyã˛yÄñ ˆÓ!ê˛ ˛õí˛¸yÄÛ !ܲv

xy§ˆÏ° ï˛yÓ˚y ˆüˆÏÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ!í˛¸ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏï˛

ã˛yöñ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ âÓ˚Ó!® ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yö– ~•z ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z

˛õ!Ó˚ܲ!“ï˛û˛yˆÏÓ åÈye#ˆÏòÓ˚ •ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ

~üö ö,¢Ç§ xyÜ ˛üî–

ˆç~ö•zí˛zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ xyˆÏ®y°ö ¢%ô%üye

ˆ§áyöܲyÓ˚ åÈyeåÈye#ˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y °í˛¸y•z öÎ˚ñ

~ê˛y !¢«˛yÓ˚ ˆÓ§Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ܲÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚%ˆÏÂô

xyˆÏ®y°ö– ˆç~ö•zí˛zˆÏï˛ §ú˛° •ˆÏ° Óy!ܲ

ç!Aà˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ fl%҈ϰ • Î Ó Ó˚ ° í˛zͧÓ

çÎ˚hsˇ §y•y

Äüñ ö#°Ü˛Z˛ xyÓ˚ ò#˛õ– ĈÏòÓ˚ xyç ÓˆÏí˛¸y•z

§%ˆÏáÓ˚ !òö– fl%҈ϰ ˆàˆÏåÈñ !ܲv ˆê˛!Ó° ˆã˛Î˚yÓ˚

ˆö•z– üyÌy à%шÏç ˛õí˛¸y ü%áhflÏÄ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏFåÈ

öy– ˆö•z !ò!òü!îˆÏòÓ˚ Óܲyé˛Ü˛y– ü%!¢≈òyÓyˆÏòÓ˚

ç!Aà˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó˚yçyöàÓ˚ ≤ÃyÌ!üܲ !Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚

Ú•ÎÓÓ˚° í˛zͧÓÛÈÙÈ~ ĈÏòÓ˚ xyç ˆòˆÏá ˆÜ˛Ê

ܲyˆÏܲŸªˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ û)˛!üܲyÎ˚ ò#˛õ ˆï˛y ~ܲy•z ~ܲˆÏ¢y–

ܲ!ã˛ÜÑ˛yã˛yˆÏòÓ˚ •%ˆÏÕ‘yÓ˚ñ §Ó˚° !ö‹õy˛õ üyï˛yüy!ï˛

~ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §yôyÓ˚îï˛sf !òӈϧÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !òö!ê˛

§!ï˛ƒ•z Ó˚yçܲ#Î˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ°!åÈ°–

!¢¢%üˆÏöÓ˚ fl∫yô#öï˛yÎ˚ §%Ü%˛üyÓ˚ Ó˚yÎ˚

!ܲÇÓò!hsˇ– ĈÏòÓ˚ üˆÏöÓ˚ x®Ó˚ü•ˆÏ° Ü˛í˛¸y

öyí˛¸ˆÏï˛ fl%҈ϰÓ˚ ~•z í˛zˆÏòƒyà x!û˛öÓ !åÈ°–

!¢¢%üˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚Ç Óò°yˆÏï˛ ˛õXÈ%ˇÎ˚yˆÏòÓ˚ §Ü˛ˆÏ°•z

ˆÎö ööˆÏ§ Üœ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ §ò§ƒ •ˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–

§%Ü%˛üyÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ åÈí˛¸yÓ˚ !ã˛e≤Ãò¢≈ö#ˆÏï˛ñ Ú~Ü%˛ˆÏ¢

xy•zöÛ Úàrô!Óã˛yÓ˚Û Úû)˛ï%˛ˆÏí˛¸ ˆá°yÛ Úܲyë˛ Ó%ˆÏí˛¸yÛ

Ú!ܲΩ)˛ï˛Û !¢¢%üˆÏö xyÿ˛Î≈ xyˆÏ°y åÈí˛¸y°– ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚

Óy•ẑ ÏÓ˚ ~•z ˛õí˛¸y˛õí˛¸y ˆá°yÎ˚ §•ˆÏÎy!àï˛yÓ˚ •yï˛

Óy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÎ˚ ˛õ!ÿ˛üÓAà §Ó˚ܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ï˛Ìƒ Ä

§Çfl,Ò!ï˛ òÆÓ˚– ˆÎüö Ó˚yçyöàÓ˚ ≤ÃyÌ!üܲ

!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ≤Ãôyö!¢«˛Ü˛ x¡∫%çy˛õò Ó˚y•y

Ó°!åȈϰöñ !¢¢%ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ Ü˛“öyÓ˚ xyܲy¢ê˛y

xyÓ˚Ä ÓˆÏí˛¸y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ôÓ˚yê˛y•z ü)° í˛zˆÏj¢ƒ– ˆã˛T˛y

ܲ!Ó˚ ĈÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ˛õÑÔˆÏåÈyˆÏï˛– Ú•ÎÓÓ˚°

4 ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

!ï˛!ö•z !ܲv ≤ÃÌü ö®°yˆÏ°Ó˚ ò,!T˛ xyܲ£Ï≈î

ܲ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰö !¢“ÈÙÈfiÌy˛õˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ˙ˆÏܲƒ–

§,çö#ˆÏï˛ ~•z !ӣψÏÎ˚ ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ •Î˚ˆÏï˛y

!ܲå%Èê˛y !¢!«˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü– •z!O!öÎ˚y!Ó˚Ç

ܲˆÏ°ˆÏç Îy !¢!á!ö– ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ fl∫yô#ö

xyd˛õ!Ó˚ã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !¢“ôyÓ˚yñ §Ü˛ˆÏ° !üˆÏ°!üˆÏ¢

ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ !¢áˆÏï˛ !¢áˆÏï˛ ã˛°°yü–

~!àˆÏÎ˚ ã˛°° àí˛¸yÓ˚ ˆflÀyï˛–

§ÑyÄï˛y°@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ç!ö§˛õe §Ç@ˇÃ•

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛[˛#Ó˚ §•ˆÏÎy!àï˛yÎ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏü @ˇÃyˆÏü ÎyÄÎẙ

•ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ü)°ƒ !öô≈yÓ˚î ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö ˆÜ˛ˆÏwÓ˚

ܲï≈˛,˛õ«˛– âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !û˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ü%˛°%!AàÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢ ˛õyˆÏ¢

í˛zÑã%˛ ã˛yï˛y° !öü≈yî ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ˆ§ÈÙÈ•z •ˆÏÎ˚

í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ° ≤Ãò¢≈ö#Ó˚ àƒy°y!Ó˚– Ü%˛°!AàÓ˚ ÌyˆÏܲÓ˚

ï˛°yÎ˚ ˆÓ!òÓ˚ ôy˛õ– ~Ä ˆÎö !¢“û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ˆÎÔÌ

§Çà#ï˛– ò¢≈ˆÏܲÓ˚y xy§ˆÏÓöñ ˆòáˆÏÓö–

ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yÓ˚y ÓyÓyÈÙÈüyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §ˆÏAàñ òyò%ÈÙÈ!ò!òüyÓ˚

§ˆÏAà ~ˆÏ§ ˆòáˆÏÓ ˜Ó!ã˛ˆÏeƒÓ˚ §Ω˛yÓ˚–

ˆ§ÈÙÈܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z ≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ §yü@ˇÃ#Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢

˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚!°!˛õ ˆ°áy •ï˛– Ä!òˆÏܲ ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ §Ó˚yñ

ˆ˛õyí˛¸yüy!ê˛Ó˚ ܲyçñ ˆåÈÔöyˆÏã˛Ó˚ ü%ˆÏáy¢ñ ˆ¢y°yÓ˚

ܲyçñ ܲyˆÏë˛Ó˚ ü)!ï≈˛– Ü%˛ˆÏ°yñ ã˛y!°ñ ܲyüyÓ˚¢y°yÓ˚

ܲyçñ ïÑ˛yï˛!¢“– ˛õ%Ñ!ÌÓ˚ ܲyçñ !Ó!û˛ß¨ ÓyòƒÎsfñ

@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˜òö!®ö ÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óy§öˆÏܲy§öñ

ò!í˛¸Ó˚ ܲyç– §ˆÏAà Ó˚•z° ˛õ%ï%˛°ñ Ó˚!äö !ã˛ˆÏeÓ˚

ÓÑy¢ ˆÓˆÏï˛Ó˚ ܲyç–

§Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚à%!°ˆÏï˛Ä !ú˛ Ó,!Âô •ˆÏÓ

~ÓÇ ˆÓ§Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ ~ÓÇ §Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚

!¢«˛y≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ú˛yÓ˚yܲ

ÌyܲˆÏÓ öy– ï˛y•z ~•z xyˆÏ®y°öˆÏܲ §ú˛°

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ öyà!Ó˚ܲ§üyçˆÏܲ åÈyeåÈye#ˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢

òÑyí˛¸yˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓñ Ó˚yhflÏyÎ˚ öyüˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ–

§,çö#@ˇÃyˆÏü ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ Ü%˛!ê˛Ó˚à%FåÈ

í˛zͧÓÛÈÙÈ~ xöƒˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ í˛z˛õ!fiÌï˛ !åȈϰö

ü•Ü%˛üy ï˛Ìƒ§Çfl,Ò!ï˛ xy!ôܲy!Ó˚ܲ

xÓ˚%îÜ%˛üyÓ˚ ò_– çyöy ˆà°ñ ç!Aà˛õ%Ó˚

ü•Ü%˛üyÎ˚ ~•z ≤ÃÌüÓyÓ˚ !¢¢%ˆÏòÓ˚ §%Ü%˛üyÓ˚

Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ åÈí˛¸yÓ˚ !ã˛e≤Ãò¢≈ö# Ä öy!ê˛Ü˛yÓ˚

xyˆÏÎ˚yçö ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

¢y!hsˇ!öˆÏÜ˛ï˛ˆÏöÓ˚ !öü≈yîܲyç

üˆÏö xyˆÏåÈ ~ÈÙÈâÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÄÈÙÈâˆÏÓ˚ Îáö ˆÎï˛yü

!ú˛!ö!¢Ç ܲyˆÏçñ ï˛áö ˆÎö Îy˛õö!¢“Ó˚y ܲÌy

ܲ•zï˛– ӈϰ í˛zë˛ï˛ñ •yçyÓ˚ ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ û˛yÓ˚ï˛!¢“

ˆàÔÓ˚ÓàyÌy ˆòá– Ü˛ï˛ öy ˜Ó!ã˛ˆÏeƒÓ˚ §üy•yÓ˚–

ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ ˛õyˆÏÓ ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ ¢•%ˆÏÓ˚

~ܲˆÏâшÏÎ˚!üˆÏï˛Ê !ÓˆÏò!¢ Ó ƒyˆÏu˛Ó˚ òy§ˆÏcÊ

•züˆÏ˛õyê≈˛ ܲÓ˚y §Çܲ#î≈ï˛yÎ˚ ì˛yܲy ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚

ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ !¢“ÈÙÈxyd˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚– !ò¢y•yÓẙ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸

!¢“§üyç– ~ܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ •#ö¡øöƒï˛y ˆÎö

ã˛y!˛õˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y •Î˚– ú˛° û˛yˆÏ°y •Î˚!öÊ

§,çö#ˆÏï˛ ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ܲÌy àˆÏí˛¸

í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ° ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ ÓåÈÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚– Ä!òˆÏܲ ï˛áö

Ä!í˛¸¢yÓ˚ !¢“#§üyˆÏçÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ôÓ˚y ܲyˆÏç

~!àˆÏÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ– ˆÜ˛yÓ˚y˛õ%ê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ xy!òÓy§#

!¢“#Ó˚y ~°– ã˛yÓ˚ã˛y°y âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x®Ó˚ÈÙÈÓy!•Ó˚

≤Ã›ï˛– ~ÓyÓ˚ çˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !öˆÏ¢ö ˆÎö Ó˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚

xyˆÏ°yܲFåÈê˛yÎ˚– ˆüˆÏë˛y °y° Ó˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚ ç!ü

≤Ã›ï˛ •ˆÏï˛ °yà° ÓˆÏí˛¸y ˆòÄÎ˚yˆÏ°–

ˆ˛õyí˛¸yüy!ê˛Ó˚ ˜Ó!ã˛eƒ ~ˆÏ§ !ü¢°– °y°Ó˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚

ˆ≤ë˛y˛õˆÏê˛ §yòyÓ˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚ @ˇÃyüç#Óö àí˛¸ˆÏï˛

°yà° ˆÜ˛yÓ˚y˛õ%ˆÏê˛Ó˚ !¢“#Ó˚y– í»˛•zÇ !åÈ° ≤Ãï˛#ܲ#

ôÑyˆÏã˛– xˆÏöܲê˛y•z ˆÎö ˆ§•z û)˛˛õyˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈÓ˚

û˛#üˆÏû˛ê˛Ü˛yÓ˚ à%•y!ã˛ˆÏeÓ˚ xyòˆÏ°– §ÇˆÏܲˆÏï˛Ó˚

ˆÓ˚áyÓ˚ ÓöƒyÎ˚ •yçyÓ˚ •yçyÓ˚ ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚

û˛yÓ˚ï˛!¢“ ˆàÔÓ˚Ó– ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ !¢“#Ó˚yñ Ä!í˛¸¢yÓ˚

xöƒ !¢“#Ó˚yñ xyüÓ˚yñ ܲ°yû˛ÓˆÏöÓ˚ !¢“#Ó˚yñ

ü%?ô!ÓfløˆÏÎ˚ û˛yÓ˚ï˛!¢“ ˜Ó!ã˛eƒ ˆòˆÏá à!Ó≈ï˛

•ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛!åÈ°yü– !¢“ÈÙÈfiÌy˛õˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ò%•zÈÙȈÓyö

Ó˚)˛õ flõT˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ flõT˛ï˛Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ °yà°–

ã˛[˛#ˆÏܲ ˆ§!òö ˆí˛ˆÏܲ ӈϰ!åÈ°yüñ xyö®

ܲÓ˚– ò%•z ÓẙˆÏçƒÓ˚ !¢“#ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏö ¢!=˛ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°–

~•z ¢!=˛ §%®Ó˚ˆÏܲ ˆí˛ˆÏܲ xyö° fiÌyÎ˚# xy§ˆÏö–

xyçÄ û%˛!°!ö– ~!àˆÏÎ˚ ã˛°°yü–


§%ò#˛õ ˆ§ö

§Æò¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï !òˆÏܲ ˆçyÓ ã˛yö≈ܲ Îáö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ò°Ó°

!öˆÏÎ˚ §%ï˛yö%!ê˛ˆÏï˛ ~ˆÏ§ fiÌyÎ˚#û˛yˆÏÓ âÑy!ê˛ ˆàˆÏí˛¸ ӈϧö

ˆ§•z§üÎ˚ !ܲÇÓy ï˛yÓ˚Ä xyˆÏà ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ x!ï˛ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöyñ

˙!ï˛•ƒü![˛ï˛ Ä ~ܲ à%Ó˚%c˛õ)î≈ xM˛° ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ fiÌyö!ê˛

~ÓÇ ï˛yÓ˚ xy¢˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ~°yܲyà%!° ܲ# xÓfiÌyÎ˚ !åÈ° ~

≤ß¿ üˆÏö çyày fl∫yû˛y!Óܲ– ˆï˛üö flõT˛û˛yˆÏÓ ˆ§ •z!ï˛•y§

xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ çyöy ˆö•z– §ü§yü!Î˚ܲ ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ !°!áï˛ !Ó¢ò

ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy !ÓÓÓ˚î•z ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ öy– ≤Ãyܲ‰ÈÙÈã˛yö≈ܲ ˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚

ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ •z!ï˛•y§ ˆï˛y ~áö ˛õÎ≈hsˇ á%Ó•z xflõT˛– xyÓ˚

ã˛yö≈ˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ •z!ï˛•y§ çyöyÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ

ˆÜ˛Ó° Îͧyüyöƒ §%ï˛yö%!ê˛ í˛y•z!Ó˚ñ ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚ Óy!î!çƒÜ˛

!ã˛!벲õe ~ÓÇ xyˆÏ°Ü˛çyu˛yÓ˚ •ƒy!ü°ê˛ˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y !ܲå%È

•zí˛zˆÏÓ˚y˛õ#Î˚ ˛õÎ≈ê˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆ°áy í˛y•z!Ó˚ Óy ºüîÓ,_yhsˇ–

ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚ xô#ˆÏö í˛zFã˛˛õˆÏò ܲü≈Ó˚ï˛ ˆfiê˛Δö¢yü üyfiê˛yÓ˚ñ

í˛z•z!°Î˚yü ˆ•ˆÏçˆÏ§Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÜ˛í˛z xÓ¢ƒ !°ˆÏá ˆÓ˚ˆÏá

ˆàˆÏåÈö !òö!°!˛õÓ˚ xyܲyˆÏÓ˚ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ Óƒ!=˛àï˛ x!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚

öyöy !ÓÓÓ˚î– !ܲv ~§ˆÏÓÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ fiÌyö#Î˚ ˆò¢#Î˚

üyö%£ÏçˆÏöÓ˚ Ó§!ï˛ˆÏܲwà%!°Ó˚ xy°yòy ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy í˛zˆÏÕ‘á

ˆüˆÏ° öy– Î!òÄ ò)Ó˚ xï˛#ˆÏï˛ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ÈÙÈÓyàÓyçyÓ˚

≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ xM˛° !åÈ° §%ï˛yö%!ê˛Ó˚•z xhsû%˛≈=˛–

≤Ãy܉˛ ˛õ°y!¢ ˛õˆÏÓ≈ •zLjÏÓ˚ç ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚ x!ôܲyÓ˚û%˛=˛

ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ˆÎÈÙȧühflÏ •yê˛ Ä ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ï˛y!°Ü˛y ˛õyÄÎ˚y

ÎyÎ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ Ú¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚Û öyü!ê˛Ä ˆã˛yˆÏá ˛õˆÏí˛¸– xyÓ˚Ä

˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ üyö!ã˛ˆÏe ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘á

ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚ó Î!òÄ Óï≈˛üyö ÓyçyÓ˚!ê˛ !Ó!û˛ß¨ §üˆÏÎ˚ fiÌyö

˛õ!Ó˚Óï≈˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ xhsˇï˛ ˆÓ¢ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲÓyÓ˚– ˛õ°y!¢ÈÙÈ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈

§üˆÏÎ˚ 1760 !á fiê˛y∑ öyàyò ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ˆÎ§Ó

˛õ%!°¢ÌyöyÓ˚ x!hflψÏcÓ˚ ܲÌy çyöy ÎyÎ˚ ˆ§•z§Ó ÌyöyÓ˚

xô#ˆÏö ˆÓ¢!ܲå%È ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚Ä í˛zˆÏÕ‘á Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– Ìyöyà%!°Ó˚

üˆÏôƒ ¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ Ä ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ~ÓÇ ÓyçyÓ˚à%!°Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öyü ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚– Óï≈˛üyˆÏö xÓ¢ƒ ¢%ô%üye

¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ ÌyöyÓ˚•z x!hflÏÏc Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– xyÓyÓ˚ 1768

!á fiê˛yˆÏ∑Ó˚ ~ܲ ï˛y!°Ü˛yÎ˚ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ öyü!ê˛Ó˚ xö%˛õ!fiÌ!ï˛

°«˛ ܲÓẙ ÎyÎ˚– ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ •zLjÏÓ˚ç ç!üòyÓ˚ çö ˆçú˛y!öÎẙ

•°ÄˆÏÎ˚° ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öyü ˛õyˆÏŒê˛ ã˛y°≈§ÓyçyÓ˚ öyü

ˆÓ˚ˆÏá!åȈϰö– ï˛y•z ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓˆÏï≈˛ ã˛y°≈§ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

í˛ẑ ÏÕ‘á Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– !Üv ï˛y fiÌyÎ˚# •Î˚!ö– 1784ÈÙÈ85 !áfiê˛yˆÏ∑

üyÜ≈˛ í˛zˆÏí˛Ó˚ xÑyܲy öܲ¢yÓ˚ !û˛!_ˆÏï˛ 1792 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑

í˛z•z!°Î˚yü ˆÓ•z°# ˆÎ öï%˛ö üyö!ã˛e ≤Ã›ï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ö ï˛yˆÏï˛

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚Ä Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– 1794 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑ xy˛õ‰çö ˆÎ Ó,•Í

üyö!ã˛e ≤Ãܲy¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ˆ§•z üyö!ã˛ˆÏeÄ ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

xÓfiÌyö ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚– ˆÓ•z°# Ä xy˛õ‰çˆÏöÓ˚ üyö!ã˛ˆÏe

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xÓfiÌyö ˆòáyˆÏöy •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ

•y!ï˛ÓyàyöÈÙÈ¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ ~°yܲyÎ˚– ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ •z!ï˛Ó,_

˛õ%hflψÏܲÓ˚ ˆ°áܲ ≤ÃyîÜ,˛£÷ òˆÏ_Ó˚ üˆÏï˛ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ~ܲ§üÎ˚

Óï≈˛üyö ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ò!« îfiÌ Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚ ò!«˛î !òˆÏܲ !åÈ°–

§yÜ≈˛%°yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yí˛ !öü≈yîܲyˆÏ° 1800 §y° öyàyò Óï≈˛üyö

çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ fiÌyöyhsˇ!Ó˚ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ~ܲ§üˆÏÎ˚ ~°yܲy!ê˛Ó˚

xï˛ƒhsˇ à%Ó˚&c˛õ)î≈ Ó˚yhflÏy ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ !fiê˛ΔˆÏê˛Ó˚ öyüܲÓ˚îÄ

•Î˚ §%Ó,•Í ÓyçyÓ˚!ê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ–

§yÜ≈˛%°yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛Ó˚ !öü≈yîܲy° §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ ò%!ê˛ !û˛ß¨ üï˛

≤Ãã˛!°ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ– 1780 ~ÓÇ 1799 !á fiê˛y∑– 1780

!á fiê˛yˆÏ∑ ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚ ¢y§Ü˛ !åȈϰö ÄÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚ö

ˆ•!fiê˛Ç§ xyÓ˚ 1799ÈÙÈ~ °í≈˛ ĈÏÎ˚ˆÏ°§!°– !mï˛#Î˚

ï˛y!Ó˚á!ê˛•z §Ω˛Óï˛ §!ë˛Ü˛ ~ÓÇ ÄˆÏÎ˚ˆÏ°§!°Ó˚ xyüˆÏ°•z

!ö!ü≈ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° ~•z Ó˚yç˛õÌ!ê˛– ≤ÃyîÜ,˛£÷ ò_

•°ÄˆÏÎ˚ˆÏ°Ó˚ 1752 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑Ó˚ !Ó˚ˆÏ˛õyˆÏê≈˛Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ !û˛!_

ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~•z xö%üyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ˆÎñ ÓyçyÓ˚!ê˛Ó˚ xÓfiÌyö

1750ÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈ !åÈ° ܲ¡∫%!°Î˚yˆÏê˛y°y Óy

ܲ¡∫%!°ˆÏê˛y°yˆÏï˛– xT˛yò¢ ¢ï˛y∑#ˆÏï˛ ~ ï˛Õ‘yˆÏê˛ ˆÎ ˆÓ!¢

üyö%£ÏçˆÏöÓ˚ Ó§Óy§ !åÈ° öy ï˛y §•ˆÏç•z xö%ˆÏüÎ˚–

~üö!ܲ í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏÜ˛Ä xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚#!ï˛üˆÏï˛y çüçüyê˛

~°yܲyà%!°ˆÏï˛Ä âÓ˚Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ §Çáƒy !åÈ° Îͧyüyöƒ–

Óy!fiê˛í˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Ó•zˆÏÎ˚ 1780 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑ ÄÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚ö

ˆ•!fiê˛ÇˆÏ§Ó˚ xyüˆÏ° ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ç°!öܲy¢# ÓƒÓfliy•#öñ

üƒyˆÏ°!Ó˚Î˚y˛õ)î≈ñ ç°yçAà°üÎ˚ xÓfliyÓ˚ ˆÎ !ã˛e ~шÏܲˆÏåÈö

!ܲÇÓy ú˛Ó˚y!§ ˛õÎ≈ê˛Ü˛ @ˇÃyшÏ≤à 1793 §yˆÏ° ܲö≈ÄÎ˚y!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚

§üˆÏÎ˚ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ áyöyˆÏí˛yÓyñ ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ ~ÓÇ ˛õÌâyˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆÎ

ˆ¢yã˛ö#Î˚ xÓfiÌyÓ˚ ܲÌy !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ ò¢ˆÏܲÓ˚

üˆÏôƒ ˆ§ xÓfiÌyÓ˚ !ܲå%Èê˛y ˛õ!Ó˚Óï≈˛ö âê˛ˆÏï˛ ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚–

í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆé˛y˛õé˛yí˛¸ ˛õ!Ó˚‹ÒyÓ˚ñ !öï˛ƒöï%˛ö

âÓ˚Óy!í˛¸ñ Ó˚yhflÏyâyê˛ !öü≈yîñ ˛õÎ˚É≤Ãîy°# áööñ áyöyá®

û˛Ó˚yˆÏê˛Ó˚ §ˆÏAà §ˆÏAà ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ÈÙÈ˛õ!Ó˚!fiÌ!ï˛Ó˚ í˛zߨ!ï˛ âê˛ˆÏï˛

ÌyˆÏܲ– 1785 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ˆüyê˛ 31!ê˛

˛õ%!°¢ÌyöyÓ˚ x!hflÏc !åÈ° ӈϰ çyöy ÎyÎ˚ ~ÓÇ ˆ§•z

xö%ÎyÎ˚# 31!ê˛ ~°yܲyÎ˚ ¢•Ó˚!ê˛ˆÏܲ !Óû˛=˛ ܲÓ˚y •Î˚–

ˆ§Ü˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚

~à%!°Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öyüÄ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚–

í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ !mï˛#Î˚yˆÏô≈ í˛z_Ó˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ xÓfiÌy

!ӣψÏÎ˚ !öáÑ%ï˛ Óî≈öy ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ fl∫yü# !ÓˆÏÓܲyöˆÏ®Ó˚ ºyï˛y

üˆÏ•wöyÌ òˆÏ_Ó˚ ˆ°áyÎ˚– ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ xöƒyöƒ fiÌyˆÏöÓ˚

üˆÏï˛y•z ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ xM˛È°!ê˛ˆÏï˛Ä !åÈ° !Óhfl,Ïï˛ àyåÈ˛õy°y

Ä ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚– xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚•z à,•§Ç°@¿ ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ !åÈ° ~ÓÇ ç°ü@¿

•ˆÏÎ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ áÓÓ˚Ä ˛õyÄÎ˚y ˆÎï˛ §ü§yü!Î˚ܲ ˛õe˛õ!eܲyÎ˚–

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öyüܲÓ˚î §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛Ó˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ çö◊%!ï˛

Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ˆ¢yöy ÎyÎ˚ ¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚î ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ öyˆÏü ~ܲ

ç!üòyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó§Óy§ !åÈ° ~ xM˛ÈˆÏ°ñ xyÓ˚ !ï˛!ö•z !åȈϰö

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓyçyÓ˚!ê˛Ó˚ üy!°Ü˛– ˆ°yˆÏܲ Ó°ï˛

¢ƒyüã˛Ó˚îÓyÓ%Ó˚ ÓyçyÓ˚ Îy ܲy°Ü ˛ˆÏü •ˆÏÎ˚ òÑyí˛¸yÎ˚

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚– ¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ xM˛ÈˆÏ° !ï˛!ö ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õ%‹Ò!Ó˚î# áöö

ܲÓ˚yöñ ÎyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ fiÌyö!ê˛Ó˚Ä Ä•z öyü •Î˚– í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲ

ÓAàû˛y£ÏyÎ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y !Ó£ÏÎ˚ܲ ï˛Ìƒü)°Ü˛ à%Ó˚%c˛õ)î≈ ≤ÃÓrô˛

~ÓÇ ˆüyê˛yü%!ê˛û˛yˆÏÓ ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õ)î≈yAà •z!ï˛•y§ Ó˚ã˛öyÓ˚ xöƒï˛ü

˛õ!ÌÜ,˛Í Ó˚Aà°y° ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ S1827ÈÙÈ1887V

!°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ Úܲî≈ÄÎẙ!°¢ fiê˛Δ#ˆÏê˛Ó˚ í˛z_Ó˚ !òˆÏܲÓ˚ üyÌyÓ˚ !öܲê˛

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ Ä ¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ öyüܲ ò%•z!ê˛ ˛õÕ‘# Ó•% ≤Ãyã˛#ö–

1749 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑Ó˚ àû˛î≈ˆÏüˆÏrê˛Ó˚ ܲyàç˛õˆÏe

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ öyüܲ ˛õÕ‘#Ó˚ x!hflÏc ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚– ˛õÕ‘#ˆÏï˛

x!ï˛ Ó,•Í ~ܲ!ê˛ ≤Ãyã˛#ö ò#!â≈ܲy !åÈ°ñ •z•yÓ˚ öyü

Ú¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚Û– §¡±!ï˛ ~•z ˛õ%‹Ò!Ó˚î# ò)!£Ïï˛ ••zÎ˚y ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚

àï˛ ÓͧÓ˚ Ó%çy•zÎ˚y ˆòÄÎ˚y ••zÎ˚yˆÏåÈ–Û

xöƒ ~ܲ!ê˛ üï˛ •°ñ xT˛yò¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ üôƒû˛yˆÏà

˛õ°y!¢Ó˚ Î%ˆÏÂôÓ˚ xyˆÏà ˆ¢yû˛yÓ˚yü Ó§yˆÏܲÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛

¢ƒyüÓ˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !Ó@ˇÃ• ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ~Ó˚ í˛zͲõ!_– ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöy

ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ !Ó!¢T˛ ÓƒÓ§yÎ˚# Ó§yܲ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ¢yû˛yÓ˚yü

Ó§yܲ !åȈϰö ˆ§ Î%ˆÏàÓ˚ ~ܲ xï˛ƒhsˇ ôöÓyö Ä §¡õò¢y°#

Óƒ!_´– ˆ¢yû˛yÓ˚yˆÏüÓ˚ ˆ¢yû˛yÓyçyÓ˚ñ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛

xM˛ÈˆÏ° xˆÏöܲ ç!üçüy Ä !Ó£ÏÎ˚ §¡õ!_ !åÈ°–

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ xM˛ˆÏ° !ï˛!ö ¢ƒyüÓ˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !Ó@ˇÃ• SˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÜ˛í˛z

xyÓyÓ˚ !Ó@ˇÃ•ˆÏܲ ¢ƒyüã˛Ñyò ӈϰ í˛zˆÏÕ‘á ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈöV ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛y

ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öï˛ƒ˛õ)çyÓ˚ ÓƒÓfiÌy ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– ܲê˛ö §yˆÏ•ˆÏÓÓ˚ üˆÏï˛

¢ƒyüÓ˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ û˛!=˛Ó¢ï˛ ˆ¢yû˛yÓ˚yü Ó§yܲ•z ~•z

öyüܲÓ˚î ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓyçyÓ˚!ê˛Ó˚Ä üy!°Ü˛

!åȈϰö !ï˛!ö– ˆòÓ˛õ)çyÓ˚ ÎyÓï˛#Î˚ í˛z˛õܲÓ˚îñ ã˛y° í˛y° Ä

xöƒyöƒ ú˛°ü)°y!ò ≤Ã!ï˛!òö §Ó˚ÓÓ˚y• ܲÓ˚y •ï˛ ~•z ÓyçyÓ˚

ˆÌˆÏܲ•z– ˆ¢yû˛yÓ˚yˆÏüÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ÓƒÓ§y!Î˚ܲ §)ˆÏe ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚

â!ö¤˛ §¡õÜ≈˛ !åÈ°– ~üö ܲÌyÄ ˆ¢yöy ÎyÎ˚ ˆÎ

ˆ¢yû˛yÓ˚yˆÏüÓ˚ !ӈϢ£Ï xö%ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏô ïÑ˛yÓ˚ !öܲê˛yd#Î˚ ¢ƒyüãÑ˛yò

Ó§yˆÏܲÓ˚ öyüyö%§yˆÏÓ˚ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ Ä ¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ öyü ò%!ê˛

ÓƒÓ•,ï˛ •ˆÏï˛ ÌyˆÏܲ–

xyÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ çö◊%!ï˛ ı

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚ xyÓ˚.!ç.ܲÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛Ó˚ í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚

áy°ôyÓ˚ÈÙÈ!öÓy§# ÓÕ‘û˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ܲ#!ï≈˛üyö ˛õ%Ó˚%£Ï

¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚î ÓÕ‘ˆÏû˛Ó˚ öyü ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ í˛zͲõ!_–

áy°!ê˛Ó˚ ˛õ!ÿ˛ü≤ÃyˆÏhsˇ !ܲå%Èê˛y ò%ˆÏà≈Ó˚ xyܲyÓ˚!Ó!¢T˛ °y°

Ó˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÎ Ó,•òyÎ˚ï˛ö xRy!°Ü˛y!ê˛ xÓ!fiÌï˛ ˆ§!ê˛ˆÏï˛ ~áö

¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚î ÓÕ‘ˆÏû˛Ó˚ ÓÇ¢ôÓ˚Ó˚y Ó§Óy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö–

¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ xy!ò Óy!í˛¸ ã˛!Óù¢ ˛õÓ˚àöyÓ˚ xhsˇà≈ï˛ ˆŸªï˛˛õ%Ó˚

@ˇÃyˆÏü– x“ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§ !˛õï˛yÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ •ˆÏ° !ï˛!ö ôyöƒÜ%˛!í˛¸Î˚yÎ˚

ã˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ§ö ~ÓÇ üyï%˛°y°ˆÏÎ˚ °y!°ï˛˛õy!°ï˛ •ö–

˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ܲyˆÏ° üyï%˛° Ä Ÿª¢%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ˆÏAà Î%@¬û˛yˆÏÓ ˛õyˆÏê˛Ó˚

ÓƒÓ§yÎ˚ !°Æ •ˆÏÎ˚ !ï˛!ö ≤Ãû)˛ï˛ ôö§¡õˆÏòÓ˚ x!ôܲyÓ˚# •ö–

˛õy!ï˛˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ xM˛ˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏê˛Ó˚ !Ó¢y° xyí˛¸ï˛ Ä Ü˛yÓ˚áyöy

!åÈ°– Úç%ê˛ °í≈˛Û öyˆÏü ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ ¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚î Ó•% fiÌyˆÏö

ç!üçüy Ü ˛Î˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– |ö!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï !òˆÏܲ !ï˛!ö

!åȈϰö ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ xöƒï˛ü ôö# Óƒ!=˛– 1896ÈÙÈ97 §yˆÏ°

ã˛!Óù¢ ˛õÓ˚àöyÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ fiÌyˆÏö û˛Î˚yÓ• ò%!û≈˛«˛ ˆòáy !òˆÏ°

!ï˛!ö ôyöƒÜ%˛!í˛¸Î˚yÎ˚ xߨ§e ˆáyˆÏ°ö ~ÓÇ ≤Ã!ï˛!òö Ó•%

fiÌyö#Î˚ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ xy•yÓ˚ Ä !ã˛!ܲͧyÓ˚ ÓƒÓfiÌy ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– !ï˛!ö

çö!•ï˛Ü˛Ó˚ ܲyçܲˆÏü≈Ó˚ §ˆÏAà Î%=˛ !åȈϰö ~ÓÇ

ôyöƒÜ%˛!í˛¸ÎẙÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ í˛zFã˛ •zLjÏÓ˚!ç !Óòƒy°Î˚ fiÌy˛õˆÏö xˆÏöܲ

xÌ≈ §y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– ôyöƒÜ%˛!í˛¸Î˚yÓ˚ xˆÏöܲ üyö%£Ï xyçÄ

~ܲÌy ӈϰ ÌyˆÏܲö ˆÎ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ öyü!ê˛Ó˚ í˛zͲõ!_ ïÑ˛yÓ˚

ˆÌˆÏܲ•z •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ~ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ çö◊%!ï˛ Ü˛°Ü˛yï˛y ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ä

≤Ãã˛!°ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ Îy !öï˛yhsˇ•z !û˛!_•#ö– ¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚î ÓÕ‘û˛

|ö!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ üyé˛yüy!é˛ §üˆÏÎ˚ §Ω˛Óï˛ 1842ÈÙÈ43

!áfiê˛yˆÏ∑ çß√@ˇÃ•î ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ~ÓÇ 1898 !áfiê˛yˆÏ∑ üyÓẙ Îyö–

Îï˛ò)Ó˚ çyöy ˆàˆÏåÈñ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ öyü!ê˛Ó˚ ≤Ãã˛°ö •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°

xT˛yò¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲñ ¢ƒyüyã˛Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ çˆÏß√Ó˚ xˆÏöܲܲy° xyˆÏà–

í˛z˛õˆÏÓẙ=˛ üï˛à%!° åÈyí˛¸y ≤Ãã˛!°ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ xyÓ˚Ä ò%ÈÙÈ~ܲ!ê˛

üï˛ ~ÓÇ öyüܲÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ÎÌyÌ≈ ܲyÓ˚î !ö!ÿ˛ï˛û˛yˆÏÓ çyöy ÎyÎ˚!ö–

xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ ¢ƒyüyÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ë˛Ü˛ ܲï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ ~°yܲy ~ÓÇ ˆÜ˛yö

ˆÜ˛yö xÇ¢ !öˆÏÎ˚ xT˛yò¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ¢ƒyüyÓyçyÓ˚ àˆÏí˛¸

í˛ẑ Ïë˛!åÈ° ï˛y Ó°y ܲ!ë˛ö– ï˛ˆÏÓ ~Ó˚ §#üy ˆÎ ܲˆÏü•z ≤çy!Ó˚ï˛

•ˆÏÎ˚ xӈϢˆÏ£Ï Óï≈˛üyö xyܲyÓ˚ ôyÓ˚î ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ï˛y §•ˆÏç•z

§ˆÏrôÓ˚ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ˛õÑyã˛üyÌyÓ˚ ˆüyí˛¸ ~áö

xö%ˆÏüÎ˚– xyô%!öܲ ~ܲçö ˆ°áˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó=˛Óƒ ~ ≤çˆÏAà

í˛zˆÏÕ‘á ܲÓ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– !ï˛!ö !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ ÚÓï≈˛üyö

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ !fiê˛Δê˛ öyüܲ Ó˚yhflÏy ~ÓÇ ï˛yÓ˚ xy¢˛õy¢ˆÏܲ•z ˆÎ

˛õ%ÓẙˆÏöy ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ˆÓyé˛yï˛ñ ~ê˛y xö%üyö ܲÓẙ

ˆÓyô•Î˚ xˆÏÎÔ!=˛Ü˛ •ˆÏÓ öy–Û

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ à%Ó˚%c˛õ)î≈ fiÌyö •° ˛õÑyã˛üyÌyÓ˚

ˆüyí˛¸ Sú˛y•zû˛ ˛õˆÏÎ˚rê˛ Ü ˛!¢ÇV ˆÎáyˆÏö xŸªyÓ˚)ì˛¸ ˆöï˛y!ç

§%û˛y£Ïã˛w Ó§%Ó˚ fiê˛ƒyã%˛!ê˛ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ~ܲçö xÓyäy!°

fiÌ˛õ!ï˛Ó˚ myÓẙ !ö!ü≈ï˛ xyê˛ ê˛ö Äçö!Ó!¢T˛ ˆÓyˆÏOÓ˚ ü)!ï≈˛!ê˛

1969 §y° ˆÌˆÏܲ ~áyˆÏö xÓfiÌyö ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– !§.xyÓ˚.

í˛z•z°§ˆÏöÓ˚ ÚÄ”˛ ˆú˛yê≈˛ í˛z•z!°ÎẙüÛ @ˇÃrÌ ˆÌˆÏܲ çyöy ÎyˆÏFåÈñ

xT˛yò¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ üôƒû˛yˆÏà •zLjÏÓ˚çÓẙ ~•z fiÌyö!ê˛ˆÏܲ Ó°ï˛

Úܲyí˛z ܲ¢Û– !ܲv ˆÜ˛ö Ó°ï˛ ï˛y çyöy ÎyÎ˚!ö– ˆàyÓ˚%Ó˚ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚

üˆÏï˛y xyÜ,˛!ï˛ !åÈ° ӈϰ•z •Î˚ˆÏï˛y Ó°y •ï˛–

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ~•z ˆÜ˛wfiÌ° ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õÑyã˛!ê˛ Ó˚yç˛õÌ

åÈ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ Ü˛°Ü˛yï˛y ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ !òˆÏܲ– ˛õÌà%!°

•° ÎÌyÜ ˛ˆÏü xyÓ˚.!ç.ܲÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yí˛ñ xyã˛yÎ≈ ≤Ãú%˛Õ‘ã˛w ˆÓ˚yí˛ñ

!Óôyö §Ó˚!îñ û)˛ˆÏ˛õw ˆÓy§ ~!û˛!öí˛z ~ÓÇ !Ó.!ê˛. ˆÓ˚yí˛

SÓƒyÓ˚yܲ˛õ%Ó˚ ê˛ΔyAܲ ˆÓ˚yí˛V– ~•z !Óôyö §Ó˚!î•z ÓyàÓyçyÓ˚

!fiê˛Δê˛ åÈy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ §Ó˚y§!Ó˚ xyÓ˚Ä í˛z_Ó˚!òˆÏܲ x@ˇÃ§Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚

!Ó.!ê˛. ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛ ~ˆÏ§ !ü!°ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ˆöï˛y!çÓ˚ ü)!ï≈˛Ó˚

§yüˆÏö ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆ§yçy ˛õ!ÿ˛ü!òˆÏܲ ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyÄÎ˚y û)˛ˆÏ˛õö

ˆÓy§ ~!û˛!öí˛zȈÏÎ˚Ó˚ öyüܲÓ˚î •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ Ü˛ˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ö ܲï≈˛,ܲ

1943 §yˆÏ°ñ ~ܲ§üÎ˚ܲyÓ˚ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ çyï˛#Î˚ Ü˛ÇˆÏ@ˇÃˆÏ§Ó˚

§û˛y˛õ!ï˛ ~ÓÇ Ü˛°Ü˛yï˛y !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ≤Ãy=˛ö û˛y•z§

ã˛ƒyˆÏ°Ó˚ û)˛ˆÏ˛õwöyÌ Ó§%Ó˚ öyˆÏü– ≤çAàï˛ í˛zˆÏÕ‘áˆÏÎyàƒñ

¢ï˛y!ôܲ ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˙!ï˛•ƒ§¡õߨ ˆüy•öÓyàyö Üœ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚

≤ÃÌü §û˛y˛õ!ï˛Ä !åȈϰö !ï˛!ö– ~•z Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚ ôyˆÏÓ˚•z

Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ü•yÓ˚yçy üî#wã˛w ܲˆÏ°çñ Îy 1941ÈÙÈ~

≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛ •ÓyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ≤ÃyÎ˚ xyê˛ ò¢Ü˛ ôˆÏÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y

~ÓÇ xy¢˛õy¢ ~°yܲyÓ˚ x§ÇრåÈyeÈÙÈåÈye#Ó˚ !¢«˛yÓ˚

ã˛y!•òy ˛õ)Ó˚î ܲˆÏÓ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ–

xyã˛yÎ≈ ≤Ãú%˛Õ‘ã˛w ˆÓ˚yí˛ Óy ~.!˛õ.!§ ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛Ó˚ ˛õ)Ó≈öyü

xy˛õyÓ˚ §yÜ≈˛%°yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yí˛– ï˛yÓ˚Ä xyˆÏà ~ˆÏò¢#Î˚ fiÌyö#Î˚

üyö%£Ïçö ~ˆÏܲ Ó°ï˛ ÚÓy•yÓ˚ §í˛¸Ü˛Û– °í≈˛ ܲö≈ÄÎ˚y!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚

xyüˆÏ° ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ §#üyöy !öô≈yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ܲyç ¢%Ó˚% •Î˚– ï˛áö

~!ê˛ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §#üyÓ˚ Ó!•û≈˛yˆÏà xÓ!fiÌï˛ !åÈ°– ܲƒy°Ü˛yê˛y

!Ó˚!û˛í˛zˆÏï˛ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ ˛õy!o ˆçü§ °ˆÏäÓ˚ ~ܲ ≤ÃÓrô ˆÌˆÏܲ

ˆÎ ˆÜ˛Ôï)˛•ˆÏ°yj#˛õܲ ï˛Ìƒ!ê˛ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ ï˛y •°ñ xyç

ˆÌˆÏܲ ò%ˆÏ¢y ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ܲå%È xyˆÏà 1794 §yˆÏ° ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚

xM˛° ˆÌˆÏܲ ¢%Ó˚% ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ !ï˛ö üy•z° ~°yܲy ˛õÎ≈hsˇ

~•z ˛õˆÏÌÓ˚ ôyˆÏÓ˚ öy!ܲ !ï˛ö!ê˛ Ó§ï˛Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ x!hflÏc !åÈ°–

ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚ ˛õ%Ó˚ˆÏöy ˆÓ˚ܲí≈˛ Ó•z ˆÌˆÏܲ çyöy ÎyÎ˚ñ fiÌyˆÏö

fiÌyˆÏö ã˛y£ÏÈyÓyòÄ ã˛°ï˛– •Ó˚≤çyò ¢yflf# Úܲ!°Ü˛yï˛y ò%•z¢ï˛

ÓͧÓ˚ ˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈Û öyüܲ ≤ÃÓˆÏrô !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ Ú1778 §yˆÏ° Îáö

ÄÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚ö ˆ•!fiê˛Ç§ ü•yÓ˚yçy öÓÜ,˛£÷ˆÏܲ §%ï˛yö%ê˛#Ó˚

ï˛y°%ܲòyÓ˚# ≤Ãòyö ܲˆÏÓ˚öñ ï˛áö ˙ ï˛y°%ˆÏܲÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xˆÏöܲ

çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ã˛y£ÏÓy§ ••zï˛ñ ܲyÓ˚î ˙ ò!°ˆÏ° ã˛y£ÏÓyˆÏ§Ó˚ flõT˛

í˛zˆÏÕ‘á xyˆÏåÈ–Û Ó˚Aà°y° ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ Ú~•z

§yÜ≈˛%°yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yí˛ x!ï˛ ≤Ãyã˛#ö Ó˚yhflÏyñ ~•z Ó˚yhflÏy•z ܲ!°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚

í˛z_Ó˚ ••zˆÏï˛ ˛õ)Ó≈˛õyŸª≈ !òÎ˚y ò!«˛îy!û˛ü%ˆÏá Îy•zÓyÓ˚ Ó˚yhflÏy

!åÈ°– ~Ó˚ x˛õÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ xÇ¢ ˆ°yÎ˚yÓ˚ §yÜ≈˛%°yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yí˛ öyˆÏü

˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ •Î˚– 1958 §yˆÏ° ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ö ܲï≈˛,ܲ

ˆÓAà° ˆÜ˛!üܲƒyˆÏ°Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yï˛y ≤Ã!§Âô !¢«˛yÓ ï˛#

Ó˚§yÎ˚ö!Óò xyã˛yÎ≈ ≤Ãú%˛Õ‘ã˛w Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ öyˆÏü ~•z Ó˚yhflÏy!ê˛Ó˚

öï%˛ö öyüܲÓ˚î •Î˚–

!Óôyö §Ó˚!îÓ˚ ˛õ)Ó≈öyü ܲö≈ÄÎ˚y!°¢ !fiê˛Δê˛– ~!ê˛ !ö!ü≈ï˛

•Î˚ 1817 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õÓ˚ °ê˛y!Ó˚ ܲ!ü!ê˛Ó˚ myÓ˚y– ˆÜ˛y¡õy!öÓ˚

xyüˆÏ° ~áyöܲyÓ˚ àû˛ö≈Ó˚ ˆçöyˆÏÓ˚° !åȈϰö °í˛

ܲö≈ÄÎ˚y!°¢ S1786ÈÙÈ1793 ~ÓÇ 1805 !á ÉV– ï˛ÑyÓ˚

öyˆÏüÓ˚ flø,!ï˛!Óç!í˛¸ï˛ ˛õÌ!ê˛Ó˚ öï%˛ö öyüܲÓ˚î •Î˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y

ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ö ܲï≈˛,ܲ 1963 §yˆÏ°ñ ˛õ!ÿ˛üÓˆÏAàÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚yï˛

≤Ãy=˛ö ü%áƒüsf# í˛y. !Óôyöã˛w ÓẙˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ öyˆÏü– ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

§%Ó,•Í ˆ˛õyfiê˛x!ú˛§!ê ~•z Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚ ôyˆÏÓ˚•z xÓ!fiÌï˛–

xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚#!ï˛üˆÏï˛y çöÓ•%° ~•z Ó˚yç˛õÌ!ê˛Ó˚ ò%•z ôyˆÏÓ˚

í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏÜ˛Ä âÓ˚Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ §Çáƒy !åÈ° á%Ó•z ܲü– ~üö!ܲ

àï˛ ¢ï˛y∑#ˆÏï˛ ≤Ãy܉˛ÈÙÈfl∫yô#öï˛y ܲyˆÏ°Ä ˛õÌ!ê˛Ó˚ ˆÎ ˆã˛•yÓ˚y

!åÈ° ï˛yÓ˚ Óî≈öy xyç xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ•z x!ÓŸªy§ƒ üˆÏö

•ˆÏÓ– ¢ï˛y∑# ≤Ãyã˛#ö ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÈÙÈ!ӈϢ£ÏK˛ S≤ÃÎ˚yï˛V xï%˛°

§%Ó˚ ü•y¢ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ û˛y£ÏyˆÏï˛•z ˆ¢yöy Îyܲ ï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚)˛õÓî≈öyÈÙÙÙÈ

Ú~ Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚ ˆ§Ô®Î≈ !åÈ° x˛õ)Ó≈– Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚ ò% ôyˆÏÓ˚ !åÈ°

§üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020 9

ò¢ !Ó¢ •yï˛ xhsˇÓ˚ Ü,˛£÷ã)˛í˛¸yÓ˚ àyåÈ– àyåÈà%!°ˆÏï˛ Îáö ú%˛°

ú%˛ê˛ï˛ ï˛áö üˆÏö •ï˛ Ó˚yhflÏyÓ˚ ò%ôyˆÏÓ˚ üyÌyÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚

ÓˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ °y° ú%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆì˛í˛z–Û ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚ ܲö≈ÄÎ˚y!°¢

!fiê˛ΔˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˛õ)Ó≈yÇ¢ ç%ˆÏí˛¸ ~ܲ§üÎ˚ !åÈ° üö%£ÏƒÓyˆÏ§Ó˚

xö%˛õˆÏÎyà# ܲã%˛!Ó˚˛õyöyÎ˚ ˛õ)î≈ ç°yû)˛!ü– ~áyˆÏö•z

˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ܲyˆÏ° àˆÏí˛¸ í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ Ó˚yçy ò#ˆÏöw !fiê˛Δê˛ñ ˆò¢Órô%

˛õyÜ≈˛ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛– Ó˚yçy ò#ˆÏöw !fiê˛ΔˆÏê˛Ó˚ öyüܲÓ˚î •Î˚ Ó˚yçy

ò#ˆÏöwöyÓẙÎ˚î ÓẙˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ öyüyö%§yˆÏÓ˚– 1916 !áfiê˛yˆÏ∑Ó˚ üyã≈˛

üyˆÏ§ ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ö ~•z öyüܲÓ˚î ܲˆÏÓ˚– Óẙçy ò#ˆÏöwöyÓẙÎ˚î

Ó˚yÎ˚ 1847 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑ çß√@ˇÃ•î ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ~ÓÇ 1915

!áfiê˛yˆÏ∑ ˆ¢£Ï !öÉŸªy§ ï˛ƒyà ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– !ï˛!ö !åȈϰö ˛õ%ˆÏÓẙˆÏöy

ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ §%≤Ã!§Âô ôö# ÓƒÓ§yÎ˚# °-#ܲyhsˇ Óy öÜ%˛ ôˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

ÓÇ¢ôÓ˚ Ó˚yçy Ó ˆÏçwöyÓ˚yÎ˚î Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆ˛õy£Ïƒ˛õ%e– Ó˚yçy

ò#ˆÏöw §%ò#â≈ܲy° ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ˆÏöÓ˚ ܲ!ü¢öyÓ˚ñ

¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xöyÓ˚y!Ó˚ üƒy!çˆÏfiê˛Δê˛ ~ÓÇ !Ó !ê˛¢ •z!u˛Î˚yö

xƒyˆÏ§y!§ˆÏÎ˚¢ˆÏöÓ˚ §ò§ƒ !åȈϰö– !ï˛!ö ~áyöܲyÓ˚ û˛y•z§

ˆ≤Ã!§ˆÏí˛rê˛Ä •ˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰö– àí˛¸˛õyí˛¸ ~ÓÇ !¢Ü˛òyÓ˚˛õyí˛¸y

xM˛ˆÏ° !ï˛!ö xˆÏöܲ ç!ü ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢öˆÏܲ òyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

1925 §yˆÏ° ê˛yí˛zö •ˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ xyÓ«˛ üü≈Ó˚ü)!ï≈˛

fiÌy˛õö ܲÓ˚y •Î˚–

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ÈÙȈӰày!åÈÎ˚yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ §ÇˆÏÎyà Ó˚«˛yܲyÓ˚#

˛õ)Ó≈!òˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆÎÈÙÈÓ˚yhflÏy!ê˛ •y§˛õyï˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ §yüˆÏö !Ó ˆÏçÓ˚ IJõÓ˚

!òˆÏÎ˚ ˛õÑyã˛üyÌyÓ˚ ˆüyˆÏí˛¸ ~ˆÏ§ !üˆÏ¢ˆÏåÈñ ï˛yÓ˚ öyü

xyÓ˚.!ç.ܲÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yí˛– ˛õ)Ó≈öyü ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ !Ó ç ˆÓ˚yí˛ñ Îy

!åÈ° x!ï˛ §Çܲ#î≈ ~ܲ ÓẙhflÏy– 1924 §yˆÏ° í˛y. ÓẙôyˆÏày!Ó®

ܲˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öyˆÏü ~Ó˚ öï%˛ö öyüܲÓ˚î •Î˚ ~ÓÇ Ó˚yhflÏy!ê˛ˆÏܲ

˛õ)Ó≈yˆÏ˛õ«˛y xˆÏöܲ í˛zß¨ï˛ Ä ≤âhflÏ Ü˛Ó˚y •Î˚– xyÓ˚.!ç.ܲÓ˚

ܲˆÏ°ç Ä •y§˛õyï˛y° ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe í˛y. ܲˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ~ܲ

!ӈϢ£Ï û)˛!üܲy !åÈ°– •z!ö !ã˛!ܲͧy¢yflf §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛

ˆò¢Óy§#ˆÏܲ !¢«˛yòyˆÏöÓ˚ í˛zˆÏjˆÏ¢ƒ ~ܲ!ê˛ Óy!í˛¸ û˛yí˛¸y !öˆÏÎ˚

ܲƒy°Ü˛yê˛y fl%Ò° xú˛ ˆü!í˛!§ö öyü !òˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ !¢«˛yÎ˚ï˛ö

ˆáyˆÏ°ö 1886 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑– 1895ÈÙÈ96 §y° öyàyò

ˆÓ°ày!åÈÎ˚y ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛ ç!ü !ܲˆÏö xƒy°Óyê≈˛ !û˛QÓ˚ •§!˛õê˛y°

fiÌy!˛õï˛ •ÓyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ Óï≈˛üyö ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ §)ã˛öyÎ˚ 1903 §y°

öyàyò fl%Ò°!ê˛ˆÏܲ ~áyˆÏö fiÌyöyhsˇ!Ó˚ï˛ Ü˛Ó˚y •Î˚– ≤Ã̈Ïü

•y§˛õyï˛y°!ê˛ !åÈ° ~Ü˛ï˛°y– ˛õˆÏÓ˚ ~!ê˛ˆÏܲ !mï˛° ܲÓ˚y •Î˚

~ÓÇ 1907 §yˆÏ° •y§˛õyï˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ ¢Îƒy§Çáƒy ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ •Î˚

~ܲˆÏ¢y– •y§˛õyï˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ öï%˛ö û˛Óö!ê˛Ó˚ í˛zò‰ˆÏÓyôö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö

ï˛Íܲy°#ö ÓyÇ°yÓ˚ àû˛ö≈Ó˚ °í≈˛ ܲyÓ˚üy•zˆÏܲ° 1916

!á fiê˛yˆÏ∑– ˆ§•z§üÎ˚ ~Ó˚ öyüܲÓ˚î ܲÓ˚y •Î˚ ܲyÓ˚üy•zˆÏܲ°

ˆü!í˛Ü˛ƒy° ܲˆÏ°ç– Ó˚yôyˆÏày!Ó® ܲˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ flø,!ï˛ˆÏܲ fløÓ˚î#Î˚

ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yáyÓ˚ í˛zˆÏjˆÏ¢ƒ 1948 !áfiê˛yˆÏ∑Ó˚ üyã≈˛ üy§ ˆÌˆÏܲ

~Ó˚ öyü •Î˚ xyÓ˚.!ç.ܲÓ˚ ˆü!í˛Ü˛ƒy° ܲˆÏ°ç– ~•z

•y§˛õyï˛y° fiÌy˛õˆÏö !öˆÏÓ!òï˛≤Ãyî í˛y. Ó˚yôyˆÏày!Ó® ܲÓ˚

ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ÎyÓï˛#Î˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ §¡õ!_ •y§˛õyï˛y°!ê˛ˆÏܲ òyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

!ã˛!ܲͧy¢yflf §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ !Ó!û˛ß¨ @ˇÃˆÏrÌÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛!Î˚ï˛y ~•z çöòÓ˚!ò

üyö%£Ï!ê˛ !åȈϰö ¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óy!§®y–

˛õÑyã˛üyÌyÓ˚ ˆüyí˛¸ åÈy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !Óôyö §Ó˚!î ôˆÏÓ˚ §yüyöƒ

!ܲå%Èê˛y ò!«˛ˆÏî x@ˇÃ§Ó˚ •ˆÏ°•z ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ê˛Δyü !í˛ˆÏ˛õy– àï˛

¢ï˛y∑#ˆÏï˛ Îáö ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ã˛°ï˛ ˆâyí˛¸yÎ˚ ê˛yöy ê˛Δyüñ

ˆ§•z§üÎ˚ ~•z ~°yܲyÓ˚ xy¢˛õy¢ !òˆÏÎ˚•z !åÈ° ï˛yÓ˚ à%ü!ê˛

Óy !í˛ˆÏ˛õy– ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y ¢•ˆÏÓ˚ ê˛Δyüày!í˛¸ ã˛y°yˆÏöy ¢%Ó˚% •Î˚ í˛z!ö¢

¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï !òܲ ˆÌˆÏܲ– ˆ§§üÎ˚ ê˛Δyü ã˛y°yˆÏï˛ ÄˆÏÎ˚°yÓ˚

ˆâyí˛¸y ÓƒÓ•,ï˛ •ï˛– 1882 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ öˆÏû˛¡∫Ó˚ üyˆÏ§

¢ƒyüÓyçyˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ê˛Δyüày!í˛¸ ã˛y°% ܲÓ˚y •Î˚– ~Ó˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ

ÓåÈÓ˚ xyˆÏà 1879 §yˆÏ° ܲƒy°Ü˛yê˛y ê˛ΔyüĈÏÎ˚ ˆÜ˛y¡õy!ö

Ä Ü˛ƒy°Ü˛yê˛y ܲˆÏ˛õ≈yˆÏÓ˚¢ˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~ܲ ã%˛!=˛Ó˚ üyôƒˆÏü !fiÌÓ˚

•Î˚ ˆÎ ≤Ã̈Ïü ˆüyê˛ xyê˛!ê˛ ~°yܲyÎ˚ ê˛Δyü°y•zö ˜ï˛!Ó˚ Ä

§ÇÓ˚«˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ÓƒÓfiÌy ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÓ– ~à%!°Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚

!åÈ° xöƒï˛ü ~°yܲy– 1896 §yˆÏ° !fiÌÓ˚ •Î˚ ˆÎ

ê˛ΔyüˆÏܲy¡õy!öÓ˚ ÓƒÓ•,ï˛ ˆâyí˛¸yà%!°ˆÏܲ Ó˚yáyÓ˚ çöƒ !í˛ˆÏ˛õy

fiÌy˛õö ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÓ– ~•z í˛zˆÏjˆÏ¢ƒ ¢ƒyü˛õ%Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ !í˛ˆÏ˛õy

fiÌy!˛õï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–

ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ≤ÃÌü ˜Óò%ƒ!ï˛Ü˛ ê˛Δyü ã˛ˆÏ° !ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚

~ˆÏܲÓyˆÏÓ˚ §)ã˛öy °ˆÏ@¿ñ 1902 §yˆÏ°ñ !á!òÓ˚˛õ%Ó˚ ~°yܲyÎ˚

§Ó≈≤ÃÌü ~Ó˚ ¢%û˛ í˛zò‰ˆÏÓyôö •Î˚– ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚

üˆÏôƒ•z ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ öyöy fiÌyˆÏö ê˛Δyü°y•zö !ÓhflÏyÓ˚°yû˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚–

¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ åÈyí˛¸y í˛z_Ó˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ˆÓ°ày!åÈÎẙñ ÓyàÓyçyÓ˚

≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ fiÌyˆÏö ˜Óò%ƒ!ï˛Ü˛ ê˛Δyü ã˛y°yˆÏöy ¢%Ó˚% •Î˚ ~•z§üÎ˚

ˆÌˆÏܲ•z– xy˛õyÓ˚ §yÜ≈˛%°yÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yˆÏí˛ ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ÈÙÈÓ˚yçyÓyçyÓ˚

°y•zö xÓ¢ƒ ã˛y°% ܲÓ˚y •Î˚ xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöܲ ˛õˆÏÓ˚– Ó˚yôyÓ˚üî

!üˆÏeÓ˚ ˆ°áy ˆÌˆÏܲ çyöy ÎyˆÏFåÈ Ü˛°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ≤ÃÌü Óy§

ã˛y°yˆÏöy ¢%Ó˚% •Î˚ 1926 §yˆÏ°– xï%˛° §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛ §y°!ê˛

•° 1924– í˛zˆÏòƒy=˛y !åÈ° ÄÎ˚y°ˆÏú˛yí≈˛ ˆÜ˛y¡õy!ö– ~•z

ˆÜ˛y¡õy!ö ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲˆÏ°ç !fiê˛Δê˛ñ Óí˛zÓyçyÓ˚ñ

í˛y°ˆÏ•Ô!§ •ˆÏÎ˚ ܲy°#âyê˛ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §y!û≈˛§ ã˛y°% ܲˆÏÓ˚–

~áö ˆÎáyˆÏö ¢ƒyüÓyçyÓ˚ ê˛Δyü !í˛ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚ xÓfiÌyö ï˛yÓ˚

!˛õåȈÏö Ü,˛£÷Ó˚yü Ó§% !fiê˛ΔˆÏê˛ 1833 !á fiê˛yˆÏ∑ öÓ#öã˛w Ó§%Ó˚

≤Ãy§yˆÏòy˛õü xRy!°Ü˛yÎ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚•z í˛zˆÏòƒyˆÏà §Ó≈≤ÃÌü ÓyÇ°y

öyê˛ƒ¢y°y ≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛ •Î˚–


10 §üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%ˆÏÆÓ˚ §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚

7 ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

ˆ°ˆÏáö!ö– ~ܲê%˛ !Ó¢ˆÏò Ó°%ö öyÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ üyö%£Ïñ

xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÓшÏã˛ Ìyܲyñ §ü§yü!Î˚ܲï˛yÈÙÙÙÈ~ ˆï˛y

xy§ˆÏÓ•z– xyüÓ˚y ˆÎ §üÎ˚ê˛yÎ˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ

Óy ˆÎ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ üôƒ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎÔÓöñ üyé˛ÓÎ˚§ê˛y

x!ï˛Ü ˛ü ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ ï˛áö ˆò¢ÈÙÈܲy°ÈÙȧüyˆÏç

~ܲê˛y í˛z_y° ˛õ!Ó˚!fiÌ!ï˛ ã˛°!åÈ°– öܲ¢y°

xyˆÏ®y°öñ ˆò¢û˛yàñ ~ܲy_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Î%Âôó

fl∫yû˛y!Óܲû˛yˆÏÓ•z ï˛yÓ˚ !ܲå%Èê˛y ≤Ãû˛yÓ xyüyÓ˚

ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ–

ï˛ˆÏÓ ~ê˛y !ë˛Ü˛ñ xy!ü ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ á%Ó ~ܲê˛y

ˆÓ!¢ !°!á!ö– ÚàyåÈÛ öyˆÏü ~ܲê˛y ܲ!Óï˛y

xyˆÏåÈ– xyÓ˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛ öyöy xö%§ˆÏAà xyüyÓ˚

ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ– xy§ˆÏ° xy!ü ܲáˆÏöy•z

û˛yÓöy!ã˛hsˇy ܲˆÏÓ˚ !ܲå%È !°!á !ö– ¢∑ˆÏܲ Óy

!Ó£ÏÎ˚ˆÏܲ üƒy!ö˛õ%ˆÏ°ê˛ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲ!Ó˚!ö–

Îáö !°áˆÏï˛ •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ öy ï˛áö xy!ü !°!á

öy– xyÓyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y Îáö !°áˆÏï˛ ¢%Ó˚% ܲ!Ó˚ñ

~ܲê˛y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ò%ˆÏê˛y °y•zö xyüyÓ˚

üyÌyÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ– ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ °y•zöà%ˆÏ°y

xy˛õöyxy˛õ!ö ˆ°áy •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲ!Óï˛y !ܲÇÓy ܲ°ü

ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲƒyˆÏüÓ˚y ˆü°yö ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı !üˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚– xy!ü !ܲå%È ˆü°y•z öy–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xy˛õöyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ û)˛ˆÏï˛yÓ˚yçy ˆÜ˛⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı û)˛ˆÏï˛yÓ˚yçy !ï˛!ö !Î!ö xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

!§ˆÏfiê˛ˆÏüÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ӈϧ xyˆÏåÈö– !§ˆÏfiê˛üê˛yˆÏܲ

!Î!ö ã˛y°öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– xÌ≈yÍ Ó˚yT˛Δ¢!=˛–

Úû)˛ˆÏï˛yÓ˚yçyÛÓ˚y §Ó§üˆÏÎ˚•z !åÈ°– xy˛õ!ö Î!ò

û)˛ˆÏï˛yÓẙçyÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ~ܲüï˛ öy •öñ §yüyöƒï˛ü

≤Ã!ï˛Óyò ܲˆÏÓ˚öñ û)˛ˆÏï˛yÓẙçyÓẙ xy˛õöyˆÏܲ ˆ¢£Ï

ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòˆÏÓ–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xy˛õöyÓ˚ ÚåÈyï˛yܲy!•ö#Û Ü˛yÓƒ@ˇÃˆÏrÌ

ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y í˛z˛õܲÓ˚îñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚

âyï˛ÈÙÈ≤Ã!ï˛âyï˛ñ xy˛õˆÏ§Ó˚ çyÎ˚àyà%ˆÏ°yˆÏܲ

í˛z˛õfiÌy!˛õï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ~ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ !ܲå%È

Ó°ˆÏÓö⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı ˆòá%öñ åÈyï˛y !ç!ö§ê˛y x˛õy䉈Ï=˛Î˚

•ˆÏ°Ä ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ á%Ó ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ !ç!ö§–

åÈyï˛yÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ˆÓшÏã˛ Ìyܲy xyˆÏåÈ–

xy!ü ˆ§•z ˆÓшÏã˛ÈÙÈÌyܲyê˛yˆÏܲ•z ~ܲê%˛

àû˛#Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ ˆòáyÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ~•z ˆÎ

ˆòáˆÏåÈöñ xyüyÓ˚ âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ °y•zê˛ñ

ˆ¢yÈÙÈ!˛õ§à%ˆÏ°y xyˆÏåÈñ ~Ó˚yÄ !ܲv xyüyÓ˚

ˆÓшÏã˛ ÌyܲyÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚˛õ)Ó˚ܲ– ~ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒÄ xy!ü

≤ÃyˆÏîÓ˚ flõ®ö xö%û˛Ó ܲ!Ó˚– ˆáÑyçyÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y

ܲ!Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚– ï˛ˆÏÓ xyÓyÓ˚Ä Ó!°ñ §Ó!ܲå%È

ï˛yÍ«˛!îܲ ≤Ã!ï˛!Ü ˛Î˚yÎ˚ xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ¢%ˆÏö!åÈ xy˛õöyÓ˚ Úö#Ó˚=˛ ܲÓ˚%îyÛ

ܲ!Óï˛y!ê˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ Óƒ!=˛àï˛ x!û˛K˛ï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ

ˆöÄÎẙ– flø,!ï˛!Óç!í˛¸ï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏÓẙ xyˆÏÓẙ

ò%ÈÙÈ~ܲê˛y í˛zòy•Ó˚î xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó°%ö öyÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı Ä•z ܲ!Óï˛y!ê˛Ó˚ ˆ˛õåȈÏö xyüyÓ˚ á%Ó

â!ö¤˛ ~ܲçö Órô%Ó˚ xyd•ï˛ƒyÓ˚ flø,!ï˛ Ü˛yç

ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– ï˛ˆÏÓ ~§Ó Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ ˆáy°§y ܲˆÏÓ˚ öy

Ó°y•z û˛yˆÏ°y– xy§ˆÏ° âê˛öyà%ˆÏ°y ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ

ˆÎö ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ§– xyüyˆÏܲ !âˆÏÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚–

xy!ü !ë˛Ü˛ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ÚÓyüöÓ#Ó˚Û öyˆÏü xy˛õöyÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛

ܲ!Óï˛y xyˆÏåÈ– ˆ§áyˆÏö xy˛õ!ö !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö ı

Ú˛õ,!ÌÓ# ÓyüˆÏö û˛ˆÏÓ˚ Îyܲñ ÓyüöÓ#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÓˆÏ¢

˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ ï%˛ˆÏ° !öܲ ï˛yÓ˚y–Û

xyÓyÓ˚ Úí˛z_Ó˚yÛ åÈ!ÓˆÏï˛Ä xy˛õ!ö ÓyüöˆÏòÓ˚

~ܲ!ê˛ !ü!åÈ° ˆò!áˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö– ~ܲê%˛ Óƒyáƒy

ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı xy!ü üˆÏö ܲ!Ó˚ Óyüö •ˆÏÎ˚ Î!ò

ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy üyö%£Ï çß√yÎ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z x˛õ)î≈ï˛y ï˛yˆÏܲ

§%®Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yˆÏ°– ï˛yÓ˚y xˆÏöܲ ˆÓ!¢ §%®Ó˚

üyö%£Ï •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ӈϰ xyüyÓ˚ ôyÓ˚îy– Óƒ!=˛àï˛

x!û˛K˛ï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ•z xy!ü ĈÏòÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ !°ˆÏá!åÈ–

~åÈyí˛¸y xy!ü !ÓŸªy§ ܲ!Ó˚ °¡∫y üyö%£ÏˆÏòÓ˚

xyÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ ≤ÈÏÎẙçö ˆö•z– ˆÓшÏê˛ üyö%£ÏÓẙ•z

~ÓyÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ òy!Î˚c !öܲ–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xy˛õ!ö ˆï˛y xy˛õöyÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚yåÈ!ÓˆÏï˛

àyöÄ !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö– §%Ó˚Ä !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈöÈ–

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı xyüyÓ˚ !§ˆÏöüyÎ˚ ˆï˛y àyö ˆÓ!¢

ÌyˆÏܲ öy– ï˛ˆÏÓ §Ó àyö•z xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ òy¢à%Æ

ˆ°áy– ˆÎüö Úܲy°˛õ%Ó˚%£ÏÛÈÙÈ~ Úöyܲ ܲyüí˛¸y•z

öyܲ ܲyüí˛¸y•z ܲyüˆÏí˛¸ !ò°yü üöÛ– xˆÏöܲ

x§û˛ƒ x§û˛ƒ àyöÄ !°ˆÏá!åÈ– xy§° ܲÌy

•° ≤Ãyî ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ àyˆÏö–

ï˛ˆÏÓ §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲÌy Î!ò ӈϰö ï˛y•ˆÏ° ¢%ô%üye

Úà,•Î%ÂôÛ åÈ!Óê˛yÎ˚ xy!ü §%Ó˚ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ– xyüyÓ˚

üy ˆ¢yû˛öy òy¢à%Æ û˛yˆÏ°y àyö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ö–

Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ àyöÓyçöyÓ˚ ã˛° !åÈ°– Äáyö ˆÌˆÏܲ•z

•Î˚ˆÏï˛y §%Ó˚ÈÙÈï˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ

~ˆÏ§!åÈ°–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ~ܲ!ê˛ àyˆÏöÓ˚ xy§ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚

ܲÌy Î!ò ӈϰöÈÙÈ

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı !üí˛z!çܲ xyüyÓ˚ á%Ó ˛õåȈϮÓ˚

!ç!ö§– xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y û˛yˆÏ°y !üí˛z!çˆÏܲÓ˚

ܲyˆÏ°Ü˛¢ö xyˆÏåÈ– !üí˛z!çܲ °y•zˆÏÓ !Ó˚•z Ó°y

ÎyÎ˚ ï˛yˆÏܲ–

Îy•z ˆ•yܲñ àyˆÏöÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y !òˆÏöÓ˚

ܲÌy üˆÏö ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– Ó˚Ó#w §ˆÏÓ˚yÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy

~ܲê˛y xö%¤˛yˆÏö §%!ã˛ey !üe ày•zˆÏåÈö– xy!ü

Ó•%ò)Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÄÑÓ˚ à°yÓ˚ xyÄÎ˚yçê˛y ¢%öˆÏï˛

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈ– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ܲ# ˆÎ •°ñ ÄÑÓ˚ àyö ˆ¢yöyÓ˚

çöƒ üsfü%ˆÏ?ôÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆòÔˆÏí˛¸yˆÏï˛ ¢%Ó˚% ܲÓ˚°yü–

•Ñy!ú˛ˆÏÎ˚ Îy!FåÈ ï˛Ó% ˆòÔˆÏí˛¸y!FåÈ– û˛yÓ!åÈ Î!ò àyö

ˆ¢£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– Ä•z !òöê˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy ˆÜ˛ö çy!ö

öy ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ĈÏë˛ flø,!ï˛˛õˆÏê˛–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ çàÍ Óy !§ˆÏöüyÓ˚

çàÍÈÙÙÙÈÈˆÜ˛yÌyÄ Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ Óy ˆöyÇÓ˚y!ü

ˆã˛yˆÏá ˛õˆÏí˛¸⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı ˛õˆÏí˛¸ Ó•z!ܲ– ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛

ˆöyÇÓ˚y!üê˛y xˆÏöܲ ˆÓ!¢– ã˛y°y!ܲñ ôy®yÓy!ç

ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛ ÓU˛ ˆÓ!¢ ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ–

xy!ü !ÓhflÏyˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÓ öy ï˛ˆÏÓ ~•z§ˆÏÓÓ˚ çöƒ

xy!ü !öˆÏçˆÏܲ à%!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚!åÈ–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı ~ï˛ ˆ°yˆÏܲÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ˆÎ xy˛õöyÓ˚

ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyàÈÙÙÙÈ~ܲ!ê˛ xyU˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy

xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó°%ö– ôÓ˚%ö xyU˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ

ï˛Ü≈˛yï˛!Ü≈˛ñ •yï˛y•y!ï˛⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı ¢yüˆÏ¢Ó˚ S¢yüˆÏ¢Ó˚ xyˆÏöyÎ˚yÓ˚VÈÙÈ

~Ó˚ §ˆÏAà xyU˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲÓyÓ˚

ˆày°üy° •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y !ܲå%È•z öÎ˚ñ Ä

xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ï˛áöܲyÓ˚ ~ܲçö çö!≤ÃÎ˚

öy!Î˚ܲyÓ˚ §ˆÏAà ˆ¢yÓyÓ˚ •zˆÏFåÈ ≤Ãܲy¢

ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°– üçy ܲˆÏÓ˚•z •Î˚ˆÏï˛y ӈϰ!åÈ°

Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛yñ !ܲv xyüyÓ˚ á%Ó Ó˚yà •ˆÏÎ˚

!àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– xyU˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ•z ĈÏܲ xy!ü

â%!£Ï ˆüˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü–

˛õÓ˚!òö §Ü˛yˆÏ° â%ü ˆÌˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏë˛Ä ˆòá!åÈ

Ó˚yà ܲüˆÏåÈ öy– û˛yÓ°yü ÄÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚

xyÓyÓ˚ üyÓ˚Ó ÄˆÏܲ– ã˛ˆÏ°Ä ˆà°yü ÄÓ˚

˛õyÜ≈˛§yÜ≈˛yˆÏ§Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛– !ܲv •y!§ü%ˆÏá

Îáö òÓ˚çy á%°° Äñ ã˛yÈÙÈê˛y áyÄÎ˚y°ñ à“

ܲÓ˚°ñ ï˛áö Ó˚yàê˛y ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ˆÎö ç°

•ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°–

xy§ˆÏ° öy!Î˚ܲyˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏAà xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚•z

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§ˆÏAà ܲyç ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈñ •yˆÏï˛ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ

xˆÏöܲˆÏܲ– ÄÓ˚y xˆÏöˆÏܲ•z xyüyÓ˚ §hsˇyˆÏöÓ˚

üˆÏï˛yñ !ܲÇÓy ˆÓyö Óy !ò!òÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y– xyüyÓ˚

~§Ó Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y !Ó˚çyˆÏû≈˛¢ö xyˆÏåÈ– ܲyç

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏ° ܲyçê˛y•z xy§°– xöƒyöƒ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚

ˆÜ˛yˆÏöyû˛yˆÏÓ•z üyÌyÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ öy–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xˆÏöܲ ˆï˛y !§ˆÏöüyÓ˚ ܲÌy •° ~ÓyÓ˚

~ܲê%˛ xöƒ ≤çˆÏAà xy!§– xy˛õ!ö Ó˚yߨyÓyߨy

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö⁄

Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı Ó˚yߨy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ xy!ü á%Ó û˛yˆÏ°yÓy!§–

û˛yï˛ñ í˛y°ñ §Ó!çñ üyåÈñ üyǧ §Ó•z ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛

˜¢ˆÏ°wöyÌ ò_

K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ ܲï˛ê˛y ˛õ«˛˛õyï˛¢)öƒ

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K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˛õyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆÎyàƒ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ !åÈ° öy⁄

xyüÓẙ çy!ö û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˆ§Óẙ ò%•z §y!•ï˛ƒ§¡øyö

•° ÚK˛yö˛õ#ë˛Û Ä Ú§y!•ï˛ƒ xܲyˆÏò!üÛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚–

~Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ ≤ÃÌü!ê˛ 1944 §yˆÏ° ≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛

§ÇfiÌy Ä !mï˛#Î˚!ê˛ ò¢ ÓåÈÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ 1954 §yˆÏ°

≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛ §ÇfiÌyÓ˚ myÓẙ xyˆÏÎẙ!çï˛ •Î˚– xyˆÏÓẙ

~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛Ìy xyüÓ˚y çy!ö ˆÎ ˆÓ§Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ

≤Ãò_ ÚK˛yö˛õ#ë˛Û •° §y!•ï˛ƒˆÏ«˛ˆÏeÓ˚ §Ó≈ˆÏ◊¤˛

§¡øyö ~ÓÇ Ú§y!•ï˛ƒ xܲyˆÏò!üÛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚!ê˛ •°

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ˆ≤ë˛y˛õê˛ Ä ≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲ ˛õÂô!ï˛ §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛

!ܲå%Èê˛y xyˆÏ°yܲ˛õyï˛ Ü˛!Ó˚–

Úû˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ K˛yö˛õ#ë˛Û §ÇfiÌy ≤Ã!ï˛ ÓåÈÓ˚

~ܲçö !öÓ≈y!ã˛ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ ˆ°áܲˆÏܲ

§Ç!ÓôyˆÏöÓ˚ xT˛ü ï˛˛õ!¢°û%˛=˛ û˛y£Ïy Ä

•zÇÓ˚y!çˆÏï˛ Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ Ú§y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ x§yüyöƒ

xÓòyˆÏöÓ˚Û çöƒ ~•z §¡øyö x˛õ≈î ܲˆÏÓ˚–

1961 §yˆÏ° Ó˚Ó#w ¢ï˛ÓˆÏ£Ï≈ ≤ÃÓ!ï˛≈ï ~•z

ˆ§Óẙ §y!•ï˛ƒ§¡øyˆÏöÓ˚ 59ï˛ü ÓåȈÏÓ˚ §¡øy!öï˛

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö Óyäy!° ˆ°áܲ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆây£Ï

2018 §yˆÏ°ñ !Î!ö •zÇÓ˚y!ç û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚

§Çfl,Ò!ï˛ ï%˛ˆÏ° ôˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö !ÓŸªòÓ˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚– 1965

§yˆÏ° ~•z §¡øyˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ≤Ãy˛õܲ !åȈϰö Ü˛ß¨í˛¸

§y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ !ç. ¢AܲÓ˚ Ü%˛Ó˚%˛õ– 1965 ˆÌˆÏܲ

1981 ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ~•z §¡øyˆÏö û˛)!£Ïï˛ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏܲ

~ܲ!ê˛ üyö˛õeú˛°Ü˛ñ ˆÓ yˆÏOÓ˚ §Ó˚fl∫ï˛# ü)!ï≈˛

Ä ~ܲ °«˛ ê˛yܲy ˆòÄÎ˚y •ï˛– 1981 ˆÌˆÏܲ

§¡øyöü)°ƒ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòí˛¸ °«˛ ê˛yܲy ܲÓ˚y •Î˚–

§Ó≈ˆÏ¢£Ï ≤Ãy˛õˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ~•z §¡øyöò!«˛îy

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ≤ÃyÎ˚ 12 °«˛ ê˛yܲy– §ˆÏAà ~ܲ!ê˛

üyö˛õe Ä ˆÓyˆÏOÓ˚ §Ó˚fl∫ï˛# ü)!ï≈˛– 2018 §y°

˛õÎ≈hsˇ 23!ê˛ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~•z ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö 16!ê˛ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ 59 çö ˆ°áܲ

ˆ°!áܲy– û˛y£Ïy!û˛!_ܲ ~•z §Çáƒy •°ÙÙÙÈ

!•!®ÈÙÈ11ñ Ü˛ß¨í˛¸ÈÙÈ8ñ ÓyÇ°yÈÙÈ6ñ üy°Î˚y°üÙÈ5ñ

à%çÓ˚y!ê˛ÙÈ4ñ üyÓ˚y!ë˛ÈÙÈ4ñ Ä!í˛¸Î˚yÈÙÈ4ñ í˛zò%≈ÈÙÈ4ñ

ˆï˛°%à%ÈÙÈ3ñ x§!üÎẙÈÙÈ2ñ ˛õyOy!ÓÈÙÈ2ñ ï˛y!ü°ÈÙÈ2

Ä •zÇÓ˚y!çñ ܲyŸ¬#!Ó˚ñ ˆÜ˛yAܲ!ö ~ÓÇ §Çfl,ÒˆÏï˛

~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚– ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ ≤Ãy˛õܲˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ 7çö

ü!•°y xyˆÏåÈö– 1976 §yˆÏ° xy¢y˛õ)î≈y ˆòÓ#

1965ÈÙÈˆï˛ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ ï˛ÖyÓ˚ Ú≤ÃÌü ≤Ã!ï˛◊%!ï˛Û

í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚ çöƒ §Ó≈≤ÃÌü ü!•°y §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛

!•§yˆÏÓ ~•z §¡øyö °yû˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

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~ܲ!ê˛ §y!•ï˛ƒ Ä àˆÏÓ£Ïîy ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yöñ Îy 1944

§yˆÏ°Ó˚ 18•z ˆú˛Ó %Îẙ!Ó˚ fiÌy!˛õï˛ •Î˚– §y•% ˜çö

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x˛õºÇ¢ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ @ˇÃrÌà%!°Ó˚ !öÎ˚!üï˛ àˆÏÓ£Ïîy

Ä ≤Ãܲy¢öyÓ˚ çöƒ ~•z ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö fiÌy˛õö

ܲˆÏÓ˚ö– ˆÎ§Ó !Ó£ÏÎ˚à%!°ˆÏï˛ ~•z §ÇfiÌy ã˛ã≈˛y

˛õy!Ó˚– ~ܲ§üÎ˚ ˆáˆÏï˛Ä á%Ó û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§ï˛yüñ

~áö üyåÈÈÙÈüyǧ ܲü áy•z– é˛y° Óy ü¢°y

ˆòÄÎ˚y áyÓyÓ˚ xƒyû˛ˆÏÎ˚í˛ Ü˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛T˛y ܲ!Ó˚–

ú˛°ÈÙȧÓ!ç ~ܲê%˛ ˆÓ!¢ áy•z– xyç ˆÎüö

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!é˛ˆÏä ˆ§Âôñ Ü%˛üˆÏí˛¸y ˆ§Âôñ ˛õê˛° ˆ§Âô– ˆÓ¢

ï,˛!Æ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚•z ˆáˆÏÎ˚!åÈ–

çÎ˚hsˇ ı xyüyÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï ≤ß¿ÈÙÙÙÈç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ò%ÈÙÈ~ܲ!ê˛

!ï˛=˛ Óy üô%Ó˚ x!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy Î!ò xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

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Ó%ÂôˆÏòÓ ı üô%Ó˚ x!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛

ˆàˆÏ° ˆflõˆÏö International Film

Festival˛ÙÈ~ Süy!oò 2008V °y•zú˛ ê˛y•zü

xƒy!ã˛û˛ˆÏürê˛ xƒyÄÎ˚yí≈˛– !ܲÇÓy 2007 §yˆÏ°

xƒyˆÏÌö§ •zöê˛yÓ˚öƒy¢yöy° !ú˛Õ√

ˆú˛!fiê˛û˛ƒyˆÏ° ˆàyˆÏ”˛ö xƒyˆÏÌöy xƒyÄÎ˚yí≈˛–

~•z ˆÎ ◊Âôyñ §¡øyöñ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ Îy !ܲå%È

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈÈñ §Ó•z xyüyÓ˚ üô%Ó˚ x!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲ

~ܲ!ê˛ âê˛öy–

xyÓ˚ !ï˛=˛ x!û˛K˛ï˛yñ öyÈÙÈ•z Óy Ó°°yüñ

üô%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ÇflõˆÏ¢≈•z ˆ¢£Ï ˆ•yܲ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚

ܲÌyÓyï≈˛y–

ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓ !fiÌÓ˚ •Î˚ñ ï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xyˆÏåÈ ôü≈ñ ò¢≈öñ

ï˛Ü≈˛¢yflfñ ö#!ï˛¢yflfñ ÓƒyܲÓ˚îñ ˆçƒy!ï˛£Ïñ

ܲyÓƒï˛_¥ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛– ~•z ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö ˆÌˆÏܲ

Úü)!ï≈˛ˆÏòÓ# @ˇÃrÌüy°yÛ Ä Úˆ°yˆÏܲyòÎ˚ @ˇÃrÌüy°yÛ

!§!Ó˚ˆÏç Ó•% @ˇÃrÌ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ≤Ã!ï˛ ÓåÈÓ˚

~áyö ˆÌˆÏܲ ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚ Ó•z !•!®ˆÏï˛ ü)° Ä xö)!òï˛

•ˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •Î˚– xöƒyöƒ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚Ä ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛

•Î˚ !Ó!Óô @ˇÃrÌ– K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ åÈyí˛¸yÄ

~áyö ˆÌˆÏܲ Úü)!ï≈˛ˆÏòÓ#Û ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y •Î˚–

K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˆÜ˛ˆÏwÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü àˆÏÓ£Ïîy Ä ≤Ãܲy¢öy

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~Ó˚ ü)° @ˇÃrÌ!ê˛Ó˚ öyü £Ïê‰˛á[˛yàüñ Îy ˜çö

ܲü≈ÓyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ !°!áïñ !mï˛#Î˚ ¢ï˛y∑#ˆÏï˛

≤ÃyÜ,˛ï˛ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ Ó˚!ã˛ï˛– ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ öÓü

¢ï˛y∑#ˆÏï˛ ≤ÃyÜ,˛ï˛ Ä §Çfl,ÒˆÏï˛ û˛y£Ïƒ ˆ°áy •Î˚–

!òà¡∫Ó˚ ˜çöˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ãyã˛#öï˛ü Ä ≤ÃÌüï˛ü ˛õ!Óe

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£Ïê‰˛á[˛yàü •ˆÏFåÈ ≤ÃÌü ÚxyàüÛñ ÎyˆÏܲ Ú≤ÃÌü

◊%ï˛flÒrôÛÄ Ó°y •Î˚– ~ÓÇ xyã˛yÎ≈ Ü%˛®Ü%˛®

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~ܲê%˛ çyöy Îyܲ– 1944ÈÙÈ~ ≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚

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~üö ~ܲê˛y ≤Ãܲ“Ó˚ û˛yÓöy ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°ö Îy

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çyöyˆÏ°ö ≤Ãܲ“!ê˛Ó˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ !ӣψÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÓ˚

çˆÏöƒ– !ï˛!ö åÈyí˛¸yñ ܲyܲy ܲyˆÏ°¢Ü˛Ó˚ñ

•!Ó˚ÓÇ¢Ó˚y•z ÓFã˛öñ Ó˚yüôyÓ˚# !§Ç !òöܲÓ˚ñ

˜çˆÏöwÜ%˛üyÓ˚ñ çàò#¢ã˛w üyÌ%Ó˚ñ ≤Ãû˛yܲÓ˚

üyã˛y_ˆÏÎ˚ñ x«˛Î˚Ü%˛üyÓ˚ ˜çö ~ÓÇ ˆ°yˆÏܲwã˛w

˜çö !üˆÏ° ï˛Íܲy°#ö Ó˚yT˛Δ˛õ!ï˛ í˛. Ó˚yˆÏçw

≤çyˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ á§í˛¸y ≤ÃhflÏyÓ ˆ˛õ¢ ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°ö–

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ˆò!áˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰö– û˛yÓöy!ê˛ 1962 §yˆÏ°Ä

§Ó≈û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ à%çÓ˚y!ê˛ §y!•ï˛ƒ˛õ!Ó˚£Ïò Ä

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§yˆÏ°Ó˚ 2 ~!≤ð !Ó!û˛ß¨ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚

300 çö ˆ°áܲ ôÓ˚üÓ#Ó˚ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Ó˚ myÓ˚y

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!ò!Õ‘ˆÏï˛ xyü!sfï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰö– ~ˆÏï˛ ≤ÃhflÏyˆÏÓÓ˚

á§í˛¸y!ê˛ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ •Î˚ Ä Ó˚yT˛Δ˛õ!ï˛Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ˛õ¢

ܲÓ˚y •Î˚– 1963 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ 16 üyã≈˛ ≤ÃÌü

!öÓ≈yã˛ö ܲ!ü!ê˛Ó˚ !ü!ê˛Ç ôyÎ≈ •Î˚– !ܲv ≤ÃÌü

§û˛y˛õ!ï˛ Ó˚yˆÏçw ≤çyˆÏòÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ •Î˚ 28

ˆú˛Ó %Îẙ!Ó˚– ˆ§çöƒ !öô≈y!Ó˚ï˛ §û˛yÎ˚ ܲyˆÏ°¢Ü˛Ó˚

§û˛y˛õ!ï˛c ܲˆÏÓ˚ö Ä Ü˛!ü!ê˛Ó˚ ˆ≤Ã!§ˆÏí˛rê˛

!•§yˆÏÓ §¡õ)î≈yö® ܲyÎ≈ !öÓ≈y• ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

≤ÃÌü !öÓ≈yã˛ö ܲ!ü!ê˛ˆÏï˛ !åȈϰö ܲyˆÏ°¢Ü˛Ó˚ñ

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!û˛ Ó˚yâÓöñ !Ó ˆày˛õy° ˆÓ˚!U˛ñ •ˆÏÓ˚Ü,˛£÷

ü•ï˛yÓñ Ó˚üy ˜çöñ ~ÓÇ °-#ã˛w ˜çö–

§û˛y˛õ!ï˛c ܲˆÏÓ˚ö §¡õ)î≈yö®– 1921 ˆÌˆÏܲ

1951 §y° ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛ü≈

≤ÃÌüÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ !ÓˆÏÓ!ã˛ï˛ •Î˚–

9!ê˛ û˛y£Ïyܲ!ü!ê˛ üˆÏöyöÎ˚ö ˆ˛õ¢ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ

à!ë˛ï˛ •Î˚ñ ÎyÓ˚y ü)ˆÏ°Ó˚ §ˆÏAà !•!® Óy

•zÇÓ˚y!çˆÏï˛ xö%ÓyòÄ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ö– ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ Ó˚yí˛zˆÏu˛

!ÓˆÏÓã˛öyÓ˚ çöƒ 4çö §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ !ÓˆÏÓ!ã˛ï˛

•öÙÙÙÈܲyç# öçÓ˚%° •z§°yü SÓyÇ°yVñ !í˛ !û˛

à%u˛yØy SÜ˛ß¨í˛¸Vñ !ÓŸªöyÌ §ï˛ƒöyÓ˚yÎ˚î

Sˆï˛Ï°%à%Vñ !ç ¢AܲÓ˚ Ü%˛Ó˚%˛õ Süy°yÎ˚°üV– 19

öˆÏû˛¡∫Ó˚ 1966ˆï˛ Ü%˛Ó˚%˛õˆÏܲ ≤ÃÌü §¡øyö

≤Ãòyö ܲÓ˚y •Î˚– ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ @ˇÃ•ˆÏîÓ˚ û˛y£ÏˆÏî Ü%˛Ó˚%˛õ

~•z öï%˛ö §¡øyö ≤ÃÓï≈˛ˆÏöÓ˚ û˛yÓöyÓ˚ ≤âǧy

ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ~ÓÇ Úû˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ !Ó!Óô çöàîˆÏܲ

üyö!§Ü˛ hflψÏÓ˚ ˙ܲƒ ÓrôˆÏöÓ˚Û üˆÏM˛ xy§yÓ˚

çöƒ ôöƒÓyò K˛y˛õö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ ≤ÃòyˆÏöÓ˚ !öÎ˚ü Ä !öÓ≈yã˛ö

≤Ã!Ü ˛Î˚y

!Ó!û˛ß¨ §y!•ï˛ƒ!Ó¢yÓ˚òñ !¢«˛Ü˛ñ §üyˆÏ°yã˛Ü˛ñ

!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚ ~ÓÇ û˛y£Ïy Ä §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ !Ó!Óô

§ÇfiÌy ˆÌˆÏܲ ~•z ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ≤ÃhflÏyÓ

@ˇÃ•î ܲÓ˚y •Î˚– ≤ÈÏï˛ƒÜ˛ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ çöƒñ !ï˛ö

ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ í˛z˛õˆÏò¢Ü˛ ܲ!ü!ê˛

à!ë˛ï˛ •Î˚– xyˆÏàÓ˚ ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚≤ÃyÆ

û˛y£ÏyˆÏܲ ò%ÈÙÈÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ !Óã˛yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚y •Î˚ öy–

≤ÈÏï˛ƒÜ˛ ܲ!ü!ê˛ˆÏï˛ !ï˛öçö §y!•ï˛ƒ§üyˆÏ°yã˛Ü˛

Ä ˆ§•z û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ !Ómyö Óƒ!=˛Ó˚y ÌyˆÏܲö– §ühflÏ

ö!üˆÏö¢öà%ˆÏ°y Îyã˛y•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚

!öÓ≈yã˛ö ˛õ£Ï≈ˆÏò çüy ˆòÄÎ˚y •Î˚–

~•z !öÓ≈yã˛ö ˛õ£Ï≈ˆÏò S≤ÃáÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚£ÏòV §yï˛

ˆÌˆÏܲ ~àyˆÏÓ˚y çö ΢fl∫# Ä §Í SÊV §ò§ƒ

ÌyˆÏܲö– ≤ÈÏï˛ƒÜ˛ §ò§ƒ !ï˛ö ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ

!öÓ≈y!ã˛ï˛ •öñ ~ÓÇ xyÓ˚Ä ò%ÛÓyÓ˚ ˛õ%ö!ö≈Ó≈y!ã˛ï˛

•ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ˛õ%ˆÏÓẙ Óy xyÇ!¢Ü˛ •zÇÓẙ!ç !ܲÇÓy

!•!® xö%ÓyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ !û˛!_ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öÓ≈yã˛ö

ܲ!ü!ê˛ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ !§Âôyhsˇ ˆây£Ïîy ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

û˛y£Ïy xö%ÎyÎ˚# ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚≤Ãy˛õˆÏܲÓ˚ ï˛y!°Ü˛y

!•!® ı S1V §%!üeyö®ö ˛õrÌ S!ã˛òy¡∫Ó˚V

1968ó S2V Ó˚yüôyÓ˚# !§Ç !òöܲÓ˚ S|Ó≈¢#V

1972ó S3V §!Fã˛òyö® ÓyͧƒyÎ˚ö SxˆÏK˛Î˚V

1978ó S4V ü•yˆÏòÓ# Óü≈y SÎüV 1982ó S5V

öˆÏÓ˚¢ ˆü•ï˛y 1992ó S6V !öü≈° Óü≈y

1999ó S7V ÜÑ˛%Î˚yÓ˚ öyÓ˚yÎ˚î 2005ó S8V

xüÓ˚ ܲyhsˇ 2009ó S9V ◊#°y° ¢%Üœ˛y 2009ó

S10V ˆÜ˛ÑòyÓ˚öyÌ !§Ç Sxܲy° ˆüÑ §yÓ˚§V

2013ó S11V Ü,˛£÷y §Ó!ï˛ Sû˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ §y!•ï˛ƒV

2017

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1973ó S3V ˆÜ˛. !¢ÓÓ˚yü ܲÓ˚rÌ Sü%ܲy!IÎ˚y

ܲö§%à°%V 1977ó S4V üy!hflÏ ˆû˛AܲˆÏê˛¢

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!ÓöyÎ˚ܲ Ü,˛£÷ ˆàyܲܲ Sû˛yÓ˚ï˛ !§rô% Ó˚!Ÿ¬V

1990ó S6V •zí˛z xyÓ˚ xöhsˇü)!ï≈˛ S§ÇflÒyÓ˚V

1994ó S7V !à!Ó˚¢ ܲyÓ˚öyí˛ 1998ó S8V

ã˛wˆÏ¢áÓ˚ ܲ¡∫Ó˚ 2010

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≤Ã!ï˛◊%!ï˛V 1976ó S4V §%û˛y£Ï ü%ˆÏáy˛õyôƒyÎ˚

S˛õòy!ï˛Ü˛V 1991ó S5V ü•yˆÏŸªï˛y ˆòÓ#

S•yçyÓ˚ ã%˛Ó˚y!¢Ó˚ üyV 1996ó S6V ¢C ˆây£Ï

2016

üy°Î˚y°ü ı S1V !ç. ¢AܲÓ˚ Ü%˛Ó˚%˛õ

SÄí˛yE%˛é˛°V 1965ó S2V ~§.ˆÜ˛ ˆ˛õyˆÏRE˛yê˛

1980ó S3V !ê˛.~§. !˛õÕ‘y•z SܲÎẙÓ˚V 1984ó

S4V ~ü.!ê˛ Óy§%ˆÏòÓö öyÎ˚yÓ˚ SÓ˚yu˛yü%çyüV

1995ó S5V Ä ~ö !û˛ Ü%˛Ó˚%˛õ 2007ó

à%çÓ˚y!ê ı S1V í˛züy¢AܲÓ˚ ˆÎy¢# S!ö¢#ÌyV

1967ó S2V ˛õyߨy°y° ˛õƒyˆÏê˛° SüyöÓ# !ö

û˛Óy•zV 1985ó S3V Ó˚yˆÏçw ˆÜ˛¢Ó°y° ¢y•

2001ó S4V Ó˚â%Ó#Ó˚ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚# 2015

Ä!í˛¸Î˚y ı S1V ˆày˛õ#öyÌ ˆüy•y!hsˇ 1973ó

S2V §!Fã˛òyö® Ó˚yí˛zï˛ Ó˚yÎ˚ 1986ó S3V

§#ï˛yܲyhsˇ ü•y˛õye 1993ó S4V ≤Ã!ï˛û˛y Ó˚yÎ˚

SÎyK˛ˆÏ§ö#V 2011

í˛zò≈% ı S1V !ú˛Ó˚yܲ ˆàyÓ˚á˛õ%Ó˚# Sà%°ÈÙÈ~ÈÙÈöàüyV

1969ó S2V Ü%˛Ó˚yï%˛ˆÏ°•zö •yÎ˚òyÓ˚ 1989ó

S3V xy!° §ò≈yÓ˚ çyú˛!Ó˚ 1997ó S4V

xyá°yܲ ü•¡øò áyö 2008

~Ó˚˛õÓ˚ 11 ˛õyï˛yÎ˚


í˛y. §%Ó°Ü%˛üyÓ˚ üy•z!ï˛

xÌÓ≈ˆÏÓˆÏòÓ˚ ˜ÓòƒÜ˛Ü˛ˆÏ“ í˛zˆÏÕ‘!áï˛ ÚcyT˛Δ#Û

ˆû˛£Ïç!ê˛ˆÏܲ ü•#ôÓ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ£Ïƒ ӈϰˆÏåÈöñ

cyˆÏT˛Δ = !ã˛ey ö«˛ˆÏe çyï˛y °ï˛y üy[)˛Ü˛#–

û˛y£Ïƒ!ê˛ˆÏï˛ Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈÙÙÙȈΠˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ§Óy

ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆ§ ΢fl∫# •Î˚– •zw ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ˆ§Óy ܲˆÏÓ˚

Ó•% Ó° °yû˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ myÓ˚y ˆüôy Ä

Ó•%Ó#Î≈ °yû˛ •Î˚– ˆ◊¤˛ K˛yö Ä Ó#Î≈≈ôyÓ˚î

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆòÓï˛yàî ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ !öÎ%=˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö–

˜Ó!òܲ ï˛Ìƒ ˆÌˆÏܲ çyöy ˆà°ÙÙÙ~•z °ï˛y!ê˛

ˆüôyܲyÓ˚ܲñ Ó°Ó#Î≈Óô≈ܲ Ä K˛yöòyÎ˚ܲ– ã˛Ó˚ܲ

§%◊%ï˛ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ @ˇÃˆÏrÌ üy[)˛Ü˛# •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°

ü[)˛Ü˛˛õî#≈– ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ ˜Ó!òܲ @ˇÃrÌy!òˆÏï˛

üy[)˛Ü˛#ˆÏܲ Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈÙÙÙü[)˛Ü˛#ñ ü[)˛Ü˛˛õî#≈ñ

cyT˛Δ#ñ !òÓƒy Ä üˆÏ•Ô£Ï!ô– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ •ˆÏÎ˚

ˆà° ÌyöÜ%˛!ö Óy Ì%°Ü%˛!í˛¸–

ˆÓˆÏò Ó y·# Ä ü[)˛Ü˛˛õî≈# xy°yòy xy°yòyû˛yˆÏÓ

xyˆÏ°y!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏ°Ä ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ @ˇÃrÌy!òˆÏï˛ ~ܲ•z

§ˆÏAà xyˆÏ°y!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏåÈ– ã˛Ó˚ܲ §Ç!•ï˛yÎ˚

Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈÙÙÌyöÜ%˛!ö Ó˚§yÎ˚öà%î §¡õߨ

ü)°ƒÓyö ˆû˛£Ïçñ «˛ï˛«˛#î Ä í˛zòÓ˚ˆÏÓẙˆÏà á%Ó•z

í˛z˛õܲyÓ˚#– §%◊%ï˛ §Ç!•ï˛yÎ˚ Óy·# Ä ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

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~ˆÏàyÎ˚!ö– ˆ£Ïyí˛¸¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ û˛yÓ≤Ãܲy¢ !öârê%˛

@ˇÃˆÏrÌ Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈÙÙÙÓ y·# ¢#ï˛Ó#Î≈ñ §yÓ˚ܲñ

!ï˛=˛ÈÙÈܲ£ÏyÎ˚ÈÙÈüô%Ó˚ Ó˚§ñ °â%ñ ˆüôyçöܲñ

¢#ï˛°ñ üô%Ó˚ !Ó˛õyܲñ xyÎ˚%‹ÒÓ˚ñ Ó˚§yÎ˚öñ

fl∫Ó˚Óô≈ܲñ flø,!ï˛≤Ãò ~ÓÇ Ü%˛¤˛ñ ˛õy[%˛ñ ˆü•ñ

Ó˚=˛ˆÏòy£Ïñ ܲy¢ñ !Ó£Ïñ ˆ¢yÌ Ä çμÓ˚ öy¢Ü˛–

ü[)˛Ü˛˛õî#≈Ä Ó y·#Ó˚ öƒyÎ˚ à%îܲyÓ˚ܲ–

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ç°y§ß¨ û)˛!üˆÏï˛ çß√yÎ˚– °ï˛yˆÏö

í˛z!qòñ ≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ àÑyˆÏê˛ àÑyˆÏê˛ !¢Ü˛í˛¸– ÌyöÜ%˛!öÓ˚

ˆÓyê˛y!öܲƒy° öyü centella asiatica (L)

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xM˛ˆÏ° ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ñ ÎyÓ˚ ˛õyï˛y xˆÏ˛õ«˛yÜ,˛ï˛

ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yñ ï˛y•z ˆ§!ê˛ˆÏܲ «%˛ˆÏò üyö# SˆåÈyˆÏê˛y

ÌyöÜ%˛!öV ӈϰ Ä•z xM˛ˆÏ°– xyÓ˚ ÓˆÏí˛¸y

ÌyöÜ%˛!öˆÏܲ ӈϰ ˆì˛y°y üyö#– ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

Óy Ì%°Ü%˛!í˛¸Ó˚ ˆÓyê˛y!öܲƒy° öyü centella

japonicañ ò%!ê˛•z Umbelliferae

˛õ!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚û%˛=˛– ˆ•!û˛ ˆüê˛y° S˛õyÓ˚òñ !§§yñ

ˆ§ÑˆÏܲy Ä Ü˛ƒyí˛!üÎ˚yüV §¡õ,=˛ üy!ê˛ˆÏï˛

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö çß√yˆÏ° ~•z ôyï%˛à%!° x!ï˛ §•ˆÏç

¢yܲ!ê˛ˆÏï˛ ã˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ§– ˆ§ çöƒ ˆÎˆÏܲyˆÏöy

fiÌyö ˆÌˆÏܲ §Ç@ˇÃ• ܲÓ˚y ü%¢!ܲ°–

öˆÏÓƒÓ˚ àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÎ˚ çyöy ÎyÎ˚ ˆÎñ ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

Ó˚§yÎ˚öñ ӰܲyÓ˚ܲ Ä ü)eܲyÓ˚ܲ– ü)eÓ•ˆÏflÀyï˛

Ä çöˆÏö!wˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ ~!ê˛Ó˚ !ӈϢ£Ï !Ü ˛Î˚y

xyˆÏåÈ– öyöy!Óô ã˛ü≈ˆÏÓẙˆÏà ÓƒÓ•,ï˛ •Î˚– ~åÈyí˛¸y

Ÿ’#˛õòñ à°à[˛ñ ˛õ#ö§ñ Ü%˛¤˛ ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ˆÏï˛Ä

ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚y ÎyÎ˚–

~åÈyí˛¸y xyüy¢Î˚ «˛ï˛ñ ≤Ãòy•ñ xÓ§yòñ xÓ≈%òñ

•,òˆÏÓẙÏàñ ÎÜ,˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ öyöy!Óô §ü§ƒyñ ü,à#ñ ˆfiê˛Δyܲñ

«˛ï˛ñ ˆ¢yÌñ x!@¿ò?ôï˛yñ Ó î ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ ˆ«˛ˆÏe

í˛z˛õܲyÓ˚#– ~!ê˛ xƒy°çy•züy§≈ Sflø,!ï˛ ˆ°y˛õV

ˆÓ˚yˆÏàÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏ£Ïôܲ Ä ≤Ã!ï˛Ü˛yÓ˚ܲ–

ÌyöÜ%˛!öÓ˚ çß√!öÎ˚sfܲ à%îÄ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

≤Ãyã˛#ö !ã˛hsˇyôyÓ˚yÎ˚ ~!ê˛ Ó y·#Ó˚ §üï%˛°ƒ Ó°y

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– Ó y·# Ä ÌyöÜ%˛!ö !öˆÏÎ˚ Óï≈˛üyˆÏöÓ˚

àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÓ˚ •z!Aàï˛Ä ˆ§!òˆÏܲñ xyÓ˚Ä àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÓ˚

≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö– xyÎ˚%ˆÏÓ≈ˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ãyã˛#ö @ˇÃrÌy!òˆÏï˛

flø,!ï˛≤Ãòñ Ó˚§yÎ˚öñ ˆüôyܲyÓ˚ܲñ xyÎ˚%Óô≈ܲ

≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ à%ˆÏîÓ˚ í˛ẑ ÏÕ‘á– xyô%!öܲ àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÎ˚ Ó°y

•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈÙÙÙÈflø,!ï˛ˆÏ°y˛õñ ü,à#ñ •,ò‰ˆÏÓẙà ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛ˆÏï˛

ÓƒÓ•yÎ≈ñ ӰܲyÓ˚ܲ Ä Ó˚§yÎ˚öà%î §¡õߨ–

û˛yÓˆÏï˛ xÓyܲ °yˆÏàÙÙÙÈ•yçyÓ˚ •yçyÓ˚ ÓåÈÓ˚

˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈ ü%!ö}!£Ïàî ˆÎ!ê˛ í˛z˛õ°!kô ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰöñ

xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÎ˚ ˆ§§Ó ï˛Ìƒ•z ˛õyÄÎ˚y

ÎyˆÏFåÈ ~ÓÇ xöƒ xˆÏöܲ ï˛ÌƒÄ §yüˆÏö ~ˆÏ§

ÎyˆÏFåÈñ Îy üyöÓܲ°ƒyˆÏî á%Ó•z ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö–

ˆ°yܲyÎ˚!ï˛Ü˛ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚

ÎÜ,˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ §ü§ƒyÎ˚ ı ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ˛õyï˛y

10‡12!ê˛ Ä ~ܲ àÑyê˛ ÜÑ˛yã˛y •°%ò SåÈy°

åÈy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ô%ˆÏÎ˚V §Ü˛yˆÏ° áy!° ˆ˛õˆÏê˛ !ã˛!ÓˆÏÎ˚

ˆáˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– §%àyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ é˛yˆÏü°y öy ÌyܲˆÏ°

üˆÏ•Ô£Ï!ô üy[)˛Ü˛# SÌyöÜ%˛!öV

xyˆÏáÓ˚ à%í˛¸ ò%Û~ܲ ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ ~•z §ˆÏAà ˆáˆÏï˛

˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ò#â≈!òöñ ~üöÈ!ܲ §yÓ˚yç#Óö ~!ê˛

áyÄÎ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– àû˛≈yÓfiÌyÎ˚ öy áyÄÎ˚y•z

û˛yˆÏ°y– ÓyFã˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe üyey ܲü ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛

•ˆÏÓ– ò#â≈!òˆÏöÓ˚ ÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓ˚ °yÓîƒ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§ñ

¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚ ò%Ó≈°ï˛y ÌyˆÏܲ öyñ !Ü ˛!ü öT˛ •Î˚–

~åÈyí˛¸y ˆ˛õˆÏê˛Ó˚ öyöy!Óô §ü§ƒy §•ˆÏç

xy§ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öyñ flø,!ï˛¢!=˛ Óyí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÌyˆÏܲ–

!°û˛yÓ˚ Óy ÎÜ,˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ §yôyÓ˚î §ü§ƒy ÌyˆÏܲ öy–

xyüy¢yÎ˚ ı ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚§ 3‡4

ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ •y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ë˛yu˛y •ˆÏ°ñ

ï˛yˆÏï˛ 15‡20 ˆúÑ˛yê˛y Óy ~ܲ ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ üô%

!ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãï˛ƒ• §Ü˛yˆÏ° áy!°ˆÏ˛õˆÏê˛ ˆáˆÏï˛

•ˆÏÓ– ~åÈyí˛¸y ≤Ãï˛ƒ• ï˛Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ˆÏï˛ !ܲÇÓy üyˆÏåÈÓ˚

ˆé˛yˆÏ° ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ˛õyï˛y ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö–

üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ ˆé˛yˆÏ° àÑyòy° ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚

á%Ó•z í˛z˛õܲyÓ˚#–

xyüy¢Î˚«˛ˆÏï˛ Sàƒy!fiê˛Δܲ xy°§yÓ˚V ı

xöƒyöƒ !ã˛!ܲͧyÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ˛õyï˛yÓ˚

ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ á%Ó•z ú˛°≤Ãò– ï˛ˆÏÓ x!ï˛!Ó˚=˛ üyeyÎ˚

ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚y ÎyˆÏÓ öy– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ÓˆÏí˛¸yˆÏòÓ˚

üyeyÙÙÙÈÌyöÜ%˛!ö ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚§ 2‡3 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛

ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏö 2 ÓyÓ˚– Ó˚§!ê˛ •y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲˆÏÓ˚

ë˛yu˛y •ˆÏ° ï˛yˆÏï˛ 15‡20 ˆúÑ˛yê˛y üô% !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚

ˆáˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– §Ü˛yˆÏ° áy!°ˆÏ˛õˆÏê˛ xÌÓy

§yüyöƒ !ê˛!ú˛ˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ñ xyÓ˚ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ !ÓܲyˆÏ°

Óy §rôƒyÓ˚ ˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈– Ó˚§ ˆáˆÏï˛ x§%!Óôy •ˆÏ°

20‡25 @ˇÃyü ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y ò%ÛˆÏÓ°yÓ˚ ˆé˛yˆÏ°

!òˆÏÎ˚ ˆáˆÏ°Ä ã˛°ˆÏÓ–

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áyÎ˚òyÎ˚ñ â%ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓí˛¸yÎ˚– fl%҈ϰ ˆÎˆÏï˛ •Î˚ñ ï˛y•z

ÎyÎ˚– à,•!¢«˛Ü˛ ÓܲÓ˚ ÓܲÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚ñ

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ӈϰ ˛õyˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§– xÓ˚%!ã˛ ˆÎ xyˆÏåÈñ ï˛yÄ ˆÓyé˛y

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°ˆÏçÈÙÈã˛ˆÏܲyˆÏ°ê˛ñ ú%˛ã˛Ü˛yñ Ü˛ï˛ Ó˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚

û˛yçyû%˛!ç ã˛°ˆÏåÈ– òyhflÏ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òö •Ï° ˆï˛y

ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òö •° öy–

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~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ~ܲ !ì˛ˆÏ° xˆÏöܲ ˛õy!á üyÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ°

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö•z û˛Ó˚§y– ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ áyÄÎ˚yˆÏÓöñ

ˆ§ê˛y•z û˛yÓöyÓ˚ñ ~ÓyÓ˚ °«˛ ܲÓ˚%öÙÙÙÈ

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ˆôyÄÎ˚y ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y ˆÓˆÏê˛ Ó˚§ ˆÓÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛

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ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ ܲy˛õáy!öܲ àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚y ë˛yu˛y

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ˆÓ§ö !òˆÏÎ˚ x“ ˆï˛ˆÏ° ú%˛°%!Ó˚ Óy!öˆÏÎ˚Ä

ˆáˆÏï˛ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ˆÎû˛yˆÏÓ•z ˆ•yܲ ò#â≈!òö

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ–

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y !§Âô ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ !§Ó˚y˛õ

Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ áyÄÎ˚yˆÏöy ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– ˆ§!ê˛ ˜ï˛!Ó˚

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ° x!û˛K˛ !ã˛!ܲͧˆÏܲÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚yü¢≈

!öˆÏÎ˚ ܲÓ˚y òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚–

ˆüôyÈÙÈflø,!ï˛ÈÙÈÓ%!Âô fl∫“ï˛yÎ˚ ı ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

˛õyï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚§ 3ÈÙÈ6 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ üyeyÎ˚ ÓÎ˚§yö%˛õyˆÏï˛

•y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ܲy˛õÈÙÈáy!öܲ àÓ˚ü

ܲÓ˚y ë˛yu˛y ò%ˆÏô !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ §Ü˛yˆÏ° •y°Ü˛y

ç°áyÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õÓ˚ ˆáˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– 2‡3 üy§

°yàyï˛yÓ˚ ˆòˆÏÓö– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ §ÆyˆÏ• 3‡4 !òö

áyÄÎ˚yˆÏ° ã˛°ˆÏÓ– ÓåÈÓ˚ áy!öܲ áyÄÎ˚yˆÏ°

ܲyç ˛õyˆÏÓö–

û%˛ˆÏ° ÎyÄÎ˚y ˆÓ˚yˆÏà‡flø,!ï˛ ˆ°yˆÏ˛õ ı Ó y·#

¢yˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚§ í˛z˛õ!Ó˚í˛z=˛ ˛õÂô!ï˛ˆÏï˛ ò#â≈!òö

ˆáˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– ~åÈyí˛¸y ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

§ƒy°yí˛‡ï˛Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ áyÄÎ˚y òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚– ~•z

ˆÎyà!ê˛Ó˚ §ˆÏAà ˆï˛ç˛õyï˛y !§Âô ç°

!ÓܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ ~ܲ ܲy˛õ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆáˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏ°

û˛yˆÏ°y •Î˚– ¢%ܲˆÏöy ˆï˛ç˛õyï˛y 5 @ˇÃyü Ü%˛!ã˛

Ü%˛!ã˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛ 4 ܲy˛õ çˆÏ° !§Âô ܲÓ˚yÓ˚

˛õÓ˚ xy®yç ~ܲ ܲy˛õ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ öy!üˆÏÎ˚ ì˛yܲy

!òˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yá%ö ò%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ– !ÓˆÏܲˆÏ° ˆåÈшÏܲ

ç°!ê˛ áyˆÏÓö– ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçˆÏö !ã˛!ö ˆü¢yˆÏï˛

˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö–

üy!§Ü˛ }ï%˛Ó˚ fl∫“ï˛yÎ˚ ı ˆã˛•yÓ˚y û˛yˆÏ°y öÎ˚ñ

ˆòy•yÓ˚y– !áê˛!áˆÏê˛ ˆüçyçñ áyÄÎ˚yòyÄÎ˚y

!ë˛Ü˛üˆÏï˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚ öyñ üy!§Ü˛ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy üyˆÏ§

2‡3 !òö ÌyˆÏܲñ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy üyˆÏ§ §yüyöƒñ

ܲáˆÏöyÈÙÈÓy ~ܲüy§ Órôñ ï˛yÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ !öã˛ÈÙȈ˛õˆÏê˛

≤ÃyÎ˚ §üˆÏÎ˚ !áã˛!áˆÏã˛ ÓƒÌy– ~üï˛yÓfiÌyÎ˚

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚§ 3ÈÙÈ4 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ üyeyÎ˚

§Ü˛yˆÏ° áy!°ˆÏ˛õˆÏê˛ üô%§• ˆáˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ ˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈

ˆ°áy !öÎ˚ü üˆÏï˛y– 3ÈÙÈ4 üy§ ˆáˆÏ° üy!§ˆÏܲÓ˚

fl∫yû˛y!Óܲï˛y !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§ˆÏÓ– !«˛ˆÏô •ˆÏÓñ

ˆã˛•yÓ˚yÓ˚ í˛zߨ!ï˛ •ˆÏÓñ ˆ§•z §ˆÏAà !áê˛!áˆÏê˛

ˆüçyçê˛yÄ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ– ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚Ä

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y ˆÎû˛yˆÏÓ•z ˆ•yܲ üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛

ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö–

!¢¢%Ó˚ ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˆò!Ó˚ •ˆÏ° ı §üÎ˚ •ˆÏ°

ÓyFã˛y xyˆÏôy xyˆÏôy ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y

ܲÌy ӈϰ– §üÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyˆÏFåÈñ ܲÌy Ó°y ¢%Ó˚%

•ˆÏFåÈ öyñ Ó°ˆÏ°Ä ï˛y ˆÓ¢ ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈñ

ˆï˛yÍ°y •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ ~üï˛yÓfiÌyÎ˚ ~ܲê˛y

§ú˛° ü%!T˛ˆÏÎyˆÏàÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó!°– ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ˛õyï˛yÓ˚

Ó˚§ 1 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ Ä ÜÑ˛yã˛y •°%ˆÏòÓ˚ Ó˚§ 1 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛

!öˆÏÎ˚ •y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ñ àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚y ë˛yu˛y

ò%ô §yüyöƒ !öˆÏÎ˚ ï˛yˆÏï˛ !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ §Ü˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ

~ܲÓyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ áyÄÎ˚yˆÏÓö– Îï˛ê˛y ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

˛õyï˛yñ !ë˛Ü˛ ï˛ï˛ê˛y ÜÑ˛yã˛y •°%ò !öˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ§ˆÏAà

ˆÌшÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚§ ˆÓÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ •y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚yÓ˚

˛õÓ˚ ï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ üyeyö%ÎyÎ˚# 1ÈÙÈ2 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛ !öˆÏÎ˚

ò%ˆÏô !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ áyÄÎ˚yˆÏÓö– ~!ê˛ Ü˛Ó˚yê˛y §•ç–

ÓyFã˛yÓ˚ ÓÎ˚§ 4‡5 ÓåÈÓ˚ •ˆÏ° Ó˚§ ˆÓÓ˚ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚

é˛yˆÏü°y öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y §•ç ˛õÌ xÓ°¡∫ö

ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ï˛y •ˆÏ°yÙÙÙÈ5‡6!ê˛ ÌyöÜ%˛!ö

˛õyï˛yñ xyôàÑyê˛ ÜÑ˛yã˛y•°%ò §Ü˛yˆÏ° áy!°ˆÏ˛õˆÏê˛

áyÄÎ˚yˆÏöyÓ˚ xˆÏû˛ƒ§ ܲÓ˚yö– ~!ê˛ˆÏï˛ §yüyöƒ

xyˆÏáÓ˚ à%í˛¸ !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ~ܲ§ˆÏAà

xˆÏöܲ ܲyç •ˆÏÓ–

âü≈y!ôˆÏܲƒ ı §yÓ˚y ÓåÈÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚•z âyˆÏü

çƒyÓçƒyˆÏÓ– ò%à≈rô û˛yÓÄ ÌyˆÏܲ– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe §yÓẙ

ÓåÈÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚ ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛yñ ÜÑ˛yã˛y•°%ò Ä xyˆÏáÓ˚

à%í˛¸ ˆáˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– xÌÓy 5‡6 ã˛yÈÙÈã˛yüã˛

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚§ •y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

ë˛yu˛y •ˆÏ° xyô ܲy˛õ ò%ˆÏô !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ñ áyö §Ü˛yˆÏ°

!ê˛!ú˛ˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚– ~åÈyí˛¸y ˆï˛ç˛õyï˛y !§Âô ç°

!òˆÏÎ˚ fl¨yˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ §ühflÏ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ê˛y ü%å%Èö– xÌÓy

ˆï˛ç˛õyï˛y !§Âô ç° ˆÓ!¢ ˛õ!Ó˚üyˆÏî ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚

fl¨yö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ˆï˛ç˛õyï˛y 5ÈÙÈ10 @ˇÃyü

ˆöˆÏÓöñ ç° ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçöüˆÏï˛y–

xÓ§yòü%!=˛ˆÏï˛ ı ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§Ó˚ û˛yˆÏÓ˚ xӧߨñ

xÌã˛ !ã˛hsˇy@ˇÃhflÏÄ öö– ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy !ܲå%È û˛yˆÏ°y °yˆÏà

öy– ÓÑyã˛yÓ˚ •zFåÈy ˆÌˆÏÜ˛Ä ˆÎö ˆö•z– Ü ˛ˆÏü Ü ˛ˆÏü

¢Ó˚#Ó˚ ò%Ó≈° •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe Ó˚Ñyô%!öÓ˚ §•ç

ˆê˛yê˛Ü˛yÙÙÙÈÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y ˆÓˆÏê˛ §yüyöƒ ˆÓ§ö

!ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ •y°Ü˛y ˆï˛ˆÏ° Óí˛¸y ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚

áyÄÎ˚yˆÏöy– xyÓ˚Ä ã˛üÍܲyÓ˚ ܲyç •ˆÏÓñ Î!ò

Ä•z Óyê˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏAà Ü%˛üˆÏí˛¸y Ó#ˆÏçÓ˚ ¢Ñy§ ˆü¢yˆÏöy

ÎyÎ˚– ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚ üàç öyˆÏü ~ܲ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ Ó#ˆÏçÓ˚

¢Ñy§ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ñ ˆ§!ê˛Ä ˆü¢yˆÏöy ˆÎˆÏï˛

˛õyˆÏÓ˚– ~•z üàç •° ï˛Ó˚ü%ˆÏçÓ˚ Ó#ˆÏçÓ˚ ¢Ñy§–

3‡4 !ê˛ àÓ˚ü àÓ˚ü Óí˛¸y û˛yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ≤ÃÌü ˛õyˆÏï˛

ˆáˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy ӈϰ

Ó˚y!áÙÙÙÈÜ%˛üˆÏí˛¸y Ó#ˆÏçÓ˚ ¢Ñy§•z ˆ•yܲñ !ܲÇÓy

üàçÙÙÙÈ~à%!°Ó˚ ˛õ!Ó˚üyî ~ܲ ~ܲçˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe

4‡5 @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˆÓ!¢ ˆÎö öy •Î˚–

ây Óy «˛ˆÏï˛ ı Îáö xƒy!rê˛ˆÏ§˛õ!ê˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˛õy_y

!åÈ° öyñ ï˛áö ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y•z !åÈ° û˛Ó˚§y–

˛õyï˛y !§Âô ç° !òˆÏÎ˚ ây ˆôyÄÎ˚yˆÏöyñ àyà≈°

ܲÓ˚yñ ≤Èϰ˛õÙÙÙȧӕz ã˛°Ïï˛– xyçܲy° ~•z

ˆÓ˚ÄÎ˚yˆÏçÓ˚ xyû˛y§ ≤Ãï˛ƒhsˇ @ˇÃyˆÏüÈÙÈàˆÏOÄ

˛õyÄÎẙ ÎyÎ˚ öy– ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe Îáö

ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y ˆåÈyˆÏê˛y ây ˆòáy ˆòÎ˚ñ ï˛áö ÎK˛í%˛ü%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚

˛õyï˛yÓ˚ apple˛yÌ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚

ܲÓ˚y•z ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– àyˆÏà≈° ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛

ˆáˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛°ˆÏ°Ä ˆòy£Ï ˆö•z– xyâyï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚

ú%˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ° ˆ§áyˆÏö ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y ˆÓˆÏê˛

•y°Ü˛y àÓ˚ü ܲˆÏÓ˚ °yàyˆÏ° ÓƒÌy Ä ˆú˛y°y ܲˆÏü

ÎyÎ˚– ˛õÓ˚#«˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáˆÏ° «˛!ï˛ !ܲ⁄

xy˛õyï˛ï˛ ˆ°áy ˆ¢£Ïñ !ܲv xˆÏöܲ ܲÌy Ó°y

Óy!ܲ– ˆ§•z Óy!ܲ ܲÌyà%ˆÏ°yÓ˚ !ܲå%Èê˛y ~•z

xÓ§ˆÏÓ˚ ӈϰ Ó˚y!á–

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛yÎ˚ xˆÏöܲ ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ Ó˚y§yÎ˚!öܲ

˛õòyÌ≈ xyˆÏåÈñ ˆ§à%!°Ó˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛

•Ï°ÙÙÙÈCentotic acid, Hydrocotyline,

Vellarine, Sterols, Glycosides ≤Ãû,˛!ï˛–

!öï˛ƒöï%˛ö àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÎ˚ xyÓ˚Ä ï˛Ìƒ xy§ˆÏåÈ–

àˆÏÓ£ÏܲˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ~à%!° ü)°ƒÓyö ï˛Ìƒ–

Ó y·#¢yܲ áyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe !ܲå%È !Ó!ô!öˆÏ£Ïô

xyˆÏåÈ– ÌyöÜ%˛!öÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆï˛üö xyû˛y§ ˆòáy

ÎyÎ˚ öy– xyô%!öܲ àˆÏÓ£ÏîyÓ˚ ç!ê˛° !ã˛hsˇyôyÓ˚yÎ˚

ˆï˛üö ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy §Aà!ï˛˛õ)î≈ ï˛Ìƒ ˛õ!Ó˚°!«˛ï˛

•Î˚!ö– ï˛y•ˆÏ°Ä àû≈˛yÓfiÌyÎ˚ ÜÑ˛yã˛y•°%ò Ä

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚yê˛y !ë˛Ü˛ •ˆÏÓ öy–

!ã˛!ܲͧˆÏܲÓ˚ ˛õÓẙü¢≈ åÈyí˛¸y ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓẙ í˛z!ã˛ï˛

öÎ˚– ï˛ˆÏÓ Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲê˛y üy§ Órô ÓẙáˆÏ° «˛!ï˛ !ܲ⁄

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ áyˆÏÓö

ܲÑyã˛y §ƒy°yˆÏí˛ñ ˆû˛ˆÏçñ ˆÓˆÏê˛ñ Ó˚§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ

˛õÑyã˛ˆÏü¢y!° ï˛Ó˚ܲy!Ó˚ˆÏï˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ñ í˛yˆÏ°ñ ˆé˛yˆÏ°ñ

Óí˛¸y Óy ú%˛°%!Ó˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆáˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö–

ÌyöÜ%˛!ö˛õyï˛y •y°Ü˛y ˆÓ˚yˆÏò Ä åÈyÎ˚yÎ˚

¢%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ !ü!:ˆÏï˛ à%шÏí˛¸y ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö–

àÑ%ˆÏí˛¸y!ê˛ ˆòáˆÏï˛ §Ó%ç Ó˚LjÏÎ˚Ó˚ •ˆÏÓ– ˆ§•z

K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚

10 ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚

ˆï˛°%à% ı S1V !ÓŸªöyÌ §ï˛ƒöyÓ˚yÎ˚î SÓ˚yüyÎ˚î

ܲ“Ó,«˛ü%V 1970ó S2V !§. öyÓ˚yÎ˚î ˆÓ˚!U˛

S!ÓŸªΩ˛Ó˚V 1988ó S3V Ó˚û%˛!Ó˚ û˛Ó˚myç

S˛õyÜ%˛ò%Ó˚Õ‘%V 2012

x§!üÎ˚y ı S1V Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wÜ%˛üyÓ˚ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈

Sü,ï%˛ƒOÎ˚V 1997ó S2V •z!®Ó˚y ˆàyfl∫yü#

2000

˛õyOy!Ó ı S1V xü,ï˛y ≤Ã#ï˛ü Sܲyàç ˆï˛

ܲƒyöû˛y§V 1981ó S2V à%Ó˚!òÎẙ° !§Ç 1999

ï˛y!ü° ı S1V !˛õ !û˛ xy!ܲ°y®ü S!ã˛eØyû˛y•zV

1975ó S2V !í˛ çÎ˚ܲyrÌö 2002

üyÓ˚y!ë˛ ı S1V !Ó£÷$ §áyÓ˚yü áyˆÏ®Ü˛Ó˚ 1974ó

S2V !Ó£÷$ Óyüö !¢Ó˚ÄÎ˚yòܲÓ˚ SÜ%˛§%üy@ˇÃçV

1987ó S3V !Ó®y ܲÓ˚!u˛Ü˛Ó˚ SxT˛yò¢≈öV

2003ó S4V û˛y°ã˛w ˆöüyˆÏí˛ 2014

~ ÎyÓÏÍ ≤Ãò_ K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ §¡∫ˆÏrô §yüyöƒ

ühsˇÓƒ xyÓ¢ƒÜ˛– ~ܲñ !•!® !ܲ Ó˚yT˛Δû˛y£Ïy

Sï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛V ӈϰ•z ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ !ÓˆÏÓã˛öyÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe

x@ˇÃy!ôܲyÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏFåÈ⁄ ≤Ã̈Ïü ˆï˛y ˆò!á 1982

˛õÎ≈hsˇ ≤Ã!ï˛ ã˛yÓ˚ÓåȈÏÓ˚ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ K˛yö˛õ#ë˛ §¡øyö

ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– !ï˛ö ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ cooling off §üÎ˚ܲy°

ˆï˛y !öÎ˚ˆÏü•z ôÓ˚y xyˆÏåÈ– ò%•zñ ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ ï˛Ìy

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12 §üÎ˚ ~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ˆú˛Ó &Î˚y!Ó˚ 2020

í˛z˛õˆÏò¢Ü˛ : ˆ§Ô!üe °y!•í˛¸# §¡õyòܲ : xÓ˚&î Ü%˛[%˛ ܲyÎ≈!öÓ≈y•# §¡õyòܲ : !ÓŸªò#˛õ ò_

~Ü%˛¢ ¢ï˛Ü˛ ≤Ãܲy¢ö §ÇfliyÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ xÓ˚&î Ü%˛[%˛ ܲï≈˛,ܲ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ ~ÓÇ à#ï˛y !≤Ãrê˛y§≈ñ 51~ é˛yüy˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ ˆ°öñ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÈÙ700009 ˆÌˆÏܲ ü%!oï˛–

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