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วารสารเมืองโบราณปีที่ 3 ฉบับที่ 2

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over Picture 4<br />

Mural Painting of Wat Wang 5<br />

Kieti akdi Chanon-nart<br />

The Principality of Wa t Phu 14<br />

Dr . W. J. Van Liere<br />

Khmer Art in fan 22<br />

NorNa Paknam<br />

The orthea t of Thailand 41<br />

during the Lopburi<br />

Sri akara<br />

al/lbhotama<br />

Orabhim- Prajit 65 .<br />

'Piyaporn<br />

The Khmer • mpire 70<br />

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er iod<br />

Augkor : An ArchitecturaL Analy<br />

Anuvit Charernsupkul<br />

Lo hing ha 110<br />

Kanchanagabhun<br />

Where Wa uvanabhum 128<br />

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COVER PICTURE<br />

Pra at Ku ida built in brick the lintel of which<br />

wa decorated ' ith tucco f1gure of dancing deitie ,<br />

Lopbur1 tyle. Thee f1gure have completely<br />

been de troyed and plundered. The picture above<br />

i al o the lintel of Ku 1da which wa taken,<br />

when the dancing f1gure till remained, by Mr.<br />

Manit Valllbhotama during hi archaeological<br />

urvey about 16 year ago.


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Mural Painting of wat Wang<br />

Patalung<br />

Kietisakdi Chanon-nart<br />

W t Wang i ituated in Amphur time when the war wa re tored by background to enhance the main<br />

Lam Pam. Patalung It wa formerly Phraya Patalung (Tab) . It i aid image. Th1 decorative frame wa<br />

the important war of the town, where that thi go ernor had brought a surrounded by figure of the demon<br />

the ceremony of taking the Water of painter who u ed to paint the wall of on the lower part of the herm1t on<br />

Allegiance wa performed. That it Wat Phra Kae9 in Bangkok to do the the upper and of the rows of deiti<br />

ha been called Wat Wang i be au e jop here; the painting wa fini hed in on the middle. Row of deities or<br />

it wa built in the heart of the old 1860. However another rumor put tep-clwm- pum continued above the<br />

town of Pataluog clo e to the re i- it that the painter wa in fact, a na- scence on the lif hi tory of the Buddence<br />

of the governor Ph ray a Pa ta I u ng. ti ve of Pa ta lung who learnt how to dha to the north and the ou th wall .<br />

According to the chronicle, it wa<br />

fir t built by Phraya Patalung( Tbongkhao)<br />

in the Fir t reign and completed<br />

later in 1816 during the reign<br />

of King Rama II. At the pre ent time<br />

paint in Bangkok and u ed to paint The pace on the panels between the<br />

the wall of Wat Phra Kae .<br />

What door and window were painted with<br />

ever it may be, the painting of Wat some epi ode in the Jataka Stone .<br />

Wang re emble mo t mural painting Unfortunat ly, at pre ent the e J taka<br />

in Bangkok. In P talung it i con- ccne have already peeled off due to<br />

Wat Wang remain a quiet war about temporary to mural painting in Wat the damageou condition of the wall.<br />

5 km . from the provincial city, ac- Viharn Burg located on the oppo ite What till in go d condition were<br />

ce sible by a road which pa e it to side of the road. Probably it was cene of the life of the Buddha which<br />

the Lake Lam Pam to the ea t. It is painted by the arne arti t. were painted on the upper level of<br />

characterized by a bod whic~ i ur- The painting in the bod of Wat the ioten r wall. Some ep1 ode were<br />

rounded by a rectangular cloi ter Wang wa typical of the ourth reign beautifully painted and well arranged<br />

hou ing a row of itting Buddha. The u ing multi color of red, black, 1n the proportion of form and pace,<br />

bod it elf i pierced by 2 door from white yellow cerulean blue, Indian uch a a cene when the Buddha wa<br />

the front and 6 window on each ide red, Pru ian blue and ap green. The being tempted by the three bewitching<br />

of the wall. All door and window per pective method a applied in daughters of the Mara and the ceoe<br />

were framed ith tucco decoration . painting land cape; and the mountain on the Great Renunciation. The mo t<br />

On top of rhe building. newly carved the tree and water w re p inted in important and maje tic of all i the<br />

gable end have replaced the old one a realistic way. The major pace cene on the descending from the<br />

which were removed to the nation l above the window wa de oted to heaven of the Lord Buddha. Apart<br />

mu eum in ongkla. At the front depict the life hi tory of the Lord from the cene on the life of the<br />

of the bod there i an image of a Buddha. It tarted from the outhern Buddha, there were al o orne cene<br />

sitting Buddha- Phra Pa Lei - Lai,<br />

back wall, with and epi ode on the on the daily life of the local people<br />

attended by a monkey and an birth of the Buddha and progre ed wh1ch were in many way reflecting<br />

elephant. Around the bod are row to the ea t wall where a cene on orne a pact of the ociety during<br />

of mall pagoda . The main image ubduing the Mara wa painted. The the ourth reign. For example, the<br />

of the bod i made of tucco erected story continued to the northern wall cene that depicted a hunter hunting<br />

in the middle of the building. On , nd ended with the cene on the death a wild boar a caravan "'f ox cart<br />

the interior wall of the bod i deco- of the Buddha. The western wall a and the hine e with his hair tyle<br />

rated with beautiful painting . the back of the main Buddha wa ect. All of them seemed to add more<br />

The mural painting of Wat Wang painted 10 the form of a decorated value to the mural painting of Wat<br />

wa done in the ourth reign at the frame .. ruan- kaeo, erving a a Wang.


The main tower of W t Phu h mpa c Lao.


An i olated and tone rna if named Phu Kao<br />

ri ing I 500 m. above the pla1n in outhern Lao<br />

induce a favourable micro nvironment<br />

that ha been t. k n advantage of by early farmer ince pre-hi toric time<br />

the principality of Wat Phu ( ig 1) , or mod rn hampa ac.<br />

Tl1e Principalit.y<br />

of<br />

Wat PllU<br />

D~ W.J. VanLiere<br />

Prominent topographic feature uch<br />

That thi wa indeed done i between the . Houei Kham uan, th<br />

a the Phu Kao have one e pecially<br />

hown by a regular grid of mall Mekong and the Houei Ta ng in the<br />

important effect on local climate:<br />

channel , still clearly vi ible on aerial north. Ancient rainfed land can b<br />

they stimulate rainfall. Becau Phu<br />

photograph although they are not located by mean of remant of scatu<br />

ed any more. On Fig. 1 orne of tered pond , still vi 1ble on a nal<br />

Kao cau e precipitation from<br />

the fir t moi lure-lad n air rna e<br />

thee channel are indicated. A mor photographs and on topographiC map<br />

of the outhwe t mon oon farmer<br />

detailed analy i would be po ible if although the fi ld p tt rn may ha<br />

in Champa ac can plant rainfed pad<br />

photograph of larg r cale were a ai- di appeared. The pond ar at o<br />

dy a full month earlier th, n in other<br />

table. indicated in fig. I. ield work ~ ould<br />

part of the ou thern Lao plain . But<br />

In any ca e it clear that the no doubt I ate m ny mor . All the<br />

early rain are probably not the main civilization of Wat Phu had it econo- urrounding country, on the a t bank<br />

factor for the Wat Phu civilization. mic foundation on small- cale irriga-<br />

of the Mekong, a well a we t of the<br />

On theca t ide of Phu Kao mount in tion, even though the irrigated area i Hou i Khamouan wa and llll 1<br />

a number of mall permanent pring rather limited not mor than 200 km2 fore t, with hifting cull! au n.<br />

occur, who e water could ea ily be in all. Rainfed agriculture wa prac- Th refore the prin ip lily of Wat Phu<br />

led off to be directed and d1 tributed ticed overanadjacentarea about three wa a fu lly independent, If- u-<br />

over the gently loping plain. times as large a the irrigated area tained economy.


, ..,<br />

Ufl1\flAfl THE PRINCIPALITY OF WAT PHU<br />

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- RAINFED AGRICULTURE<br />

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The cultivat d enclave of Wat A major factor u taining Shr ta to the outh from the anctuary and<br />

Phu ha a rich hi tory inde d, but for -pura wealth, apart from permanent the trace i vi ible on the aerial phorea<br />

on that e cape comprehen ion no agriculture, wa no doubt the ab nee tograph ov r a di tance of about four<br />

fi ldwork ha ever been carried out of flood damage from th Mekong: km. inally, m ntion hould b made<br />

by archeaologi t . the topography of the plain i such of a tempi pond of th arne<br />

A may be e pected, the land that it is ju tout. iz a th Wat Phu pond at B n That<br />

supported a temple city. Thi i th To the north of the large temple in th ' rainfed ' part of the hr tadouble-moated<br />

city of Shre ta-pura, pond, there is a maller one which pura principality. ( ig I).<br />

about 2x2 km in ize, clearly vi ible till the ene of the annual ritual The tting of hre ta-pura re emon<br />

the a rial photograph · It i of the Buffalo acrifice and i therefore ble omewhat the tting of Angkor<br />

worthwhile to note that th ea tern thought to b of great antiquity. Thorn, with Phu Kao fulfilling the<br />

moat of the city i built near and pa- The aerial photograph reveal role of the Phnom Kulen. Th difrallel<br />

to the pre ent bank of the Me- orne more intere ting detail. There f renee i that the temple city fAngkong.<br />

It i likely that the medieval wa a econd temple pond outh of kor Thorn wa very much larg r and<br />

cour e of th Mekong wa situated the exi ting on and imilar in ize. almo t th ntire run-off fr m Phnom<br />

more to the ea t. Thi ob ervation Furthermore, there wa rectan- ulen wa u ed for acral purpo e<br />

under- core one more the fact that gular earth tructure, po ibly a dik wh rea at hre ta-pura mo t of the<br />

the medieval temple city wa not a mea uring 1.5x0.75 km. Thi true- flow of th mall, widely cattered<br />

commercial centred pending on traf- tur i certainly older than th two prings wa , a<br />

fie in the modern· sense. temple pond . A traigh t road led agricu I tu re.<br />

The Low r Pra t of t Phu, hampa o.


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Khmer Art<br />

•<br />

111<br />

Isar1<br />

Nor Na Paknam<br />

At pre ent most scholar believe that Surin. The building i characterized<br />

the Chenla people were ancestor of by a square brick tower without any<br />

the Khmer in Cambodia. The original redented corner , the round haped<br />

homeland of the Chenla was in the tone pillar and tone lintel and pediment<br />

the decorative de ign of<br />

upper valley of t.he Mekbong River<br />

near the basin of the river Mun and which were cia ified a the Pri<br />

such a Pra at Phnom Wan in Nakhon<br />

Raj ima and Pra at Ban Pluang<br />

In urin. The con truction of the Prasat<br />

in brick eemed tc be a tradition<br />

until late in the 12th entury A.D.<br />

which coincided with the re1gn of<br />

Chi, with the capital city at what is Kmeng tyle. After the decline of the King uriya arman II who initiated<br />

now Bas ak in Lao. The Chenla em- Chenla kingdom, the Khmer moved the c n truction f Angkor Wat.<br />

braced Hindui m and held Siva a to ettle down around the Great Lake Tbi evident from ·orne brick buildlike<br />

Pra at i Khoraphum in their highe t god. In the reign of King to the we t of the Mekhong River and ing<br />

u.<br />

lsanvarman I the Chenla conquered<br />

the lower Mekhong ba in and f~unded<br />

a new capital I anpura in what is now<br />

the di trict of Kampong Thorn in<br />

establi hed Angkor a their capital rin which wa decorated with lintel<br />

city. Here came the Angkorian pe­<br />

bearing the de ign and motif of the<br />

riod when they could develop art<br />

tyle and architecture of their own .<br />

Cambodia. Here the art of the an- In the ortheast of Thailand the ear.<br />

.<br />

style of Angkor Wat.<br />

The later group of the Khmer<br />

type temple in the Northea l were of<br />

cient Khmer, the school of which i ly architecture of the Angkorian pcriod<br />

the 13th Century A. ., influenced<br />

known a Sombor developed. Judging<br />

i Pra at Ban Beng, urin a from the art tyle in the reign of<br />

from the lyles and motifs, the art of brick tower with redented corner . King Jayavarman VII. They were<br />

Sombor wa a continuation of the old Next to it i Pra at Yai Nghao, al o built in larger number than the period<br />

Funan art which wa influenced by a redented quare tower but 11 pedithe<br />

before : mo t of them were of<br />

art of India. In the Northeast of ment wa carved in brick into a de­ the arne plan and lyle i.e. on i t·<br />

Thailand the Chenla art wa contem- corative frame terminallng with five ing of a main laterite tower erected<br />

porary to the Ovaravati art and both headed naga at the end .<br />

in the middle of a compound which<br />

shared orne common tyles and motifs,<br />

wa urr unded by a rectangular la­<br />

notably the croll de igns derived From the lOth Century A. D., more terite wall. pierced with one gatev ay<br />

from the upta chool in Jndia. Khmer type temple appeared in the in the ea t AI o included in the com<br />

Architecturally both Ovaravati Northeast and mo t of them were pound of the temple was a mall Iaterite<br />

and Chenla chools u ed brick and built in brick uch a Pra at Muang<br />

vihara . Thee laterite prasat<br />

clay mortar as building material . The Tam, Prasat Mee hai Pra at Ban were pre umably Buddhi t anctuarie<br />

olde l architecture of the Chenla that Plai in Surin and Pra at Prang Ku they were for example, Pra at Kampaeng-<br />

still remained in the Northea tis Pra- 1n ri aket. Th re were only few<br />

noi, Pra at Ban Samor in ri<br />

sat Phum Phon in Amphur Sangkha, tone temple of contemporary date aket and Pra at Ku Rusi in Bur1rum .


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in th Lopburi pe riod - the n tun ry, ~c r d pond , ray, road a nd cultivatr n rea.<br />

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flflr!lJtl'n.,:mlll1.,tl1.,lJU't1 I. OUHIIYI'H<br />

• t J


The Northeast of Thailand during<br />

the Lopburi Period ( 10-13 Century A.D.)<br />

th<br />

t h<br />

Sr i s a kara Vallibho tama<br />

By the end of the lOth entury A.D., Angkor Wat tyled monument \ ere Mekhong Riv r to th north, the<br />

due to heavy influx of Khmer civtli- reeled in the orthea t and in the Khmer temple with in crtptlon m ntioned<br />

th name Jayavarman VII wa<br />

zation from Cambodia into the ba in meantime the architectural tyle of<br />

of the river Mun and Mekhong, the the roof of the tower in Angkor Wat found in the ancient town of ai<br />

Northea t of Thailand entered a new wa in many way , influen ed by that Phong in L o and at a mall hrine<br />

period of socio-cultural change which of the temple of Phimai. urther in Wat Dhat Lu ng Vientian a<br />

wa called by many scholar as the more, Khmer cultural influence al o tone tatue of Jayavarm n VII wa<br />

Lopburi period. It differed in many f und it way from Phimai and haire<br />

peel from the previous period and yaphum pa ing the Petchabun Range Like the reign f uriyavarman If<br />

housed.<br />

this wa evident from the change in- to Muang rt 0 p in the Pa ak River Khmer civilization of the 13th Century<br />

A. . pread from the North ea t<br />

to new type and pattern of variou va !ley and whence to the Chao Phraancient<br />

monument namely the regu- ya delta in C ntr 1 Thailand. The to entral Thailand ia Muang rt<br />

larly oriented tr_?ctures and plan of Khmer styled brick tower found tn Dcp in the Pa ak alley. It popularity<br />

brou ht about a ult of tab­<br />

the ancient town , the Hindu and the Muang ri Oep, Muang Lava ( Lop­<br />

Mahayana Buddhi t sanctuarie which buri) , and ukhothai. all indicated li hing Khm r typ templ dedtcated<br />

were built in Khmer style, the digg- art influen e from th reign of uriing<br />

of baray and acred temple pond ya arman 11.<br />

of many tmportant citie uch a La­<br />

to Mahayana Buddhi m in the middle<br />

the con tructions of road and irrigation<br />

dyke and the establishment of<br />

After uriyavarman Ll, the Northea<br />

t wa brought more clo cr to Cam and ukhothai. AI o 111 ny cult obva,<br />

Rajburi Petchaburi Muang ingh<br />

ceramic kiln to produce Khm'er type<br />

bodia again tn the 13th entury A.D. ject u h a tmag of the Buddh<br />

pottery used all over the Northeast. during the retgn of Ktng Jayavarman and Bodht atta a were al o imported<br />

Historically peaking, the presence VJI. More temples wer built and from Cambodta. To many cholar,<br />

of the Khmer type monuments toget- re tared all dedicat~d 10 Mahayana the pre ence of Khmer cultural eleher<br />

with many tone stelas mention- Buddht m. Accordtng to the tn crip- men; ha created a mi under tanding<br />

ing the name of the Khmer kings tion of Pra at Phra Khan in ambo- tha{ the Central Plain wa brought<br />

hinted that the regions along the dia, Jayavarman Vll had roads cut under the Khmer rule and that many<br />

Mun and the Mekhong River had from Angkor to variou citie and citie were identified a orne citie<br />

once accepted the Khmer political town in hi empire. On the way he mentioned in the in cription tone of<br />

hegemony from at lea t the reign of al o had many h pital and dharma- Pra at Phra Khan in arnb dia.<br />

King uriyavarman I. Further, the sa/a or mall temple buill for the After Jayavarman VJl Khmer<br />

tone in cripti ns from the temple of traveller to stop and pray. And to cultural influence in the Northea t<br />

Phnom Rung and Phimai al o up- many princtpal town , he had the declined and gradually cam to an<br />

ported that the Mun River ba in wa tatues of Phra Jayabuddhamahanat end. It eem d t ive way t a new<br />

ruled by a local monarch King Hi- ent a the main cult object. A the wave of civilization from the kingranyavarman<br />

who wa a clo e kin to city of Phtmai wa mentioned among dom of LanNa and ukhothai tn the<br />

King Oharanindravarman I and king the principal town in th tn ription north and northwe t which pread in<br />

Suriyavarman II. lo e connection 1t wa likely that there were many to the kingdom of Lan hang in the<br />

between the Northea t and Cambodta town in the ba ins of the Mun and ba in of the Mekhong nd the hi<br />

eemed to accentuated durtng the re- Mekhong Rtvers that were tntegrated River·<br />

ign of King uriyavarman II a many into the Khmer empire. Along the


Figure of apa.wra in dec?rativc frame carved on the side wall ncar the gate<br />

of the main tower of Prasat Wat Phu• on the shoulder of the mountain.<br />

Bass.tk, l.:to.<br />

I<br />

tl1tJ1l1l'f


n .. u..,ft'~ua::'t1u"lu.,ut.lnnnn.,M •'un1~<br />

.<br />

Lintel and pediment of a building<br />

in the compound of Prasat Wat Phu.<br />

n.,tma.,~flal t.lnn1n~n1:: lt~u<br />

... .. , .. • • ~ c.<br />

11. IO'Wflnnu '· 111tlUlfl i111~1111Ulr.J1fl<br />

depicting an episode in the Ramayanu story,<br />

Prasat Ku Kradaun •• Amphur Kasctwisai, Roi Ed.


Figu~ of apusara ut the gate<br />

of the main tower<br />

of Pmsat Si Khoraphum, Surin.<br />

Part of stone lintel of a small 1·iharn<br />

in the compound of Prasat Kampaeng-yui,<br />

showing deities attending the sleeping Vishnu.<br />

. .<br />

J ... J I<br />

1 tl~llltltll llllYnHI~11 ~tJltJLQYil::ft'l~lfH~lfl<br />

., ., .... " J " "' • ' ...<br />

'· "' n::mw<br />

•o~nu·tnl nm1 Lnn o~fl•lvll o~e~t1.,1nl'I'I01LUH,lfl\l<br />

Stone lintel of u small l'ihurn<br />

in the compounJ of Prasat Kampaeng Yui,<br />

showing Vishnu reclining on the back of naga-ruja.


I<br />

t .I I II '"' ~ t.l • ~ •<br />

~ft1'UUII~ u11ft1"n8111t11J &U'U 11ft1"ft1UHM&1tl~n'U<br />

The brick towcn of Prasat Ku Suan Tacna, Bu~irum.


.I ~ .. ~<br />

v11G1Ynt\nnW1\I t. \lft111'WGII1<br />

Prasat Phnom Wan, Nalthon Raj Sima.


Prasat Plaibat on top or the Plaibat Mountain,<br />

Amphur Pakonchai, Burirum .<br />

. .<br />

... 1 .. ' ., • , .... 41 .... • ,<br />

111UI1YIM\&1 UMa-1dfiYI1fi1UfUI1UD~ L1 antl11Cf1YIH'Un1U "~'U flU<br />

" ., " ., ., "<br />

a11~asaa,.,:at,.a1nluYI ..<br />

Prasat Kampaena Noi, consiructed in laterite, Sri Saket.<br />

Probably bclonaed to the period or Jayavarman VII.


f .. ., ' .... • "<br />

1 ULtltnn1Jnq1" ua:alnn1Tifl1LL ft~u nv<br />

. .<br />

Pra\at Ku Phra Santar.ll, con\tructed m laterite in the same style and plan as those of Ku Rusi and Prasat Kampacng Noi


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Orbhirn-Prajit<br />

" . "<br />

P1yaporn<br />

Originally thi tory i a Jataka tory<br />

but the people conceive it a a local<br />

tale of Mu ng Phim i in the province<br />

of Nakhon Raj ima. It i about a<br />

young prince named Pr jit leaving<br />

hi home town in earch for hi mate.<br />

The a trologer told h1m that hi mate<br />

wa<br />

till an unborn child whom he<br />

would meet on the way. He went<br />

along the direction<br />

dvi ed by th<br />

With the help of the god lndra both her tot hu band, Orabhim di gui ed<br />

of them could escape from the palace her elf a a man travelling from<br />

into the fore t. On the way, while place to place until h reach d the<br />

they were re ling under a big tree, city of Cbampak Nakhon. verybody<br />

Prajit wa hot to death by a hunter in th city wa in grief becau e of a<br />

who wa attracted by Orabh im' udden death of the dau ht r of the<br />

beauty.<br />

He took Orabhim away on<br />

the back of the buffalo.<br />

To free<br />

her elf from the wicked fellow Orabhlm<br />

a ked to ride behin


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r:in1al of a Bayon tower Khmer art of Bayon tylc Late 12 th-carly I th cntur .D<br />

-4<br />

l.h1rt1VlVl UfllUJ<br />

Pra at at<br />

ngk r Thorn


Rell f figure of pa ra at n k r \i at<br />

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Head of D dha · 11 va at a mall pra t an ngkor Th m<br />

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I mal deitic ngkor


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13. Pra at Bay n.<br />

ngkor Thorn 119 1-12 19).<br />

Th late t effort of the Khmer<br />

in buildmg gre


" ....


Angkor<br />

The Architectural Analysis<br />

Anuvit Charerr1supkul<br />

an effort on part of the author.<br />

So far, the hi tory of Angkor<br />

tarted<br />

from the reign of Jayavarman 11<br />

around the 9 1 h Century A. D. and<br />

came to an end<br />

ometime after the<br />

reign of Jayavarman VII in the 13th<br />

Century A.D.<br />

of four hundred year<br />

built their citie<br />

E>uring the period<br />

the Khmer<br />

around the great<br />

lake in the hinterland of the<br />

Mekhong ba in . Thi area of<br />

great advantage in term<br />

of social,<br />

economic, political and strategic<br />

viewpoints. The main urban complexes<br />

developed in many localities,<br />

starting from Kulen to Rolous and<br />

Angkor respectively.<br />

The Khmer unified their ociety by<br />

the Indian culture which had created<br />

a kind of 'organic structure' to its<br />

kingdom. In thi<br />

structure, various<br />

kinds of component namely politics,<br />

religion economics technology art<br />

and architecture were depending on<br />

each other a<br />

an organi m. Jayavarman<br />

ll invented for the kingdom,<br />

a cult of god king which gave the<br />

king, the supreme power of the god<br />

on earth.<br />

From this concept, the<br />

Khmer envi aged the town and city<br />

as a replica of the universe. In<br />

the middle of the city, an architecture<br />

was erected as the dwelling of god<br />

artificial sumeru mountain or on a<br />

natural hill. There are 14 noted<br />

building complexe which repre ented<br />

the temple mountain of the king.<br />

They are as follow :-<br />

I. Preah-ko<br />

2. Bakong<br />

3. Phnom Bakheng<br />

4. Bak ee Chamkrong<br />

5. Mebon Oriental<br />

6. Pre Rup<br />

7. Banteay Srei<br />

8. Phimanaka<br />

9. Takeo<br />

10. Baphuan<br />

II . Angkor Wat<br />

!2. Ta Prohm<br />

13. Preah Khan<br />

14. Bayon<br />

Thee building developed within 3<br />

linkage<br />

circle , the fir t being from<br />

The general history and ymbolic a microco m of the macro-structure. ko, Bakong, Mebon Oriental, Pre<br />

interpretation of thi article are In the hi tory of Angkor the architecture<br />

in the middle of the city and Takeo.<br />

Rup, Banteay Srei, Phimanakas<br />

ba ed on the writing of Profe or<br />

Coede and Gro lier but however appeared in the from of complex of 2. Diagrametic Layout, a very trong<br />

the architectural analysi purely buildings built either on top of an tatement of forming an architectural<br />

complex. It i likely to<br />

emerge directly from conceptual<br />

diagrame. Thi re ulted in the<br />

pure form of Phnom Bakheng<br />

and Bak ee Chamkrong.<br />

3. Organic Layout a building complex<br />

of interconnected and interlocking<br />

both in physical form and<br />

patial<br />

tructure. Thi is the mo t<br />

creative of all the Khmer architectural<br />

de ign.<br />

There are only<br />

two; the Baphuan and the Angkor<br />

Wat.<br />

4. Patterned Layout, it is eemingly<br />

that the design i repeated one<br />

element to another without<br />

concerning with compo ition and<br />

patial quality, alwa ys aim at the<br />

emphatically compo nent a Ta<br />

Prohm, Preah Khan and Bayon.<br />

Preah- ko to Bak ei Chamkrong, the The Khmer con truction technique<br />

econd from Mebon Oriental to limited to corbelled arch, hort<br />

Takeo; and the third from Baphuan<br />

pan po t and lintel and rna ive<br />

to Bayon. Neverthele s their layout load bearing wall, by u ing the<br />

pattern are interdependently differed;<br />

principal materials of brick, laterite<br />

they could be clas ified into four and and tone. As Gro lier has<br />

typical model<br />

as follow:-<br />

! . Compo itional Layout a model<br />

of arranging an architectural<br />

elements within physical and<br />

patial<br />

structure framework, by<br />

the rule of compo ilion theory.<br />

The noted example are ; Preahpointed<br />

out, the Khmer architect<br />

had alway counted on three architectural<br />

element ; terrace<br />

vaulted gallery<br />

in<br />

mo t<br />

tower and<br />

and by their talent<br />

ophi ticated de ig n, one of the<br />

ignificant architecture of the<br />

world ba been created.<br />

eotf


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Where was<br />

Suvanabhum<br />

Manit Vallibhotama<br />

• To the ea t of<br />

wa<br />

uvana Kaum Kam<br />

the ba in of the Tack River.<br />

Thi ri er con i ted of to main tributarie<br />

the Tack Luang or the Red<br />

River and the Tack Noi; both originated<br />

from the mountain and high<br />

land in Yunan of<br />

outhern China.<br />

The Red R'iver drained the region<br />

around Hanoi while the Tack<br />

pa ed through<br />

oi<br />

ib Song Ch u Thai to<br />

join the Red River 1n Hang Hua and<br />

then flowed down into the Bay of<br />

To integrate Nam Yueh to the<br />

Chine e empire,<br />

hine e ch ol w re<br />

founded in the area around the Red<br />

and the Black River<br />

to teach Chine<br />

c culture to the native.<br />

o the<br />

culture and the way of life of the<br />

Nam Yueh people changed and were<br />

heavily influenced by tho e of the<br />

Chine e. In the later period the<br />

people<br />

.<br />

preferred to call their country<br />

Vietnam instead ot Nam Yueh a<br />

called by the Chine e.<br />

However, the<br />

Tonkin. According to the hine e de tiny of the nation wa fluctuated<br />

note , about 400 year ago thi region<br />

wa included 1n the country called<br />

am Yuch inhabited by the Ai - lao<br />

people \ ho wa<br />

div1ded into numerou<br />

ubgroup uch a the Nung,<br />

the hong the Chung, the Chuang,<br />

the Chong- ren and the Muang.<br />

between the Chine e domination and<br />

declaring independence.<br />

It was until<br />

the 16th Century A.D. that Vietnam<br />

became fully independent and wa<br />

able to annex the kingdom of<br />

hampa<br />

to the south to it own territory. Later<br />

in the middle of the 17 th<br />

en tu ry<br />

During the reign of mperor Wuti A.D. Vietnam wa o trong and po-<br />

( 140-87 B.C.) Nam ueh wa 1n- werful that it could e tend it · domivaded<br />

by the<br />

hine e troop and e entually<br />

conquered in Ill B. .<br />

The<br />

country fell under the Chine e rule,<br />

and wa divided into 4 principalitie ,<br />

each of which wa<br />

hine e go ernor.<br />

upervi ed by a<br />

nation to the lower Mekhong basin<br />

which wa<br />

once in the territory of<br />

the Khmer in Cambodia. Thi reulled<br />

in the foundation of the city of<br />

Saigon a the main port city of the<br />

Kingdom.<br />

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