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Biologically-Respectful Tourism - LinkBC

CATHERINE A.

EVANS

INFO@TOURSEXPLORE.COM

CEVANS@CAPILANOU.CA

BIOLOGICALLY‐RESPECTFUL TOURISM:

EXAMINING ENVIRONMENTAL CAMPAIGNS

OF THE SUNSHINE COAST, BC

July 2012

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Table of Contents

Summary .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Nature of the problem ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Rise of non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) .................................................................................................................................. 4

Case Study: The Lower Sunshine Coast.................................................................................................................................................. 4

Research objectives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

The rise of biodiversity consciousness ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) ....................................................................................................................................... 5

The sustainable tourism agenda ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

Towards biologically‐respectful tourism versus sustainable tourism .................................................................................................... 6

Biologically‐respectful tourism case studies .............................................................................................................................................. 7

Bhutan .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Costa Rica ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Haida Gwaii, British Columbia ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

Lessons learned ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Agents of transformational change ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

Communicating the change message .................................................................................................................................................. 10

Instruments to guide and enforce change ........................................................................................................................................... 10

Methodology............................................................................................................................................................................................ 11

Critical incident technique ................................................................................................................................................................... 11

Step 1: Identification of aims ........................................................................................................................................................... 12

Step 2: Identification of the incidents to be collected ..................................................................................................................... 12

Step 3: Data collection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 13

Step 4: Data analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................ 14

Step 5: Project dissemination .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

Cluster analysis of community environmentally‐themed campaigns ...................................................................................................... 15

The need to protect natural assets ...................................................................................................................................................... 15

The need for increased food security .................................................................................................................................................. 22

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The need for education & nature awareness ...................................................................................................................................... 25

Other community concerns ................................................................................................................................................................. 28

Towards effective campaign strategies : Conceptual Model ................................................................................................................... 31

Managerial/leadership realm .............................................................................................................................................................. 32

Choosing effective leadership to manage the campaign ................................................................................................................. 32

Adopting an effective management plan ........................................................................................................................................ 33

Working effectively with partners ................................................................................................................................................... 33

Establishing a formal society ............................................................................................................................................................ 34

Achieving adequate levels of funding/volunteers ........................................................................................................................... 34

Engaging The wider community in the process ............................................................................................................................... 35

Using scientific assessment & surveys ............................................................................................................................................. 35

Starting to succession plan and engage youth ................................................................................................................................. 36

Providing incremental goals & celebrating successes ...................................................................................................................... 36

Purchase or conversion of private land for preservation ................................................................................................................ 37

Continuing efforts toward higher levels of protection .................................................................................................................... 37

Building an effective communications realm....................................................................................................................................... 37

Using the right tools & activities during the campaign .................................................................................................................... 38

Reaching the right target market ..................................................................................................................................................... 40

Establishing a community watch program ....................................................................................................................................... 40

Evaluating the campaign ...................................................................................................................................................................... 41

Summary and conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................................... 42

References ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

Appendix A: Goals and targets Biodiversity 2011‐2020 .......................................................................................................................... 49

Appendix B: Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness Philosophy ................................................................................................................. 51

Appendix C: Ecotourism Society’s code of conduct ................................................................................................................................. 51

Appendix D: List of acronyms and abbreviations .................................................................................................................................... 52

Appendix E: Photo Credits ....................................................................................................................................................................... 52

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SUMMARY

This report summarizes graduate‐level research undertaken by Catherine A. Evans through to early 2012 as part of the Masters of

Tourism Management program at Royal Roads University.

Her research was spurred by an interest in the relationship between biological diversity and tourism. Evans first investigated this

relationship by reviewing literature and case studies of regions that have adopted biologically‐friendly societal and tourism

strategies.

The bulk of Evans’ original graduate research looked at environmentally‐themed campaigns conducted by Non‐Governmental

Organizations (NGOs) in the Lower Sunshine Coast region of British Columbia. Her use of the critical incident technique culminates in

a conceptual model: Effective strategies for community environmentally‐themed campaigns that can serve as a resource for

organizations creating transformational change towards biologically‐respectful attitudes and behaviours (p. 31).

INTRODUCTION

NATURE OF THE PROBLEM

There has been growing global awareness of biodiversity at risk as an impetus for change in recent decades. Nonetheless, a disparity

persists between what people say they value, and their actions. Given the enormity of global tourism, and its cumulative negative

impacts on the natural landscape, remedies are of the utmost importance.

RISE OF NON‐GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS)

Princen & Finger suggest that NGOs appear to be key actors in moving societies away from environmental degradation and toward

sustainable economies (2004, p. 11). The sheer numbers of NGOs worldwide is astonishing. According to the organization Wiser

Earth, there are more than one million organizations actively working toward ecological sustainability, economic justice, human

rights protection, political accountability and peace – issues that are systemically interconnected and intertwined (Wiser Earth, n.d).

CASE STUDY: THE LOWER SUNSHINE COAST

The lower Sunshine Coast of British Columbia is home to 404 tourism businesses

(Carlysle‐Smith & Evans, 2002, p. 12). Accelerated population growth combined with a

proximity to Vancouver has brought the region under typical growth pressure, resulting in

escalating land use conflicts between economic sectors. At present the region has less

than 3% in protected park status, well below the 14% BC standard, and marine protected

areas in the region amount to less than 1%. Plans for mitigating human impacts are

unclear as the area is lacking both a regional land use plan, and a regional growth strategy

(Sunshine Coast Regional District, SCRD, n.d). The regional DMO (Destination Marketing

Organization) 2007 tourism plan mentions ‘sustainability’ solely in the context of financial

viability (2007, p. 20).

Despite these challenges, the region’s residents display high conservation values evidenced by an astoundingly high number of

active community environmental and social service organizations, most of NGO status. The resulting unique situation on the

Sunshine Coast provides an opportunity to examine the complex relationship between biodiversity, society and the tourism industry

and examine the growing NGO environmental phenomenon.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The goal of this research was to discover obstacles that prevent pro‐environmental organizations in the region from reaching their

full potential, as well as discover what instrument(s) might improve societal, industry and visitor attitudes and actions. Such

discoveries will ideally have application to branding campaigns aimed at developing biologically‐respectful education and tourism

for residents and visitors on BC’s Sunshine Coast.

A literature review was conducted to examine the complex relationship between biological diversity (aka biodiversity) and tourism.

It covers the rise of awareness of biodiversity, contrasts between the terms biodiversity and sustainability, lessons from regions

with more biologically‐friendly societal and tourism models, and potential instruments and agents for influencing change towards

biologically‐respectful tourism stewardship.

THE RISE OF BIODIVERSITY CONSCIOUSNESS

The abundance of general, scientific and academic literature on this subject supports

the notion that the value of biodiversity is well‐documented. In addition to

recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic values, biodiversity has wide implications and

uses in agriculture, medicine, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational and

cultural processes (Grubb et al, 1993, p. 76; UNEP‐WMO, 2002, p. 3).

Within the realm of tourism, Ritchie & Crouch (2003) state that “the diversity,

uniqueness, abundance, accessibility and attractiveness of scenic, ecological,

recreational and other natural physical features… represent a primary motivation for

travel” (p. 20). Recognizing this factor, several tourism regions have appealed to

visitors through natural branding including New Zealand’s ‘100% Pure’, Costa Rica’s ‘no artificial ingredients’, and British Columbia’s

‘Super Natural BC’. They all rely heavily on the image and awareness of a natural landscape. Despite the broad consensus on the

value of nature, the literature suggests a discrepancy in what people say they value and their actions that result in a lack of

protection and increasingly negative impacts.

THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (CBD)

1992 the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was drafted under the auspices of the UNEP a month prior to the United Nations

Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. This binding instrument was formally signed by 153 states

plus the European Commission (p. 14‐15). Canada, as one of those signatories, is committed to these articles that include definitions,

terms of sustainable use, conservation strategies, and parameters for international co‐operation (p. 14‐15).

When the nations re‐grouped a decade later in 2002, Canada joined 187 signatory states in additional biodiversity commitments,

including a new ten‐year target of creating protected areas in each jurisdiction to form a global network of protected areas. This

network would be the main combatant of threats to biodiversity (UNEP, 1992, p. 4; Furman, Varjopuro, Van Apeldoorn and

Adamescu, 2007, p. 196‐197).

Representatives for the CBD re‐grouped in Nagoya, Japan in 2010 to check on the status of the world’s protected areas and create

the strategic direction for the coming decade. To increase the awareness of the magnitude of threats and motivate nations to

resolve, the UNEP declared the previously‐announced year of biodiversity would become the decade for biodiversity from 2011 –

2020. New goals, targets and rationale were drafted (UNEP, 2010, pp. 1‐20).

A summary of the five principle goals and twenty targets in this plan are contained in Appendix A. What developed from the Nagoya

Conference was the proposition that “National biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs) should become the “key instrument

for translating the Convention and decisions of the Conference of the Parties into national action as a means of achieving the

objectives” (UNEP, 2010, p. 9).

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While examining this directive on a National level, the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) reported on the ‘good, the

bad and the ugly’ in “the largest national park system in the world” (2009, p. 1). Their 2009 report stated that “the pace of park

creation slowed” from previously‐praised levels in 2008 with “just under 10% of Canada’s lands and less than 1% of our oceans and

freshwater permanently protected,” an insignificant change from the year prior (ibid, p. 1).

THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AGENDA

On the surface, a biodiversity strategy might be easily confused with advancing sustainability, a concept gaining momentum in the

common lexicon since its introduction by the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development (UNEP‐WTO, 2005 p. 8),

“a process to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (ibid).

The United Nations World Tourism Organization (WTO) advocates that all tourism should be sustainable on four levels:

environmentally, economically, socially and culturally (p. 2). However, linking the term “sustainable” to “development” slants and

narrows the focus, forcing concepts to be viewed through the lens of development.

Furthermore, Smith (1992) suggests that the economy wins when pitted against the

environment (p. 39).

When one considers the magnitude of the combined and cumulative impacts of regional,

national and global tourism on natural systems, a severe ‘ecological footprint’ (WWF,

2010b) is evident and is clearly unsustainable. The Living Planet Report tells us that

“business as usual” is not an option (WWF & the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation

and Development, 2010b, p. 3).

Yet, in their recent policies and principles brief, BC’s provincial Tourism Industry Association (TIABC) mentions sustainability only as

a prefix to growth (2011, p. 6‐7). Such oversight might appear to support the notion our province’s lead tourism Association sees the

travel agenda as business as usual. TIABC acknowledges that “global ecosystems and social justice systems are under pressure” and

that “decreasing environmental quality and increasing volatility are impacting businesses” (p. 18). Rather than suggesting actions to

mitigate these impacts, however, they suggest “businesses and destinations that demonstrate good environmental and social

stewardship will be better positioned to meet the changing expectation” and can thus capitalize on the ‘trend’ (p. 18).

Lansing & De Vries (2007) propose that the rise in consumer consciousness is indeed being exploited; travellers are being lured into

a false sense they are participating on a “morally preferable” and “personally fulfilling” journey while falling for a ‘marketing ploy’

(p. 81).

As a further impediment, within the biological realm, not all species are valued equally. Newsome, Dowling & Moore (2005) bring

to light the issue of selective significance in their book Wildlife Tourism. Their studies stress that most people identify concern and

interest for specific mammals, and birds over reptiles, or invertebrates, or other life forms (Bart, 1972, Green et al, 2001, Moscardo

et al, 2001, Shackley, 1996 as cited by Newsome, Dowling & Moore, 2005, p. 8).

TOWARDS BIOLOGICALLY‐RESPECTFUL TOURISM VERSUS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

While it might be possible to ‘sustain’ discriminatory wildlife viewing in favour of much‐loved mega fauna, for full biologicallyrespectful

tourism to occur, wildlife tourism, as well as any nature based travel, will need to embrace a wider natural history scope.

The UNEP‐WMO (2002) define biodiversity as “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial,

marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species,

between species, and of ecosystems” (p. 3). They explain that biodiversity stresses three levels – genetic, species and ecosystem

(p. 3).

Petrosillo et al (2007) argue that biodiversity stewardship results will only be achieved by changing the way people think about the

conservation of species and ecosystem diversity (p. 29). Such a change could move away from the protection of key commercial

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species or charismatic species in relation to man’s food needs or recreational curiosity and towards a more holistic ecosystem

based approach.

In Aldo Leopold‘s Sand County Almanac he defined an alternative land ethic that creates and considers economic value for all

species (1949, p. 177). These sentiments have been echoed by a growing number of scientists, conservationists, educators and

others (Constanza et al, 1997; Erlich & Erlich 2008). E.O. Wilson (1993) asks “who has the authority and can judge the ultimate value

of nature? Do species that have co‐evolved not share an innate right to exist, universal and independent of what humans feel about

the matter” (p. 37)? He adds “However biodiversity arose it was not put on this planet to be erased by any one species” (2006, p.

89).

With regards to tourism, Goodwin (1996) alludes it is possible to shift the direction of destination planning to be more compatible

with conservation goals, a factor often associated with the term ‘ecotourism’ (as cited by Gössling, 1999, p. 304). This form of travel

is about “uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel” (Ecotourism Society, n.d).

That ecotourists can be promoters of goodwill or generous supporters of conservation through financial and educational benefits is

also documented by D’Amore & Jafari (1988), Boo (1990), Kohl (2002), and Powell & Ham, (2008). Appendix C identifies a traveler’s

code of conduct developed by the Ecotourism Society that can serve as a tool for eco‐sensitive journeys. However, Gössling (1999)

reminds us that “although there is incredible demand for nature based tourism and protected area visitation; ecotourism is

presently just a small segment of nature based tourism” (p. 304).

If ‘sustainable travel’ is not working as an effective brand, might a new brand of ‘biologically‐respectful tourism’ enter the lexicon

and shift attitude and behaviour? Biodiversity management, a centrepiece of sustainability, could widen the protective scope to

encompass the totality of life on the planet. If tourism is to have any relationship with safeguarding biodiversity, it stands to reason

that all tourism should become biologically‐respectful.

BIOLOGICALLY‐RESPECTFUL TOURISM CASE STUDIES

The question, then, is whether or not biologically‐respectful tourism is a viable model. Regions that provide evidence for this

concept include the destinations of Bhutan, Costa Rica and Haida Gwaii. Each of these regions and their efforts are profiled in the

following sections.

BHUTAN

The middle path National environment strategy for Bhutan (1998) includes a range of

ecologically‐friendly strategies such as a National Forest Policy Act that mandates a 60%

forest cover. The environmental strategy also sets policies dedicated to a spectrum of

educational, agricultural, energy, wildlife and tourism management objectives (1‐93).

Additionally, the strategy commits the nation to preserve its cultural heritage with

regulations for official dress, language, building architecture and traditions (pp. 17‐47).

Crucial to the success of these policies is Bhutan’s ‘Gross National Happiness’ (GNH)

philosophy (p. 19). King Jigme Singye Wangchuck’s government originated the GNH

model with the notion that national happiness is more important than gross domestic product. Based largely on Buddhist religion,

the model endorses ‘respect for all living things’ and considers wealth in the form of personal development and the acquisition of

knowledge (p. 19). This in contrast to Western economies where “a country could only be called developed once it reached a certain

advanced level of material consumption.” The full GNH value system can be found in Appendix B.

Tourism is a relatively new industry to Bhutan, which began in 1974 when the doors of the nation first opened to travellers (Tourism

Council of Bhutan, n.d). “Realizing that an unrestricted flow of tourism could easily contaminate the pristine environment, and the

rich and unique culture” (p. 51), protective measures were put into place.

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To this end, travel to Bhutan includes compliance with pre‐departure visa requirements, tight restrictions on tourism numbers,

mandatory accompaniment of locally trained guides, restricted access to certain cultural and protected areas, and strict monitoring

by the Ministry of Trade. The country has adopted a high‐value, low‐volume tourism strategy charging a $200 USD per‐person, perdiem

for its 6000 plus annual visitors, which must be paid prior to arrival. This rate increased by 25% on January 1, 2012 (Tourism

Council of Bhutan, n.d). The policies and practices have gained admiration in selected circles. In November 2011 Bhutan hosted a

Himalayan biodiversity summit and the 2012 Pacific Asia Travel Association Adventure Travel and Responsible Tourism Conference

and Mart (PATA, n.d).

COSTA RICA

According to UNEP‐WTO (2005), Costa Rica is a nation with a “longstanding emphasis on

ecotourism and sustainability” (p. 139). Similar to Bhutan, it leans away from a focus on

gross domestic product (GDP) as a prime success indicator.

In 2010, the country ranked 3rd of 163 countries in the Environmental Performance Index

(EPI, 2010) that quantifies environmental performance against a benchmark of twenty‐five

indicators across ten policy categories. The previous year they placed 1st in the Happy

Planet index (New Economics Foundation NEF, n.d) that combines indicators of life

expectancy, life satisfaction, and ecological footprint (NEF, n.d). These feats evidence a

heightened socio‐environmental philosophy nurtured over time (NEF, n.d).

A quote from Nobel Peace Prize winner and two‐time President Oscar Arias Sanchez (1987) illustrates this unique value system:

“Because our country is a country of teachers, we closed the army camps,

and our children go about with books under their arms, not with rifles on their shoulders. We believe in dialogue, in

agreement, in reaching a consensus.”

(Better World Heroes, n.d).

Echoing an international brand promise as “one of the most bio‐diverse countries in the world” (UNEP‐WTO, 2005, p. 139), Costa

Rica markets on a platform of “no artificial ingredients”, which permeates promotional literature and industry practice (Costa Rica

Tourism Board (CTB), 2011; UNEP‐WTO, 2005 p. 139). The CTB describes their ‘consolidated’ system of protected areas along with

“impressive scenic beauty” as key tourism strengths. In 2005 the UNEP‐WTO (2005) identified these attributes as helping to attract

one million international tourists a year (p. 139).

How did Costa Rica reach this integration of conservation efforts and branding? Rex Govorchin, tourism promoter, feels education

served to diffuse ‘grumbles’ between conservationists and those lobbying for economic or agrarian developments (p.1). The

development of protected parks, many privately owned, now comprise 20% of the nation’s territory (Costa Rica Travel & Tourism

Bureau, n.d). Today, park fees and ecotourism revenue finance these protected areas independently of the National Budget (UNEP‐

WTO, 2005, p. 143) and the park system acts as “an environmental bank, protecting species that have all but disappeared in

neighbouring countries” (Govorchin, n.d, p. 7).

Many of the early ecotourism businesses and private nature reserves were established by biologists and conservationists studying

the country’s flora and fauna (UNEP‐WTO, p. 140). UNEP‐WTO suggests these early adopters were governed by “strong conservation

and social ethic” allowing the conservation philosophy to influence the tourism operators that followed (p. 140). Tourism continues

to “develop in such a way as to contribute effectively and constructively against any form of social degradation, generating

economic benefits, protecting the environment, and supporting our people’s culture and values” illustrating a high level of top‐down

influence (CTB, 2011).

In order to avoid the high costs and potential discriminatory application of legally‐binding regulations (UNEP‐WTO, 2005 p. 140‐141),

industry‐led and voluntary measures such as the Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST) are encouraged. CST offers credible and

objective criteria (p. 142), allowing visitors to differentiate tourism businesses based on the degree to which they comply with

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sustainable models of natural, cultural, and social resource management. Operators are encouraged to attain increasingly higher

levels of certification with state‐supported rewards in the form of marketing (p. 141). This model is now being taught by Costa Rica

to its Latin neighbours. Another state conservation incentive comes in the form of annual compensation or land tax exemptions for

turning private lands into private reserves. This serves to conserve biodiversity, protect the water supply, and reduce carbon

emissions that would result from deforestation of the lands (p. 142‐143).

HAIDA GWAII, BRITISH COLUMBIA

Haida Gwaii, a collection of islands located on the West Coast of British Columbia, is a

Canadian region that puts nature and culture above all else.

The area formerly known as the Queen Charlotte Islands has evolved considerably over

the past two decades to become an exemplary site for conservation and collaborative

management. In 1993, the principles of Haida culture led to the creation of Gwaii Haanas

National Park & Haida Heritage Site. In 2010 the protected area was expanded to include

Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area (Parks Canada, n.d). The Council of Haida

Nation (CHN) partnered to create the Gwaii Haanas Back Country Management Plan

(Archipelago Management Board, 2003), a Marine Use Plan for the jurisdiction (CHN, 2007), and is currently in the process of

updating a combined Management Plan (N. Fournier, personal communication November 17, 2011).

The goals, objectives and strategies outlined in these two plans detail practices of respect, responsibility, long‐term sustainability,

being thankful, and seeking wise council for monitoring. It is a precautionary approach “to minimize threats through collaborative

management, and seek to reverse current destructive trends and guide restoration into future balance” (CHN, 2007, pp. 4‐7). The

plans manage human activities in Gwaii Haanas and identify a specific list of activities that are currently acceptable and

unacceptable for the two main archipelago industries; tourism and fisheries (AMB, 2003, pp. 5‐7).

Tourism regulations include licensing, limits on numbers, and regulations on non‐Haida ownership (p. 7). The AMB also set an overall

use level of 33,000 user‐nights in Gwaii Haanas, which equates to roughly 2,000 annual visitors split between day use and multi‐day

use operators (p. 12). Other regional plans control levels of ‘crowding’, restrict permanent buildings, manage visits to sensitive

ecosystems, and ensure each visit to a heritage site is accompanied by a Haida watchman (pp. 29‐39). In one of the strictest of all

Canadian protected area plans, the Haida challenge people to adapt to this “wild place” rather than expect the place to be modified

to provide them with the amenities they may expect at home or at other places they visit (AMB, 2003, p. 19).

LESSONS LEARNED

Successes gleaned from the three cases studies of Bhutan, Costa Rica and Haida Gwaii provide a means of summarizing conditions

to which biologically‐respectful or ethical based tourism while protecting biodiversity can prevail. These are:

• Government support and/or influence on environmental policies.

• Widespread philosophical and/or spiritual beliefs in societal and natural value systems.

• High levels of education or knowledge pursued as measures of societal development.

• Limits on carrying capacities.

• Consensus building.

• Visionary leadership.

• Regulations and expectations placed on tourism operators and visitors.

• Willingness to mentor best practices.

• High yield‐low volume tourism models.

• Meaningful and widely supported sustainable certification systems.

• Influencing visitors to adapt to wild places.

• Use of both motivational means and monetary incentives for safeguarding protected areas.

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AGENTS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGE

Choosing the right leader or manager is seen as an essential first step in transformational change. In A Force for Change, Kotter

(1990) explains the difference between the words ‘leadership’ and ‘management’. He refers to leadership as a process that directs

and mobilizes people and their ideas (p. 3), where management, derived in response to “the emergence of large numbers of

complex organizations” is a means to bring order and consistency to a potentially chaotic organization (p. 4). Effective leadership

behaviours and traits as described by Senge (1990), Kotter (1005), and Yukl (2005) are essential ingredients to navigate effectively

through complex scenarios in uncertain times. There will be core challenges in finding solutions. Orr (1992) suggests that “If we

consider not only the complexities of nature, from soil bacteria to planetary bio‐geochemical cycles, but also the human impacts,

with their various kinds of synergies, feedback loops, leads, and lags, the idea of managing the planet, unlike piloting a 747, requires

a level of knowledge that we are not likely to acquire” (p. 158).

Despite the complexities of an ideal solution with conflicting ‘environmental worldviews’, Clapp & Davergne (2005) plead that

“unless we act immediately with resolve and sacrifice, in a mere hundred years or so, humanity itself will engulf the earth” (p.1).

In a speech given by Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General on 2004’s International Day of Biodiversity, he stated “the preservation of

biodiversity is not just a job for Governments. International and non‐governmental organizations (NGO’s), the private sector and

each and every individual have a role to play in changing entrenched outlooks and ending destructive patterns of behavior”

(Convention on biodiversity, 2004).

COMMUNICATING THE CHANGE MESSAGE

“Under the context of project management, awareness and communications is a way to influence people’s knowledge and attitudes

and, hence, the actions that they take” (World Wildlife Fund, 2007, p. 3). The WWF Awareness & Communication Template (2007)

is a useful tool to build successful communication strategies for environmentally‐themed campaigns. Recommendations include:

1. Understanding the context.

2. Identifying the target audience for your awareness and communications strategy.

3. Identify your awareness and communication objectives.

4. Defining the key message and call to action, consider ‘brand’ or ‘theme’.

5. Choose activities and tools to help deliver your key message and call to action.

6. Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of your message.

(p. 4 and p. 13)

To increase effectiveness in the campaign objectives WWF (2007) also suggest that the

strategy is:

(p. 7‐8).

• Outcome Oriented: Directed to critical factors that affect one or more project goals.

• Measurable: Definable in relation to some standard scale (numbers, percentage, fractions, or all/nothing states).

• Time Limited: Achievable within a specific period of time.

• Specific: Clearly defined so that all people involved in the project have the same understanding of what the terms

in the objective mean.

• Practical: Achievable and appropriate within the context of the project site.

INSTRUMENTS TO GUIDE AND ENFORCE CHANGE

While the desire to change may be a goal; the concept must be grounded in consciousness, policy and practice. To this end

Newsome, Dowling & Moore (2005) explain that protection policies can range from voluntary to compulsory and with little state

involvement to state domination (p. 153) and present a spectrum of potential instruments available below.

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• Motivational – education, partnerships, incentives such as awards and management agreements.

• Self‐regulatory – codes of practice and guidelines for visitors and for operators, eco‐labeling and certifications,

environmental managements systems.

• Economic – fees & charges, licenses & leases, land purchases, payments (grants, compensations and subsidies.

• Regulatory – legislation & regulation (acts), direct provision (roads, water and infrastructure support), and planning

such as land use zoning, and recovery/protection of endangered or threatened species.

(pp. 151‐171)

A new report by the David Suzuki Foundation called Restore BC’s Urban Natural Capital evaluates the efficacy of existing policy

options and provides guidance and recommendations for new solutions that regions and municipalities should adopted in order

to protect and restore ecosystem services in developed regions of British Columbia including: (1) public ownership, (2) regulatory,

and (3) market‐based instruments (Molner, 2011 p. 5).

Of interest will be whether or not the instruments described by Newsome, Dowling and Moore et. al. (2005) and the tools and

strategies identified by the David Suzuki Foundation report could be applicable and find acceptability in regions such as the Sunshine

Coast. With this in mind, a research project was conducted in the region in 2011; the methodology is outlined in the following

section.

METHODOLOGY

The primary research of this project investigated NGO’s and conservation groups in the Sunshine Coast region who have conducted

environmentally‐themed campaigns. More specifically, it focused on tools used to convey the message, activities chosen during the

campaigns.

The study region stretches 100 km along British Columbia’s Pacific Ocean from Port Mellon on Howe Sound to Earl’s Cove on Jervis

Inlet and contains just over 28,000 residents (Sunshine Coast Regional District, n.d).

A framework known as ‘critical incident technique’ was employed to discover ‘critical’ or ‘revelatory’ success and/or failure

(Flanagan, 1954 as cited by Robson, 2011, p. 366, Kemppainen, 2000. p. 1264) in campaign strategy. The study followed a mixedmethod

sequential approach, which researchers Mason, Augustyn and Seakhoa‐King (2010) suggest as worthwhile for exploratory

qualitative research. This method is especially useful when there is a lack of sufficient information to triangulate or where the topic

is under‐researched (pp. 433‐435) as is the case on the lower Sunshine Coast.

While there is some controversy over combining quantitative and qualitative research paradigms (Robson, 2011, p. 162), it is the

belief of this researcher that using a mixed‐strategy is necessary to deal with the complexities of a multi‐faceted study. The

Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) provided a valuable tool for conducting

this research. The qualitative and quantitative research phases overlapped and the research remained flexible accommodating

change throughout the research process.

CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE

The critical incident technique (CIT) was developed in 1954 by J. Flanagan and other members of the Aviation Psychology Program

of the United States Army; their research was carried out during World War II (Robson, 2011, p. 366‐367), at a time when there was

“an urgent need to train flight crews in a very short time, and to understand the specific behaviors that led to the success or failure

of a mission” (Kemppainen, 2000, p. 1264). The CIT technique drew focus to ‘critical incidents’, which Flanagan (1954) defined as

“any observable human activity that is sufficiently complete in itself to permit inferences and predictions to be made about the

person performing the act” (as cited by Robson, 2011, p. 366).

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This methodology has transferability to the question of biodiversity conservation. If we accept what many are saying about

ecological degradation (Hester & Harrison, 2007; Orr, 1992; Orr 1993; UNEP, 1992; Wilson, 2006; WWF, 2010) there is an urgent

need to discover vital leverage points for attitudinal and behavioral changes. Further to findings by Caldwell (1985, p. 9); Hawken

(2007); and Princen & Finger (2004, p. 11), an assumption was made that environmental NGOs may play a crucial role as agents

of potential change in preventing the loss of biodiversity, as well as other critical environmental issues.

The technique’s five steps as detailed in a user’s guide by Schluter, Seaton & Chaboyer (2008, pp. 108‐112) were incorporated into

the study.

STEP 1: IDENTIFICATION OF AIMS

The first step required an identification of the research questions or the aim of the study.

RESEARCH QUESTION

How do community non‐governmental organizations construct environmentally‐themed campaigns to help build biologicallyrespectful

stewardship in residents and visitors?

SECONDARY QUESTIONS

1. Have current attitudes and behaviors towards biodiversity have changed in the past decade?

2. Who is best to take the lead in regards to biologically‐respectful stewardship in residents and visitors – environmental NGO’s,

scientists, industry and/or government?

3. What instrument(s) may be potential tools for biologically‐respectful education and tourism?

SAMPLE AUDIENCE, SELECTION OF ORGANIZATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS

Local NGOs and conservation organizations on the lower Sunshine Coast were identified through community searches, resulting

in a list of 27 potential organizations assumed to be undertaking environmentally‐themed activities. Five of these organizations

were deemed unsuitable based on one or more of the following conditions:

• Organization had not been active in the study area for an extended period of time.

• Organization had not been involved in an environmentally‐themed activity.

• Activity that the organization was involved with was not aimed at an audience beyond its membership such as club

recreational or social events.

• Activity did not involve multiple communication activities.

• Activity was not focused on achieving environmental change.

(Clow & Baack, 2012, p. 6., Cox, 2006 as cited by Kazakova, 2009, p. 6).

Websites, meeting minutes, publications and brochures of the remaining 22 organizations were scoured to discover which of these

had conducted a comprehensive environmentally‐themed communication campaign over the past decade. One project, whose

original aim of creating park status fell outside this ten‐year parameter, was included because of current efforts for park expansion.

The time frame chosen reflected an assumption that research beyond ten years might yield less reliable data and nuance, and

publications might not be easily available. The term ‘campaign’ was used interchangeably with the term ‘project.’

Forty such campaigns were identified and became the research scope.

STEP 2: IDENTIFICATION OF THE INCIDENTS TO BE COLLECTED

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The term ‘incident’ defined in the Concise Oxford Dictionary (2001) as an event or occurrence; an instance of something happening

was sufficiently broad to allow a wide spectrum of interpretations.

In this study ‘incident’ was used as a methodological lens from which to isolate communication tools and activities used by the NGOs

when constructing their environmental campaigns. In his original study Flanagan (1954) recommended that incidents collected

should be remarkably effective or ineffective and distinguished from standard operations as having more memorable impact (as

cited by Schluter, Seaton & Chaboyer, 2008, p. 108). Additionally, the term ‘incident’ was used synonymously with the term

‘revelatory’ as proposed by Norman et al (1992, as cited by Schluter, Seaton & Chaboyer, 2008) to single out the actions or situations

that would be most revealing.

To achieve these revelatory occurrences campaign managers were asked to rank the perceived effectiveness of each tool and each

activity used using a five‐point Likert scale. The responses at the extreme ends of the scale would serve to isolate ‘critical’ success

and failure.

STEP 3: DATA COLLECTION

With CIT individual researchers can make their own choices regarding the methods of data collection and analysis. The four data

collection phases used in this study were: Exploratory Research, Survey, Discovery, and Interviews.

TABLE 1: RESEARCH TIMELINE

ACTIVITY

Sep 2011

Oct 2011

Nov 2011

Dec 2011

Jan 2012

Feb 2012

Mar 2012

Apr 2012

May 2012

Literature review

QUALITATIVE| Exploratory research

Conduct pilot test of campaign survey

QUANTITATIVE | QUALITITAVE (Campaign survey)

QUALITATIVE | Interviews (perceptions of impact)

QUAL & QUAN | Discovery / Descriptive statistics/ Analysis

Final report

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

Research to answer the primary and secondary questions began with:

• An exploration of campaign brochures and publications.

• Analysis of grey literature from government and regional conservation organizations.

• Review of existing research papers including conceptual frameworks.

• Existing theories on environmental campaign strategies.

• Data arising from the concurrent sustainability research conducted by the SCRD.

During this phase, the names and contact information of each campaign manager were sought in order to compile a targeted list for

the survey phase. A research log book kept an audit trail with respect to situations related to the study. Each campaign was isolated

into a file and colour‐coded in both log input and computer entries. This task, while laborious, proved highly effective for analysis

and re‐tracing. Campaigns were numbered in the reporting stage.

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CAMPAIGN SURVEY

The subsequent survey phase sought answers from campaign managers regarding the organization, its campaign, and contributing

partners. The survey was designed using Constant Contact Survey and administered online. A benefit of this platform is that data

can be entered manually by the researcher for respondents not able to use online services. Printed copies of the campaigns were

offered to campaign managers should they prefer an alternative however all chose online administration.

As recommended by Robson (2011) pilot testing of the survey was done to identify potential problems (p. 405); one campaign

manager piloted the survey by email. Two questions were found to be confusing and were modified prior to the survey release.

After initial testing of this content, finding no technical issues, a timed release of three more surveys followed. For good measure,

this step was repeated in two more test campaigns.

As no issues were discovered, the survey was released to the remaining sample on January 6, 2012. From January 6 to 18, seven

surveys were returned. A reminder email resulted in an additional nine surveys. Phone calls and a final email reminder resulted in

a final total of 33 of the 40 targeted completions for a response rate of 82.5%. Phone calls originally meant as exploratory probes or

as reminder calls resulted in un‐structured interviews taking place, with sufficient data collected to analyze an additional six projects.

In the end, 39/40 projects were covered through surveys and unstructured interviews for a response rate of 97.5%.

A crucial success factor was approaching potential campaign managers in a manner that built a good first impression; necessary

for obtaining the depth and breadth of data. Managers were contacted through a ‘one‐degree of separation’ of a mutual friend.

Such friends were discovered by snowballing through the community

which proved successful given the nature of the study region. An attitude

of genuine respect and gratitude for participation was adopted,

assurances of confidentiality were provided, and all attempts were made

to limit time constraints on the campaign managers. Additionally the

candidates were briefed on the merits of the study in the introductory

email and made aware that their organizations would be able to view the

final report on completion.

Appendix D serves as a guide to the acronyms and abbreviations listed in

this paper. A copy of the survey questions is available upon request.

INTERVIEWS

Schluter, Seaton & Chaboyer (2008) highlight three important ingredients in the success of mixing the stages of CIT data collection:

1. A rich description of the event should be explored.

2. Critical’ actions of the person(s) involved in the event should be collected.

3. The outcome of the event should be analyzed to ascertain the effectiveness of the action (p. 107).

As such, the research also included a number of interviews with campaign managers. Although originally intended as semistructured

interviews conducted at the conclusion of the research as suggested by Tashakkori & Teddlie (2003, p. 308), relationships

developed with the campaign managers earlier in the research led to a series of unstructured interviews instead. The data tables

show the projects where such interviews took place.

STEP 4: DATA ANALYSIS

The data obtained through discovery, questionnaires, and interviews was examined for recurring themes, activities, and practices

in order to identify patterns and relationships. Each campaign was considered in isolation, clustered in themes, and then crossanalyzed.

Where possible, the strategies observed in the community were measured against secondary research and existing best

practices.

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STEP 5: PROJECT DISSEMINATION

The findings were concentrated and discussed in two ways:

1. Cluster analysis of community environmentally‐themed campaigns: aims, primary targets, and perceived results.

2. Effectiveness and ineffectiveness of campaign strategies.

CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTALLY‐THEMED CAMPAIGNS

Research undertaken between September 2011 and January 2012 identified 40 environmentally‐themed projects conducted during

the past decade by 22 independent Non‐Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and conservation groups in the study region.

Survey, discovery, and un‐structured interviews led to the emergence of five themed clusters:

1. Food Security (n=6);

2. Wildlife Management & Protection (n=10);

3. Land & Oceans Management & Protection (n=10);

4. Education (n=7); and

5. Other: consisting of judicial, energy security, environmental jobs, air quality/pollution, and water conservation (n=7).

Figure 1 illustrates the cluster composition.

FIGURE 1: CLUSTERS OF COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTALLY‐THEMED CAMPAIGNS

NGO & Conservation Group Clusters

Other (air,

water, energy,

judicial), 7,

18%

Food Security,

6, 15%

Education, 7,

18%

Land & Oceans

Protection &

Management,

10, 25%

Wildlife

Protection &

Management,

10, 25%

The results for each cluster are presented in the following five cluster tables and discussion.

THE NEED TO PROTECT NATURAL ASSETS

For decades the Sunshine Coast Forest District has experienced significant habitat loss, habitat degradation, and a lack of protection,

with a low percentage of protected areas (less than 1.5% of land area protection prior to 1990). After more than 20 years of effort to

increase this level now just 3% is protected. Often zones of protection are isolated to ‘very small parcels’. Mt. Elphinstone forest, for

Page 15


instance, has just 139 ha protected, divided between three separated areas. Such fragmentation is deemed inadequate to

maintain biodiversity.

The Sunshine Coast is one of the few remaining regions in British Columbia that does not yet have a strategic land use plan or

regional growth management framework. Between 2001 and 2006 the population rose 8.4%. This accelerated growth, combined

with the proximity to Vancouver has brought the region under development pressure, resulting in escalating land‐use conflicts

between economic sectors.

The campaigns highlighted a sense of insufficient community engagement in the stakeholder and judicial processes. Some

campaigns were underpinned by demand for more accountability from resource professionals and a perceived lack of sustainability

in logging, fishing, and mining practices. A proposed deep sea mining port elicited a strong reaction from the community and was

the catalyst for another campaign. An extreme decline of the salmon fishery was the direct impetus for two additional projects.

Many cited the forestry industry, the laws governing its practices, and impacts including: logging approvals in at‐risk species habitat,

silty water impacting the community watershed, and proposed developments within various sensitive eco‐systems.

The condition of threatened, endangered, unique, and key commercial species and special habitats provided impetus to identify

and create ‘wildlife habitat areas’ or ‘ecological reserves’ or new protected zones. One project heralded the discovery of a new

species pair of small freshwater fish that represented ‘an example of parallel evolution in nature’ that was ‘found nowhere else on

Earth’. The proliferation of invasive plants such as: Purple Loosestrife, Himalayan Blackberry, Scotch Broom, Evergreen Blackberry,

Yellow Flag, and St. John's Wort were seen as threats to native flora and a Biodiversity Strategy Framework was envisioned for the

whole Sunshine Coast.

The combination of these issues resulted in twenty campaigns the researcher clustered into two distinct themes; land and ocean

protection & management (LOPM), and wildlife protection & management (WPM). It is noted that cross‐over did occur between

themes.

LAND & OCEAN PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT CLUSTER

Table 2 provides a comparative analysis of the ten campaigns/projects undertaken by nine separate organizations clustered under

LOPM. The table shows the aim of the campaign, the primary target for the campaign and the perceived results. The table was

constructed with the help of eight surveys along with four unstructured interviews and attendance at two events.

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TABLE 2: LOPM CAMPAIGN AIMS AND PERCEIVED SUCCESSES OR FAILURES

Campaign

name

Aim of Campaign

Primary

Target

Result

Comments

Francis Point

Marine Park

Acquisition

Acquisition of 300‐acre waterfront property for

creation of Francis Point Provincial Park and

Ecological Reserve.

Gov

Creation of Francis Point Provincial Park

72.80 ha and Ecological Reserve 9.22 ha.

Mt Elphinstone

Provincial Park

Expansion

Expand current park and protect adjacent

forest areas.

Ind‐

Forestry

Failed to stop Block A7124 crown timber

auction in Feb 2012, however in Mar 2012

Dakota Ridge Ancient Forests were given

protection status by the Province as part of

an Old Growth Management Area (OGMA)

set aside to protect bio‐diversity and social

values. Feb 2012 agreement reached that

logging will never take place within the

lower Mt. Elphinstone section called ‘Heart

of the Park’ block.

Following cut‐block auctions the campaign target

shifted to pressure on the company awarded the

timber rights.

Save the Caren

Range

Protection of 6000 hectares of crown land in a

Class A Provincial Park.

GP

Partial success was achieved in 1999 with

the creation of Spipiyus Provincial Park,

which protected half of the area proposed

for protection resulting in 2979 ha

protected including 800 ha of old growth.

Park creation is part of larger effort to protect

shoreline to summit series of intact ecosystems.

Establishing Mt

Artaban Nature

Reserve

Raise $ 40,000 for a land survey and to conduct

a management plan to establish a Nature

Reserve on Gambier Island.

GP

Fund‐raising exceeded target, and

management plan completed. 107 ha of

land protected in 2009.

The new PA connects to two other protected

areas for a total ‘network’ of 525 ha. One of the

shorter PA campaigns with success achieved

within 3 years of effort.

Expansion of

Ambrose Lake

Ecological Reserve

Expand the existing ecological reserve & stop

proposals to log in two district lots (DL)

adjacent to the boundary of the ecological

Gov

Success in securing the addition to Ambrose

Lake Ecological Reserve, after more than

Raised public awareness only to make

government aware that they weren’t alone in

their concerns in order to keep people out of the

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eserve. ten years of campaign effort. restricted‐access site.

Expand & protect

Sargeant Bay

Provincial Park

To expand the Provincial Park to include areas

around Triangle Lake and to restore and

protect the natural habitat of Sargeant Bay PA.

GP 83 + 5 ha successfully added in 2007/2008

to the 155 ha already protected in 1990

Society now in its 35 th year. 84 newsletters – rate

of two per year. Extensive volunteer force

required to restore wetlands, build access trails,

and control invasive plants.

Habitat Area

Nomination

Project

Identify lands that in their natural condition

are supporting local sustainable businesses.

Phase two will identify the critical biodiversity

values of the entire planning area and the most

appropriate opportunities to protect these

values.

Gov

Currently only ½ way through the two‐year

project.

Motivated by lack of effective protection for

species‐at‐risk and extreme decline of the salmon

fishery. Additional problem is lack of public

knowledge about ecosystem functions and

services.

Preparation for

Land and Resource

Management

Planning (LRMP)

To prepare the conservation sector to

participate effectively in an LRMP. A secondary

purpose was to assist local governments in

participating. LRMP processes provide an

opportunity to resolve environ‐mental land use

issues in a cooperative and scientific way.

GP

Project might be considered a ‘failure’

because at the conclusion the Provincial

Government cancelled the LRMP process.

The Sunshine Coast is one of the few remaining

regions in BC that does not yet have a strategic

land use plan or a regional growth management

strategy.

Wetlands

Restoration Denise

Cargill Area

To restore 10 acres of wetland in front of the

Iris Griffith Centre. Project also serves to

educate public on the essential services

wetlands play in sustaining healthy wildlife

populations, and human communities and

economies.

NS Ongoing restoration in progress Named after founding sponsor. Among the vital

ecosystem services provided by wetlands: water

supply and purification, nutrient cycling, sediment

filtration, flood mitigation/abatement, climate

regulation, sustenance of plant and animal life,

provision of recreational and tourism

opportunities

Bear Bay forest

protection

Block BC timber sales from auctioning off Bear

Bay Forest to private logging firms.

NSI

The cut‐block was auctioned off in Oct.

2009 and subsequently logged.

Failure to save this forest area despite having a

coalition of 8 NGOs, two years of public

campaigning, a scientific study, and an alternative

economic strategy for the forest.

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Primary Target codes: Gov = Government, Ind = industry, Edu = Education, GP = general public

Un‐structured interviews: # 19 (30 minutes ‐ November 8, 2011), # 20/21/29 combined (50 minutes ‐ December 28, 2011), # 17 (10

minutes, February 4, 2012)

Attendance at organization events: # 15 (February 21, 2012), # 22 (Bioblitz)

NS ‐ no survey: Information gathered from un‐structured interview, publications and website

NSI ‐ no survey or un‐structured interview: Information gathered from publications, website

WILDLIFE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT CLUSTER

Table 3 provides a comparative analysis of the ten campaigns/projects under‐taken by eight separate organizations clustered under

WPM with a breakdown of three fish (2 commercial stock) one bear, two invasive plant species, one wildlife rescue, one general

wildlife (mainly amphibians & reptiles), and one overall biodiversity. The table was constructed with the help of nine surveys and

two unstructured interviews.

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TABLE 3: WPM CAMPAIGN AIMS AND PERCEIVED SUCCESSES OR FAILURES

Campaign name Aim of Campaign Primary

Target

Result

Comments

Sea Change

Project

Improve Environmental knowledge and

stewardship around conservation and

restoration of marine ecosystems.

Edu

Increased funding to marine ecosystem

projects, higher number of volunteers and

organizations working on marine projects.

Wildlife rescue

and

rehabilitation

Operating care facility for treatment and

care of injured/orphaned wildlife found on

the Sunshine Coast with goal of release

back to the wild. Educating the public and

Government on methods to reduce

human/wildlife conflict and its subsequent

negative effects on wildlife populations.

GP

In operation for over 25 years. In order of

350 ‐ 450 wild creatures received for care

every year.

Salmon

enhancement

Enhancement of chum and Coho salmon

populations returning to streams of two

watersheds: Anderson/Myers Creeks and

Sakinaw Lake in the hope of restoring

them to historical levels.

GP

Some gains and some losses in streams

enhanced.

Mostly on hold since 2000 when government

shifted priorities from hatchery production of

juvenile fish to habitat enhancement based on

realization that introducing fish into a broken

watercourse is less beneficial than fixing the

watercourse.

Invasive Species

Project

The control of Purple Loosestrife in a local

lake.

GP

Inspects along the shores of Lily Lake

illustrate a gradual removal of the

spreading plant from the area.

Framework for a

Biodiversity

Strategy for the

Sunshine Coast

To create a framework Biodiversity

Strategy for the whole Sunshine Coast.

GP

This 2‐3 year project began in fall 2011, not

yet time to assess true effectiveness,

although it’s already having a marked effect

on public perception. Also in process to

develop one of two planned biodiversity

$320,000 in off‐coast funding obtained. Frequent

articles in both local newspapers, council reports,

and cascading biodiversity buzz to other

organizations.

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Regional District

parks. Biodiversity Summit set for end of

May‐early June, 2012.

Invasive Plant

Control

To control a proliferation of invasive

plants such as: Himalayan Blackberry,

Scotch Broom, Evergreen Blackberry,

Yellow Flag, and St. John’s Wort.

GP

Project started in 1993 with pulling and

clipping. Turning point in 2003 when

society gained control and by 2010 the park

was essentially free of these invasive

plants.

Between the years 1998‐2002 high manpower

hours were documented to achieve results.

Bear Aware To reduce Black bear conflicts. GP Funding to program cut by government. Enhanced signage and public information

increasing. Other organizations and entities also

involved in bear projects. Project is morphing into

new model in order to continue efforts.

Sunshine Coast

Salmon

Enhancement

Project

Education of public, especially students,

on anatomy, habitat requirements, and

importance of salmonids and watersheds.

Help support a good, diverse population

of salmonids on the Sunshine Coast.

Edu

Thousands of schoolchildren introduced to

salmon education. 1.5 million salmon

raised & released annually. Aug. 2011 saw

returns for pinks. Coho and steelhead

would not be there without the

tremendous efforts of Chapman Creek

Hatchery volunteers and two staff.

2011 lost funding to host “Rivers Day” event.

Sunshine Coast

Wildlife Project

Protect wildlife habitat; enhance wildlife

habitat; mitigate threats to populations of

endangered wildlife; increase community

awareness of threats to wildlife and

habitats; increase number of Sunshine

Coast community members acting as

sound environmental stewards.

GP

Highly visible stewardship role in

community.

One of two recipients of the 2012 Cottage Life

Magazine Environment Grants. Funds used to build

new turtle nesting beaches and create landowner

stewardship guides. Received Canadian Wildlife

Federation Endangered Species funding for nest

monitoring and radio telemetry equipment. Visibly

active in the community. Youth participation

noticed.

Nelson Island

Sticklebacks

Protect benthic‐limnetic sympatric species

pair of stickleback “among the rarest …

most threatened species on Earth”.

NS

Ecological predictions led to discovery of a

new species pair of three spine stickleback

in Quarry Lake, Nelson Island.

These small, freshwater fish are restricted to

specific coastal lakes in British Columbia’s Georgia

Basin and found nowhere else on Earth.

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Primary Target codes: Gov = Government, Ind = industry, Edu = Education, GP = general public

Un‐structured interviews: #36 (30 minutes ‐ November 8, 2011), # 35, # 7, # 24, # 30, # 15 (40 minutes ‐ January 6, 2012)

NS: no survey, information from un‐structured interview and gathered from publications & website

THE NEED FOR INCREASED FOOD SECURITY

Perceptions and realities of food security concerns prompted six of the campaigns.

The issues illuminated by managers in the food security cluster pointed out the Sunshine Coast has only a three‐day stock of food,

and a limited amount of land suited to large‐scale agriculture. As such, small‐scale/home‐scale vegetable and fruit production is seen

as a key means to help create food security, while also serving to improve the health of families, and the environment. Food that is

grown organically, sustainably, and locally, reduces fossil fuel from trucking in food, can help to boost the economic viability of local

food producers, and increase community resilience, health, and sustainability.

Coupled with the concern over locally‐sourced food was a perception of ‘social isolation’ reported to accompany the loss of

traditional sustainable skills, and a lack of human connection to the local environment. The benefits of improving ‘social

connectedness’ would help promote a culture of learning and sharing, and increase awareness of the local ‘food shed’.

All of the food security projects are currently operating under one umbrella society. Six surveys completed by five different

campaign managers and one unstructured interview were used to construct the following Table.

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TABLE 4: FOOD SECURITY CAMPAIGN AIMS AND PERCEIVED SUCCESSES OR FAILURES

Campaign

name

Aim of Campaign

Primary

Target

Results

Comments

Hands on Lands Matching up of people willing to share their

land for growing food with people wanting to

grow food but have no land.

GP Only two successful matches were made. Suffering from a turnover of coordinators. Merger

planned with grow your own dinner project.

The Farm Gate

Market

To provide a venue for local, sustainably

produced food to increase the

convenience/feasibility of shopping locally.

Providing a place to connect to local farmers

and producers.

GP

Mid‐week, mid‐coast local farmers

market now in its fourth year.

Aim for 80% local/80% organic.

Green Banner

Local Food

Directory

2010 campaign to promote producers,

retailers, grocers, cafes, markets &

restaurants that carry local sustainable food.

GP

82 producers, retailers, grocers, cafes,

markets & restaurants promoted through

14,000 copies of the directory paralleling

a successful ‘purple banner’ project that

promotes the coastal arts community.

Currently no ‘green banners’ flying outside the 82

directory participants. Funding was based on onetime

grant however a self‐funded 2012 directory is

in process along with efforts to obtain and display

the banners.

Grow Your Own

Dinner project

To recruit experienced mentors and match

them to clients to plan and create their own

food garden.

GP

Despite sharply increased interest from

people who want to learn how to grow

some of their own food for economic and

health reasons, the project is limited by

mentorship and land capacity.

In 2012 the project will be combined with the

‘hands on lands’ initiative. Duplication observed in

the community by other individuals and

organizations may highlight a need for wider

community collaboration.

Live & Learn

Connecting Community, Nature, & Know‐

How for Local Food. To seek out elders and

others in the community with food security

GP

Frequent and accessible learning

opportunities offered. Skills database

Makes use of formal evaluation using the Outcome

Measurement Framework, for volunteer tutor

programs. Visionary leader behind society and

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skills (gathering, fishing, growing, preserving

for the winter), offer mentor training in order

for teaching their skills to others.

developed. Mentor’s manual created.

project died Feb 20, 2012. Other staff turnover

noted. While evidence of succession planning exists,

the loss may prove is of enormous magnitude.

Creator’s Touch

Garden

Garden project that respects ‘Mother Earth’

while providing sustainable living.

GP

Casual delivery ‐ just working behind the

scenes with a few individuals.

Primary Target codes: GP = general public

Un‐structured interview: # 9, #10 (50 minutes – November 3, 2011)

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THE NEED FOR EDUCATION & NATURE AWARENESS

It is the conviction of those in the education cluster that the raising of consciousness about natural history increases interest, and

that interest breeds stewardship. The perceived need for nature awareness tied with a perceived lack of public knowledge about

environmental issues and human‐caused conflicts were the catalyst for several of the campaigns.

A need was expressed to encourage children and adults to visit nature and understand their environment, and all the wonderful

'ecoservices' the natural world provides. An additional issue raised was that of “Nature deprivation in children”: that connecting

children to nature would help foster their appreciation, and respect for the natural world around them.

EDUCATION CLUSTER

Seven campaigns/projects undertaken by six separate organizations were clustered under a theme of Education. Six surveys, seven

unstructured interviews, and attendance at three events were used to construct Table 5.

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TABLE 5: EDUCATION CAMPAIGN AIMS AND PERCEIVED SUCCESSES OR FAILURES

Campaign

Name

Aim of Campaign

Primary

Target

Results

Comments

Nature

School

Program

Connect children to nature to help foster their

appreciation love and respect for the natural world

around them. Facilitate teachers and parents to plan

and deliver environmental education.

GP

5 years running. Programs offered help

children and adults interpret, study and

experience the natural world.

Visible presence observed involving

youth/nature education.

Sunshine

Coast

Natural

History

To provide an umbrella organization for naturalists

on the Sunshine Coast and to bring naturalists

together for educational programs and projects. To

give a platform for members with specific concerns.

GP

Monthly meetings with guest naturalists

well‐attended often with 80 or more

guests. Nearing 40 years including the

precursor society. Annual bird count

now in its 33rd year. 2011 bird count

was reported to be 2 nd best ever.

Frequent press releases printed.

President maintains weekly column on birds.

Monthly meetings are delivered to

predominantly senior audience.

Wetlands

Day

Deepening the awareness in the school community

and the surrounding community of the importance

of the wetland at Sargeant’s Bay.

Edu

Delivery to lots of interested parties

such as the Halfmoon Bay Community

School, SCRD, BC Parks and Sargeant’s

Bay residents.

Creation of

the

Sunshine

Coast

Botanical

Garden

To create a Botanical gardens as a driving force in

the community to improve gardening practices and

landscaping and land management practices for

stewardship, conservation, education and

community involvement.

GP

44 acres secured through purchase

agreement. Well over $1 million raised

to support creation of the gardens.

Membership has grown from 70 active

members to 750, 125. Initiated over 800

pounds to food program for the food

bank through the seniors, veggie &

Regular press in local newspapers. Strong

support to community pillars. Labour

intensive projects to rehabilitate and

manage such an extensive property are

evidenced. Successes in fund‐raising highly

visible.

Page 26


organic gardens.

Project

Aware

Internationa

l Ocean

Clean up

Increase awareness of debris being dumped into

ocean. Global vision to “return to a clean, healthy

and abundant ocean planet” (Miller, J. (2011 p. 53).

GP

Due to small number of divers versus a

large ocean area the task is symbolic.

Part of global marine protection effort

launched by Professional Association of

Dive Instructors (PADI) in 1989. Now

supported by 1000 dive operators.

Focusing on local awareness and

commitment for a global initiative. Recycling

challenge exists as too much is required to

clean up ocean debris and ends up in landfill

instead of the ocean dump.

Synchronicit

y Festival

Marriage of Art + nature + change at the core of

mandate. To display the diversity of progressive and

innovative people who live and work in area and to

cross‐pollinate their networks.

GP

Grew from an around the table concept

to 350 participants in 2010, to over

1000 in 2011. Expectations of success

seen for August 2012 festival.

Provide locals and tourists with a fresh new

look at Gibsons and the surrounding area.

One of the projects with a strong youth

focus.

Establish the

Iris Griffith

Centre

To create a centre for field studies and

interpretation in order to explore the natural

wonders of BC’s Sunshine Coast.

GP

NS

Funds successfully raised. State of the

art green building, solar, watercatchments,

septic 2,500 square foot

centre was built in 2005 and now open

six days a week to the public. Exhibits

illustrate human interaction with

natural environment.

Continues to grow & expand especially plans

for a future separate field Studies centre

across the road from the present IGC site.

Hampered by remoteness.

Primary Target codes: GP = general public, Edu – Education

Un‐structured interviews: # 5 (25 minutes ‐ October 13, 2011), # 4 (20 minutes ‐ November 16, 2011), # 6 (15 minutes ‐ November 22, 2011), # 2 – (15 minutes ‐ November 25,

2011), # 7, # 35 (40 minutes ‐ January 6, 2012), # 1 (15 minutes ‐ January 22, 2012), # 41* (20 minutes ‐ January 22, 2012) * represents interview with person other than

campaign manager

NS: no survey completed information from un‐structured interview and gathered from publications & website

Attendance at organization events: # 5 (September 24, 2011), # 2 (January 6, 2012), # 4 (January 22, 2012)

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OTHER COMMUNITY CONCERNS

Seven campaigns/projects undertaken by 5 separate organizations are clustered under other community concerns and relate

to breaches of law/judicial processes, the negative effects of poor air quality, the need to improve energy security, and the need

for improved water quality and conservation.

Four surveys were completed along with three unstructured interviews and displayed in Table 6.

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TABLE 6: OTHER CAMPAIGN AIMS AND PERCEIVED SUCCESSES OR FAILURES

Campaign

Name

Aim of Campaign

Primary

target

Results

Comments

Environment &

jobs project

To employ displaced forest workers in park

related restoration projects.

NS

Employed 6 workers for 18 months in

projects ranging from creation of wildlife

nesting areas, trail installation and

maintenance.

Open burning

By‐law Sechelt

Hoped to get developers in the area to stop

burning land‐clearing slash.

Gov

Bylaws were passed on both issues by the

District of Sechelt. Continued pressures in

the SCRD begin with limited ban and then

to a total ban on all outdoor burning from

April 15 to October 15.

Backyard

burning ban in

Sechelt and ban

on cosmetic

pesticides in

Sechelt.

Educate the public; educate the Mayor and

Councilors of Sechelt; to enact bylaws for

backyard burning and the use of cosmetic

pesticides.

Gov

The Town of Gibsons was an early leader in

enacting bylaws to ban backyard burning

and ban the use of cosmetic pesticides. This

was a good incentive for Sechelt to do the

same. Bylaws were passed on both issues

by the District of Sechelt.

Continued efforts contribute to ban on all

outdoor burning in the SCRD from April 15 –

October 15.

Biofuels as

energy

alternative

To promote the use of high quality biofuels as

diesel fuel alternatives.

NS

Small group of diesel car members are

using purified vegetable oil from

restaurants waste.

Limited amount of wasted oil limits growth of

project to possibly 100 diesel car owners.

Other energy alternative organizations are in

initial stages of developing in the region.

Save Our

Sunshine Coast

To stop a UK‐based mining company from

building a deep sea port with a 10km conveyor

belt in Wood Bay, a residential area. They

acquired the mineral rights to the Sechelt

GP

Federal government called for a

comprehensive environmental assessment.

Pan Pacific Aggregates withdrew and sold

the property in question.

Project had almost 100% support from the

communities on the Sunshine Coast. The area

that the proposed aggregate mining site is

home to many bird species, some

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Peninsula by the click of a computer mouse.

endangered or at risk, pristine wetlands,

many lakes with cutthroat trout. In the

marine areas, there are eel grass beds, and

the marbled murrelet feeding grounds that

would have been devoured. Company still has

mineral rights to the Caren Range. This area is

on Sechelt Indian Band territory and slated as

a conservancy.

Uphold

environmental

values

See environmental law enforced. Gov Included intervention on three judicial

review cases before the BC Supreme Court;

(1) decision to log in Marbled Murrelet

nesting habitat, (2) ethics case against the

Professional Forester’s Association and (3)

alleged health risk from logging in a

community drinking watershed. Also for

complaint to a certification body (SFI) and

several complaints to the BC Forest

Practices Board.

Continuous effort. Some gains and some

losses.

(1) 128 logging approvals in scarce old growth

stands, mountain goad and marbled murrelet

habitat. This case focused only on murrelet

habitat. (2) Arbitrary decisions rejecting

complaints from the public. (3) Pollution of

public drinking water with no accountability.

Documentation of at‐risk species has strong

implications for government and also for

logging companies that hold environmental

certifications.

Collaboration with other organizations was

visibly strong.

Water & Water

Conservation

Develop agreements for water consumption,

drinking water quality, and human effects on

aquifers & protect aquatic species and

habitats.

NS

Following a two‐day summit, collaborative

input from over 80 local stakeholders,

scientists and water management

professionals created Water Framework

Master Plan. Project is ongoing and

increasing in scope.

Despite landmark agreement to safeguard

drinking water, jointly manage and protect

Chapman Creek and Gray Creek (signed by

the Sechelt Indian Band and the SCRD) the

Provincial Government still has ultimate

authority over allowing or disallowing

development.

Primary Target codes: GP = general public, Edu – Education

Un‐structured interviews: # 29, # 20, # 21 (50 minutes ‐ December 28, 2011), # 24, # 30, 35, 7 (40 minutes ‐ January 6, 2012, # 27 (15 minutes ‐ February 8, 2012)

NS: no survey completed, information from un‐structured interview and gathered from publications & website

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TOWARDS EFFECTIVE CAMPAIGN STRATEGIES / CONCEPTUAL MODEL

The conceptual model is intended for use by organizations creating transformational change through their efforts. Once the

campaign analysis was completed, effectiveness and ineffectiveness of collective strategies were identified and used to formulate

a conceptual model. Two realms – the overlapping ‘managerial/leadership’ and the ‘communications’ – were identified with a list

of suggested interdependent core activities as illustrated in Figure 2.

The effective strategies attached to the managerial‐leadership realm were derived from this research, highlighting thirteen core

tactics. The communications realm was adapted from a WWF communication template. The model presented here promotes the

use of six core tactics. Each campaign thus becomes a distinct entity with its own vision, theme, clear messaging, and timeline.

The two realms are to work in tandem, and with continuous momentum.

FIGURE 2: EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTALLY‐THEMED CAMPAIGNS

The following section discusses the effective and ineffective tactics uncovered during the research.

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MANAGERIAL/LEADERSHIP REALM

CHOOSING EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP TO MANAGE THE CAMPAIGN

As per Kotter (1990) it is wise to choose effective leaders (pp. 3‐4). The size and scope of an organization will dictate individual needs

in this regard. Q. 2 of the survey asked campaign mangers to identify their relationship to the organization. Twenty‐eight of the

thirty‐three respondents identified themselves as either program/project coordinators or current/past executive board members.

Although the question about remuneration was never broached, organizations surveyed were mostly small, non‐profit societies.

The assumption was made that relatively few of those managing would be paid well, if at all for their contributions. Experience, as

measured by number of years respondents had been with an organization, was deemed important. Q. 3 asked how long the

manager had been involved with the organization. The results can be seen in figure 3.

FIGURE 3: YEARS THE CAMPAIGN MANAGER HAD BEEN INVOLVED WITH THE ORGANIZATION

Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Less than 1 year 1 3.0%

1 to 3 years 3 9.0%

4 to 7 years 9 27.2%

7 to 10 years 2 6.0%

Over 10 years 18 54.5%

33 100%

A direct relationship was not made between the length of time a manager was with the organization and the effectiveness of the

campaign; however 29 of the 33 respondents, or 87.7% had been with the organization for over four years. More than half of the

respondents had been with the organizations for over 10 years, interpreted as extremely high levels of personal dedication. The

research objective was to cover the effectiveness of the campaigns, not the leaders, and as such this serves as a point of interest

(Kotter, 1995, pp. 60‐67).

The strategies revealed in the study suggest leaders were adopting many effective leadership/managerial behaviours and traits

although some ‘critical mistakes’ were observed:

1. Creating a more heightened sense of urgency might have helped jurisdictional projects that were not completed in ‘one

council sitting’.

2. There was a strong need to improve communications originating from the organizations. Emails, collateral, and letters of

correspondence were frequently observed entering the public domain with sloppy or unprofessional appearances, and

with excessive grammatical errors – potentially leading to cases where valid issues could be “written off”. Signage was often

of poor quality, placed in locations with little or no traffic, or completely absent in places of visible significance.

3. Not “walking the talk” was also observed. One of the campaigns promoting forest protection and respect failed to stop

organizational members from carrying out damaging environmental practices during the campaign. In several campaigns

this disconnect was displayed as a failure to recognize the value systems of others, polarization of the community on issues,

and focus on confrontation rather than solution.

Effective leadership/and or management roles are essential to the success of a project. According to one of the survey respondents

“there are progressive and innovative people that live and work among us who can cross‐pollinate their networks, and provide

residents and visitors” with solutions. Improved leadership and avoiding critical mistakes could serve as indispensable ingredients for

respectful environmental changes on the lower Sunshine Coast.

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ADOPTING AN EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN

An effective plan can serve as a road map. Given that 50% of the campaigns dealt with protecting natural assets, and that several

more were indirectly campaigning on a similar vein, the use of a protected area (PA) management plan should be considered. On a

Provincial level, BC Parks requires the preparation of a management plan in order to guide a protected area’s management over the

next ten to twenty years (Bell & Adair, 2008, p. 1). Nationally such management plans are mandated for a ten to fifteen year span

(Parks Canada, n.d). Funding sources often require their recipients to produce such a road map as in the case of the Sunshine Coast

Botanical Gardens. The benefit of such a plan for Francis Point Park and Ecological Reserve helped determine the appropriate

recreational use in the Park that would not compromise the biodiversity values on the property (p. 10).

Other management plans used during the campaigns provided indicators of unique flora and fauna within the PA, or proposed PA,

highlighted tourism and recreational interest/opportunities, areas of scientific and educational study, and focal points for effective

protection and planning. While different terminology was used in naming various sites, the scope of protection would be clarified

though such a plan, and results would serve as determinants for successful, sustainable protection. As such measuring the

effectiveness of the management plans is crucial.

Use of measurement will be discussed in the communications realm, however at this juncture it bears mentioning that

measurements may be hampered by: absence of paid parks staff in almost all of the PAs, lack of revenues from park use (as most

of the parks have no visitor fees), and lack of adequate resources for more iterative feedback systems.

WORKING EFFECTIVELY WITH PARTNERS

Expanding the coalition efforts by reaching out to external partners can greatly enhance the campaign efforts. Q. 13 asked “did

other organizations or partners contribute to your campaign or project?” The answers are in figure 4.

FIGURE 4: EXTENT OF PARTNERING IN THE CAMPAIGNS

Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Yes 25 75.7%

No 8 24.2%

No responses 0 0%

33 100%

Twenty‐five of the 33 survey respondents (76%) worked with other organizations or partners in order to further their campaign

aims. It was surprising that close to one quarter (24.2%) did not.

The benefits of partnering proved outstandingly beneficial to a large number of the campaigns. For example, at the Ambrose Lake

Ecological Reserve expansion, the Sunshine Coast Conservation Association provided critical help in securing funding for a researcher

to assist the campaign as well as an independent assessment of the expansion area. The Francis Point Marine Park campaign

partnered with the Municipal government, the Provincial government, the Nature Trust of BC and the Nature Conservancy of

Canada to successfully achieve PA status. The Land resource and management planning (LRMP) campaign enjoyed the participation

of local environmental organizations from all around the Sunshine Coast Forest District as well as liaison with local governments.

Partnering by the jobs and environments project led to funds to provide new environmental employment opportunities for displaced

resource sector workers.

A good portion of the WPM, LOPM and Education campaigns included a considerable list of collaborators from among government,

commercial, business, recreational and private stakeholders. In the case of Project Aware, while the small local effort to “clean up

the ocean” might amount to a symbolic gesture, when combined with the 1000 dive centres globally that have also risen to the task

– the efforts intensify and the effects magnify.

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Partnering and networking also led to increased spheres of influence. The food cluster project management was active on the SCRD

Food Policy Council and Agricultural Advisory Committee weighing in on all ‘food” issues. The executive of another successfully ran

for a seat on the Town of Gibsons council in the November 2011 election.

Those campaigns that partnered widely and effectively were rewarded with tips for funding sources, financial and human capital

contributions of significance, guidance, or at times helped maintain momentum through purely moral support. Those who preferred

to go it alone, or who found it easier do the work themselves, may find short‐term successes compromise the overall long‐term goal

of public awareness. A silo, issue‐based approach to environmental movements was mentioned as leaving the general public

disengaged and unclear how to pitch in.

ESTABLISHING A FORMAL SOCIETY

The transfer of money often leads to legalities and obligations, and in response formalized societies and land trusts have been

established by many of the organizations operating in the lower Sunshine Coast region. The Sargeant Bay Society was formed in

order to “prevent the area from becoming yet another housing development.” Kerfoot & Thomas, reporting on Sargeant Bay

Provincial Park, said “forming a properly registered society early on in the process was key to their success because it put structure

in place to receive funds and establish a society dedicated to a clear purpose (1995, p. 27).

Despite the formalized structure, the fight for this protected area was still “long and hard.” During the study, newspaper clippings

were collected that reported on donations or awards to the organizations or projects in the study. It was not uncommon to see

photographs of $25,000 funding cheques being presented. Formal societies and those with prior track records were seen repeatedly

in the position of accepting these funds. One society spoke about being approached by government, endowment trusts, and

foundations to act as stewards of both money and property and their reluctance to accept such offers until they had the proper

tools in place to be responsible recipients. Faith by the donors that money would be spent wisely is crucial to the continuation of

vital public and private funding. With the rising trend towards corporate socio‐environmental stewardship, a recommendation

would be to ensure a formal structure is in place to receive funds, and to create the conditions for which these funds will keep

coming, namely success in the stated campaign objectives.

ACHIEVING ADEQUATE LEVELS OF FUNDING/VOLUNTEERS

According to Yukl “The survival and prosperity of an organization depends on adaptation to the environment and the acquisition of

necessary resources” to be responsive to the situation at hand (2005, p. 17). Successful campaigns require access to sufficient capital

and extensive volunteer/member support. Q. 12 asked the campaign managers to identify “how did the organization fund the

campaign or project” with the ability to check all responses that were applicable.

FIGURE 5: FUNDING SOURCES FOR CAMPAIGNS

Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Membership 14 42.4%

Fundraising 15 45.4%

Grants 24 72.7%

Donations 18 54.5%

Endowments 1 3.0%

Sponsorships 3 9.0%

Fees for Service/Sales 6 18.1%

Twenty‐four of the campaigns (72.7 %) were reliant on grants. Donations were also high at 54.5% (18 projects), followed by

fundraising at 45.4 %, and membership at 42.4%. This highlights a substantially high level of effort to obtain necessary revenue to

remain solvent in the absence of core funding. While clearly necessary, such efforts might be viewed as detracting from

organizational aims.

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For such a small community, exceptionally high levels of generosity and volunteerism were observed and documented in volunteer

award celebration pamphlets as well as publications by Sunshine Coast Community Foundations. Some of the campaigns reached

out to provincial and national partners. It was not uncommon to see lists of 15 – 25 major donor groups listed in the LOPM, WPM

and education cluster campaigns stemming from community grants, provincial funding, and corporate environmental funds with

a large influx of money from off‐coast sources.

At least two fundraising galas were observed during the study. Both used the press to thank a list of more than 100 donors along

with totals raised at the events in the order of tens of thousands of dollars.

At least four of the projects were successful at securing $1,000,000 or more in capital through grants under Island Coastal Economic

Trust (ICET) or Community Adjustment Fund (CAF), as well as numerous smaller local grants. Some of the campaigns within these

three clusters were also able to use moneys received from bequests. One coast resident donated $100,000 to each of two coast

projects posthumously. While there was much success reported in funding, a number of campaigns reported declines in their

funding. While in the past government funding was common practice, such direct funding disappeared from several projects while

government support continued to come in the form of technical expertise and advice. Access to capable grant writers and access to

a network of donors are two effective means to generate funds.

Organizations with high membership would be at an advantage as would those with experienced grant writers. Such realities may

help explain the low membership pricing strategy commonly observed across most organizations with annual fees often in the range

of $30 for an individual or $35 for a family. One organization with minimal membership fees reported 700 members with 125 noted

to be ‘active.’ Without adequate fund‐raising or volunteer retention, often the project is compromised, the momentum is slowed

and in at least one case only continued after funding from out‐of‐pocket expenditures were infused into the project.

ENGAGING THE WIDER COMMUNITY IN THE PROCESS

While the question regarding community stakeholder involvement was never posed, the issue was raised by many as a factor of

their success. Stakeholder interests can easily pit community members against government or industry, and industry against

organizations. By not engaging the community organizations risk polarization, diminished effectiveness, and inability to have local

council adopt policies.

Some highly effective campaigns approached this optimal stakeholder engagement. For instance the Francis Point Provincial Park

and Ecological Reserve campaign (Bell & Adair, 2008, p. 1‐2) noted a high degree of public input, use of knowledgeable individuals,

consultation with local First Nations, and engaging government officials at all levels. Engaging the community was a critical success

factor in the Mt. Artaban Park creation by stimulating 91 industrial partners and individuals to make contributions exceeding the

amount needed for the survey and management plan. During the Save our Sunshine Coast campaign, there was “almost 100%

support from the communities”, the four governments, and the Sechelt Indian Band.

A few of the campaigns exhibited narrow or singular viewpoints as evidenced at community forums or in exchanges reported in

the press. While such observations are speculative, they do illustrate a publicly displayed level of divergence and resentment and

suggest a need for wiser means of reaching agreement or consensus (Newsome, Dowling & Moore, 2005, p. 123; Priem, 1990, p.

473; Senge, 1990, pp. 223‐231).

USING SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT & SURVEYS

As each of these projects centres on an ‘environmental’ theme, an assumption was made that the use of scientific studies would

be beneficial in order to substantiate claims, or ensure the project was using the right protection mechanism. Q. 9 asked the

respondents “how often did the organization use scientists or independent scientific studies to substantiate the campaign claims”?

FIGURE 6: USE OF SCIENTISTS OR INDEPENDENT SCIENTIFIC STUDIES TO SUBSTANTIATE CAMPAIGN CLAIMS

Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Very often 10 30.3%

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Often 8 24.2%

Sometimes 6 18.1%

Rarely 8 24.2%

Never 1 3.0%

No responses 0 0%

Just over one‐half of the projects reported they ‘often or very often” used science to support claims. On the other hand roughly

one‐quarter ‘rarely or never’ used them. In the projects that reported using such methods they were identified as required for

funding or to provide “credibility to change a bylaw” or construct management plans. Scientific findings were used to classify

“relatively undisturbed …biogeoclimatic zones” and identify distributions and abundances of shrubs, mosses, lichens, grasses,

wildflowers, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals as well as providing methods to accurately measure the age range of trees

in the ‘ancient forests’.

The use of scientific reports and assessments provided the rationale for successful expansion of Ambrose Lake Ecological reserve

in order to protect “relatively rare bog and landscape seldom found elsewhere in BC”. Researchers from the University of British

Columbia (UBC) were cited in two projects involving wildlife and plant protection.

Despite these accolades, the scientific surveys on their own were not shown to be effective at achieving the campaign aim. Lyytimäki

and Hilden (2007) suggest that while the scientific community tends to address specific questions, policy is driven by broad issues

and more general concerns (p. 67). To avoid this ‘incongruity’, they suggest involving all key stakeholders from an early stage in the

policy development process to provide the best evidence available, to help to monitor the effects of current policies, and to provide

solutions to unexpected events and policy failures (p. 67). In all cases, use of scientists and scientific studies were part of a ‘bundle’

of multiple campaign tools and activities used over time.

STARTING TO SUCCESSION PLAN AND ENGAGE YOUTH

It is important to replace human capital lost to volunteer burnout, age, shifting priorities, and death.

From the start of this research project to completion, two project visionaries and leaders died and several others moved on to new

ventures. The wisdom of leaders, often elders, was well‐documented in the majority of the campaigns, helping to achieve important

milestones using their experience with complex jurisdictional issues, negotiating skills, proposal writing, and communication best

practices. Efforts should be made by organizations to understand what motivates leaders in order to encourage or retain effective

individuals in this essential role. The need for mentorship is evidenced and as such organizations should ensure that knowledge and

experience is preserved and passed forward.

While several projects included inter‐generational activities, attendance at organizational events evidenced a dominant presence

of elderly board members and absence of youth. Societies whose management teams are comprised primarily of seniors must act

quickly to ensure continuation of important work and bridge the generational gap (Weisss, Molinaro and Davey, 2007). Including

‘youth’ in the campaign can bring fresh and innovative approaches, extend the reach of the organization to connect to new value

paradigms, make use of talent with modern technology, and to replace stale ideas. The vigour of youth would certainly be helpful

in campaigns that involve back‐breaking labour and energy, such as the persistent removal of invasive species.

The Synchronicity Festival was one campaign that made mention of their efforts towards attracting the Sunshine Coast’s ‘younger

generation’ stating they wanted the Coast to be a place where younger residents would want to relocate. This strategy was widely

also employed by the Sunshine Coast Wildlife Project in hosting stewardship events and engaging youth in wildlife‐centred projects.

PROVIDING INCREMENTAL GOALS & CELEBRATING SUCCESSES

Q. 11 asked the respondents to “provide the duration of the campaign or project” Figure 7 displays the results.

FIGURE 7: CAMPAIGN DURATION

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Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Single event (over one day/week/weekend) 2 6.0%

Multi‐Month 7 21.2%

Annual 4 12.1%

Ongoing 25 75.7%

No responses 0 0%

Four projects occurred on an annual basis. Seven of 33 projects reported their projects had a multi‐month timeframe. The most

popular response, however, was ‘ongoing’ reported by just over three‐quarters of the campaigns, some in the order of 20 to 35

years. One respondent displayed an optimistic view by saying “although this was a failure, a measure of success can be seen in the

level of engagement from sectors that would not otherwise be engaged”. Yukl says that providing evidence and measurement of

progress in the early phases with repeated ‘small wins’ can increase the confidence of an individual or team and leadership (2005,

p. 306). Such incremental goal‐setting can further serve to keep up momentum and enthusiasm, and help retain needed volunteers

through the long battle.

PURCHASE OR CONVERSION OF PRIVATE LAND FOR PRESERVATION

One permanent way to protect special areas is through the purchase of private or crown land, or by receipt of such lands through

endowments. Gambier Island Conservancy (GIC) created a “land trust fund’ to accumulate funds in excess of the amounts normally

allowed by registered charities in order to negotiate and accept a ‘free crown grant of land’ on the island.

Launched in 2004, the BC Free Crown Grant program enables government to provide crown land to local governments, public

agencies, and community organizations “health, education, public safety, community infrastructure, and public facilities that benefit

the public‐at‐large” (www.agf.gov.bc.ca/clad/tenure_programs/ programs/community/index.html as cited by Molner, 2011, p. 24).

In the case of Gambier Island, the 107 hectare parcel that was successfully transferred was valued at $1.2 million (retrieved from

www.gambierc.ca/events.html).The Sunshine Coast Botanical gardens were created from a collective land purchase by an

association.

If 3% of the coast is protected, this leaves 97% as either private or crown land. This reality, coupled with a highly conservationminded

elderly citizenry, creates opportunity for expanded private land transfers, crown land conversions, and private land

stewardship programs leading towards heightened protection of the regions natural capital.

CONTINUING EFFORTS TOWARD HIGHER LEVELS OF PROTECTION

Upgrading the status of PAs is seen as providing higher levels of protection for biodiversity. Ecological Reserves, for instance, are

“selected to preserve representative and special natural ecosystems, plant and animal species, features and phenomena and as such

restrict access to permit holders (Retrieved from http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/planning/mgmtplns/ambrose/ambroseps.pdf).

Adoption of Class A park status prohibits commercial resource extraction (mining, logging, oil & gas extraction and hydro‐electrical

development) and manages park use (Bell & Adair, p. 15). To this end several of the projects are pursuing PA upgrades. The process

is often very long. According to one survey respondent “it was a twelve year campaign to get Provincial Park status”.

Despite this daunting roadblock several of the projects are intent on persevering with higher levels of PA perceiving the benefits to

be worth the effort. Francis Point Park and Ecological Reserve is planning on conserving the adjacent sub‐tidal marine resources (Bell

& Adair, p. 5) and in the case of the Caren Range, current protection is seen as “part of larger effort to protect from development a

shoreline to summit series of intact ecosystems.”

BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS REALM

Building on the premise that communications are a way to influence people’s attitudes and actions an effective strategy is vital. As

crossover does occur from the managerial/leadership realm only the functions that have not yet been discussed will be presented.

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During the survey, respondents were asked “what were the objectives of the campaign or project?” The campaign managers could

choose any or all answers that applied (Q.10). The results can be found in Figure 8.

FIGURE 8: CAMPAIGN OBJECTIVES

Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Protest/Activism 6 6.0%

Educate 27 81.8%

Build Awareness 29 87.8%

Protect 25 75.7%

Other 15 45.4%

No responses 0 0%

Building awareness and educating were ranked highest as campaign objectives with 87.8 % and 81.8% respectively. Protection was

also a priority with 75.7% of the respondent campaigns pursuing this objective. A range of ‘other’ replies suggested activities such

as cleaning up the ocean, getting political action, or restoration indicating broad based purpose. Additionally the campaign managers

were able to articulate a clear and often deep understanding of the issue from their own lens.

USING THE RIGHT TOOLS & ACTIVITIES DURING THE CAMPAIGN

The tools and activities an organization chooses are the means by which the message can be channeled or delivered to the outside

world in order to elicit the needed call to action (WWF, p. 10). Using the Constant Contact Survey campaign managers from each of

the themed‐projects were asked to identify the tools and activities used during the campaign and the perceptions of their

effectiveness. Figure 9 displays the top 30 choices of tools and activities.

FIGURE 9: TOP THIRTY CHOICES OF TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES USED DURING THE CAMPAIGNS

Tool or activity selected (# of responses, n= 33)

Word of mouth (29)

Press releases (28)

Website (25)

Email newsletter (21)

Lecture or presentation (21)

Members meeting (20)

Poster or flyer (20)

Public display (20)

Editorials (19)

Ads in local newspapers (18)

Workshop (16)

Letter writing (15)

Radio interviews (13)

Festival (12)

Lobbying (11)

Educational kits (10)

Social media (10)

Television interviews (10)

Media kits (7)

Banners on streets (6)

Radio ads (6)

Trade show or exhibition (6)

Ads in magazines (5)

Door to door (5)

Parade (5)

Talks to groups & industry (5)

Rally (4)

Summit (4)

Television ads (4)

Ads in provincial newspapers (3)

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Of interest was that one of the invasive species campaigns indicated use of zero communication tools or activities, accomplishing

the aim of the campaign through sole use of a handful of in‐house volunteers. Outside of this isolated project, others saw benefit in

widespread communication efforts ranging from three tools or activities to as many as thirty. The average number equated to

twelve tools or activities used in each campaign.

While it may be assumed that popularity may be a partial indicator of effectiveness, the true measure of the tool or activities’

effectiveness would be to judge its effectiveness in accomplishing the campaign objective. To this end the perceptions of

effectiveness became a barometer for this. The campaign managers were asked to rank the effectiveness of each tool and activity

used in the campaign with a five point Likert scale that ranged from very effective to very ineffective.

TABLE 7: PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES USED DURING THE CAMPAIGN

Tool or Activity Selected # of Responses (N=33) Rating* score

Boat rally 1 1

Lecture or presentation 21 1.6

Word of mouth 29 1.7

Email newsletter 21 1.7

Public display 20 1.7

Workshop 16 1.7

Letter writing 15 1.7

Land purchase or acquisition 3 1.7

Television interviews 10 1.8

Festival 12 1.9

Website 25 2

Members meeting 20 2

Radio interviews 13 2

Social media 10 2

Rally 4 2

Press releases 28 2.1

Educational kits 10 2.1

Lobbying 22 2.2

Summit 4 2.2

Poster or flyer 20 2.3

Editorials 19 2.3

Ads in local newspapers 18 2.3

Media kits 7 2.3

Parade 5 2.4

Banners on streets 6 2.8

Radio ads 6 2.8

Door to door 5 2.8

Ads in magazines 5 3

Trade show or exhibition 6 3.2

Television ads 4 3.2

Ads in provincial newspapers 3 3.7

* The Rating Score is the weighted average calculated by dividing the sum of all weighted ratings by the number of total

responses.

Limitation: As some of the tools and activities were identified in the comments section, they were not ranked and are excluded from the weighted mean.

With the critical incident technique in mind, it was hoped that a significant number of highly effective and highly ineffective tools

and activities would be reported, and provide a better lens to view the perceived effectiveness of campaign strategy. This was not

the case, and the number of highly ineffective tools and activities identified was minimal. In order to adjust, ineffective strategy was

compiled against three rating choices (neutral, ineffective or very ineffective). The results are presented in figure 9 and broken by

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cluster. In the 33 completed surveys a total of 336 effective tools and activities were identified by the campaign managers. 82.3%

of the tools and activities used were perceived to be effective or highly effective and only 17.7 % were identified as ineffective.

FIGURE 9: COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES (INCIDENTS) BY CLUSTER

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Effective versus Ineffective Communication Tools

(Incidents )

85

24

73

14

63 61

18

11

44

3

Land & Oceans (n=8)

Wildlife (n=9)

Education (n=6)

Food (n=6)

Other (n=4)

Effective

Neutral or

Ineffective

Oddly the perceived success seems contrary to the reality. When measured directly against campaign aims, there would appear to

be disconnect that might involve issues of not reaching the right market to initiate the change, or not measuring against the true

campaign objectives. This is discussed further below.

REACHING THE RIGHT TARGET MARKET

Failing to reach the right audience may contribute to the success or failure of a campaign. Campaigns of change, as with the case of

those in the study, must consider whom they want to influence (WWF, 2007, p. 6). Survey questions 14 to 17 asked respondents to

identify the primary target market, the secondary market, and the opinion of the current level of knowledge of the campaign issue

with that market.

Most advocacy was initially directed towards the general public, with twenty‐one respondents (63.6%). Approximately one in five

campaigns (18.1 %) directed their advocacy to government. Two of the campaigns noted that although their target was the general

public, it was in order to mobilize action towards another entity, most often the government. Three respondents targeted the

educational sector and one an unspecified ‘industry’. Two respondents stated the environment was a target, although the question

was not intended to identify the beneficiary.

The greatest areas of change in the secondary markets were that the general public became less of a focus (although still strong at

30.3 %) and industry rose to nine campaigns (27.3 %). Government also became a stronger focus with 21.2% secondary target

attention.

ESTABLISHING A COMMUNITY WATCH PROGRAM

A significant number of the campaigns were alerted to infractions and opportunities by a network of residents, other conservation

organizations, and funding partners. To this end a formal program of environmental watch with a call to action could assist

Page 40


campaigns with their vigilance and make it difficult for adverse actions to remain invisible. Attentive monitoring of publicly available

records such as logging or mining approvals may also prove effective in prompting action.

EVALUATING THE CAMPAIGN

Selecting the right tools can leverage scarce monetary and human resources often characteristic of community NGOs, and ensure

the message influences the desired response. Q. 22 asked “did you evaluate the success or failure of the campaign or project? If yes,

using what method, and if not, why not?

FIGURE 11: CAMPAIGNS THAT EVALUATED SUCCESS OF FAILURE

Answer Number of Responses Response Ratio

Yes 24 72.7%

No 9 27.2%

No responses 0 0%

Twenty‐four of the campaigns evaluated success or failure, however surprisingly more than one‐quarter did not. Reasons for not

evaluating were mainly resource issues such as insufficient time, insufficient funds, and insufficient people. The exception to this

came from two projects that were in year one of a two‐three year project, where assessment had not taken place.

For those who did measure, a long list was provided that included:

• Use of parks and its trails by residents and visitors.

• Numbers of participants at meetings or attendees at arranged activities.

• The number of times communication efforts were published.

• Number of times meetings with planning officials occurred.

• The increased number of members in the organization.

• The number of responses to a survey or request for action.

• Number of inquiries, phone calls, web site hits, thank‐you letters, feedback forms, donations, etc.

It appears that few of the community projects used measurements directly related to overall aims and objectives and would be

an area of recommended improvement.

A number of the projects met the WWF (2007) suggested specific measurement criteria (pp. 7‐8) by producing records such as:

• Counts of spawning salmon returns in the creeks.

• New growth of native plants in areas where invasive species were removed.

• Number of hectares habitat conserved or enhanced.

• Decreasing rates of wildlife mortality or increase in nesting success.

Three used comprehensive measurement/frameworks within wildlife related projects and for mentorship in the food security.

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

This research and review of literature shows that embedding biologicallyrespectful

attitudes and behaviours in the consciousness of residents and

visitors can be achieved in a community such as the Sunshine Coast through

an extensive and effective base of community NGOs. It is clear from this

research that a high degree of dedication to environmentally‐themed

campaigning continues to be prevalent. Escalating land‐use conflicts

between economic sectors, combined with limited success in past protective

measures, indicates a call for increased effectiveness of these campaigns in

the study area. Improvements in leadership and communications will help

overcome obstacles that are preventing pro‐environmental actions from

advancing.

The high proportion of activist residents on the Coast is similar to the initial establishment of ecotourism in Costa Rica, with great

potential for ecotourism to take root in the region. Commercial and non‐commercial tourism and recreation activities already

occurring within the region will fall under pressure to deliver experiences in a truly sustainable manner. Successes gleaned from

the cases studies of Bhutan, Costa Rica and Haida Gwaii provide the Sunshine Coast and similar regions with guidance on how

biologically‐respectful or ethically‐based tourism can develop side by side with conservation values.

The conceptual model developed from this research highlighted thirteen core functions of leadership/management and six core

functions of a communications realm that can serve as a template to help improve the effectiveness these campaigns have on the

Sunshine Coast of BC. This is especially true when it comes to choosing the most appropriate tools and activities to obtain a specific

outcome, and to evaluate the success against prime campaign objectives. Moving forward with resolve and a sense of urgency may

help propel the preservation of biodiversity and compel overall natural resource stewardship.

The Critical Incident Technique proved a useful methodological framework as it allowed a focus on both effective and ineffective

strategy as well as revealing tools and tactics that might have been overlooked had the focus been directed to critical success or best

practices alone. The research and literature review showed that every level of the community have an essential part to play;

environmental NGOs, scientists, industry, government, and residents. As the Sunshine Coast diversifies its economy away from its

traditional resource base, it will need alternatives that positively co‐exist with high conservation values of its residents and

guardians. Although innovative ways of protecting private land may provide forward movement, it is likely that additional strategies

and funding will be needed to sustain the conservation movement in the area.

While tools and practices may emerge from SCRD sustainability plans or any future biodiversity or tourism strategy, binding

instruments and legislation may be more challenging across the four jurisdictions currently governing the lower Sunshine Coast:

the SCRD, the Sechelt Indian Government District, the Town of Gibsons, and the District of Sechelt.

When near and off‐shore waters are included, and provincial and federal governments are added to the jurisdictional complexity,

this task is further challenged. This compels the Sunshine Coast to consider innovative methods such as the instruments described

by Newsome, Dowling & Moore (2005) and also by the Suzuki Foundation’s Policy Options to Protect, Enhance and Restore Natural

Capital in B.C.’s Urban Area (Molner, 2011).

This study shows these could be applicable and find acceptability widely on the Sunshine Coast. It was also shown in this research

that a broad array of organizations have power to influence and activate change through environmentally‐themed campaigns. It is

believed the results may be used to foster the foundation of attitudinal change in marketing for policy and planning in nature and

nature‐based tourism development. Such action may play a pivotal role in societal, industry and visitor attitudes and actions as well

as safeguarding the overall biodiversity of regions like the lower Sunshine Coast.

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APPENDIX A: GOALS AND TARGETS BIODIVERSITY 2011‐2020

STRATEGIC GOAL A: ADDRESS THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS BY MAINSTREAMING

BIODIVERSITY ACROSS GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY

Target 1: By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it

sustainably.

Target 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction

strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into nation accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Target 3: By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in

order to minimize or avoid negative impacts and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are

developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into

account national socio‐economic conditions.

Target 4: By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have

implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within

safe ecological limits.

STRATEGIC GOAL B: REDUCE THE DIRECT PRESSURES ON BIODIVERSITY AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE

Target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to

zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

Target 6: By 2020, all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying

ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species,

fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on

stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

Target 7: By 2020, areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

Target 8: By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem

function and biodiversity.

Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated

and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.

Target 10: By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate

change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

STRATEGIC GOAL C: TO IMPROVE THE STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY BY SAFEGUARDING ECOSYSTEMS, SPECIES

AND GENETIC DIVERSITY

Target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially

areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed,

ecologically representative and well‐connected systems of protected areas and other effective area‐based conservation measures,

and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape.

Target 12: By 2020, the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of

those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

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Target 13: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including

other socio‐economically as well as culturally valuable species is maintained and strategies have been developed and implemented

for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.

STRATEGIC GOAL D: ENHANCE THE BENEFITS TO ALL FROM BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health,

livelihoods and well‐being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local

communities and the poor and vulnerable.

Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through

conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate

change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

Target 16: By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising

from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation..

STRATEGIC GOAL E: ENHANCE IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH PARTICIPATORY PLANNING, KNOWLEDGE

MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY‐BUILDING

Target 17: By 2015, each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing, an effective,

participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.

Target 18: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the

conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national

legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with

the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.

Target 19: By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends,

and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied.

Target 20: By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for

Biodiversity 2011‐2020 from all sources and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource

Mobilization should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resources

needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

Source: UNEP, 2010 Strategic plan for biodiversity 2011‐2020 pp. 2‐10

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APPENDIX B: BHUTAN’S GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS PHILOSOPHY

According to both Buddhist and pre‐Buddhist philosophies, the mountains, rivers, streams, rocks and soils of Bhutan are believed

to be the domain of the spirits. Pollution and disturbances are believed to be the cause of death and disease for those spirits. The

Buddhist respect for all living things has led to the development and adoption of ecologically friendly strategies – a solid base upon

which a national environmental strategy can be built. This, coupled with the Buddhist tenet that the acts of life will be rewarded or

punished in the next, provides a motivational principle for sustaining Bhutan’s natural resource base.

Historically speaking, economic development has generally been dedicated to improving the quality of life. In Western cultures, this

has usually meant the satisfaction of the population’s material wants. According to this conventional definition, a country could only

be called “developed” once it reached a certain advanced level of material consumption. On an individual level, this translates into

consumerism and materialism.

Compounding the waste and excess inherent in these attributes is their essentially progressive and competitive nature. Not only do

individuals want to be better off than they were last year, they also want to be better off than their neighbours, who are seeing their

material fortunes improve. Given that the vast majority of these material acquisitions are derived from nature, this geometrically

rising pattern eventually exceeds the ability of the surrounding resource base to regenerate itself. Unless consumption patterns are

altered or foreign resources can be brought in to fill the gaps, the inevitable result is unsustainable development. This dynamic is

only accelerated when individually increasing “needs” are compounded by collectively increasing populations.

In Bhutanese culture, however, the original definition of development was based on the acquisition of knowledge. Those who

possessed greater knowledge were considered to be more developed. In a similar vein, the process of communal enrichment was

based on a dynamic in which those who possessed superior knowledge imparted that knowledge to others. In the Buddhist religion,

this concept of personal development was refined even further to entail overcoming the delusion arising from ignorance, aggression,

and the desire for consumption and acquisition.

The notion that gross national happiness is more important than gross domestic product is thus inherent to the Bhutanese value

system.

Source: Royal Government of Bhutan, 1998 National environment strategy for Bhutan p. 19

APPENDIX C: ECOTOURISM SOCIETY’S CODE OF CONDUCT

Ecotourism is about uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel. This means that those who implement and

participate in ecotourism activities should follow the following ecotourism principles:

• Minimize impact.

• Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect.

• Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts.

• Provide direct financial benefits for conservation.

• Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people.

• Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental, and social climate.

(Ecotourism Society, n.d. Code of Conduct).

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APPENDIX D: LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AMB

BC

CAF

CBD

CHN

CPAWS

CST

CTB

DMO

EDU

EPI

GIC

GDP

GNH

GOV

GP

IND

ICET

LOPM

NBSAP

NEF

NGO

NS

NSI

PA

PADI

PATA

SC

SCRD

TIABC

UNCED

UNEP

UNEP‐WMO

UNEP‐WTO

WCWC

WPM

WWF

Archipelago Management Board

British Columbia

Community Adjustment Fund

Convention on Biological Diversity

Council of Haida Nations

Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society

Certification for Sustainable Tourism

Costa Rica Tourism Board

Destination Marketing Office/Organization

Education

Environmental Performance Index

Gambier Island Conservancy

Gross Domestic Product

Gross National Happiness

Government

General Public

Industry

Island Coastal Economic Trust

Land and ocean protection & management

National Biodiversity Strategies & Action Plan

New Economics Foundation

Non‐governmental organization

No survey

No survey or un‐structured interview

Protected area

Professional Association of Dive Instructors

Pacific Asia Travel Association

Sunshine Coast

Sunshine Coast Regional District

Tourism Industry Association of British Columbia

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

United Nations Environment Program

United National Environment Programme and World Meteorological Organization

United National Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization

West Coast Wilderness Committee

Wildlife Protection and Management

World Wildlife Fund/World Wide Fund for Nature

APPENDIX E: PHOTO CREDITS

Front Cover:

Page 4:

Page 5:

Page 6:

Page 7:

Page 8:

Page 9:

Page 10:

Page 14:

Page 19:

Page 22:

Page 25:

Page 28:

Page 42:

Marine Panel, Patrick Klein

Puget Sound Crab, Brandon Evans

Harpy Eagle, Catherine Evans

Cloud Forest, Catherine Evans

Bhutan Guide, Shang‐ri‐la Tours, Catherine Evans

White‐faced Capuchin, Catherine Evans

Haida Interpretation, Bluewater Adventures

Masked dancers, Bhutan, Shang‐ri‐la Tours

Wolf Eel, Patrick Klein

Sea Lions, Patrick Klein; Bears in the Community, Lissa Forshaw

Farmer’s Market, Tourism BC/Toshi Kawano

Educating Visitors, Catherine Evans

Seal Pup Rescue, Lissa Forshaw

Connecting to Nature, Catherine Evans

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