1 year ago

COMPREHENSIVE EFL Teaching-Learning Model (Vallejo, 2014)

established and should

established and should be focused on developing Intercultural Communicative Competences (ICC) and Competences for Life. However, linguistic aim should also be implicitly integrated into the Daily Goal; this is one of the most difficult challenges for a teacher. The learning objective should establish the competence to be developed related to the linguistic aim. After establishing the Daily Goal, a 3-5 minute audio-visual resource is presented in order to discuss the main topic. Specific questions should be asked with the main purpose of obtaining students’ interest and enabling them to use the linguistic aim in context. This speaking activity is developed in pairs or groups and should be planned as an instrument to promote values, tolerance and appreciation towards individual and cultural differences, conflict resolutions, environmental alternatives, among other things that would eventually prepare students for life through an intercultural approach. Students go through a language learning phase in the second stage. Explicit formulaic language input, controlled activities, and the focus on form is essential in this part of the lesson sequence. This is the moment where most of the text books can be used. It’s important to mention, that context should still play an important role. Isolated grammar or vocabulary exercises/drilling would not be as useful. “Conversational Shadowing” which is the act of listening and at the same time repeating, either completely or selectively as immediately as possible, is also used in this stage (Murphey, 2001). This strategy has been used with excellent results in Asia and the Middle East. It has been demonstrated that the systematic use of Conversational Shadowing improves: listening skills, pronunciation, fluency, internalization of grammatical structures, intercultural understanding, sentence complexity, intrinsic motivation, and socialization (Wiltshier, 2007; Knutson, 2010; Watkins, 2012, Commander, 2012; Shiota, 2012; Azimi, 2013; Nekoueizadeh, 2013). In the third stage, we focus on a problem, project or task based activity related to the Daily Goal and at the same time to the language aim. This activity is generally developed in pairs, groups or stations. Evidence includes: discussion/debates, presentations, role-play, representations, graphic organizers (timelines, mind maps, conceptual maps, comparative charts, etc.), essays, video recordings, conflict resolution activities, real-life scenario activities, among other strategies. At the end of the class, the teacher and the group should come to a conclusion and give some final comments.

Technology is an essential element of the class and its three stages. We use apps such as Class Seesaw, Class Dojo, Cmap Tools, Popplet, Quick Voice, QR Reader, Prezi, and IMindMap. These tools are used in order to record themselves, create graphic organizers, create presentations, and scan QR codes in order to access online material, among other things. As teachers, we have to deal, first and foremost with creating the connection between the competence we want to develop and the linguistic aim. The Daily Goal should be adapted according to the age, level, and interest of the group. For example, if my grammar focus is present perfect, I would establish the following goal for a group of high school or university students at an intermediate level: Daily Goal: Students will be able to discuss and identify similarities and differences between a successful community such as Vauban in Freiburg, Germany and their own. Detonating questions: What have they done to become the community they are? What has your community done to be where you are? What hasn’t been done? Evidence: Comparative Chart: Things that have or haven’t been done/created/established in each community. Video Recording: Explanation of the chart and discussion. In conclusion, this model encompasses a variety of learning theories, methods, and strategies. It takes time, preparation, and practice in order to develop it efficiently in the classroom. However, once you master it, your students are not only capable of learning a second or foreign language, they are also being prepared to face different intercultural environments and situations, to have diverse worldwide views, develop values and ultimately, make a critical contribution towards a much needed social integration. Designed by Bogar Vallejo (2014).

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