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2<br />

A class and homework course<br />


Rex Sadler Sandra Sadler

This edition published in 2021 by<br />

Matilda Education Australia, an imprint<br />

of Meanwhile Education Pty Ltd<br />

Level 1/274 Brunswick St<br />

Fitzroy, Victoria Australia 3065<br />

T: 1300 277 235<br />

E: customersupport@matildaed.com.au<br />

www.matildaeducation.com.au<br />

First edition published in 2007 by<br />

Macmillan Science and Education Australia Pty Ltd<br />

Copyright © Rex Sadler and Sandra Sadler 2007, 2010, 2017<br />

The moral rights of the author have been asserted.<br />

All rights reserved.<br />

Except under the conditions described in the<br />

Copyright Act 1968 of Australia (the Act) and subsequent amendments,<br />

no part of this publication may be reproduced,<br />

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,<br />

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,<br />

without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.<br />

Educational institutions copying any part of this <strong>book</strong><br />

for educational purposes under the Act must be covered by a<br />

Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) licence for educational institutions<br />

and must have given a remuneration notice to CAL.<br />

Licence restrictions must be adhered to. For details of the CAL licence contact:<br />

Copyright Agency Limited, Level 11, 66 Goulburn Street, Sydney, NSW 2000.<br />

Telephone: (02) 9394 7600. Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601. Email: memberservices@copyright.com.au<br />

Publication data<br />

Authors: Rex Sadler and Sandra Sadler<br />

Title: <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2: A Class and Homework Course<br />

ISBN: 978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Publisher: Emma Cooper<br />

Project editor: Barbara Delissen<br />

Cover and text designer: Dim Frangoulis<br />

Production control: Janine Biderman and Katherine Fullagar<br />

Photo research and permissions clearance: Fiona Byrne and Vanessa Roberts<br />

Typeset in Heuristica Regular 10.5/12pt by DiZign Pty Ltd<br />

Cover image: Adobe Stock/Olga Khoroshunova<br />

Printed in Malaysia by Vivar Printing Pdt Ltd<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25 24 23 22 21 20<br />

Warning: It is recommended that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples exercise caution when<br />

viewing this publication as it may contain images of deceased persons.

Contents<br />

Prefacevii<br />

Acknowledgementsviii<br />

1 Images and words 1<br />

Comprehension Film poster 1<br />

Cartoon 3<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Behaviour 4<br />

Language What is a clause? 6<br />

Main clauses 6<br />

Dependent (subordinate) clauses 6<br />

Punctuation How well do you punctuate? 8<br />

The craft of writing The graphic novel 8<br />

2 Factual texts 10<br />

Comprehension Information report 10<br />

Autobiography 12<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Confusing pairs 14<br />

Language Dependent (subordinate) clauses 15<br />

Punctuation Reviewing punctuation 17<br />

The craft of writing Autobiography 18<br />

3 Planet Earth 19<br />

Comprehension Global warming 19<br />

Spelling and vocabulary The Earth 21<br />

Language Nouns 22<br />

Punctuation Starting and finishing sentences 23<br />

The craft of writing Problems of planet Earth 25<br />

4 This sporting life 26<br />

Comprehension The race 26<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Sport 28<br />

Language Proper and common nouns 30<br />

Punctuation Punctuating fables 31<br />

The craft of writing Becoming a better writer 32<br />

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iv Contents<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

5 Hard times 33<br />

Comprehension Shoes 33<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Money matters 35<br />

Language Collective nouns 36<br />

Abstract nouns 37<br />

Punctuation The full stop, question mark and exclamation mark 38<br />

The craft of writing Poverty 39<br />

6 Inventions40<br />

Comprehension Credit cards 40<br />

Shopping trolleys 41<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Inventions and discoveries 42<br />

Language Singular and plural nouns 43<br />

Forming plural nouns 44<br />

Punctuation Commas 45<br />

The craft of writing Describing objects 46<br />

7 War and peace 47<br />

Comprehension The hiding place 47<br />

Spelling and vocabulary In the line of fire 49<br />

Language More plural nouns 50<br />

Punctuation Statements and questions 52<br />

The craft of writing War and peace 53<br />

8 All about people 54<br />

Comprehension Robyn 54<br />

Spit Nolan 55<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Up-front and personal 56<br />

Language Using adjectives 58<br />

Punctuation Apostrophes 59<br />

The craft of writing Using details to describe people 60<br />

9 In the wild 61<br />

Comprehension Stingrays 61<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Creatures in the wild 63<br />

Language Adjectives of comparison 64<br />

Punctuation Capital letters 66<br />

The craft of writing The world of animals 67<br />

10 Music, music, music 68<br />

Comprehension ‘The nocturne in the corner phonebox’ 68<br />

Spelling and vocabulary The sound of music 70<br />

Language Onomatopoeia 72<br />

Punctuation Punctuating dialogue 73<br />

The craft of writing Using sound words 74

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Contents<br />

 <br />

v<br />

11 The world of <strong>book</strong>s 75<br />

Comprehension The emu 75<br />

Banana fact file 76<br />

Spelling and vocabulary All about <strong>book</strong>s 77<br />

Language Synonyms 78<br />

Antonyms 79<br />

Homonyms 79<br />

Punctuation Using the apostrophe to abbreviate words 80<br />

The craft of writing What’s that you’re reading? 81<br />

12 Places82<br />

Comprehension Beneath the sea 82<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Describing places 84<br />

Language Personal pronouns 85<br />

Punctuation Direct and indirect speech 87<br />

The craft of writing Describing a place 88<br />

13 School days 89<br />

Comprehension Conflict in the classroom 89<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Education 91<br />

Language Verbs 92<br />

Punctuation Using the apostrophe to show ownership 94<br />

The craft of writing School days 95<br />

14 Disaster96<br />

Comprehension Plane crash in the Andes 96<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Emergency 98<br />

Language Verbs tell time 99<br />

Punctuation Apostrophes—avoiding confusion 101<br />

The craft of writing Narratives 102<br />

15 On the farm 103<br />

Comprehension A plague of locusts 103<br />

Spelling and vocabulary On the land 105<br />

Language Present participles 106<br />

Forming present participles 107<br />

Punctuation Using commas 107<br />

The craft of writing Plagues and epidemics 109<br />

16 Health 110<br />

Comprehension What it feels like to be stuck in a tornado 110<br />

Spelling and vocabulary The human body 112<br />

Language Past participles 113<br />

Punctuation Abbreviations 115<br />

The craft of writing Describing feelings 116

vi Contents<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

17 Abandon ship! 117<br />

Comprehension Torpedoed 117<br />

Spelling and vocabulary On the move 119<br />

Language Adverbs 120<br />

Forming adverbs 121<br />

Punctuation Colons 122<br />

The craft of writing The force of nature 123<br />

18 Let’s go to the movies 124<br />

Comprehension ‘A bundle of twists in a dragon’s tale: Eragon’ 124<br />

Spelling and vocabulary At the movies 126<br />

Language Idioms 127<br />

Punctuation Paragraphs 129<br />

The craft of writing Writing a film review 130<br />

19 Read all about it! 131<br />

Comprehension ‘Paraglider pilot survives horror storm ascent’ 131<br />

Spelling and vocabulary The newspaper 133<br />

Language Prefixes 134<br />

Punctuation Quotation marks for speech 135<br />

The craft of writing A news report 137<br />

20 The great outdoors 138<br />

Comprehension Rapids ahead! 138<br />

Spelling and vocabulary In the wilderness 140<br />

Language Conjunctions 141<br />

Punctuation Question marks and exclamation marks in speech 143<br />

The craft of writing Untamed lands 144<br />

21 Careers145<br />

Comprehension A day in the life of a naturalist 145<br />

Spelling and vocabulary People at work 147<br />

Language Suffixes 148<br />

Punctuation Revision—punctuating sentences 149<br />

The craft of writing What I would like to be 150<br />

22 Numbers, shapes and sizes 151<br />

Comprehension The great pyramids of Egypt 151<br />

Spelling and vocabulary Counting and measuring 153<br />

Language Numbers as adjectives 154<br />

Numbers and prefixes 155<br />

Punctuation Revision—punctuating sentences 156<br />

The craft of writing How/why did it happen? 157<br />

Back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary 158

Preface<br />

<strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2 sets out to present essential <strong>English</strong> skills in an interesting and<br />

meaningful way for junior secondary <strong>student</strong>s.<br />

This third edition covers essential language and literacy skills underpinning the Australian<br />

curriculum. It incorporates a wide range of comprehension texts, spelling and vocabulary<br />

development, as well as language work on sentences, phrases, parts of speech, word families and<br />

paragraphing. It is important to note that eleven creative writing and punctuation units have been<br />

added to this new edition.<br />

The work<strong>book</strong> can be used as a class or homework text. One approach would be to have<br />

<strong>student</strong>s complete each unit over a two-week period.<br />

The stimulus materials and exercises are designed to improve comprehension and vocabulary<br />

skills, as well as language usage and spelling. A special feature is the back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary, which<br />

encourages <strong>student</strong>s to expand their vocabulary by <strong>look</strong>ing up the meanings of unfamiliar words.<br />

Correct spelling is essential for good communication. Research has shown that in those<br />

classrooms where teachers are concerned about correct spelling and vocabulary enrichment, the<br />

<strong>student</strong>s’ spelling level improves significantly. It is a good idea, if time allows, to have a brief spelling<br />

test at the end of each unit using the words from the spelling and vocabulary list.<br />

The extracts are engaging and cover a diverse range of topics—from tornadoes to Egyptian<br />

pyramids. A range of genres is represented including biography, crime, fiction and adventure.<br />

Above all, we hope that <strong>student</strong>s will enjoy their studies as they gain basic <strong>English</strong> skills.<br />

Rex and Sandra Sadler<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />


Acknowledgements<br />

The author and publisher are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:<br />

Photographs<br />

ALAMY/A.F. ARCHIVE, 81, 124, /Archive Images, 144, /<br />

Movie Stills, 130; Cartoonstock/Mark Lynch, 3; FAIRFAX<br />

SYNDICATION/Dean Osland, 54; GETTY IMAGES/Archive<br />

Photos/Stringer, 46, /Brendon Thorne, 123, /Corbis/<br />

VCG, 28, ISTOCKPHOTO/, 26, /4x6, 40, /Aimin Tang,<br />

47, /Alfsky, 89, /Amanda Rohde, 56, /AmmentorpDK, 4,<br />

/-Antonio-, 157, /bjones27, 126, /blackred, 32, /btrenkel,<br />

84, /Craig Dingle, 147, /Craig Dingle, 35, /davidf, 153,<br />

/donald_gruener, 110, /dra_schwartz, 91, /edelmar,<br />

103, /Fatman73, 76, /Forest Woodward, 112, /Geir-Olav<br />

Lyngfjell, 140, /GlobalP, 14, /Ingvald kaldhussæter, 33, /<br />

Island Effects, 82, /Jan Wolffgang, 67, /John Pitcher, 145,<br />

/Justin Horrocks, 98, /karimhesham, 151, /kcline, 42, /<br />

Kenneth Canning, 10, /kevinruss, 116, /kevinruss, 117, /<br />

kirstypargeter, 77, /kmaassrock, 133, /Lise Gagne, 105, /<br />

MR1805, 119, /Nathan Jaskowiak, 96, /oscarhdez, 102,<br />

/Rafal Olkis, 49, /Robert Pernell, 138, /Saivann, 68, /<br />

SandraKavas, 88, /shironosov, 18, /susan flashman,<br />

75, /Tim Mccaig, 70, /vlad_karavaev, 39; Newspix/<br />

James Croucher, 131; Photos.com, 60, 61, 63, 74;<br />

SHUTTERSTOCK/Albie Venter, 21, /Alex Hinds, Design<br />

element, /M. Shcherbyna, 25, /Shcherbinator, 137, /<br />

Simon_g, 109, /Tifonimages, 19, /wavebreakmedia, 150,<br />

The Kobal Collection/20th Century Fox, 1.<br />

Other material<br />

‘Treasure Island’ image panel adapted by Seymour Reit,<br />

art by Ernie Colón, lettering by George Roberts and<br />

colours by Luisa Colón from Treasure Island by Robert<br />

Louis Stevenson. Copyright © 1995 by Bank Street College<br />

of Education. Reproduced by permission of Bank Street<br />

College of Education, 9; Extract from Whitaker’s World of<br />

Facts by Russell Ash, Bloomsbury, 2005, 76; Extract from<br />

True Spirit by Jessica Watson, Hachette, 2010, 123; Cover<br />

and extract from Twopence to Cross the Mersey, reprinted<br />

by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, © 1981<br />

Helen Forrester, 12–13; Extract ‘Attacked by a swarm of<br />

African killer bees’ from What It Feels Like, reprinted by<br />

permission of Harper Collins Publishers Ltd © 2003 Edited<br />

by AJ Jacobs, 109; Extract ‘What it feels like to be stuck in a<br />

tornado’ by John Neidigh from What It Feels Like, reprinted<br />

by permission of Harper Collins Publishers Ltd © 2003<br />

Edited by AJ Jacobs, 110; Extract from Angela’s Ashes,<br />

reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd,<br />

© 1996 Frank McCourt, 33–4; Extract from The Overloaded<br />

Ark by Gerald Durrell, Faber and Faber, 1953, 145–6;<br />

Extract from Blueback by Tim Winton, Jenny Darling and<br />

Associates, 82–3, 85; Extract from Lockie Leonard, Human<br />

Torpedo by Tim Winton, Jenny Darling and Associates,<br />

89–90; Extract from The Habit of Loving, Copyright ©<br />

1978 by Doris Lessing, Featured by kind permission of<br />

Jonathan Clowes Ltd., London, on behalf of The Estate of<br />

Doris Lessing, 103–4; Extract from Macquarie Compact<br />

Dictionary, 2014, 75; Extract from The Book Thief by<br />

Markus Zusak reprinted by permission of Pan Macmillan<br />

Australia Pty Ltd. Copyright © Markus Zusak 2005, 81;<br />

Extract from Tomorrow, When the War Began by John<br />

Marsden reprinted by permission of Pan Macmillan<br />

Australia Pty Ltd. Copyright © JLM Pty Ltd 1993, 54;<br />

Extract from Mao’s Last Dancer by Li Cunxin, Penguin<br />

Books Australia, 2003, 39; Cover of Little Brother by Alan<br />

Baillie, Puffin, 2004, Penguin Australia Pty Ltd, 53; Cover<br />

and extract from The Chocolate War by Robert Cormier,<br />

copyright © 1974 by Robert Cormier. Used by permission<br />

of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Penguin<br />

Random House LLC. All rights reserved, 95; Extract from<br />

Cold River by William Judson, copyright © 1974 by Cork<br />

Tree, Inc. Used by permission of New American Library,<br />

an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of<br />

Penguin Random House LLC, 138; ‘Chapter three’ from<br />

The Cay by Theodore Taylor, copyright © 1969 by Theodore<br />

Taylor. Used by permission of Delacorte Press, an imprint<br />

of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Penguin<br />

Random House LLC. All rights reserved, 117–18; Extract<br />

from Spit Nolan by Bill Naughton reprinted by permission<br />

of Peters Fraser & Dunlop (www.petersfraserdunlop.<br />

com) on behalf of the Estate of Bill Naughton, 55; Extract<br />

from Alive by Piers Paul Read, Random House, 1974,<br />

96–7; Extract from The Silver Sword by Ian Serraillier,<br />

Random House, 1956, 47; Extract from Frozen Fire: A Tale<br />

of Courage by James Houston, Simon Schuster, 1992, 67;<br />

‘A bundle of twists in a dragon’s tale’ by Paul LePetit, in<br />

The Sunday Telegraph, 17 Dec 2006, 124; E.T. film review<br />

by Paul LePetit, in The Sunday Telegraph TV Guide, 24 Dec<br />

2006, 130; ‘The nocturne in the corner phonebox’, by<br />

Andrew Taylor, 68; Extract from Dougy by James Maloney,<br />

University of Queensland Press, 1993, 26; ‘Paraglider<br />

pilot survives horror storm ascent’ by DD McNicoll, The<br />

Weekend Australian, 17 Feb 2007, 131–2.<br />

The author and publisher would like to acknowledge the<br />

following:<br />

Extract from Little Brother by Alan Baillie, Puffin, 2004,<br />

53; Extract from Frozen Fire: A Tale of Courage by James<br />

Houston, Estate of James Houston, 1992, 67.<br />

While every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge<br />

copyright, the publisher tenders their apologies for any<br />

accidental infringement where copyright has proved<br />

untraceable. They would be pleased to come to a suitable<br />

arrangement with the rightful owner in each case.<br />

viii 978 1 4202 3708 5

Images<br />

and words<br />

1<br />

Comprehension<br />

Film poster<br />

Look at the film poster and answer the questions that follow.<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />


2 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Reading for understanding<br />

1 What is the advertiser’s purpose in creating this poster?<br />

2 In this poster, what immediately draws the audience’s attention? Why?<br />

3 How are the scissor hands positioned in relation to the two characters?<br />

4 How does the poster’s image show that the film is a love story?<br />

5 Which words in the poster indicate that the young woman is attracted to Edward?<br />

6 Which words tell the audience about the character of Edward?<br />

7 ‘… an uncommonly gentle man.’ Why do we wonder whether Edward can be gentle?<br />

8 How does the film image suggest that Edward is the main character?<br />

9 Why do you think the advertiser mentions two of the director’s previous films, Batman<br />

and Beetlejuice ?<br />

10 Why do you think the title has ‘edward’ in lower case and ‘SCISSORHANDS’ in capital<br />

letters?<br />

11 What emotions are presented in the image?<br />

12 What else in the image, other than his hands, suggests that Edward is an unusual<br />

character?<br />

12 marks

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

1 Images and words 3<br />

Cartoon<br />

Reading for understanding<br />

1 What is the cartoonist’s purpose?<br />

2 How do the survivors know that they have reached civilisation?<br />

3 How does the cartoonist show that the survivors have endured much hardship?<br />

4 What emotions do the survivors experience when they see the garbage floating on the<br />

water?<br />

5 What has the cartoonist identified about our society’s values?<br />

5 marks

4 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Spelling and vocabulary<br />

Behaviour<br />

guess defiance gratitude similarity truly<br />

perfection juvenile confiscate observant anonymous<br />

praise resistance impostor prohibit amiable<br />

stupidity minority completely prevention degradation<br />

unanimous rejection noisily patriotism compulsory<br />

respectable impulsive permit difficulties hurriedly<br />

Finding list words<br />

Use list words to complete these sentences.<br />

1 is the opposite of majority.<br />

2 is the adverb formed from hurry.<br />

3 is the plural of difficulty.<br />

4 is the opposite of quietly.<br />

5 is the adjective formed from impulse.<br />

6 means having no name or authorship.<br />

7 is the adverb formed from true.<br />

8 means of, or for, young people.<br />

9 means love of one’s country.<br />

10 is the noun formed from defy.<br />

11 is the adjective formed from observe.<br />

12 means everyone is in complete agreement.<br />

13 is the adverb formed from complete.<br />

14 means to seize or take away.<br />

15 is the state of being similar.<br />

16 means to express approval or admiration of.<br />

17 is the adjective formed from compel.<br />

18 means friendly and good-natured.<br />

19 is a verb meaning to forbid or prevent.<br />

20 means good, or worthy of respect.<br />

20 marks

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

1 Images and words 5<br />

Word skills<br />

1 Form nouns ending in ‘-ion’ for each of the following list words.<br />

a permit d confiscate<br />

b prohibit e compulsory<br />

c observant f completely<br />

2 Write a list word similar in meaning to each of the following words.<br />

a allow c totally<br />

b sincerely d foolishness<br />

3 Write a list word opposite in meaning to each of the following words.<br />

a voluntary c slowly<br />

b quietly d ingratitude<br />

14 marks<br />

Adding list words<br />

<strong>Complete</strong> the following by using appropriate words from your list. The first letter of each word<br />

is given to help you. Use each list word once only.<br />

The quest for freedom<br />

The r group had made a u decision to depose<br />

the i who was trying to p them from gaining a democracy.<br />

An a letter had been h circulated and the people<br />

showed their d by an i attack on the parliament building.<br />

A r<br />

recognise the d<br />

should have the power to c<br />

member of the community pleaded that the dictator should<br />

faced by the people and demanded that he no longer<br />

their properties.<br />

Back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary<br />

The list word ‘permit’ is made up of two Latin words: per meaning<br />

‘through’ and mitto, meaning ‘I send’. ‘To permit’ is ‘to send somebody<br />

through’ or ‘to let someone pass through’. There are many words in<br />

<strong>English</strong> that begin with the Latin prefix per-. Here are a few of them.<br />

Using the back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary, write their meanings.<br />

percolate:<br />

perennial:<br />

perforate:<br />

persist:<br />

permeable:<br />

11 marks<br />

5 marks

6 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Language<br />

What is a clause?<br />

A clause is a group of words expressing a complete thought. A clause contains a subject and a verb.<br />

Clauses are often joined together to form sentences. The following sentence is made up of a<br />

main clause and two dependent clauses.<br />

Owls are able to catch small animals because they have strong night vision,<br />

which enables them to see in the dark.<br />

Dependent clause<br />

(The first dependent clause begins with the conjunction ‘because’ and the second with the relative<br />

pronoun ‘which’.)<br />

Main clauses<br />

Main clause<br />

Dependent clause<br />

A main clause (also called a principal clause or independent clause) contains a verb and a subject.<br />

It usually makes sense on its own and may also form a complete sentence in itself.<br />

A burst of lightning lit up the sea.<br />

It very often combines with other main and dependent clauses to form sentences.<br />

Main clause<br />

Conjunction<br />

Falcons are not huge birds, but they can fly very fast.<br />

Please note: in the above sentence the two main clauses are joined by the coordinating conjunction<br />

‘but’.<br />

Dependent (subordinate) clauses<br />

Main clause<br />

A dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause) is a group of words that has both a<br />

subject and a verb, but it cannot stand alone as a sentence.<br />

It is not able to function by itself. It usually begins with a conjunction or a relative pronoun,<br />

as seen in the dependent clauses in bold below.<br />

Dark clouds scudded across the horizon as the storm approached.<br />

The old man, who was smiling happily, hugged his grandchild.<br />

Identifying clauses<br />

Identify the clauses as set out in each example.<br />

1 When he was nearly thirteen, my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow.<br />

from To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee<br />

Dependent clause:<br />

Main clause:

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

1 Images and words 7<br />

2 Once there were four children whose names were Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Dependent clause:<br />

from The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by CS Lewis<br />

3 He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone<br />

eighty-four days now without taking a fish.<br />

from The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway<br />

Main clause 1:<br />

Dependent clause:<br />

Main clause 2:<br />

4 Once upon a time there were four little rabbits, and their names were Flopsy, Mopsy,<br />

Cotton-tail and Peter.<br />

from The Tale of Peter Rabbit by Beatrix Potter<br />

Main clause 1:<br />

Main clause 2:<br />

5 When Mr Bilbo Baggins of Bag End announced that he would shortly be celebrating his<br />

eleventy-first birthday with a party of special magnificence, there was much talk and<br />

excitement in Hobbiton.<br />

from The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien<br />

Dependent clause 1:<br />

Dependent clause 2:<br />

Main clause:<br />

6 All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.<br />

from Animal Farm by George Orwell<br />

Main clause 1:<br />

Main clause 2:<br />

7 The drought had lasted now for ten million years, and the reign of the terrible lizards had<br />

long since ended.<br />

from 2001: A Space Odyssey by Arthur C Clarke<br />

Main clause 1:<br />

Main clause 2:<br />

8 A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Dependent clause:<br />

from A Room of One's Own by Virginia Woolf<br />

18 marks

8 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Punctuation<br />

How well do you punctuate?<br />

Imagine where we’d be without punctuation. We’d have no sentences or paragraphs. There would<br />

be no capital letters to tell us where to begin a sentence, no full stops to tell us where to end one,<br />

and no commas to tell us where to pause. There would just be a never-ending block of print or<br />

writing. Reading a <strong>book</strong>, newspaper or magazine would be intolerable.<br />

To give you an idea of what it would be like, here is a dramatic paragraph taken from the<br />

classic novel Swiss Family Robinson by Johann Rudolf Wyss. Your task is to rewrite the paragraph<br />

adding capital letters, full stops and commas. The number of sentences that you need to use is<br />

indicated in the brackets at the end.<br />

Encounter with a boa constrictor<br />

after the donkey ran from the beach it arrived at the lair of the snake and stopped<br />

although the donkey realised its danger it could not move the poor animal should have<br />

fled but it stood fascinated and uttered a low groan the boa its hungry jaws wide open<br />

approached steadily until it was within striking distance the donkey could not move<br />

because it was paralysed with fear it gazed at the monster that quickly wound its long<br />

scaly body around him and then suffocated him in the horrible embrace we shuddered as<br />

we <strong>look</strong>ed at the fearful sight<br />

(seven sentences)<br />

from Swiss Family Robinson by Johann Rudolf Wyss<br />

The craft of writing<br />

The graphic novel<br />

A graphic novel is a novel in a comic-strip format. It is a long story told in pictures and words. It<br />

features:<br />

• panels comprising words and pictures that show action and movement to develop the<br />

story<br />

• gutters, which are the spaces between the panels<br />

• speech balloons that enclose the dialogue<br />

• caption boxes containing information about a scene or character<br />

• visual sound effects using special lettering and onomatopoeia (e.g. ‘kapow!’).<br />

7 marks

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1 Images and words 9<br />

Creating graphic novel panels<br />

Many famous novels have been changed into graphic novels. Here are two panels from a graphic<br />

novel derived from Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson. Notice how the combination of<br />

words and images brings the story to life. Now try your hand at converting an incident or scene<br />

from a novel, poem or story you have been reading. Four panels are provided for you to use.

2<br />

Factual texts<br />

Comprehension<br />

Read the following two texts and answer the questions.<br />

Information report<br />

Polar bears<br />

POLAR bears live in five countries— United<br />

States (Alaska), Canada, Russia, Greenland and<br />

Norway. Some have been seen near the North<br />

Pole but this is unusual as there is not much food<br />

there for them.<br />

They are the largest land carnivore. The males<br />

grow two to three times larger than the females.<br />

Their skin is black and their fur completely<br />

covers their body except for their nose and the<br />

soles of their feet. They shed their fur completely<br />

once a year and then re-grow their coat. Although<br />

the fur <strong>look</strong>s white or creamy yellow, each hair is<br />

transparent and hollow. This special type of hair<br />

transmits the sun’s heat directly to the base of<br />

the hair where it is absorbed by the black skin.<br />

Amazingly, polar bears are so well insulated they<br />

tend to overheat, so they move slowly and take<br />

regular rests. The excess heat is released through<br />

blood vessels close to the skin.<br />

Polar bears are strong swimmers and can<br />

swim up to 95 kilometres without resting. They<br />

can also swim underwater for up to two minutes<br />

by flattening their ears against their head and<br />

closing their nostrils.<br />

They mainly eat seals but will also eat carcasses<br />

of beluga whales, walruses, etc. Occasionally<br />

they themselves will kill young walruses and<br />

beluga whales. When food is scarce they will eat<br />

small rodents, seabirds, eggs, berries, kelp and<br />

even human garbage. They do not drink water<br />

because they get all the fluid they need from<br />

their food. Hungry polar bears that come into<br />

towns and camping sites <strong>look</strong>ing for food are very<br />

dangerous and, if they attack, a human has little<br />

chance of surviving. Bears that attack humans are<br />

most often young adults and mothers with cubs.<br />

Most females give birth to two cubs once<br />

every three years. They enter a den where they<br />

sleep deeply. Their heart rate slows and their<br />

temperature drops slightly. This sleep is different<br />

to hibernation and the bears can be roused<br />

quickly if necessary. They give birth while in this<br />

deep sleep and remain in the den with the cubs<br />

until the outside temperature rises and the young<br />

cubs are able to travel.<br />

In 1968 the polar bear population was reported<br />

to be 10 000 but because government regulations<br />

now limit hunting, the population is now<br />

estimated to be between 21 000 and 28 000. Even<br />

so, polar bears are classified as ‘threatened’.<br />

Polar bears hunt from large platforms of ice<br />

called pack ice. Global warming is causing the<br />

ice to melt and the bears are forced to hunt<br />

from these platforms for shorter periods of<br />

time. This means that many are starving or<br />

are undernourished. Older, weaker bears in<br />

particular are prone to starvation.<br />

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2 Factual texts 11<br />

Reading for understanding<br />

Choose the correct answer for each of the following.<br />

1 Polar bears live mainly<br />

a at the North Pole.<br />

b in five different countries.<br />

c in dens.<br />

2 The bears’ diet<br />

a can be quite varied.<br />

b never includes plant matter.<br />

c would never include human’s food.<br />

3 The male bears<br />

a are a similar size to the females.<br />

b are the largest land carnivores.<br />

c cannot swim underwater.<br />

4 Polar bears<br />

a have pure white fur.<br />

b are poorly insulated.<br />

c have black skin.<br />

5 Female bears usually<br />

a give birth to a single cub.<br />

b take the cubs out of the den soon after their birth.<br />

c give birth to cubs once every three years.<br />

6 Since 1968 the polar bear population<br />

a has increased.<br />

b has decreased.<br />

c has remained stable.<br />

7 Polar bears<br />

a are likely to increase in numbers.<br />

b are completely protected from hunters.<br />

c are a threatened species.

12 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

8 Global warming<br />

a has had little effect on polar bears.<br />

b shortens the length of time bears can hunt.<br />

c has meant that fewer cubs survive.<br />

9 A female polar bear<br />

a gives birth to cubs while in a deep sleep.<br />

b hunts for food during the winter months.<br />

c hibernates during the coldest months.<br />

10 Polar bears<br />

a react well to humans.<br />

b prefer human’s food to seals.<br />

c are willing to kill humans if disturbed.<br />

10 marks<br />

Autobiography<br />

A young teacher asked me, as I stood uncertainly<br />

in the hall, what courses I wanted to take.<br />

I was aghast. I had no idea what courses to<br />

take. All I wanted was to continue my education<br />

from where I had left off nearly three years<br />

earlier.<br />

‘I’m not sure,’ I managed to mutter. ‘I know I<br />

need to learn arithmetic.’<br />

She pointed to an open doorway farther down<br />

the hall.<br />

‘Try <strong>book</strong>keeping,’ she said kindly, as she<br />

turned to attend to another lost youngster.<br />

I did not know what <strong>book</strong>keeping was, but<br />

I was so scared of the shifting, staring young<br />

people crowding round me, some of whom<br />

sniggered when they <strong>look</strong>ed at me, that I bolted<br />

down the corridor and turned thankfully into a<br />

classroom holding about a dozen boys and girls<br />

and a young lady teacher.<br />

The classroom, with its walls of frosted glass<br />

and varnished wood, had enough desks, made<br />

to accommodate two pupils each, to swallow<br />

about fifty children; four electric lights hanging<br />

from the ceiling failed to illuminate it adequately;<br />

the bare wooden floor was grey from years of<br />

tramping boots. Facing the pupils’ desks was<br />

a high, single desk for the teacher and near it<br />

stood a blackboard<br />

on an easel. The air<br />

smelled of chalk<br />

dust and damp<br />

woollens. A dingy,<br />

uninspiring room it<br />

was, but it was made<br />

more lively by the<br />

buzz of conversation<br />

among the pupils.<br />

As I came through<br />

the door, the teacher<br />

<strong>look</strong>ed up, and a pall<br />

of silence fell upon<br />

the gathering. The<br />

mouths of the neatly<br />

clad, well-scrubbed<br />

young people fell<br />

open. Then a well-curled blonde began to giggle.<br />

She hastily stuffed her handkerchief into her<br />

mouth, while a derisive grin spread through the<br />

class.<br />

The dim electric lights became blurred, as<br />

tears of realization welled up. I must have been<br />

a horrible sight, with hair draggling round my<br />

shoulders, its greasiness combed through with<br />

my fingers; septic acne sores all over my face;

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2 Factual texts 13<br />

hands with dirty, broken nails, sticking out<br />

from an ancient cardigan with huge holes in its<br />

elbows, no blouse, and a gym slip shiny with<br />

accumulated grime. Red blotches of bug bites<br />

were clearly visible on my naked legs and thighs,<br />

our new house being equally as verminous as our<br />

old one, and my toes stuck out of the holes in the<br />

laceless gym shoes on my feet.<br />

I fought back my tears. I was made of better<br />

stuff than the children before me.<br />

from Twopence to Cross the Mersey by Helen Forrester<br />

Reading for understanding<br />

1 Why was the narrator attending night school?<br />

2 Why did the young teacher tell the narrator to try <strong>book</strong>keeping?<br />

3 ‘I bolted down the corridor …’ What caused the narrator to do this?<br />

4 What are the smells in the classroom the narrator is conscious of?<br />

5 How did the class initially react as the narrator came through the door?<br />

6 What comments does the narrator make about the appearance of the other young<br />

people in the room?<br />

7 ‘I must have been a horrible sight …’ What was ‘horrible’ about her face?<br />

8 What was wrong with the narrator’s gym shoes?<br />

9 What does the final short paragraph reveal about the narrator’s character?<br />

10 Using the back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary, write the meanings to the following words.<br />

a aghast:<br />

b dingy:<br />

c pall:<br />

d derisive:<br />

13 marks

14 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

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Spelling and vocabulary<br />

Confusing pairs<br />

soar counsellor principal pause lessen<br />

sore councillor principle paws lesson<br />

faint barren role colonel deceased<br />

feint baron roll kernel diseased<br />

medal profit loan mail current<br />

meddle prophet lone male currant<br />

Who am I?<br />

Write a list word for each of the following clues.<br />

1 I can prophesy the future.<br />

2 I am in charge of a school.<br />

3 I am the opposite to female.<br />

4 I am a senior officer in the army.<br />

5 I am a nobleman.<br />

6 I am a member of a council.<br />

7 I am an adviser; in particular, a psychologist.<br />

7 marks<br />

What am I?<br />

Write a list word for each of the following clues.<br />

1 I am the feet of an animal with nails or claws.<br />

2 I am given as an award for bravery or as a prize.<br />

3 I am sent by post.<br />

4 I am a small, dried, seedless grape.<br />

5 I am the part or character an actor plays.<br />

6 I am money given, usually to be repaid with interest.<br />

7 I am the edible inner part of a nut.<br />

8 I am a short rest or stop when speaking, etc.<br />

9 I am an injured, inflamed or infected part of the skin.<br />

10 I am the time when <strong>student</strong>s are taught a subject.<br />

10 marks

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2 Factual texts 15<br />

Back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary<br />

The word ‘current’ is a flow of air, water or electricity. It is derived from<br />

the Latin word curro, which means ‘I run’. Here are some of the words<br />

derived from curro. Use the back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary to write their<br />

meanings in the spaces below.<br />

recurrent:<br />

concur:<br />

excursion:<br />

incur:<br />

succour:<br />

currency:<br />

incursion:<br />

7 marks<br />

Language<br />

Dependent (subordinate) clauses<br />

There are three kinds of dependent (subordinate) clauses—adjectival, adverbial and noun.<br />

Dependent clauses cannot stand alone. They are used with a main clause.<br />

Adjectival clauses do the work of adjectives. They describe nouns. They begin with the<br />

relative pronouns who, whose, whom, which or that.<br />

Adjectival clause<br />

Polar bears, which are strong swimmers, can swim 95 kilometres without resting.<br />

The <strong>student</strong>s laughed at the newcomer whose clothes were in tatters.<br />

Adverbial clauses tell how, where, when and why. They begin with conjunctions such as when,<br />

while, since, after, until, before, although, though, unless, because, then, as, whether, if, than.<br />

Polar bears do not drink water, because they get all the fluid they need from their food.<br />

Adverbial clause of time<br />

When the new <strong>student</strong> came through the door, the teacher <strong>look</strong>ed up.<br />

Noun clauses do the work of nouns. They often begin with a word such as that.<br />

Noun clause<br />

Adjectival clause<br />

It is a scientific fact that polar bears are the largest land carnivore.<br />

Noun clause<br />

The new <strong>student</strong> realised that she was a horrible sight.<br />

Adverbial clause giving the reason

16 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Identifying clauses<br />

Identify the clauses in each sentence, as indicated.<br />

1 If a hungry polar bear attacks, a human has little chance of surviving.<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

Main clause:<br />

2 The Ancient Egyptians and Greeks thought that giraffes were a mixture of camel and leopard.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Noun clause:<br />

3 Female polar bears give birth while they are in a deep sleep.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

4 There are not many bears that inhabit the North Pole, because food is in short supply there.<br />

Principal clause:<br />

Adjectival clause:<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

5 When they are kept in captivity, African elephants prefer to eat hay, grain and vegetables.<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

Main clause:<br />

6 Although seals are mammals that live mostly underwater, they need to come up to the<br />

surface to breathe air.<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

Adjectival clause:<br />

Main clause:<br />

7 It is hard to believe that the first email was sent in 1972.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Noun clause:<br />

8 The Sumerians were the people who invented the wheel in about 3500 BC.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Adjectival clause:<br />

9 Although jaguars spend most of their time on the ground, they are able to climb trees<br />

because their sharp claws allow them to grab hold of trunks.<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

Main clause:<br />

Adverbial clause:<br />

10 Research has shown that the Earth is 4.5 billion years old.<br />

Main clause:<br />

Noun clause:<br />

23 marks

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2 Factual texts 17<br />

Punctuation<br />

Reviewing punctuation<br />

Punctuation marks work together to make the meaning of a sentence clearer for the reader. In<br />

its simplest form, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, question mark<br />

or exclamation mark. After you have read through the review of the major punctuation marks,<br />

complete the exercise that follows.<br />

• A capital letter begins sentences and names.<br />

Albert Einstein was a famous mathematician.<br />

• A full stop (.) is used at the end of a sentence or abbreviation.<br />

School will finish at 2 p.m. today.<br />

• A comma (,) is used to indicate a pause or to separate items in a list.<br />

When the bell rang, the <strong>student</strong>s put their <strong>book</strong>s away.<br />

Emus, kookaburras, platypuses and kangaroos are Australian native animals.<br />

• A question mark (?) is used after a direct question has been asked.<br />

Are you going to the movies on Saturday?<br />

When is she leaving?<br />

• An exclamation mark (!) is used to end a sentence that expresses a strong feeling.<br />

Oh! What a beautiful morning! Fire! Look out!<br />

• An apostrophe (’) shows ownership or indicates the omission of a letter or letters from a<br />

word.<br />

The emperor’s palace was destroyed by the barbarians’ battering ram.<br />

He can’t pay his fine.<br />

Punctuating sentences<br />

She isn’t at school today.<br />

Rewrite each of the following sentences, inserting all the necessary punctuation.<br />

1 the polar bear is the biggest land hunter in the arctic<br />

2 polar bears eat ringed seals walruses reindeer and musk oxen<br />

3 the fire in the department store destroyed childrens toys mens shirts and womens fashion<br />

4 pres obama was the first african american to lead the united states.<br />

5 its important to know whos coming to the party and when theyre arriving<br />

6 leonardo da vincis famous painting of mona lisa hangs in the louvre in paris<br />

6 marks

18 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

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The craft of writing<br />

Point of view is the perspective from which a writer tells a story. A writer can choose to use either<br />

first, second or third person. Different points of view are as follows:<br />

First person – I, me, my, we, our<br />

Second person – you, your<br />

Third person – he, his, him, she, her, it, its, they, them, their<br />

Autobiography<br />

In an autobiography, the writer tells the story from a personal point of view and uses the pronouns<br />

I, me, my, we, our. Look closely at the use of first person in the introduction to this famous<br />

autobiography.<br />

At the hospital<br />

THE hospital again, and the echo of my reluctant<br />

feet through the long empty corridors. I hated<br />

hospitals and hospital smells. I hated the bare<br />

boards that gleamed with newly applied polish,<br />

the dust-free window-sills, and the flashes of<br />

shiny chrome that snatched my distorted shape<br />

as we hurried past. I was the grubby five-year-old<br />

in an alien environment.<br />

from My Place by Sally Morgan<br />

Using the first person point of view, write about one of<br />

the following.<br />

• My biggest achievement<br />

• There are some things I can’t stand<br />

• The worst day of the week<br />

• A very enjoyable party

Planet Earth<br />

3<br />

Comprehension<br />

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.<br />

Global warming<br />

The atmosphere that surrounds the Earth<br />

is a thin layer of gases, which protects us by<br />

blocking out much of the sun’s harmful rays<br />

but allowing enough warmth to be trapped so<br />

that we do not freeze to death. This is called the<br />

greenhouse effect. Without it, the Earth would<br />

be too cold to sustain life. When this delicate<br />

layer is upset or destroyed, we are bombarded<br />

with too many rays and the Earth’s temperature<br />

rises. This is known as global warming.<br />

The world’s ecosystems are finely balanced,<br />

and even a small change in temperature can<br />

cause the extinction of a species. Baby birds often<br />

rely on one type of caterpillar for food. If the<br />

caterpillars are abundant when the chicks hatch,<br />

there will be sufficient food; if the caterpillars’<br />

life cycle has changed because of a variation in<br />

temperature, the chicks will die and the species<br />

could face extinction. Natural climate changes<br />

have occurred over many hundreds of years and<br />

most animals and plants have been able to adapt<br />

slowly.<br />

Humans began altering the environment and<br />

climate after the invention of machinery to make<br />

their lives easier. Machines need fossil fuels and<br />

the gases emitted from burning these fuels affect<br />

the Earth’s atmosphere. Industrialisation also<br />

meant the removal of millions of trees when land<br />

was cleared for farming or mining. Trees and other<br />

plants absorb carbon dioxide, one of the natural<br />

gases that trap the sun’s heat and prevent it from<br />

escaping into space. Fewer trees means that more<br />

carbon dioxide builds up and causes greater<br />

heating of the Earth. Deforestation is still occurring<br />

at frightening rates.<br />

As the temperature rises, ice caps and glaciers<br />

begin to melt and the sea level rises. This will<br />

mean that many animal and plant habitats will<br />

be affected, coastlines will be altered and rainfall<br />

patterns will change. The natural habitat of many<br />

creatures, among them the polar bear, will no<br />

longer exist.<br />

Some of the ways we can improve the health of<br />

our planet are:<br />

• developing and using energy-efficient means<br />

of transport to reduce the amount of oil<br />

we use<br />

• saving electricity and using energy-efficient<br />

appliances so that less fossil fuel is needed<br />

• planting trees so that they absorb carbon<br />

dioxide<br />

• recycling so that less rubbish is sent to landfill.<br />

Decomposing rubbish produces methane,<br />

another greenhouse gas.<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />


20 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

Reading for understanding<br />

1 What is the atmosphere surrounding the Earth made of?<br />

2 How are we protected from the sun’s harmful rays?<br />

3 How does the atmosphere prevent us from being frozen to death?<br />

4 What would happen if there was no greenhouse effect?<br />

5 What can be the result of a small change in temperature?<br />

6 What initially caused environmental and climate change?<br />

7 What happens when millions of trees are removed?<br />

8 What causes the sea level to rise?<br />

9 What changes will a rising sea level bring about?<br />

10 How can the world’s use of oil be reduced?<br />

11 How can we reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?<br />

12 What is one way of reducing the amount of methane in the atmosphere?<br />

12 marks

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3 Planet Earth 21<br />

Spelling and vocabulary<br />

The Earth<br />

regions climate prairie equator plateau<br />

glacier valley vegetation desert endangered<br />

forest moisture continent world survival<br />

terrain recycled pollution forecast oasis<br />

weather environment global creatures species<br />

geography resources responsible extinct horizon<br />

Missing words<br />

Insert words from the spelling list to complete the sentences below. The first letters are given to<br />

help you. Each word should be used once only.<br />

1 Hundreds of endangered animal s could become e .<br />

2 G warming will threaten the survival of many c .<br />

3 The v in the f was luxuriant.<br />

4 An o in a d provides water and food for animals.<br />

5 The world’s w f predicts rising temperatures.<br />

6 G is the study of the Earth’s r .<br />

7 A p is an ecosystem with a grassy t .<br />

8 The e is an imaginary line through the centre of the w .<br />

9 The c of Australia is rich in natural r .<br />

10 Humans are r for p .<br />

20 marks<br />

A word for a phrase<br />

Find a word in the spelling list that has the same meaning as each of the following phrases.<br />

1 a large, flat stretch of high ground p<br />

2 a large mass of slow-moving ice g<br />

3 the line where the earth appears to meet the sky h<br />

4 placed in danger e<br />

5 dampness or humidity m<br />

6 an area of low land between hills or mountains v<br />

7 the continuation of life s<br />

8 the usual weather of a particular place c<br />

9 converted to be used again r<br />

10 land thickly covered with trees f

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11 one of the great land masses of the world c<br />

12 a sandy or stony, dry area d<br />

13 the surrounding conditions of a place e<br />

14 no longer existing e<br />

15 living things c<br />

15 marks<br />

Back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary<br />

Many words begin with the prefix re-, which means ‘again’ or ‘back’.<br />

To recycle means to ‘use again’. Use the back-of-the-<strong>book</strong> dictionary<br />

to write down the meanings of these words beginning with re-.<br />

recede:<br />

reimburse:<br />

rejuvenate:<br />

renovate:<br />

Language<br />

4 marks<br />

Nouns<br />

Nouns are naming words. They are used to name people, places, things and qualities. Here are<br />

some examples:<br />

people: woman, father, cricketer, pupil, Hugh, Jessica<br />

places: Paris, India, factory, gymnasium, garage, kiosk<br />

things: piano, chocolate, orange, window, bus, shirt<br />

qualities: anger, fright, generosity, duty, sadness, joy<br />

Identifying nouns<br />

Sort the nouns from the list into the categories ‘People’, ‘Places’, ‘Things’ and ‘Qualities’.<br />

pencil journalist supermarket Germany<br />

bravery <strong>book</strong> Cinderella curiosity<br />

sailor school London yacht<br />

microscope Rebecca sorrow happiness<br />

People: Places: Things: Qualities:<br />

16 marks

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

3 Planet Earth 23<br />

Grouping nouns<br />

Choose pairs of nouns from the box to complete the groups below. The first one has been done<br />

for you.<br />

cricket tennis goose chicken pork lamb<br />

orange banana painter courier Athens Baghdad<br />

copper zinc autumn spring Honda Mazda<br />

guitar violin tuna flounder mosquito ant<br />

Uranus Neptune panther cougar South Africa Australia<br />

Thames Murray violet daisy spaniel terrier<br />

1 Toyota Volvo Honda Mazda<br />

2 trumpet piano<br />

3 Dalmatian labrador<br />

4 Amazon Nile<br />

5 turkey duck<br />

6 lion tiger<br />

7 wasp bee<br />

8 India Slovenia<br />

9 gold silver<br />

10 winter summer<br />

11 rose poppy<br />

12 dentist architect<br />

13 beef mutton<br />

14 Cairo Rome<br />

15 hockey volleyball<br />

16 salmon trout<br />

17 apple blackberry<br />

18 Saturn Mars<br />

Punctuation<br />

Starting and finishing sentences<br />

17 marks<br />

Can you imagine how confusing it would be to read and write without punctuation? Punctuation<br />

marks were invented to clarify written language. We need to have capital letters and full stops so we<br />

know where a sentence begins or ends.

24 <strong>Complete</strong> <strong>English</strong> <strong>Basics</strong> 2<br />

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Punctuating pairs of sentences<br />

The capital letters and full stops have been left out of the following pairs of sentences. Rewrite<br />

each pair of sentences by inserting the missing punctuation.<br />

1 melting glaciers are an important water source in many dry countries if glaciers<br />

disappear, this water will no longer be available<br />

2 world fisheries have declined drastically as a result of over-fishing there has been no real<br />

attempt to conserve stocks and species<br />

3 wildlife conservation can help prevent extinction of animals and plants hunting needs to<br />

be limited and endangered species need to be studied and bred<br />

4 many animals migrate to Antarctica for the summer the Arctic tern flies 9000 kilometres<br />

from the Arctic every year<br />

5 few animals can survive in a very cold climate ways of coping can be by hibernating,<br />

migrating or insulating their bodies with fur, feathers or fat<br />

<br />

6 many species of frogs could face extinction this is due to climate change, pollution,<br />

pesticides and loss of habitat<br />

7 human activity can cause extinction of animal species altered or destroyed habitats,<br />

pollution or the introduction of new species are examples<br />

8 a household contributes an annual average of 8 tonnes of carbon dioxide this is<br />

increasing because of the many electrical appliances we have in our homes<br />

8 marks

978 1 4202 3708 5<br />

3 Planet Earth 25<br />

The craft of writing<br />

Problems of planet Earth<br />

Planet Earth has many serious environmental problems. Chief Dan George (1899–1981), a famous<br />

member of the Canadian Tsleil-Waututh Nation, was appalled by the way white people abused<br />

the land. In the following passage, he describes some of their destructive practices and the<br />

consequences for the natural world.<br />

My heart soars<br />

I see my white brothers<br />

going about blotting out nature from his cities.<br />

I see him strip the hills bare, leaving ugly wounds<br />

on the face of mountains. I see him tearing things<br />

from the bosom of mother earth as though she<br />

were a monster, who refused to share her treasures<br />

with him. I see him throw poison in the waters,<br />

indifferent to the life he kills there;<br />

and he chokes the air with deadly fumes.<br />

from My Heart Soars by Chief Dan George<br />

Select one or two of the environmental topics listed below and write down your feelings, ideas<br />

and concerns.<br />

• Endangered species<br />

• Urban sprawl<br />

• Climate change<br />

• Air pollution<br />

• Deforestation<br />

• Ozone layer depletion<br />

• Waste disposal<br />

• Over-population<br />

• Acid rain<br />

• Water pollution<br />

• Habitat destruction<br />

• Mining

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